Cover for No Agenda Show 1010: Spin the Bottle
February 22nd, 2018 • 3h 2m

1010: Spin the Bottle


Every new episode of No Agenda is accompanied by a comprehensive list of shownotes curated by Adam while preparing for the show. Clips played by the hosts during the show can also be found here.

Joshua Poulson
ShitHole Nation
Survey of Downtown San Francisco Reveals Trash on Every Block, 303 Piles of Feces and 100 Drug Needles - NBC Bay Area
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:35
How dirty is San Francisco? An NBC Bay Area Investigation reveals a dangerous mix of drug needles, garbage, and feces throughout downtown San Francisco. The Investigative Unit surveyed 153 blocks of the city '' the more than 20-mile stretch includes popular tourist spots like Union Square and major hotel chains. The area '' bordered by Van Ness Avenue, Market Street, Post Street and Grant Avenue '' is also home to City Hall, schools, playgrounds, and a police station.
Survey of Downtown SF Reveals Trash, Feces, Drug Needles
As the Investigative Unit photographed nearly a dozen hypodermic needles scattered across one block, a group of preschool students happened to walk by on their way to an afternoon field trip to citiy hall.
''We see poop, we see pee, we see needles, and we see trash,'' said teacher Adelita Orellana. ''Sometimes they ask what is it, and that's a conversation that's a little difficult to have with a 2-year old, but we just let them know that those things are full of germs, that they are dangerous, and they should never be touched.''
In light of the dangerous conditions, part of Orellana's responsibilities now include teaching young children how to avoid the contamination.
Preschool teacher Adelita Orellana says the prevalence of needles in San Francisco has forced her to educate her students, some as young as two years old, about the inherent dangers (Jan 11, 2018).Photo credit: NBC Bay Area
'There's Poop in There'
''The floor is dirty,'' said A'Nylah Reed, a 3-year-old student at the preschool, who irately explained having to navigate dirty conditions on her walks to school.
''There is poop in there,'' she exclaimed. ''That makes me angry.''
Kim Davenport, A'nyla's mother, often walks her daughter to the Compass preschool on Leavenworth Street in San Francisco. She said she often has to pull her daughter out of the way in order to keep her from stepping on needles and human waste. ''I just had to do that this morning!''
A'Nylah Reed, 3, regularly has to dodge piles of feces and drug needles during her walks to and from preschool in downtown San Francisco (Jan. 11, 2018).Photo credit: NBC Bay Area
The Investigate Unit spent three days assessing conditions on the streets of downtown San Francisco and discovered trash on each of the 153 blocks surveyed. While some streets were littered with items as small as a candy wrapper, the vast majority of trash found included large heaps of garbage, food, and discarded junk. The investigation also found 100 drug needles and more than 300 piles of feces throughout downtown.
A needle found on the streets of downtown San Francisco was one of 100 discovered as part of an NBC Bay Area Investigation into potentially dangerous conditions (Dec. 28, 2017).Photo credit: NBC Bay Area
Dried Feces can Lead to Airborne Viruses
''If you do get stuck with these disposed needles you can get HIV, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, and a variety of other viral diseases,'' said Dr. Lee Riley, an infectious disease expert at University of California, Berkeley. He warned that once fecal matter dries, it can become airborne, releasing potentially dangerous viruses, such as the rotavirus. ''If you happen to inhale that, it can also go into your intestine,'' he said. The results can prove fatal, especially in children.
Riley has researched conditions across the poorest slums of the world. His book titled, ''Slum Health,'' examines health problems that are created by extreme poverty.
Dr. Lee Riley is an infectious disease scientist at University of California - Berkeley and has researched health issues in some of the dirtiest slums around the world. (Jan 18, 2018)Photo credit: NBC Bay Area
San Francisco Compared to Some of the Dirtiest Slums in the World
Based on the findings of the Investigative Unit survey, Riley believes parts of the city may be even dirtier than slums in some developing countries.
''The contamination is '... much greater than communities in Brazil or Kenya or India,'' he said. He notes that in those countries, slum dwellings are often long-term homes for families and so there is an attempt to make the surroundings more livable. Homeless communities in San Francisco, however, are often kicked out from one part of town and forced to relocate to another. The result is extreme contamination, according to Riley.
Supervisor Hillary Ronen is convinced the solution to cleaning up San Francisco's dirty streets is contingent on adding more temporary shelter beds for the homeless (Jan 8, 2018).Photo credit: NBC Bay Areea
'We Aren't Addressing the Root Cause'
''Unacceptable. Absolutely unacceptable,'' said Supervisor Hillary Ronen. ''We're losing tourists. We're losing conventions in San Francisco. All of this is happening because we aren't addressing the root cause, which is we need more temporary beds for street homelessness.''
Ronen believes San Francisco has been too focused on permanent housing for the homeless and that the city has neglected to provide enough temporary shelter, which can provide the homeless a respite from the streets. The city currently has about 2,000 temporary beds. Ronen, however, believes an additional 1,000 are needed, at a cost of about $25 million.
''We need to find a source of revenue,'' said Ronen. ''Whether that's putting something on the ballot to raise business taxes or taking a look at our general fund and re-allocating money towards that purpose and taking it away from something else in the city.''
Mohammed Nuru, Director of San Francisco Public Works, says cleaning human waste, trash, and needles from the city's sidewalks costs his department about $30 million each year (Jan 12, 2018).Photo credit: NBC Bay Area
San Francisco Spends $30 Million Cleaning Feces, Drug Needles
Until the problem is fixed, Mohammed Nuru, the Director of the Public Works Department, is charged with the towering task of cleaning the streets, over and over again. ''Yes, we can clean, he said, ''and then go back a few hours later, and it looks as if it was never cleaned. So is that how you want to spend your money?''
The 2016-2017 budget for San Francisco Public Works includes $60.1 million for ''Street Environmental Services.'' The budget has nearly doubled over the past five years. Originally, that money, was intended to clean streets, not sidewalks. According to city ordinances, sidewalks are the responsibility of property owners. However, due to the severity of the contamination in San Francisco, Public Works has inherited the problem of washing sidewalks. Nuru estimates that half of his street cleaning budget '' about $30 million '' goes towards cleaning up feces and needles from homeless encampments and sidewalks.
'Human Tragedy' in San Francisco
A single pile of human waste, said Nuru, takes at least 30 minutes for one of his staffers to clean. ''The steamer has to come. He has to park the steamer. He's got to come out with his steamer, disinfect, steam clean, roll up and go.''
Asked if he'd be willing to give up part of his budget and allocate it to more directly addressing the homeless problem '' which would likely alleviate his cleaning problem '' Nuru said, ''The Board of Supervisors, the mayor '' those are decisions that they need to make." He added, ''I want to continue cleaning and I want to be able to continue to provide services. The Public Works Department provides services seven days a week, 24 hours a day.''
Ronen acknowledges that finding the money to provide 1,000 additional beds for the homeless may very well take years. The city is planning on opening three new Navigation Centers for homeless people by the summer, but two centers will also be closing.
''We're not going to make a huge dent in this problem unless we deal with some underlying major social problems and issues,'' she said. ''There's a human tragedy happening in San Francisco.''
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Red Sparrow - Wikipedia
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 19:11
This article is about the film. For the book on which the film is based, see Red Sparrow (book).Red Sparrow is a 2018 American spy film directed by Francis Lawrence and written by Justin Haythe, based on the 2013 novel of the same name by Jason Matthews. The film stars an ensemble cast made up of Jennifer Lawrence, Joel Edgerton, Matthias Schoenaerts, Charlotte Rampling, Mary-Louise Parker, and Jeremy Irons. It tells the story of a Russian intelligence officer who is sent to make contact with a CIA agent and possible mole.
The film premiered at Newseum in Washington, DC on February 15, 2018, and is scheduled to be released in the United States on March 2, 2018.[2] It received mixed reviews from critics.
Premise [ edit] A Russian spy (Jennifer Lawrence) falls for a CIA officer (Joel Edgerton) and considers becoming a double agent.
Production [ edit] Festetics Mansion in D(C)gProduction started in Budapest and Dunaºjvros in Hungary on January 5, 2017.[8][9][10] Other filming locations include Festetics Mansion in D(C)g, Hungary;[11]Bratislava, Slovakia;[12] and Vienna, Austria.[13] On May 3, 2017, Jennifer Lawrence was spotted shooting some scenes at London's Heathrow Airport.[14]
Release [ edit] Red Sparrow was originally scheduled to be released by 20th Century Fox on November 10, 2017,[15] but it was pushed back to March 2, 2018.[2] The first trailer for the film was released on September 14, 2017. It premiered on February 15, 2018 at Newseum, and will also screen at FEST on February 28, 2018.
The film received an R rating by the MPAA for its "strong violence, torture, sexual content, language and some graphic nudity".[16] In the UK, the film was classified under the 15 rating by the BBFC for its "strong bloody violence, gore, sexual violence, sex, very strong language".[1] In Canada, the film was given an 18A rating from BCFCO in British Columbia and Saskatchewan for its "explicit violence" and the OFRB in Ontario for its "sexual violence, disturbing content, coarse language".[17] In Quebec, the R(C)gie du cin(C)ma gave the film a 16+ rating for its violence.[18] In Australia, the film was classified under the MA 15+ rating by the Australian Classification Board for "strong themes, violence, sexual violence, sex scenes and coarse language".[19]
Critical reception [ edit] On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 62% based on 26 reviews, and an average rating of 5.8/10.[20] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 56 out of 100, based on 15 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[21]
IndieWire' s Eric Kohn, who graded the film a B, noted the performances of Lawrence and Rampling, stating that "the considerable talent on display is [the film's] constant saving grace". However, he also found that the film "doesn't know when to stop, sagging into bland torture scenes and an underwhelming final showdown".[22] Giving the film a B-, The AV Club' s Jesse Hassenger noted the film's methodical nature, with its minimal action and character exploration, and remarked that Francis Lawrence "brings to this material what he brought to The Hunger Games: a sense of style that feels constrained by obligations to hit a certain number of plot points."[23]Alonso Duralde of TheWrap criticized the derivative story and the lack of chemistry between Lawrence and Edgerton, calling the film "neither intelligent enough to be involving nor fun enough to be trashy."[24]
References [ edit] ^ ab "RED SPARROW (2018)". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved February 15, 2018 . ^ ab Lang, Brent (April 22, 2017). "Steven Spielberg Pentagon Papers Drama Gets 2017 Oscar Season Release". Variety. Retrieved April 22, 2017 . ^ abcd Ford, Rebecca (December 6, 2016). "Matthias Schoenaerts, Jeremy Irons Joining Jennifer Lawrence in 'Red Sparrow' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. ^ ab Nepales, Ruben V. "' Red Sparrow' director talks about working with Jennifer Lawrence again". ^ "Oscar-nominated actress Charlotte Rampling talks about growing up in East Anglia". Eastern Daily Press. 12 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017 . ^ N'Duka, Amanda (February 27, 2017). "Sakina Jaffrey Cast In Fox's 'Red Sparrow'; Bill Marchant Joins Sci-Fi Indie 'Volition' ". Retrieved February 27, 2017 . ^ "Jennifer Lawrence filming spy thriller "Red Sparrow" in Budapest". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 2017-08-23 . ^ "Budapest utcjn fot"ztk le Jennifer Lawrence-t". (in Hungarian). January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017 . ^ "Itt vannak az első budapesti fot"k Jennifer Lawrence-ről". (in Hungarian). January 8, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017 . ^ "Jennifer Lawrence Arrived in Budapest". Daily News Hungary. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017 . ^ "Amerikai filmet forgatnak D(C)gen: Jennifer Lawrence is felbukkanhat a faluban"(HTML) (in Hungarian). Fej(C)r Megyei H­rlap. February 1, 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ "Off-duty Jennifer Lawrence transforms into a sexy Russian spy with a platinum wig and blunt bangs as she films Red Sparrow in Slovakia". Daily Mail. April 26, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017 . ^ "Jennifer Lawrence films Red Sparrow scenes in Vienna". Daily Mail. April 29, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017 . ^ "Jennifer Lawrence shoots Red Sparrow at London's Heathrow". WStale. Retrieved July 21, 2017 . ^ Donnelly, Matt (April 22, 2017). "Jennifer Lawrence Spy Thriller 'Red Sparrow' Pushed to 2018". The Wrap. Retrieved February 15, 2018 . ^ Stolworthy, Jacob (February 1, 2018). "Red Sparrow: New Jennifer Lawrence spy film is strictly for adults only". The Independent. Retrieved February 15, 2018 . ^ "Red Sparrow". Cineplex. Retrieved February 15, 2018 . ^ "Red Sparrow". R(C)gie du cin(C)ma. Retrieved February 15, 2018 . ^ "RED SPARROW". Australian Classification. Retrieved February 17, 2018 . ^ "Red Sparrow (2018)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 16, 2018 . ^ "Red Sparrow Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved February 16, 2018 . ^ Kohn, Eric (16 February 2018). "' Red Sparrow' Review: Jennifer Lawrence Is a Badass Russian Spy Who Uses Her Sexuality Like a Weapon in Solid Thriller". IndieWire. Retrieved 16 February 2018 . ^ Jesse, Hassenger (16 February 2018). "Jennifer Lawrence tweaks her action-heroine steeliness in the half-trashy Red Sparrow". The AV Club. Retrieved 16 February 2018 . ^ Durande, Alonso (16 February 2018). "' Red Sparrow' Film Review: Jennifer Lawrence Swans About in Silly Spy Tale". TheWrap. Retrieved 16 February 2018 . External links [ edit]
JLaw stops making movies to fix democracy
'Black Panther,' hailed for diversity, has no gay characters - Washington Times
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:59
Marvel Studios' ''Black Panther'' is being hailed as the most diverse superhero movie in Hollywood history, but it's not diverse enough for some progressives who want to know: Where are all the gay characters?
The latest comic-book-to-film adaptation checked off a number of identity boxes with its almost exclusively black cast and cohort of strong female characters. But filmmakers ditched a lesbian romance subplot from the original comic books, prompting an outcry from the LGBT community.
Actress Florence Kasumba stoked the flames of outrage when she revealed that scenes of lesbian flirtation filmed during production were left on the cutting-room floor.
''The final result that we've seen, there were a few scenes that have been cut,'' Ms. Kasumba told Vulture. ''Different scenes, also. They didn't make it into the movie for certain reasons, and at that point, I have to say: What their reason is, I can't tell you, because nobody told me about whether it's in or not.''
LGBT advocates had every reason to hope that ''Black Panther'' would be the first Marvel Studios film to feature an openly gay character.
The comic book series is written by Ta-Nehisi Coates, a national correspondent for The Atlantic and a prominent commentator on race.
SEE ALSO: ABC flooded with 25,000 complaints after Joy Behar mocks Mike Pence's Christianity
Mr. Coates tapped feminist writers Roxane Gay and Yona Harvey to create a spinoff comic series, ''World of Wakanda,'' that follows around two members of the Dora Milaje, the fictional African nation's all-female special forces unit.
The main characters in ''World of Wakanda,'' Ayo and Aneka, are in a lesbian relationship.
Although Aneka is not in the movie, rumors of a lesbian romance spread when Vanity Fair reported seeing the rough cut of a scene featuring another female warrior, Okoye, looking ''flirtatiously'' into Ayo's eyes.
Marvel Studios quickly shot down the rumors, saying the nature of the relationship between Ayo and Okoye is not romantic.
When asked about the deleted scene, screenwriter Joe Robert Cole said there were talks about including a gay love story in the movie, but those plans didn't pan out.
''I think the short answer is yes,'' Mr. Cole told ScreenCrush. ''I know that there were quite a few conversations around different things, different directions with different characters, and characters that we may have. We thought, 'Well, maybe we'll work it this way with an arc or work it that way with an arc.'''
This led to accusations from the gay rights community of ''LGBT erasure.''
The Advocate, a popular LGBT magazine, panned Mr. Cole's explanation for cutting the scene as ''vague.''
''The very few LGBTQ characters in past Marvel films have been either closeted or unmentioned,'' the magazine said in a video titled ''What About LGBTQ Representation in Black Panther?'' ''It seems Black Panther won't be breaking the mold.''
Writing at Gizmodo, Charles Pulliam-Moore argued there was room in the film for a romantic lesbian subplot.
''A romance between Okoye and Ayo is the sort of thing that easily could have been included in Black Panther with something as simple as a longing look and a bit of flirting kiss,'' Mr. Pulliam-Moore wrote, ''but it looks like we're going to have to wait even longer for the MCU's films to catch up with the times.''
The lack of a lesbian romance doesn't appear to have affected the film's success at the box office. ''Black Panther'' shattered records with an estimated $201.8 million opening weekend, easily besting the $132 million pulled in by 20th Century Fox's ''Deadpool'' when it debuted in 2016.
Christian Toto, a film critic who runs the Hollywood in Toto blog, said Marvel Studios tends to shy away from romance, heterosexual or homosexual.
''It's just not a main component of the story,'' said Mr. Toto, who contributes articles to The Washington Times. ''And also, with a movie like 'Black Panther,' you have to do so much. You have to establish the world, the villain, the motivation '-- what is Wakanda? There are so many things that are competing for screen time.''
Peter Wood, president of the National Association of Scholars, said praising or criticizing art based on whether it showcases certain identities is to have an ''impoverished'' understanding of art.
''To look upon art as primarily a means of expressing social complaint is to summon an art that is impoverished, because it is putting ideological concerns ahead of any concern about aesthetic vision,'' Mr. Wood said. ''I can understand that some may say their aesthetic vision is a matter of group identity; I would lament that that is a very impoverished way of viewing both identity and art.''
Despite its lack of LGBT representation, Mr. Toto said, it's hard to imagine a superhero movie more geared toward social justice.
''You just can't win with the hard left,'' he said.
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Who Are the Rich, White Men Institutionalizing Transgender Ideology?
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:24
As an environmental activist who was deplatformed from a speaking venue by transactivists, in 2013 I developed curiosity about the power of this group to force this development. A year later, when Time magazine announced a transgender tipping point on its cover, I had already begun to examine the money behind the transgender project.
I have watched as all-women's safe spaces, universities, and sports opened their doors to any man who chose to identify as a woman. Whereas men who identify as transwomen are at the forefront of this project, women who identify as transmen seem silent and invisible. I was astonished that such a huge cultural change as the opening of sex-protected spaces was happening at such a meteoric pace and without consideration for women and girls' safety, deliberation, or public debate.
Concurrent with these rapid changes, I witnessed an overhaul in the English language with new pronouns and a near-tyrannical assault on those who did not use them. Laws mandating new speech were passed. Laws overriding biological sex with the amorphous concept of gender identity are being instituted now. People who speak openly about these changes can find themselves, their families, and their livelihoods threatened.
These elements, along with media saturation of the issue, had me wondering: Is this really a civil rights issue for a tiny part of the population with body dysphoria, or is there a bigger agenda with moneyed interests that we are not seeing? This article can only begin to graze the surface of this question, but considering transgenderism has basically exploded in the middle of capitalism, which is notorious for subsuming social justice movements, there is value in beginning this examination.
Who Is Funding the Transgender Movement?I found exceedingly rich, white men with enormous cultural influence are funding the transgender lobby and various transgender organizations. These include but are not limited to Jennifer Pritzker (a male who identifies as transgender); George Soros; Martine Rothblatt (a male who identifies as transgender and transhumanist); Tim Gill (a gay man); Drummond Pike; Warren and Peter Buffett; Jon Stryker (a gay man); Mark Bonham (a gay man); and Ric Weiland (a deceased gay man whose philanthropy is still LGBT-oriented). Most of these billionaires fund the transgender lobby and organizations through their own organizations, including corporations.
Separating transgender issues from LGBT infrastructure is not an easy task. All the wealthiest donors have been funding LGB institutions before they became LGBT-oriented, and only in some instances are monies earmarked specifically for transgender issues. Some of these billionaires fund the LGBT through their myriad companies, multiplying their contributions many times over in ways that are also difficult to track.
These funders often go through anonymous funding organizations such as Tides Foundation, founded and operated by Pike. Large corporations, philanthropists, and organizations can send enormous sums of money to the Tides Foundation, specify the direction the funds are to go, and have the funds get to their destination anonymously. Tides Foundation creates a legal firewall and tax shelter for foundations and funds political campaigns, often using legally dubious tactics.
These men and others, including pharmaceutical companies and the U.S. government, are sending millions of dollars to LGBT causes. Overall reported global spending on LGBT is now estimated at $424 million. From 2003-2013, reported funding for transgender issues increased more than eightfold, growing at threefold the increase of LGBTQ funding overall, which quadrupled from 2003 to 2012. This huge spike in funding happened at the same time transgenderism began gaining traction in American culture.
$424 million is a lot of money. Is it enough to change laws, uproot language and force new speech on the public, to censor, to create an atmosphere of threat for those who do not comply with gender identity ideology?
Transgenderism: A New Medical and Lifestyle MarketIt seems obvious now to look at the money behind transgenderism. Many new markets have opened because of it. The first gender clinic for children opened in Boston in 2007. In the past ten years, more than 30 clinics for children with purported gender dysphoria have arisen in the United States alone, the largest serving 725 patients.
Over the past decade, there has been an explosion in transgender medical infrastructure across the United States and world to ''treat'' transgender people. In addition to gender clinics proliferating across the United States, hospital wings are being built for specialized surgeries, and many medical institutions are clamoring to get on board with the new developments.
Doctors are being trained in cadaver symposiums across the world in all manner of surgeries related to transgender individuals, including phalloplasty, vaginoplasty, facial feminization surgery, urethral procedures, and more. More and more American corporations are covering transgender surgeries, drugs, and other expenses. Endocrinologists seeking the fountain of youth in hormones for more than a generation, and the subsequent earnings for marketing those hormones, are still on a quest for gold.
Puberty blockers are another growing market. The plastic surgery arm of medicine is staged for an infusion of cash as well as organ transplants, especially womb transplants for men identifying as women who may want future pregnancies. These surgeries are already being practiced on animals and the first successful womb implant from a deceased female donor to another female has already been a success. Biogenetics is poised to be the investment of the future, says Rothblatt, who has headed a massive pharmaceutical corporation and is now heavily invested in biogenetics and transplants.
Transgenderism has certainly made its way into the American marketplace, so it seems important to consider the implications of this as we pass laws regarding transgender individuals' and our civil liberties. Transgenderism sits square in the middle of the medical industrial complex, which is by some estimates even bigger than the military industrial complex.
With the medical infrastructure being built, doctors being trained for various surgeries, clinics opening at warp speed, and the media celebrating it, transgenderism is poised for growth. The LGB, a once-tiny group of people trying to love those of the same sex openly and be treated equally within society, has likely already been subsumed by capitalism and is now infiltrated by the medical industrial complex via transgenderism.
Who Works to Institutionalize Transgender Ideology?Much more important than funds going directly to the LGBT lobby and organizations, only a fraction of which trickles down to assist people who identify as transgender, is the money invested by the men mentioned above, governments, and technology and pharmaceutical corporations to institutionalize and normalize transgenderism as a lifestyle choice. They are shaping the narrative about transgenderism and normalizing it within the culture using their funding methods.
This can hardly be a coincidence when the very thing absolutely essential to those transitioning are pharmaceuticals and technology.
This article will use the Pritzker family as a case study, both to reduce length and because they are emblematic of how this works. Those funding trans organizations and normalizing transgenderism are channeling funds in the same ways and invested in the same medical infrastructure. This can hardly be a coincidence when the very thing absolutely essential to those transitioning are pharmaceuticals and technology. It is also important to note that though the trans lobby has sewn itself to the LGB umbrella, LGB people as such are not lifelong medical patients.
The Pritzkers are an American family of philanthropic billionaires worth approximately $29 billion, whose fortune was gestated by Hyatt Hotels and nursing homes. They now have massive investments in the medical industrial complex.
Examining just a few of the Pritzkers in this article will give you some indication of their reach and influence as a family, especially as regards the transgender project and their relationship to the medical industrial complex. As you read, remember, transitioning individuals are medical patients for life and the Pritzker family are not an anomaly in their funding trajectory or investments in the medical-industrial complex.
Jennifer PritzkerOnce a family man and a decorated member of the armed forces, Jennifer Pritzker now identifies as transgender. He has made transgenderism a high note in philanthropic funding through his Tawani Foundation. He is one of the largest contributors to transgender causes and, with his family, an enormous influence in the rapid institutionalization of transgenderism.
Some of the organizations Jennifer owns and funds are especially noteworthy to examining the rapid induction of transgender ideology into medical, legal and educational institutions. Pritzker owns Squadron Capital, an acquisitions corporation, with a focus on medical technology, medical devices, and orthopedic implants, and the Tawani Foundation, a philanthropic organization with a grants focus on Gender & Human Sexuality.
Pritzker sits on the leadership council of the Program of Human Sexuality at the University of Minnesota, to which he also committed $6.5 million over the past decade. Among many other organizations and institutions Pritzker funds are Lurie Children's Hospital, a medical center for gender non-conforming children, serving 400 children in Chicago; the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago; a chair of transgender studies at the University of Victoria (the first of its kind); and the Mark S. Bonham Centre for Sexual Diversity Studies at the University of Toronto. He also funds the American Civil Liberties Union and his family funds Planned Parenthood, two significant organizations for institutionalizing female-erasing language and support for transgender causes. Planned Parenthood also recently decided to get into the transgender medical market.
Jennifer Pritzker funds strategically, as does his family, by giving to universities that become beholden to his ideology, whose students go on to spread gender ideology by writing pro-trans articles in medical journals and elsewhere. Jennifer's uncle and aunt, John and Lisa Pritzker, gave $25 million to the University of California at San Francisco for a center of children's psychiatry. Jennifer likewise funds hospitals and medical schools where the alumni go on to create transgender specialties and LGBT medical centers, even though lesbians, gays, and bisexuals don't need specialized medical services.
Here are just several current activities of Pritzker-funded medical school alumni and recipients of Pritzker money.
James Hekman founded the LGBT medical care center in Lakewood Ohio.David T. Rubin sits on the advisory board of Accordant/CVS Caremark, the largest pharmaceutical chain in the United States. CVS acquired Target department stores' pharmacies in 2015. Target, of course, is the site of a major social controversy about unisex bathrooms and is a corporate funder of the trans-pushing Human Rights Campaign activist group.Loren Schecter is the author of the first surgical atlas for transgender surgery, author of pro-trans journals, was awarded for legal advocacy of transgenders, performs reconstructive surgeries, and is director of transfeminine conferences sponsored by World Professional Association of Transgender Health (WPATH). He also performs reconstructive surgeries at Weiss Memorial Hospital in Chicago.Schecter is also the ''surgeons only sessions chair'' on the Scientific Program Committee of the newly formed United States arm of WPATH (World Professional Association of Transgender Health), USPATH, holding conferences in Los Angeles for surgeons in transgender surgeries.Robert Garofalo, a gay man, is director of the St. Lurie children's gender clinic, head of the hospital's division of adolescent medicine, and a professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University, which J.B. Pritzker (whom we will meet later) funds.Benjamin N. Breyer is chief of urology at San Francisco General Hospital and a professor at the University of California at San Francisco, specializing in transgender surgery.Nicholas Matte teaches at the Mark Bonham Centre for Sexual Diversity Studies at the University of Toronto, with a specialty in queer studies. Jennifer Pritzker also funds the Bonham Centre. Matte lectures around the country on transgender issues, and espouses the idea that we are not a sexually dimorphic species.Mark Hyman is the Pritzker Foundation Chair in functional medicine at the Cleveland Clinic and director of the Cleveland Clinic Center for Functional Medicine. Cleveland Clinic conducted the United States' first uterus transplant.Baylor College of Medicine is on the receiving end of the Pritzker School of Medicine's ''pipeline programs'' for people studying to be doctors. Baylor is where the nation's first child was born from a uterus transplant as part of an experimental program funding the procedure for 10 women in order to develop uterus transplants ultimately health insurance and taxpayers will pay for rather than being relegated to elective infertility treatment.Jennifer Pritzker has also helped normalize transgender individuals in the military with a $1.35 million grant to the Palm Center, a University of California, Santa Barbara-based LGBT think tank, to create research validating military transgenderism. He has also donated $25 million to Norwich University in Vermont, a military academy and the first school to launch a Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps program.
Pritzker's funding is not confined to the United States, but reaches other countries via WPATH, in conferences for physicians studying transgender surgery and funding of international universities.
Penny PritzkerCousin to Jennifer Pritzker, Penny Pritzker served on President Obama's Council for Jobs and Competitiveness and Economic Recovery Advisory Board. She was national co-chair of Obama for America 2012 and national finance chair of Obama's 2008 presidential campaign. To say she was influential in getting president Obama elected would be an understatement.
To say she was influential in getting president Obama elected would be an understatement.
As Obama's secretary of commerce, Penny Pritzker helped create the National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals (NIIMBL), by facilitating an award of $70 million from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the first funding of its kind. Obama made transgenderism a pet issue of his administration, holding a meeting at the White House (the first ever) for transgenderism.
The administration quietly applied the power of the executive branch to make it easier for transgender people to alter their passports, get cross-sex treatment at Veteran's Administration facilities, and access public school restrooms and sports programs based on gender identity. These are just a few of the transgender-specific policy shifts of Obama's presidency.
Soros and Gill are two other major transgender movement funders who generated millions of dollars to get Obama elected, and Stryker was one of the top five contributors to Obama's campaign. Under Obama and President George W. Bush, the federal government also funded the Tides Foundation $82.7 million, which in turn donated $47.2 million to LGBTQ issues over the last two decades.
Penny has funded the Harvard School of Public Health and, with her husband through their mutual foundation, The Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation, are funding early childhood initiatives as well as providing scholarships to Harvard University medical students. The Boston Children's Hospital Gender Management Services wing physicians are all affiliated with Harvard Medical School. Penny Pritzker also sat on the board at Harvard, where student life offices teach students, many of whom go on to lead U.S. institutions, that ''there are more than two sexes.''
J.B. PritzkerPenny Pritzker's brother, J.B. Pritzker, is an American venture capitalist, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and business owner. He is co-founder of the Pritzker Group, a private investment firm that invests in digital technology and medical companies, including Clinical Innovations, which has a global presence. Clinical Innovations is one of the largest medical device companies and in 2017 acquired Brenner Medical, another significant medical group offering innovative products in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology.
We have to look at why this is framed as a civil rights issue when the main issues seem to be capital and social engineering.
J.B. provided seed funding for Matter, a startup incubator for medical technology based in Chicago. He also sits on the board of directors at his alma mater, Duke University, where they are making advances in cryopreserving women's ovaries.
J.B. is running for governor of Illinois in 2018 and put $25 million into an Obama administration public-private initiative totaling $1 billion for early childhood education. J.B. and his wife, M.K. Pritzker, donated $100 million to Northwestern University School of Law, partly for scholarships and partly for the school's ''social justice'' and childhood law work.
We have to look at why this is framed as a civil rights issue when the main issues seem to be capital and social engineering. There doesn't seem to be a sphere of influence that is untouched by Pritzker money, from early childhood education and universities to law, medical institutions, the LGBT lobby and organizations, politics, and the military. If they were the only ones funding the institutionalization of transgender ideology they would still be fantastically influential, but they are joined by other exceedingly wealthy, influential white men, who also have ties to the pharmaceutical and medical industries.
Pharma and Tech Giants All-In for TransgenderAlong with support by pharmaceutical giants such as Janssen Therapeutics, the health foundation of a Johnson and Johnson founder, Viiv, Pfizer, Abbott Laboratories, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, major technology corporations including Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Intel, Dell, and IBM are also funding the transgender project. In February 2017, Apple, Microsoft, Google, IBM, Yelp, PayPal, and 53 other mostly tech corporations signed onto an amicus brief pushing the U.S. Supreme Court to prohibit schools from keeping private facilities for students designated according to sex.
As these corporations were pushing for transgender bathrooms, they were fighting President Trump's travel ban and immigration policies. In reporting the incidents simultaneously, CNN News made the obvious connection between the corporations' interest in the immigration ban and commerce, quoting a legal brief signed by the companies that said, ''It is inflicting significant harm on American business, innovation and growth.'' It made no such equivalent connection for the corporations' interest in transgender rights. The obvious question would be: Why do they care? The obvious answer is: money.
It behooves us all to look at what the real investment is in prioritizing a lifetime of anti-body medical treatments for a miniscule part of the population.
Melding this manufactured medical issue with civil rights frame entails the continuance and growth of the problem. Transgenderism is framed as both a medical problem, for the gender dysphoria of children who need puberty blockers and are being groomed for a lifetime of medicalization, and as a brave and original lifestyle choice for adults. Martine Rothblatt suggests we are all transhuman, that changing our bodies by removing healthy tissue and organs and ingesting cross-sex hormones over the course of a lifetime can be likened to wearing make-up, dying our hair, or getting a tattoo. If we are all transhuman, expressing that could be a never-ending saga of body-related consumerism.
The massive medical and technological infrastructure expansion for a tiny (but growing) fraction of the population with gender dysphoria, along with the money being funneled to this project by those heavily invested in the medical and technology industries, seems to make sense only in the context of expanding markets for changing the human body. Trans activists are already clamoring for a change from ''gender dysphoria'' to ''gender incongruence'' in the next revision to the international register of mental diagnosis codes, the ICD-11. The push is on for insurance-paid hormones and surgeries for anyone who believes his or her body is in any way ''incongruent'' with his or her ''gender identity.''
Bodily diversity appears to be the core issue, not gender dysphoria; that and unmooring people from their biology via language distortions, to normalize altering human biology. Institutionalizing transgender ideology does just this. This ideology is being promoted as a civil rights issue by wealthy, white, men with enormous influence who stand to personally benefit from their political activities.
It behooves us all to look at what the real investment is in prioritizing a lifetime of anti-body medical treatments for a miniscule part of the population, building an infrastructure for them, and institutionalizing the way we perceive ourselves as human beings, before being human becomes a quaint concept of the past.
This article has been corrected to note the difference between Baylor University and Baylor College of Medicine. The two are no longer connected.
Jennifer Bilek is an artist, environmental activist, writer, and an engaged citizen.
Ruderman Family Foundation - Wikipedia
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:10
The Ruderman Family Foundation is a private philanthropic foundation established in 2002 in Boston, USA, managed by the Ruderman family. The foundation operates in America and in Israel in two main areas: inclusion of people with disabilities in society and strengthening the relationship between Israel and the American Jewish community, while promoting strategic philanthropy and expanding circles of giving and involvement.
White papers [ edit] "Media Coverage of Law Enforcement Use of Force and Disability" [ edit] In March 2016, the Ruderman Family Foundation released its first white paper[1] '' a two-year media study and overview (2013''2015) on media coverage of law enforcement use of force and disability '' in order to change the public's awareness of people with disabilities and the civil rights battle they face for full inclusion and equality. The study was authored by David M. Perry, a disability rights journalist and Associate Professor of History at Dominican University, and Lawrence Carter-Long, one of the world's foremost authorities on media representation of disability. It concluded that disabled individuals make up a third to half of all people killed by law enforcement officers and make up the majority of those killed in use-of-force cases that attract widespread attention, including Eric Garner, Kajieme Powell, Tanesha Anderson, Freddie Gray and Sandra Bland. This was true both for cases deemed illegal or against policy and for those in which officers were ultimately fully exonerated. The authors argue that the media ignored the disability component of these stories, or, worse, told them in ways that intensified stigma and ableism. The Ruderman white paper received international attention for bringing this issue to light and hopes to start a larger dialogue about the need for greater law enforcement training when it comes to interacting with people with disabilities. The study was covered by media outlets including NBC News,[2] Al Jazeera,[3] Russia Today,[4]International Business Times[5] and New York Magazine.[6]
"The Employment of Actors with Disabilities in Television" [ edit] A second white paper[7] was released by the foundation in July 2016 and revealed that the most unrepresented minority in Hollywood is people with disabilities '' a group that had not been included within the recent #OscarSoWhite 'diversity crisis' conversation. Despite those with disabilities representing nearly 20% of the US population, 95% of characters with disabilities on TV are portrayed by able-bodied actors. The report, co-authored by actor Danny Woodburn, one of the most recognizable actors with a disability and most famously known as playing Mickey on Seinfeld, and Kristina Kopić, Advocacy Content Specialist at the foundation, also surveyed hundreds of actors who have visible and non-visible disabilities to document their experience. A plurality of actors with disabilities worked less than once a year and were constantly subjected to negative stigma and preconceived bias on the part of casting agents and producers. Ruderman and Woodburn co-authored an op-ed[8] in the Los Angeles Times discussing the issue, and the findings were also published in The Washington Post,[9]Mic,[10]Variety,[11]Yahoo News, Chicago Tribune, The Columbus Dispatch,, IndieWire,[12]IMDB, Vulture[13][14] and Teen Vogue.[15]
"Voting Accessibility for People with Disabilities" [ edit] Leading up to the 2016 US presidential election, the foundation released its third white paper,[16] on voting accessibility for people with disabilities. The Government Accountability Office reported that in 2008 73% of polling places had some potential accessibility barrier, while a Rutgers and Syracuse study determined that if voters with disabilities voted at the same rate as voters with exactly the same demographics, but without disabilities, three million more people would have voted in the 2012 US presidential election. Co-written by Norman Ornstein, a political scientist and scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, the analysis focused on: insufficient poll worker training; access barriers to polls (including publicly available transportation); access barriers to elections material and registration material prior to elections; stigma (including against developmental and psychiatric disabilities); and limitations on resources available to election officials. The study was featured on Fox News[17] and covered by The Guardian[18] and Mic.[19]
"Self-Driving Cars: The Impact on People with Disabilities" [ edit] In January 2017, a fourth white paper was released about the benefits of self-driving cars for people with disabilities. Written with Securing America's Future Energy (SAFE), the report concluded that autonomous vehicles could enable new employment opportunities for approximately two million people with disabilities, save $19 billion annually in healthcare expenditures, and provide $1.3 trillion in savings from productivity gains, fuel costs and accident prevention. Furthermore, the report emphasized the societal benefit for people with disabilities by allowing more individuals to fulfill civic responsibilities and exercise civil rights, as well as the impact people with disabilities can have in the legislative and regulatory discussions surrounding emerging transportation technologies. The piece was featured in a number of outlets including Metro,[20]Boston Herald,[21]Autotrader,[22]Curbed[23] and Futurism.[24]
"Media Coverage of the Murder of People with Disabilities by Their Caregivers" [ edit] On March 1, the National Disability Day of Mourning'--an event collaboratively created by the Autistic Self Advocacy Network (ASAN) to commemorate people with disabilities killed by their caregivers'--the Ruderman Family Foundation released a white paper on the media coverage of such murders. This study was again authored by David M. Perry, in collaboration with the Foundation and several self-advocates, including Zoe Gross from ASAN. The study found that at least one such murder takes place in North America a week, and that the media coverage too often erases the victims while sympathizing with the killers.[25]
Link20 Network [ edit] Starting in 2016, the foundation has begun creating a network of young self advocates and young leaders without disabilities. The goal is to create a network of networks that can rapidly respond to any challenges the disability community identifies or faces. In March 2017, Link20 released a well-received, collaborative video aimed at changing social attitudes toward people with disabilities.[26]
Ruderman Studio-Wide Roundtable on Disability Inclusion [ edit] On November 1, 2016, Jay Ruderman and the Ruderman Family Foundation put together the Ruderman Studio-Wide Roundtable on Disability Inclusion, bringing together industry experts from the film and television industry to discuss the need for disability diversity in all aspects of the production process. The panelists, which included Academy Award winner Marlee Matlin, Speechless creator Scott Silveri, Speechless star Micah Fowler, Seinfeld's Danny Woodburn, Mad TV's Orlando Jones, and Walking Dead producer Glen Mazzara, highlighted successful examples and offered best practices in the quest to reach wider audiences and achieve greater authenticity through disability inclusion. The event received extensive coverage for its groundbreaking effort, being featured in the Los Angeles Times,[27] BuzzFeed,[28] Yahoo!,[29] Nonprofit Quarterly[30] and The Mighty.[31]
Ruderman Prize In Inclusion [ edit] In 2012, the Ruderman Family Foundation launched the annual Ruderman Prize In Inclusion[32]- an international $250,000 prize awarded annually to five companies and organizations operating innovative services that foster the full inclusion of people with disabilities. The award spotlights the work being done and the models that can be replicated across the world. Thirty $50,000 prizes have been given out to date and past winners include organizations in Russia, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Germany, Mexico, Israel, South Africa, Canada and Argentina.
Morton E. Ruderman Award in Inclusion [ edit] The foundation has awarded the M.E.R. Award in Inclusion annually since 2013 to an individual who demonstrates outstanding accomplishment in the field of disability inclusion. In 2013, the award was given to Michale Stein, co-founder and Executive Director of the Harvard Law School Project on Disability. In 2014, it was given to Ari Ne'eman, President and co-founder of the Autistic Self Advocacy Network. In 2015, the recipient was Senator Tom Harkin (D-Iowa, retired), a write of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The latest recipient is Oscar-winning actress Marlee Matlin.
Me Before You controversy [ edit] In response to the release of the 2016 film Me Before You, Ruderman condemned the film's widely criticized portrayal of disability, in which the protagonist'--who is paralyzed'--ends up committing suicide because he feels his life is not worth living. Ruderman was widely quoted as stating, "To the millions of people with significant disabilities currently leading fulfilling, rich lives, it posits that they are better off committing suicide."[33][34] Ruderman's second major point in this controversy was that it is problematic for an able-bodied actor to play a character with a disability, a topic he often speaks up about.[35]
''Polish Holocaust'' video clip [ edit] In 2018 Foundation produced a short video clip, calling for the United States to halt its relationship with Poland and blaming Poland and the Polish people for Holocaust.[36] The clip was condemned by the Israeli Embassy and Jewish organizations in Poland.[37][38][39][40] The movie clip has been removed by Youtube a few hours later.
2016 '' The Arc Catalyst Award for Philanthropy Foundation of the Year2016 '' Edward M. Kennedy Leadership Award from the Disability Law Center of Massachusetts (DLCMA)2015 Visionary Leadership Award from the Jewish Community Relations Council (JCRC)2014 Lewis H. Millender Community of Excellence Award from Combined Jewish Philanthropies (CJP)References [ edit] ^ "White Paper". Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ "Half of People Killed by Police Have a Disability: Report". Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ AJ+ (March 15, 2016). "Half Of People Killed By Police May Be Disabled". Retrieved December 10, 2017 '' via YouTube. ^ "' Far too many victims of police violence are disabled' ". RT International. Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ "Police Related Deaths: Mental Disability Victims Comprise Half Of Those Killed By Law Enforcement, Report Says". March 15, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ "Half of People Killed at the Hands of Police Are Disabled". Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ "Ruderman Family Foundation - Not Found". Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ Times, Los Angeles. "Why are we OK with disability drag in Hollywood?". Retrieved 2016-07-14 . ^ Butler, Bethonie (2016-07-16). "Almost all disabled TV characters are played by able-bodied actors. Can we fix that?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-07-18 . ^ Mic. "There's a Huge Problem in How Television Represents People With Disabilities". Retrieved 2016-07-15 . ^ Wagmeister, Elizabeth (2016-07-13). "Able-Bodied Actors Play 95% of Disabled Characters in Top 10 TV Shows, Says New Study". Retrieved 2016-07-14 . ^ Calvario, Liz (2016-07-16). "Disabled Characters on Television: 95% of Roles in Top 10 Shows Played By Able-Bodied Actors '-- Report". Retrieved 2016-07-18 . ^ "A New Study Says 95 Percent of Actors Playing Disabled Characters in TV's Top 10 Shows Are Able-Bodied". Vulture. Retrieved 2016-07-15 . ^ "Push for Diversity in Television Turns to the Issue of Disability | mxdwn Television". Retrieved 2016-07-18 . ^ McNamara, Brittney. "On Top of Being Racist and Sexist, Hollywood Is Also Ableist". Retrieved 2016-07-15 . ^ "The Ruderman White Paper: Voting Accessibility For People With Disabilities". Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ Rubin, Shoshana (November 3, 2016). "The hidden group of Americans still fighting for the right to vote". Fox News. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ "Why do one in seven US citizens still have to fight to vote?". The Guardian. November 1, 2016. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ Mic. "Report: Voters with disabilities are treated like "second-class citizens" at the polls". Mic. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ Toussaint, Kristin (2017-01-17). "Self-driving cars could help employ 2M people with disabilities: Study". Metro. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ "Study: Self-driving cars will benefit disabled". Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ "Self-Driving Cars Could Allow As Many As 2 Million People With Disabilities to Work '' Autotrader". Autotrader. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ Sisson, Patrick (2017-01-18). "How driverless cars can empower Americans with disabilities". Curbed. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ "Self-Driving Cars Could Give Over 2 Million People Access to Jobs". Futurism. 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2017-02-10 . ^ "Ruderman Family Foundation >> The Ruderman White Paper: Media Coverage of the Murder of People with Disabilities by their Caregivers". Retrieved 2017-03-10 . ^ "A powerful Israeli video on disabilities inclusion: 'We are here' ". Jewish News. Retrieved March 10, 2017 . ^ Times, Los Angeles. "Disabled actors and advocates plead to Hollywood: 'Give us a chance, please!' ". Retrieved 2016-11-11 . ^ "Filmmakers Asked Marlee Matlin To Teach A Non-Deaf Actress "How To Be Deaf" ". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2016-11-11 . ^ "Actors With Disabilities Speak Up: "Just Give Us A Chance" ". Retrieved 2016-11-11 . ^ "Activist Ruderman Foundation Takes Up Discrimination against Actors with Disabilities| Nonprofit Quarterly". Non Profit News For Nonprofit Organizations | Nonprofit Quarterly. 2016-11-03. Retrieved 2016-11-11 . ^ "This Infuriating TV Statistic Affects You Whether You Realize It or Not". The Mighty. Retrieved 2016-11-11 . ^ "Ruderman Prize In Inclusion". Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ "' Me Before You' director responds to controversy over film's ending". Retrieved 2016-07-01 . ^ "The director of Me Before You is #sorrynotsorry about its controversial ending". Retrieved 2016-07-01 . ^ "Why are we OK with disability drag in Hollywood?". Los Angeles Times. 2016-07-11. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-03-10 . ^ "Movie claiming Holocaust was Polish". Retrieved February 21, 2018 . ^ "Statement of Israel Embassy in Poland". Retrieved February 21, 2018 . ^ "Statement '' film released by the Ruderman Family Foundation". Retrieved February 21, 2018 . ^ "Statement by Jonny Daniels about the move". Retrieved February 21, 2018 . ^ "WATCH: US Jewish group draws fire for 'Polish Holocaust' campaign". The Jerusalem Post | Retrieved 2018-02-21 . External links [ edit]
From Dorian Wilson
On tonights episode Robo-Rosa unloaded more talking points.
Once again completely independent of the story of the episode, with that real
native ad feel, the entire episode they are talking about how Omarosa has no
friends and she's an outcast, now suddenly they are all sitting together having
a chat...
Essentially first someone asks if she thinks Oprah would
have been a good pres, Omarosa says yes, she then reveals that the government
lifestyle may not be that cushy, in fact, on Air Force One you have to pay for
your own meals, she even got charged over 20$ for snacks after a flight!
(Essentially pushing the idea that maybe Trump doesn't live so
She then talked about how amazing it was to ride in the
motorcade through the very 'projects' that she grew up in. (As if to make the
point of a sort of Trump sponsored black success story)
Then it cuts back to the regular programming and shots of
Omarosa wandering alone aimlessly.
Adam I just can't believe that they would naturally be
having these conversations, and that it would just happen that one makes it
into every episode just by chance when they are cutting them.
Florida Shooting
News about #NationalSchoolWalkout on Twitter
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 15:51
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Florida shooter was living with military intelligence analyst, Army vet |
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:13
The family who took in Nikolas Cruz, the Florida school shooting suspect, after his mother died last year has spoken out for the first time about how they had no idea about the violence the teen was planning.
Kimberly and James Snead said they set strict house rules for Cruz, 19, when they agreed to bring their son's friend into their home - including a locked cabinet for the teen's guns. They didn't know he had a key to it, they said in an exclusive interview with the Sun-Sentinel.
Kimberly Snead, 49, is a neonatal nurse and James Snead, 48, is described as a decorated Army veteran and military intelligence analyst.
"Everything everybody seems to know, we didn't know," James Snead said in the interview. "It's as simple as that."
Cruz is accused of killing 17 teachers and students last Wednesday at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Fla.
In the interview, James Snead said he thought he was the only one with a key to Cruz's gun cabinet, but now knows the teen must have kept a key for himself, the Associated Press said.
The couple had told Cruz he needed permission to use his guns.
Nikolas Cruz's Carer Wants Control of Florida Shooter's $800K Inheritance
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 11:28
The woman who cared for accused Florida shooter Nikolas Cruz and his brother filed court papers seeking control of their inheritance just one day after the massacre at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School.
After their mother Lynda Cruz died from flu-related pneumonia last November, Cruz, 19, and his brother Zachary, 17, were put into the care of Roxanne Deschamps.
A source close to the family, who has not been named, told the New York Post Deschamps kicked Cruz out of her trailer after a fight over his gun collection. She also reportedly also took $2,900 from him before he moved out.
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More Nikolas Cruz, 19, a former student at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, where he allegedly killed 17 people, is seen on a closed circuit television screen during a bond hearing in front of Broward Judge Kim Mollica at the Broward County Courthouse on February 15, 2018 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Roxanne Deschamps, Cruz's carer, reportedly filed for control of his inheritance one day after the massacre last Wednesday. Getty
Last Wednesday afternoon, an assailant, later identified as Cruz, stormed Florida's Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School with an assault rifle, fatally shooting 17 people and injured at least 14 others.
Deschamps filed a petition for Lynda's estate just one day later, according to court reports obtained by the Post. In the document, Deschamps argued that she should be granted control as she is ''caring for a 50 percent minor beneficiary."
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The source told the Post that Deschamps had Cruz's brother involuntarily committed on Friday. It is unclear if Zachary has since been released.
The filed petition does not reveal the total value of the estate. However, the Snead family, who cared for Cruz during the time the attack took place, said he was due to inherit at least $800,000 when he turned 22.
If a judge grants the petition, Deschamps would be responsible for allotting the children's inheritance and paying debts owed by the estate. She could also charge a fee for administering the estate. The amount would be subject to the judge's discretion according to Robert Wolf, a Florida lawyer who is independent of the case.
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A picture is slowly forming of the suspected shooter, who was arrested shortly after the incident and briefly taken to Broward Health North hospital in Pompano Beach, before being transferred to the Broward Sheriff's headquarters.
Broward Sheriff Scott Israel confirmed that Cruz was a former student at the school expelled last year for unknown "disciplinary reasons."
According to Cruz's attorneys, the teenager has been on suicide watch since his arrest and is reportedly ''sad and remorseful.'' One of the attorneys said Cruz had the mental state of a child.
''What was relayed to me was 'he is such a child,''' Gordon Weekes, a chief assistant for Broward County's public defenders office, told the Sun Sentinel. ''That's the impression our attorneys are getting.''
This article was first written by Newsweek
More from Newsweek
Couple who took in school shooter didn't see his dark side | Daily Mail Online
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:07
The perturbed pair who took in Florida school shooter Nikolas Cruz back in November have opened up about living with the teen and say they didn't see the danger he posed.
Kimberly, 49, a neonatal intensive care nurse, and James Snead, 48, a military intelligence analyst, agreed to allow the 19-year-old live in their Parkland home after their son, a friend to Cruz, inquired.
Cruz's new home at the Snead residence came just days after his adoptive mother, Lynda Cruz, passed away from pneumonia on November 1.
The Snead couple have now revealed that they failed to see the dark side of Cruz, who gunned down 17 innocent individuals in a Valentine's Day rage.
While speaking with the South Florida Sun Sentinel, a wearied Kimberly said: 'We had this monster living under our roof and we didn't know.'
Scroll down for video
In this Feb. 17, 2018 photo, James Snead and his wife Kimberly appear at an interview about the shooting at Marjory Stonemason Douglas High in Parkland, Florida, where 17 people were killed
The Sneads recounted their time living with the shooter, Nikolas Cruz. The couple said they didn't see his dark side
Kimberly and James said Cruz lived with them for only three months. They took him in after his mother died
This booking photo obtained February 15, 2018 courtesy of the Broward County Sheriff's Office shows shooting suspect Nikolas Cruz
Pictured above is the Snead's Parkland home where Cruz lived for just three months before he shot dead 17 people at his high school in a Valentine's massacre
Her husband, James, also added: 'Everything everybody seems to know, we didn't know... It's as simple as that.'
The couple told the local newspaper in a sit-down interview they knew Cruz had been 'extremely depressed' after the death of his last living guardian, Lynda.
They said he was noticeably 'immature' but seemed to be 'growing happier' after moving into a new home.
Cruz had unusual eating habits and at times would place cookies inside steak and cheese sandwiches.
The family, who had pets in their home - claimed there were no signs of animal cruelty - despite several claims by neighbors who revealed disturbing details about Cruz's treatment toward animals.
Pictured: Cruz as a baby with his adoptive mother, Lynda Cruz. Lynda died from pneumonia on November 1 before her son moved in with the new family
The Snead couple (shown) claims the night prior to the Valentine's Day shooting, there was no indication Cruz had unusual behavior
The couple admitted they allowed the 'gun-obsessed' teen to keep an AR-15 rifle in their home, however, as they are avid about gun safety, they made him buy a locking safe to keep in his bedroom.
Inside the safe, were other various guns as well as knives. The pair instructed Cruz to ask for permission before unlocking the safe - which they claimed to the Sentinel he did twice since moving in.
Kimberly reportedly encouraged Cruz to attend therapy sessions after the passing of his adoptive mother.
She said just five days before the shooting, she and Cruz attended a session together.
Still, the couple claims the night prior to the Valentine's Day shooting, there was no indication the teen had any unusual behavior.
'We had this monster living under our roof and we didn't know,' Kimberly said of Cruz
The parents reportedly asked Cruz if he needed a ride to school the morning of February 14, when he declined and said he didn't even need to go.
'It's Valentine's Day and I don't go to school on Valentine's Day,' he said, the couple told the Sentinel.
The Sneads recalled receiving the 'panic-stricken' phone call from Cruz around 2.30pm that day.
Cruz informed them about a shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High - when James told him to walk to the nearby Walmart and that he was on his way to pick him up.
During the drive, James received a troubling phone call from a SWAT officer inquiring about Cruz's whereabouts.
The expelled 'gun-obsessed' student was taken into custody by the time the Sneads saw him on February 14
That's when James realized there were more troubling details to the story.
James phoned the officer back and ordered police to rush to their Parkland home to check on his wife.
'I need a police presence at my house. Go make sure my wife is OK,' James urged in the phone call.
'I was fearing for her life,' he recalled in the interview.
Shortly after, Kimberly answered the door, when officers ordered her to put her 'hands up'.
Cruz (shown Thursday at his first court appearance) is facing 17 charges of premeditated murder for the mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School
Police raided the home while Kimberly feared the worst.
Cruz was taken into custody by the time Kimberly and James saw him for the first time since the massacre.
James told the Sentinel that he was forced to hold Kimberly back when she attempted to charge after Cruz while in custody. In a panic, Kimberly then told Cruz: 'Really, Nik? Really?'
James added: 'He said he was sorry... he apologized. He looked lost, absolutely lost.
'That was the last time we saw him.'
Despite the couple's claims they didn't notice his disturbing behavior, the teen was expelled from school last year, while neighbors and friends revealed details of his love for violence and weapons.
Police had been called to Cruz's homes as many as 39 times over the course of seven years over reports of violence or suspicious behavior.
Nikolas Cruz warned freshman before shooting: 'You'd better get out of here' - Sun Sentinel
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 15:04
Before the first shots were fired, before the false fire alarm was pulled, freshman Chris McKenna came face-to-face with a killer on a second floor hallway at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School.
McKenna, 15, was on his way to use a bathroom when he saw Nikolas Cruz loading his weapon.
''You'd better get out of here,'' Cruz said, according to McKenna. ''Things are gonna start getting messy.''
McKenna froze for a second '' then fled.
As he made his way out of the building, he said, he saw assistant football coach Aaron Feis unlocking a gate in preparation for dismissal.
''I told him I saw a gun,'' McKenna said. ''He said 'let me go check it out.' Then he drove me to the baseball field, dropped me off, and went back to the school. That's the last I saw of him.''
McKenna said he was still with Feis when he heard the fire alarm that precipitated the rampage.
Feis was among the dead.
Three of McKenna's classmates were killed. A fourth was wounded.
''I'm in shock,'' he said. ''That's the only thing I can feel right now.''
David Fleshler, Aric Chokey, Lisa J. Huriash and Linda Trischitta, 954-356-4457, Twitter @SSCourts and @rolmeda
School shooter's brother committed to mental facility | New York Post
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:40
The younger brother of deranged school shooter Nikolas Cruz was committed to a mental health facility, according to reports.
Authorities removed someone Friday from the home of Rocxanne Deschamps, a longtime family friend of the Cruz brothers who took them in after their adoptive mother died of pneumonia in November, The Palm Beach Post reported.
A friend of Deschamps confirmed Zachary Cruz, who turns 18 next week, was the person removed from the home.
The younger Cruz brother was involuntarily committed under Florida's Baker Act, under which he can be held involuntarily for up to 12 hours for an involuntary psychiatric exam. It's unclear if he's been released.
Nikolas Cruz left Deschamps' Lantana, FL mobile home around Thanksgiving after he and Deschamps squared off over a gun.
''He bought a gun and wanted to bring it into my house,'' she said in comments that have since been wiped from her Facebook page, the paper reported.
Chad Bennett, a family friend, said Deschamps gave Cruz an ultimatum and Cruz ''chose the gun and he left.'' He moved in with family in northern Broward county, a Cruz family lawyer told the newspaper.
The Palm Beach Post said it was not known if the gun Cruz brought to the Deschamps home was the AR-15 semi-automatic rifle Cruz used to kill 17 people in Wednesday's mass shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, FL.
Nikolas Cruz: 'We had this monster living under our roof and we didn't know.' - Sun Sentinel
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:29
Nikolas Cruz was immature, quirky and depressed when James and Kimberly Snead took him into their Parkland home. But he was pleasant and seemed to be growing happier, they said.
How the 19-year-old turned into a killer still baffles them.
''We had this monster living under our roof and we didn't know,'' Kimberly Snead told the South Florida Sun Sentinel in an exclusive interview Saturday. ''We didn't see this side of him.''
''Everything everybody seems to know, we didn't know,'' James Snead said. ''It's as simple as that.''
Cruz still lived with the Sneads on Wednesday when he walked into Marjory Stoneman Douglas High Schoolwith an AR-15 rifle and killed 17 people '-- the worst school shooting since Sandy Hook.
Staff Photographer Susan Stocker
The Sneads' son had asked whether his friend could move into their home last Thanksgiving. Cruz's mother, who had adopted him, died of pneumonia Nov. 1, leaving him without parents. He stayed briefly with a family friend in the Lantana area but wanted to move on.
The Sneads quickly agreed '-- though they realized he was extremely depressed about his mother's death.
Five days before the shooting, Kimberly Snead took Cruz to the office of a therapist she has been seeing. Cruz said he was open to therapy but didn't like medication. He took a business card and was figuring out what his health insurance would cover.
James, 48, is a decorated army veteran and a military intelligence analyst who served stints in the Middle East between 1988 and 1996. Kimberly, 49, is a neonatal intensive care nurse who cares for premature and ill babies.
They told Cruz there would be strict rules in their home.
''I told him there'd be rules and he followed every rule to the T,'' James said.
The couple both grew up around guns and are comfortable with them, but they insist on gun safety.
They made Cruz buy a locking gun safe to put in his room the day he moved in. Cruz had a handful of guns, including the AR-15 and two other rifles that Snead said would be considered assault rifles. Cruz, a hunter, also had knives, BB guns and pellet guns.
Snead thought he had the only key to the cabinet but has figured out Cruz must have kept a key for himself. The family kept their own rifles, bought after a burglary a couple of years ago, in a separate locked cabinet.
They told Cruz he needed to ask permission to take out the guns. He had asked only twice since November. They said ''yes'' once and ''no'' once.
Cruz's mom seemed to have cosseted him.
''He was very na¯ve. He wasn't dumb, just na¯ve,'' James said.
He didn't know how to cook. They had to show him how to use a microwave. He didn't know how to do his laundry and also had to learn to pick up after himself.
He didn't drive but bought a bicycle and rode it to work at a nearby Dollar Tree.
The Sneads had raised their own three boys and jokingly called the process of teaching Cruz ''Adulting 101.''
They insisted he enlist in adult education classes run by the school district and drove him to school each day. He didn't have much time to himself.
He seemed to be doing well and wanted to be an army infantryman. He was excited when an army recruiter visited school recently.
''What else could this family have possibly done to put this young man on the right track?'' said their attorney, Jim Lewis. ''They tried to do a good deed and it went horribly wrong for them.''
So far as they know, Cruz wasn't particularly close to any of the victims and they don't know of any resentment he might have had against any of the people who were murdered. They have no clue why he did it.
The night before the massacre seemed just like any other, they said.
Cruz had some odd eating habits. He quietly put a chocolate chip cookie in his steak and cheese sandwich. He went to bed around 8 p.m., which wasn't unusual.
They said they were sure he was bullied; he was the kind of kid that would attract the attention of a bully.
He badly wanted to have a girlfriend and seemed lonely, they said. They don't know anything about rumors they've since heard about a breakup with a girl, stalking or fighting.
They also saw no signs of animal cruelty. They are animal lovers, with two dogs and six cats. He'd have been kicked out if he was mean to their animals. Cruz seemed to love their pets.
On Wednesday morning, Cruz told them he didn't need a ride to school: ''It's Valentine's Day and I don't go to school on Valentine's Day,'' he said.
Cruz had a ''boxer's fracture'' in his right hand after falling on a step in their house about three weeks ago. They now think he removed the cast on his hand, the second he'd had, the day of the shooting. He'd also removed the first cast.
Kimberly last saw him around 10 that morning before she left to run errands. He said he was going fishing and was gone when she returned. She went to sleep because she was supposed to work a night shift that night.
Cruz sent their son a few texts that day. In one, he asked what classroom the boy was in. He said he was going to see a movie.
Later he texted he had ''something important'' he wanted to tell the teen. Then he wrote: ''Nothing man.''
Paula McMahon, Stephen Hobbs and Megan O'Matz
They have since figured out those texts were sent during the Uber ride Cruz took to the murder scene. His last text to their son, as Cruz pulled up at the school, said ''Yo.''
They think Cruz moved out of the home of his late mom's friend in Lantana because of tension about his guns and a possible misunderstanding about money.
Cruz told them he stood to inherit at least $800,000 from his deceased parents. Most of the money would come when he turned 22, he said. The Sneads have since seen paperwork they think supports the claim he was going to be very financially comfortable.
Cruz thought the family friend in Lantana was stealing money from him but the Sneads suspect she was innocent and he was just a victim of common identity theft. They reported about $2,900 in fraudulent charges on his debit or credit card.
Around 2:30 p.m. Wednesday, their son called sounding panic-stricken. He was safe but had heard shots fired on campus. He helped classmates flee by climbing a fence to neighboring Westglades middle school.
Snead told his son to walk to Walmart and he'd come get him.
As Snead drove there, a SWAT commander called his cellphone and asked where his son Nik was. Told him it wasn't his son and he didn't know where he was.
As he kept driving and put two and two together, he became terrified and called the commander back. Snead told the cop the last he knew Nik was home alone with Kimberly: ''I need a police presence at my house. Go make sure my wife is OK.''
Snead called his son to say he needed to check on mom first and drove home: ''I was fearing for her life.''
Kimberly was sleeping because she was supposed to work the night shift that night. Law enforcement banged on her door with guns drawn, yelling: ''Put your hands up.''
When they asked where her son was, she assumed something terrible had happened to her son but soon realized they meant Cruz. They searched the house but already had Cruz in custody elsewhere.
After an emotional reunion of husband and wife, they were brought to Broward Sheriff's headquarters to be reunited with their son. They later realized he was being questioned by detectives in case he was involved. Investigators quickly figured out he was innocent.
As they waited, Cruz was led in to the building, handcuffed and wearing a hospital gown, surrounded by deputies.
Kimberly tried to run at him, James held her back.
''Really, Nik? Really?'' she yelled at him.
''He said he was sorry. He apologized. He looked lost, absolutely lost,'' said James. ''And that was the last time we saw him.'', 954-356-4533 or Twitter @SentinelPaula
Florida school shooting GoFundMe page receives outpouring of donations | Fox News
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 22:33
A GoFundMe page set up for the Florida high school shooting victims' families received an outpouring of donations Thursday after officials announced the fund will be used to provide financial relief to those affected by the massacre.
The fundraising page was set up by Broward County Public School officials on Thursday, one day after alleged gunman Nikolas Cruz opened fire in Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, killing 17 people and injuring 15 others.
''We worked to establish something that is credible. So GofundMe account, Stoneman Douglas fund it's called'...which folks can make contributions. Please keep our babies, our families and this entire community in your prayers as we go through this process,'' Superintendent Robert Runcie said in a Thursday news conference.
Donations quickly poured in, with the contribution amount jumping from $11,000 when Runcie mentioned it during the news conference to more than $100,000 just minutes later. As of 1 p.m. Thursday, the contribution amount surpassed $200,000.
The GoFundMe goal was initially set at $300,000.
The shooting on Wednesday killed 17 people. (AP)
Runcie said the page was set up after several fake fundraising accounts were created.
''Donations raised here will be used to provide relief and financial support to the victims and families of the horrific shooting,'' the page stated.
OneBlood also urged people with O-negative blood to donate blood to help those injured. A blood drive was held Thursday, according to WSVN.
Officials are expected to release the list of names of the 17 people killed on Thursday. Several names have emerged in the hours since the shooting, including Aaron Feis, a football coach at Marjory Stoneman Douglass High School. The football team wrote on Twitter that Feis died shielding students from the bullets.
''He was our Assistant Football Coach and security guard. He selflessly shielded students from the shooter when he was shot. He died a hero and he will forever be in our hearts and memories,'' the team tweeted.
ScottIsrael2012: The Real Scott Israel for Broward Sheriff - Take 3
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:48
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Scopolamine Side Effects in Detail -
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:20
In SummaryCommonly reported side effects of scopolamine include: drowsiness and xerostomia. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.
For the ConsumerApplies to scopolamine: transdermal patch extended release
Along with its needed effects, scopolamine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking scopolamine:
Incidence not knownBlurred visionchest pain or discomfortdifficulty with urinatingdilation of the pupilsdizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position suddenlyeye painflushing or redness of the skinmood or mental changesmuscle weaknessnausea or vomitingrashredness of the white part of the eyesrestlessnessseeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not thereshortness of breathslow or irregular heartbeatsweatingunusual tirednessunusually warm skinGet emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking scopolamine:
Symptoms of overdoseAnxietyblurred or loss of visionchange in consciousnessdecrease in frequency of urinationdecrease in urine volumedifficulty in passing urine (dribbling)disturbed color perceptiondouble visiondry mouthdry, flushed skinfast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulsehalos around lightsheadachehyperventilationirritabilityloss of consciousnessnervousnessnight blindnessoverbright appearance of lightspainful urinationpounding in the earsseizuresshakingsleepinesstrouble with sleepingtunnel visionunusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, or feeling of sluggishnessFor Healthcare ProfessionalsApplies to scopolamine: compounding powder, injectable solution, oral tablet, transdermal film extended release
CardiovascularCommon (1% to 10%): Tachycardia
Frequency not reported: Blood pressure decreased, flushing, bradycardia, palpitations, arrhythmias, fatal acute myocardial infarction, fatal cardiac arrest[Ref]
GastrointestinalVery common (10% or more): Dry mouth (29%)
Frequency not reported: Vomiting[Ref]
Nervous systemRecurrent classic migraine attacks developed in a 20-year-old naval crew member who had been treated continuously with transdermal scopolamine for 5 months. The initial attack occurred within 24 hours of diagnosis of scopolamine intoxication. The patient had no self or family history of migraines. The attacks, presenting with prodrome and aura, followed by severe throbbing left headache, nausea, photophobia and sonophobia lasting 6 to 8 hours, recurred every 10 to 14 days for more than a year. Common triggers of migraines and other precipitating factors could not be identified in this case.[Ref]
Very common (10% or more): Dizziness (12.4%), somnolence
Rare (less than 0.1%): Memory impairment, disturbance in attention
Postmarketing reports: Headache, amnesia, coordination abnormalities, speech disorder, vertigo[Ref]
OcularVery common (10% or more): Disturbances of visual accommodation (cycloplegia, including blurred vision, myopia, and mydriasis)
Common (1% to 10%): Visual impairment, eyelid irritation
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Pupillary dilatation which may precipitate acute glaucoma (particularly narrow angle glaucoma)
Frequency not reported: Photophobia, increased ocular pressure
Postmarketing reports: Dry eyes, eye pruritic, angle closure glaucoma, amblyopia, eyelid irritation[Ref]
GenitourinaryCommon (1% to 10%): Urinary retention
Postmarketing reports: Dysuria[Ref]
PsychiatricCommon (1% to 10%): Agitation, confusion, hallucinations
Rare (less than 0.1%): Disorientation, restlessness, visual hallucinations
Postmarketing reports: Acute psychosis[Ref]
HypersensitivityFrequency not reported: Allergic reaction, anaphylactic reaction, hypersensitivity reactions, fatal anaphylactic shock[Ref]
DermatologicCommon (1% to 10%): Skin irritation
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Generalized rash
Frequency not reported: Dyshidrosis, skin dryness, rash
Postmarketing reports: Erythema[Ref]
LocalFrequency not reported: Injection site pain
Postmarketing reports: Application site burning (patch)[Ref]
ImmunologicCommon (1% to 10%): Pharyngitis[Ref]
OtherFrequency not reported: Hyperthermia at high temperatures due to decreased sweating[Ref]
MetabolicFrequency not reported: Thirst[Ref]
References1. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0
2. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0
3. Therapeutic Goods Administration "Medicines Safety Update, Volume 8 Number 4, August-September 2017 Available from: URL:" ([2017, Sep 13]):
4. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency "Hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan) injection: risk of serious adverse effects in patients with underlying cardiac disease. Available from: URL:" ([2017, Apr 03]):
5. "Product Information. Transderm-Scop (scopolamine (hyoscine (scopolamine)))." Sandoz Inc, Broomfield, CO.
6. "Product Information. Scopolamine (scopolamine (hyoscine (scopolamine)))." Perrigo, L. Company, Allegan, MI.
Some side effects of scopolamine may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.
More about scopolamineConsumer resourcesOther brands:Transderm-Scop, Maldemar
Professional resourcesRelated treatment guidesDisclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.
Hyoscine - Wikipedia
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:19
Hyoscine Clinical dataTrade namesTransdermscop, Kwells, othersSynonymshyoscine hydrobromide, scopolamine hydrobromideAHFS/Drugs.comMonograph Pregnancycategory
AU:B2US:C (Risk not ruled out)Routes ofadministration
by mouth, skin patch, eye drops, subcutaneous, intravenous, sublingual, rectal, buccal transmucousal, intramuscularATC codeLegal statusLegal statusPharmacokinetic dataMetabolismLiverBiological half-life4.5 hours[1]ExcretionKidneyIdentifiers('')-(S)-3-Hydroxy-2-phenylpropionic acid (1R,2R,4S,7S,9S)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo[,4]non-7-yl ester CAS NumberPubChemCID IUPHAR/BPSDrugBankChemSpiderUNIIKEGGChEBIChEMBLECHA InfoCard 100.000.083Chemical and physical dataFormulaC 17H 21N O 4Molar mass303.353 g/mol3D model (JSmol)OC[C@H](c1ccccc1)C(=O)O[C@@H]2C[C@H]3N(C)[C@@H](C2)[C@@H]4O[C@H]34
InChI=1S/C17H21NO4/c1-18-13-7-11(8-14(18)16-15(13)22-16)21-17(20)12(9-19)10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h2-6,11-16,19H,7-9H2,1H3/t11-,12-,13-,14+,15-,16+/m1/s1 Y Key:STECJAGHUSJQJN-FWXGHANASA-N Y N Y (what is this?) (verify) Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine,[2] is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.[3] It is also sometimes used before surgery to decrease saliva.[3] When used by injection, effects begin after about 20 minutes and last for up to 8 hours.[3] It may also be used by mouth and as a dermal patch.[3]
Common side effects include sleepiness, blurred vision, dilated pupils, and dry mouth.[3] It is not recommended in people with glaucoma or bowel obstruction.[3] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe; however, it appears to be safe during breastfeeding.[4] Hyoscine is in the antimuscarinic family of medications and works by blocking some of the effects of acetylcholine within the nervous system.[3]
Hyoscine was first written about in 1881 and came into medical use in 1947.[5] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Hyoscine is produced from plants of the nightshade family.[7] The name "scopolamine" is derived from one type of nightshade known as Scopolia while "hyoscine" is from another type known as Hyoscyamus niger.[8][9]
Medical use [ edit] Hyoscine has a number of uses in medicine, where it is used to treat the following:[10][11]
It is sometimes used as a premedication (especially to reduce respiratory tractsecretions) to surgery, mostly commonly by injection.[10][11]
Pregnancy [ edit] Hyoscine crosses the placenta and is a United States pregnancy category C and Australian Category B1 medication, meaning a risk to the fetus cannot be ruled out. Sufficient studies in women and animals are not available to rule out harm, but existing studies have not shown increased risk. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus. It may cause respiratory depression and/or neonatalhemorrhage when used during pregnancy. Transdermal hyoscine has been used as an adjunct to epidural anesthesia for Caesarean delivery without adverse CNS effects on the newborn. Except when used prior to Caesarean section, it should only be used during pregnancy if the benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
Breastfeeding [ edit] Hyoscine enters breast milk by secretion. Although no human studies exist to document the safety of hyoscine while nursing, the manufacturer recommends that caution be taken if hyoscine is administered to a breastfeeding woman.[15]
Elderly [ edit] The likelihood of experiencing adverse effects from hyoscine is increased in the elderly relative to younger people. This phenomenon is especially true for older people who are also on several other medications. It is recommended that hyoscine use should be avoided in this age group because of these potent anticholinergic adverse effects.[16]
Adverse effects [ edit] Adverse effect incidence:[17][18][19][20]
Uncommon (0.1''1% incidence) adverse effects include:
Rare (
David Hogg: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know ''
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 16:43
David Hogg on his YouTube account.
David Hogg, a 17-year-old student at Stoneman High School in Parkland, Florida, has been frequently featured in news reports since the horrific shooting on February 14. The aspiring journalist has interviewed students himself about the shooting and has become a prominent voice seeking stricter gun control legislation. But astute viewers noticed that he also appeared in a news report in California last year, and comparisons have been circulating social media, with some people accusing him of being a ''crisis actor.'' But David Hogg is actually exactly who he says he is, frequently posting about his life on social media and even Reddit. Here's what you need to know about David Hogg, how the allegations began, and proof that he truly is a Stoneman student.
1. David Hogg Is a Senior at Stoneman High School and Aspires To Be a Professional JournalistDavid Hogg is a senior at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School and loves broadcast journalism, CNN reported. He's a Teenlink reporter for the Sun Sentinel, according to his Instagram profile, a student filmmaker, and a surfer. He and his family moved to Florida several years ago, when he was a freshman, and chose Stoneman partially because of the TV production classes the school offers. Hogg once wrote on Reddit about moving in the middle of his freshman year and how hard it was because so many people in high school weren't authentic. He talked about missing his friends from Los Angeles, whom he still visits. He then told someone else on the site that the first few months can be really hard, but it does get better. As a sophomore, he created some of his own broadcast packages and decided that TV news was his passion.
Hogg has been very outspoken since the shooting, criticizing the NRA and advocating for gun control legislation. He was one of the first students who was interviewed nationally about the horrific event. He told CNN that he hid in a closet during the shooting and pulled out his phone, interviewing people near him about what was happening. ''I want to show these people exactly what's going on when these children are facing bullets flying through classrooms and students are dying trying to get an education,'' he said. While he was filming, he said that all he could think was: ''Tell the story.''
''If I was going to die, I wanted to die doing what I love, and that's storytelling. And this is a story that needed to be heard. '... At least our echoes, our voices would carry on and possibly make some action.''
Some have said that Hogg appeared too calm in the videos he did inside the school during the shooting. But others have pointed out that how a person reacts in a situation can really depend on their proximity to danger. Hogg never personally encountered the shooter because he was hiding in a closet, so his reaction might be very different from another person who had actually seen the shooter. Here he is in another video where a group of students were interviewed:
He appeared again in this next video below, where he read an essay that he penned specifically for CBS. He said he was in his environmental science class when he heard the first gunshots. They never had an active shooter drill at the school, he said.
The allegations that Hogg and others were crisis actors may have partially originated from an email allegedly sent to journalist Alex Leary from Benjamin A. Kelly, along with Donald Trump Jr. liking two tweets about the conspiracy. (You can read more about Benjamin Kelly in Heavy's story here.)
Florida State Representative Shawn Harrison later announced that Kelly had been fired from his position as Harrison's District Secretary after the tweet was released:
Robert Runcie, superintendent of Broward County Schools, told the Tampa Bay Times (and Alex Leary, whom Kelly reached out to) that Emma Gonzalez and David Hogg were, indeed, students at Stoneman. ''These are absolutely students at Stoneman Douglas. They've been there. I can verify that,'' he said. ''Anything to disparage such brilliant and passionate youth who have the courage to stand up and do what they're doing, I just think it's outrageous and disrespectful for someone to make those allegations.''
2. He Appeared in a California Video that Went Viral While He Was on Vacation in AugustHogg's appearance in a video that went viral in California caused some people to question his authenticity. In fact, the photo below is one of the many photos circulating on social media pointing out that he was interviewed in August 2017 in California before being interviewed this past week in Florida.
Facebook Hogg in California and in Florida
But back during the California trip, Hogg made it very clear that he was vacationing in California, not living there. And The Eagle Eye even published a story about his vacation and viral video, nothing that ''In Redondo Beach, California, Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School senior David Hogg and his friend Thomas decided to spend their summer afternoon at Topaz Jetty'...'' Here's just one Instagram photo that Hogg also shared talking about his vacation:
And a tweet about leaving for LA:
The viral video showed an argument that started when his friend put a boogie board on a trashcan at the beach and a lifeguard got very angry. Hogg talked to CBS Los Angeles about the incident, saying it was his friend who put the board on a trash can on the beach. A lifeguard asked his friend to move the board, and his friend did, but then said, ''I didn't know it was a crime to put your board on a trash can.'' Then the lifeguard approached angrily and Hogg recorded the interaction. His video later went viral. He said they felt threatened because the lifeguard seemed unpredictable. Here he is later, sharing a video on his YouTube channel about what happened.
The video caused some people to question whether Hogg was truly a student. But as Hogg explained in a previous video, he was visiting the Los Angeles area in August. In fact, it's not uncommon for him to visit California '-- his YouTube channel also shows another video he made while visiting California on vacation last winter. He definitely wasn't expecting all that attention:
3. Hogg Frequently Posted Videos and Updates about Stoneman Before the Shooting, and the 'Yearbook' Evidence Was DebunkedOne of the rumors circulating is that Hogg was a ''paid crisis actor,'' since he appeared in both California and Florida. As stated in the previous section, he was in California on vacation in August. But he's frequently posted about life at Stoneman long before the shooting happened. Here's just one example from his YouTube channel:
But there are more examples than this. He did a news story on January 20 about Douglas High and shared it on his Twitter page:
In fact, he's been very involved in newscast work at Stoneman.
In August he posted about seeing the solar eclipse in Broward County:
Here are a few more posts:
In addition to his time at Stoneman, some people are also talking about a photo of Hogg sitting at a CNN table. This may be a photo from a CNN tour, which would be a normal thing for an aspiring journalist to do. In fact, others have said that when they visited CNN in Atlanta, they got to role play being an anchor or take ''fake photos'' on set. Read some of the Yelp reviews here to get an idea of what happens on the tour. In a 2013 article posted on ''Mom Voyage,'' this was written about the CNN tour: ''Start with a ride on the world's longest escalator to the working studios of CNN. Then, from behind the glass, you'll look into a live newsroom, complete with anchors, reporters, camera people'...the works! At the end of the tour, future television stars will certainly appreciate the ability to sit behind an anchor desk and take their turn at reporting the news. It makes for a fun experience and a great photo opp!''
Some people are also questioning Hogg because of a mugshot taken of a David Guyton Hogg in South Carolina. This man doesn't appear to resemble Hogg that much (the eyebrows and the shape of his eyes appear quite different, for example), and the photo was taken in December 2016, after Hogg had moved to Florida and was already posting from there on his social media. Here's another photo of David Guyton Hogg from August 2016, for comparison. In fact, it appears that the same David Guyton Hogg was just arrested again on May 28, 2017, in South Carolina. There are hundreds of David Hoggs in the country.
Finally, a fake Antifa ''parody'' account shared a video of a yearbook with Hogg's name in it, as ''proof'' that he wasn't going to Stoneman (you can watch the video below.) However, this video moves so fast that you can't see a date or clearly read the yearbook's full cover. A tweet shared later debunked this video.
Here's the tweet debunking the video:
4. His Father, Kevin Hogg, Is a Retired FBI Agent Who Taught David Perseverance and ComposureDavid's father, Kevin Hogg, is a retired FBI agent, which spurred more social media posts questioning Hogg's authenticity. The Gateway Pundit ran a story about Hogg called ''Exposed,'' which started some of the rumors about him. The headline read: ''School Shooting Survivor Turned Activist David Hogg's Father in FBI, Appears To Have Been Coached On Anti-Trump Lines.'' The story pointed out that in an interview with CNN, Hogg defended the FBI and blamed President Donald Trump, before he revealed that his father was a former FBI agent. ''I think it's disgusting, personally,'' Hogg said. ''My father's a retired FBI agent and the FBI are some of the hardest working individuals I have ever seen in my life. It's wrong that the president is blaming them for this.''
Some people said that Hogg was an attempt to ''prop up the FBI'' after the FBI failed to follow up on a tip about Nikolas Cruz's plans for a school shooting. But in reality, it's not surprising that a teen would defend an institution that employed their parent. Hogg once wrote on Reddit that his dad was training at Quantico and learning about future terrorist threats right before 9/11 happened. In fact, he's written multiple appreciative posts about his family on Reddit and in other places. He wrote: ''My dad has been saving since before I was born. I love my parents so much and am blessed to have their financial support. The reason they have saved so much for my college is because both were kicked out of there house at 18 basically and had to pay their way through college'...''
The Daily Beast reported that David's dad, Kevin Hogg, was assigned to the Los Angeles International Airport right before he retired in 2014 (which was also when his family moved from California to Florida.) Kevin Hogg was known for wanting to give stuffed animals to refugee children who were just arriving in America.
David said his dad worked long hours, often leaving at 6 a.m. and not getting home until midnight. Sometimes as soon as he got home, he had to immediately leave for an emergency. That was when David learned to admire his dad and all other FBI agents, which was reflected in his recent interviews. David told the Daily Beast that he admired his dad because Kevin's not judgmental, but tries to see both sides of a situation. ''He's just a nice guy,'' David said. David had dyslexia and ADHD growing up, the Daily Beast reported, and he learned the perseverance to deal with it from his dad.
David and Kevin are so close that David called his dad during the shooting. ''I love you,'' he told Kevin. ''I'm on my way,'' Kevin told his son. David said his calm composure during interviews was partially because of his Dad's example. He can see both sides of an issue. And although he's pro gun reform, he's also pro Second Amendment, believing that anyone who's not mentally unbalanced and doesn't have a criminal record should be able to purchase and own a firearm.
5. He Had Trouble in an Interview, Which Spurred Allegations That He Was CoachedHogg has appeared in a lot of videos, answering questions about the shooting. Behind-the-scenes clips were shown for one of these videos, which you can watch above. Hogg keeps asking for a chance to repeat his words after losing his train of thought. Some people believe this is a sign that he was coached. But remember, Hogg is only a senior in high school and just went through a very traumatic situation. It's absolutely possible that he simply had trouble keeping this thoughts together and the videographer gave him retakes, so they could show a short clip of what he wanted to say rather than a longer clip full of repeated words and pauses. It's not uncommon for a TV news interview to be ''practiced'' a time or two before the final taping, so the interviewee knows exactly what they want to say and can say it quickly and succinctly. You can hear the cameraman or reporter telling him when he pauses, ''It's OK. You're fine David, you're fine.'' Since the video is cut in several places, it's possibly some of the ''coaching'' lines are just helping Hogg remember what he last said or where they left off in the interview.
Hogg responded to the allegations against him by telling BuzzFeed News: ''I just think it's a testament to the sick immaturity and broken state of our government when these people feel the need to pedal conspiracy theories about people that were in a school shooting where 17 people died and it just makes me sick. It's immature, rude, and inhuman for these people to destroy the people trying to prevent the death of the future of America because they won't.''
Some people have also pointed to the following photo, which was taken for CBS show a few days after the shooting. They say it's unusual for the group to be smiling for the camera, but it's really not that strange to be smiling in a photo a few days after a tragedy, if you're asked to smile:
Hogg also has a Reddit account and he's been very open about sharing his identity there, including posting his full name and sharing the lifeguard video that went viral. His posts reflect a conscientious teen who's concerned about others, such as when he wrote: ''Im fine with breaking HOA rules but the problem it that first responders wont be able to get though if me and others park on the street [sic].'' He also posted about how society should be more accepting of overweight people because they often can't afford to eat healthier. When asked seven months ago what people have gotten too accustomed to, his response included politicians' lies, lobbyists, and ''the danger of party politics.''
Months ago, in answer to a question about why we need more love in the world, he talked on Reddit about how he helped a 94-year-old woman go online and see a neighborhood that she grew up in. He said she almost cried, then showed him New York City on Google Street View, and it was the most fun he had all summer.
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Benjamin Kelly: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know
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Student who survived Parkland school shooting: 'We were told the police would do a fake code red, with fake guns'
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:42
PARKLAND, Fla. (INTELLIHUB) '-- Many credible sources, including students, parents, and teachers of the school have openly admitted on camera that they were told at one point or another prior to the Valentine's Day shooting that a ''code red'' active shooter drill would be taking place.
Stoneman Douglas H.S. Freshman Kelsey Friend told CNN on Thursday, that she heard whispers from fellow classmates on the day of the shooting that police would be conducting an active shooter drill using ''fake guns.''
''We had rumors going around the school that police would do a fake code red with fake guns, not actual, but sounding real and I thought at the beginning that this just wasn't real and that this was just drills ['...] until I saw my teacher dead on the floor.
The freshman said that she was hiding behind the teacher's desk with 15-20 other students when her teacher was shot in the doorway of the classroom.
'It seemed like it lasted five-years,'' she explained.
Friend, who seems traumatized, told CNN that her and her classmates were whisked to safety when SWAT made their entry and evacuated them over an hour later.
''The SWAT team actually came and got us and said that it was all okay,'' she explained. ''Once we were escorted out of the classroom I did see Mr. Beagle's body out the corner of my eyes through the stairwell and I did see blood and I saw two students, unfortunately, curled up in balls.
''Going down the stairs I saw more blood, backpacks everywhere,'' she said. ''It was like a movie scene and there was gunpowder all over the floor. ['...] It was just so real but felt so fake at the same time.''
Another student told a Texas News station that she saw ''weird dust on the floor'' after shots were fired and admits that drills were being conducted on the day of the shooting.
''It was pretty terrifying because they were all putting us through drills '-- we thought this was a drill but it wasn't and then we just started hearing gunshots,'' another student told KPRC 2 shortly after the shooting.
And if that's not enough, the student said that there were ''three shooters'' and described one of them as ''some other kid'' (as in, not the suspect, Nikolas Cruz) and gestured as if the person she saw was wearing a tactical vest and a mask.
Another student who attends Stoneman Douglas H.S., a senior named David Hogg, also told CNN that he too thought the shooting was a drill.
''['...] we actually thought that this was a drill at first and an extremely realistic one at that,'' Hogg explained. ''I thought that because of the extremely well-executed response of the janitor and everybody else but while we were in there we soon found out this was anything but a drill.''
Gunpowder residue and wadding is often expelled in great quantities when blank rounds are fired.
So, the question is: Who took the drill live? Who fired live rounds?
Please take the following poll and retweet it.
Related: There was obviously, definitely, another shooter involved: Stoneman Douglas High School student
(C)2018. INTELLIHUB.COM. All Rights Reserved.Shepard Ambellas is an opinion journalist, analyst, and the founder and editor-in-chief of Intellihub News & Politics ( Shepard is also known for producing Shade: The Motion Picture (2013) and appearing on Travel Channel's America Declassified (2013). Shepard is a regular contributor to Infowars. Shepard is the leading journalist covering the Las Vegas Massacre, logging over 800+ hours, 130+ reports, during his ongoing investigation. Read more from Shep's World. Follow Shep on Facebook. Subscribe to Shep's YouTube channel.
Dead Hero Coach of Parkland Shooting Hoax Aaron Feis Found Alive at Funeral? - NODISINFO
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:36
Is this man, seen here from behind and the side, Aaron Feis, the purported Jewish hero of the arch-fake Parkland, Florida, school shooting hoax? Even though he is seen from the back-side, it looks just like him. Apparently, he was on-site, just like various Sandy Hook supposedly dead children, at the actual phony funerals, in this case the one for Meadow Pollack.
Count them. Of the purported 17 dead six. actually, seven. that is if Gina Montalto is added, are Jewish. These Jews are surely alive, so all the calls for sadness and sympathy in relation to these hoax agents are bogus. Proxy Mossad agents, working on behalf of Chabad Lubovitch, committed this act of treachery. This is admitted by the Jewish-controlled press itself. This means that this plot was orchestrated by Chabad actors. Thus, the full powers of American Zionism have been leveraged for this arch-fraud, and there can be no doubt about it.
The Sheriff himself, Mr. Israel, is an avowed Chabad mole, as are a number of the purported victims. The hoax was orchestrated by these perpetrators solely for destructive purposes: at a minimum as the means to install anti gun-rights legislation.
As well, Parkland itself is some 50% Jewish, as is neighboring Coral Springs. To a large degree the Marjory Stoneman Douglas school is the same, with a high percentage of Jewish students. According to the Jewish Voice online journal:
The fact is there were no bodies to procure. Even so, will this, then, be the new model for these scams, that heavily Jewish-vested communities will be the focal point to increase the degree of deception and aggression against the people? It would be one thing if the purported indignation was the result of an actual fatal school shooting, like Columbine. Instead, all the raging about guns and violence is all based on a mere psyop '' a hoax and a fake.
Feis a conniving Zionist agent, like the rest of them.
Where are these Zionists? This was an act of desperation to spread great chaos and corruption in the land. As such, are these fake dead in the United States, or are they elsewhere such as domiciled in the Zionist strip? Was Feis really mobilized that quickly?
The shape of the head is precisely the same, as is the width of the temporal and jaw areas. Note the reddish-colored beard in both cases. Stealing from the goyum is the standard of arch-Zionist treacherous ones. Nevertheless, via Talmudic law it is perfectly acceptable to steal from the non-Jew through any means possible, including cheating and deception.
It does appear to be precisely the same individual. The Zionists are playing a grand joke on the people, however, a most vile one, where they freely and without conscious impose their treachery upon others.
Here's bigger-than-life all-star Jack Pinto attending his own funeral, in this case in Sandy Hoax. It surely isn't that far-fetched:
The same hefty person is seen, above, but always with the back the camera.
Yet, it is irrelevant. Feis is not as described, that is he was not shot dead by a lone gunman. Rather, he is alive and well. Additionally, consider the multiplicity of accounts regarding him. They are legion:
'...Jordan May, who is a coach at the school, tweeted: ''Coach Feis has not passed. He was shot but is not dead.''
May is right. He's not dead. What he got wrong was claiming that he was shot.
The fraud and deception is extreme in this world, as mentioned by the holy scriptures. The number of entries on the Google search engine claiming that Feis is a hero are legion. It's all lies. He's a coward hiding, deceiving. The same is true of all the other purported victims, killed or injured. Rather, they are fully comfortable with their racket, which includes unjust enrichment. All those who have paid into this fraud should demand a refund.
The American Eagle is wounded, sure it is. The world could do with some one million dollars-plus to use for some goodly, decent cause. What an incredible waste of humanity it is, wretched beyond comprehension, for these funds to facilitate nothing other than mere lies and cabalististic destruction.
Florida HS Shooting Leaves 6 Jews Dead; Community in Deep Mourning
YouTube Says It Mistakenly Promoted a Conspiratorial Video on Florida Shooting - WSJ
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:34
YouTube on Wednesday said it mistakenly promoted on its site a conspiratorial video accusing a teenage witness of last week's Florida school shooting of being an actor, the latest sign that social media sites are struggling to suppress misleading and false content on their platforms.
The world's largest video site said it removed the video clip labeling Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School student David Hogg an actor after it was viewed more than 200,000 times and appeared as the No. 1 trending video on the site earlier in the day.
The video showed a local TV news clip of Mr. Hogg, who has spoken out about the need for gun control laws in the wake of the shooting, being interviewed on a beach in Los Angeles several months ago about an unrelated incident. It was meant to cast doubt on the student's story of witnessing the Parkland school shooting.
In an interview on CNN, Mr. Hogg said he isn't an actor and confirmed he attends Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. Mr. Hogg said he was visiting friends in Los Angeles a few months ago when he was interviewed by a local TV reporter about an incident where his friend was confronted by a lifeguard on Redondo Beach.
James Gard, a teacher at Stoneham Douglas, confirmed Mr. Hogg is a current student in one of his classes at the school. Mr. Hogg couldn't be reached for comment.
''Because the video contained footage from an authoritative news source, our system misclassified it,'' a spokeswoman for YouTube, a unit of Alphabet Inc.'s Google, said in an email. ''As soon as we became aware of the video, we removed it from 'trending' and from YouTube for violating our policies. We are working to improve our systems moving forward.''
YouTube, with more than 1.5 billion users, has faced criticism for its algorithms that have recommended channels featuring conspiracy theories, extreme partisan viewpoints and misleading videos, even when those users haven't shown interest in such content. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more extreme viewpoints, a Wall Street Journal investigation found earlier this month.YouTube said last December it would hire 10,000 moderators to help clean up content on the site after changing its algorithm to surface ''more authoritative'' news sources to people searching about breaking-news events. It also said earlier this month it was planning to give users more context for videos promoting conspiracy theories or state-sponsored content. hMr. Hogg's background also became a divisive topic elsewhere on social media this week. His name was a trending topic on Facebook, where more than 160,000 users have published posts with the phrase ''crisis actor'' in them. A search for his name on Twitter surfaced photos and video clips suggesting he is an actor.
Twitter in a statement said it is working to address reports of targeted abuse and harassment of survivors of the mass shooting. In particular, Twitter said it is using anti-spam and anti-abuse tools to delete ''malicious automation'' on this topic. ''Such behavior goes against everything we stand for at Twitter, and we are taking action on any content that violates our terms of service,'' a spokeswoman said.
Mary deBree, Facebook's head of content policy, said the social network is removing the content about Florida students. ''Images that attack the victims of last week's tragedy in Florida are abhorrent,'' Ms. deBree said in an emailed statement.
The tendency for social-media algorithms to promote controversial content was exploited by a Russian group who created politically charged posts on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter to sow discord in the run-up to the U.S. presidential elections, according to indictments secured by U.S. special counsel Robert Mueller last week.That problem continues, according to the Alliance for Securing Democracy, a bipartisan group that tracks Russian online disinformation campaigns. The group said it saw an increase in shooting-related hashtags on Twitter from Russian bots in the wake of the Florida school shooting on Feb. 14 that killed 17 people.
'--Georgia Wells and Deepa Seetharaman contributed to this article.
War on Crazy
ASMDSSS On Database
Sir HMFIC here. You mentioned that the FBI should have run
Cruz’s name through the database of purchases to see if he had bought any
weapons. That is actually not possible as that database does not exist. I hold
an 07 Federal Firearms License as a manufacturer of firearms so I have standing
in this area.
When a dealer runs a purchaser of a firearm through the National
Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) and it comes back “Proceed” the
buyer has been cleared. NICS is NOT allowed to retain that information as when
NICS was established there was regulatory control to prevent it being used to
establish a database of gun owners at the federal level.
NICS purchaser data is purged at the end of each
day for all successful purchases.
Certain states use their own
background check system instead of NICS. For example, CA uses the Dealer Record
of Sales (DROS) system where purchaser information is entered into a state web
based system. LE can check dealer records by name to see if someone has
purchased firearms in the state.
The ATF can trace a firearm if
it is used in a crime or otherwise recovered by LE, but cannot institute a
trace until they know the make, model and serial number. Even then the trace
starts at the manufacturer and then works its way through the supply chain
before finally the trace request is sent to the dealer that sold it to the end
user and the information from the Form 4473 identifying the buyer is sent to
the ATF.
Pursuant to the Gun Control Act
(GCA) of 1968, the U.S. attorney general is authorized to administer firearms
tracing. The attorney general has delegated ATF the sole federal agency
authorized to trace firearms. The NTC is only authorized to trace a firearm
for a law enforcement agency involved in a bona fide criminal investigation.
The firearm must have been used or suspected to have been used in a crime.
Firearms tracing begins when a
law enforcement agency discovers a firearm at a crime scene and seeks to learn
the origin or background of that firearm in order to develop investigative
leads. Tracing is a systematic process of tracking the movement of a firearm
from its manufacture or from its introduction into U.S. commerce by the
importer, through the distribution chain, i.e., wholesaler/retailer, to
identify an unlicensed purchaser.
No, the GOP Did Not Just Repeal the Background Check System or Give Guns to the Mentally Il | National Review
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 16:45
If you follow the news '-- or, indeed, if you have a social media account of any variety '-- you probably saw one of these headlines last night, accompanied in most cases by some choice hyperventilation:
And when you saw these headlines you probably thought, ''Wow, that seems extreme.'' Has the House of Representatives really got rid of background checks? Are Republicans really intent upon putting firearms in the hands of the ''severely mentally ill''? What fresh insanity is this!
And, given the way the headlines are written, you could be forgiven for drawing any one of those conclusions. But here's the thing: None of them is true. Not at all. This was yet another sordid episode of The Press Is Having a Breakdown, coupled with a special installment of Celebrities Tweet Falsehoods Without Knowing It. Contrary to the AP's suggestion, the background check system remains in place. Contrary to The Hill's implication, the rule change in question did not repeal the limitations on the ''severely mentally ill.'' None of that happened.
Because most people read headlines and ignore the articles underneath, both Twitter and Facebook were full of talk last night about the perfidy of the House. As is customary, the NRA was denounced, as was Paul Ryan, President Trump, and the United States in general. ''What are they thinking?'' was the general tone of the commentary '-- and it was invariably asked in the pursuit of dudgeon rather than of truth. But had the obligatory what-the-hells been offered in earnest, those who were stomping their feet would have discovered that all was not as it seemed. The House did indeed reverse an Obama-era rule yesterday afternoon, but that rule was neither ''gun-buyers must obtain background checks'' nor ''the mentally ill are barred from buying guns,'' and the measure was by no means an NRA initiative. The NRA was supportive, of course '-- that's why it exists. But so was the American Civil Liberties Union. So were a host of disability groups. So was much of the medical community. And, unusually for a Second Amendment question, this one didn't break down along the usual political lines.
And why would it, given the details? Here's the American Association of People with Disabilities explaining what was at stake:
This rule would require the Social Security Administration to forward the names of all Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefit recipients who use a representative payee to help manage their benefits due to a mental impairment to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS).
Or, in layman's terms: The rule would have allowed bureaucrats within one of our federal agencies to bar American citizens from exercising a constitutional right '-- and on the highly questionable grounds that to be incapable of managing one's finances is, by definition, to be a ''mental defective.''
There were a host of reasons to object to this measure. On separation-of-powers grounds, the prospect of the Social Security Administration playing judge, jury, and executioner is flatly intolerable. On due process grounds, there was nothing to recommend the measure (as the ACLU made abundantly clear in its opposition letter). On statutory grounds, it seems clear that the SSA was acting ultra vires. And, as political matter, the vacillation of the Obama administration '-- which insisted simultaneously that ''incidents of violence continue to highlight a crisis in America's mental health system'' andthat it was ''not attempting to imply a connection between mental illness and a propensity for violence, particularly gun violence'' '-- was downright embarrassing. But one does not have to agree with me on process or in outlook to see that as a matter of positive policy, the idea was a terrible one. As Yale's Dr. Mark Rosen observed when the rule was first adumbrated, '‹the link between financial acumen and mental illness is extraordinarily weak:
''Someone can be incapable of managing their funds but not be dangerous, violent or unsafe,'' said Dr. Marc Rosen, a Yale psychiatrist who has studied how veterans with mental health problems manage their money. ''They are very different determinations.
It is for this lattermost reason '-- not from any great fidelity to the Second Amendment '-- that so many organizations urged the GOP to act. As the House Ways and Means Committee was sure to make clear, letters of support were received from ADAPT, which ''urged Congress to use the Congressional Rule Act to repeal this rule''; from the American Association of People with Disabilities, which pressed Congress ''to support a Congressional Review Act (CRA) resolution to disapprove the Final Rule issued by the Social Security Administration (SSA)''; from the ACLU, which pushed ''members of the House of Representatives to support the resolution disapproving the final rule of the Social Security Administration''; from The Arc of the United States, which asked ''Congress to act, through the CRA process, to disapprove this new rule''; from the Association of Mature American Citizens, which exhorted ''Congress to quickly pass this Joint Resolution and restore the basic Second Amendment rights this rule has abridged''; from the Autistic Self-Advocacy Network, which implored ''Congress to act, through the CRA process, to disapprove this new rule and prevent the damage that it inflicts on the disability community''; and, in addition, from the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, the Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities, the Disability Law Center of Alaska, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the National Association of County Behavioral Health and Developmental Disability Directors, the National Association for Rights Protection and Advocacy, the National Association for Rural Mental Health, the National Council on Disability, the National Council of Independent Living, the National Coalition of Mental Health Recovery, the National Disability Leadership Alliance, the National Disability Rights Network, the New York Association of Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services, and Safari Club International. All of them '-- every single one '-- urged that the rule be killed.
On Twitter last night, the author Mark Harris proposed that the rule had been little more than a ''sensible extra step that placed an onerous burden on nobody,'' and that it had been ''fought by an extremist lobbying group and its tools.'' Which, I suppose, means that we have two plausible options when evaluating what just happened in Congress. The first is to conclude that America's mental health groups are now ''extremist lobbying groups,'' and that statements such as this one from the National Council on Disability represent the latest chapter in the endless march toward Second Amendment absolutism:
NCD is a nonpartisan, independent federal agency with no stated position with respect to gun-ownership or gun-control other than our long-held position that restrictions on gun possession or ownership based on psychiatric or intellectual disability must be based on a verifiable concern as to whether the individual poses a heightened risk of danger to themselves or others if they are in possession of a weapon. Additionally, it is critically important that any restriction on gun possession or ownership on this basis is imposed only after the individual has been afforded due process and given an opportunity to respond to allegations that they are not able to safely possess or own a firearm due to his or her disability. NCD believes that SSA's final rule falls far short of meeting these criteria.
And the second is to conclude that Mark Harris and his fellow pantywaists have no idea what they're talking about.
It is a rare day indeed on which the NRA, the GOP, the ACLU, and America's mental health groups find themselves in agreement on a question of public policy, but when it happens it should at the very least prompt Americans to ask, ''Why?'' That so many mainstream outlets tried to cheat them of the opportunity does not bode well for the future.
Are Video Games Breeding an Assassination Generation?
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:26
Imagine your child, or grandchild, or your niece or nephew, or your friend's child have gone off to school, the mall, or the theater. Hours later, you hear the breaking-news story every parent in the United States fears most: Shooting in Progress. In March 1998, that parent was me. My youngest son, Joe, was in middle school in Jonesboro, Arkansas. I got a call from my aunt in Florida, ''Is that Joe's school on the news?''
The story was on every channel'--''Mass Murder in Jonesboro Middle School,'' and I cannot describe the magnitude of the horror I felt. I rushed to Joe's school with fear gripping my heart'--only to find out it wasn't my son's school that was under attack. This mass murder took place at the other middle school in town. In a flash, I felt relief and then outrage. I learned later that two boys, an 11-year-old and a 13-year-old, opened fire, gunning down 13 little girls and two teachers after a fire alarm trapped them outside the building.
How could this have happened in my own city? How does this continue to happen with sickening regularity?
I am a soldier of 24 years' service. I have served as a paratrooper, an Army Ranger, a West Point psychology professor, and professor of military science.
Until that moment in Jonesboro, my life's work had been to uncover the dynamics of killing on the battlefield. I have authored several successful books on this topic, books which have become required reading for the U.S. Marine Corps, the DEA Academy, the U.S. Marshals Academy, and hundreds of other academies and military organizations world-wide. But now, I've shifted my focus from what happens on the battlefield to understanding the cause of the current wave of violent killing that is so commonplace in our society. My new book, Assassination Generation, is the culmination of this endeavor.
The massacre at Jonesboro was followed by those in Pearl, Paducah, Springfield, Littleton, Edinboro, Santee, San Diego, Moses Lake, Bethel, Red Lake, Sparks, Centennial, Troutdale, Marysville, Saskatchewan, and elsewhere. There was Sandy Hook Elementary School, Virginia Tech, Northern Illinois University, Louisiana Vocational Tech, the University of California''Santa Barbara, Umpqua Community College, and Northern Arizona University. A movie theater in Aurora, Colorado; a church in Charleston, South Carolina; a nightclub in Orlando, Florida.
After an in-depth investigation, TheNew York Times found that these mass murders occur, on average, more than once every single day in the United States. In 2015, mass shootings resulted in 462 dead and 1,314 wounded.
Today, we put armed cops in our schools, along with lock-down drills, metal detectors, and videocameras, and yet in 2013 there were still 53 school-related violent deaths. Violence is the most likely cause of death among children who die at school. But we should not blindly accept it as normal that we put thousands of cops in our schools to stop our kids from killing each other. Never lose your sense of outrage.
Many factors contribute to youth violence, including poverty, drugs, gangs, and mental illness. But the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has made it explicitly clear that violent TV, movies, and'--worst of all'--video games are ''the single most easily remediable contributing factor'' to violence in our society.
This is not a new revelation. As early as 1994'--four years before Jonesboro'--the American Psychological Association (APA) released a resolution on the undeniable link between media violence and actual violence: ''viewing mass media violence leads to increases in aggressive attitudes, values, and behavior, particularly in children, and has a long-lasting effect on behavior and personality, including criminal behavior.'' In 2005 and again in 2015, the APA issued further resolutions, in which they noted that the ''link between violent video game exposure and aggressive behavior is one of the most studied and best established '... Scientific research has demonstrated an association between violent video game use and both increases in aggressive behavior, aggressive affect, aggressive cognitions and decreases in prosocial behavior, empathy, and moral engagement.''
On Sept. 23, a man murdered five people in a shopping mall in Oak Harbor, Washington. Victims included a 64-year-old woman and her 95-year-old mother, a 16-year-old cancer survivor, and a man who died protecting his wife with his body. News reports say the killer had ''logged more than 100 hours in the past two weeks playing the violent first-person shooter game Call of Duty.'' Incredibly, the same log shows that this mass-murderer returned from his crime and logged back into the game, ''while a manhunt for the suspect was underway.''
We need to regulate children's access to violent media just like we regulate their access to cigarettes, alcohol, and pornography. There are two avenues of change: cultural and legal.
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First and foremost, each of us needs to take action to create a positive media environment for our own family. In Assassination Generation, we outline a revolutionary TV-turnoff curriculum that can cut school violence in half and raise test scores by double-digits. Similar to antismoking and healthy eating campaigns, we need campaigns like this to educate kids and their parents about healthy media use.
Secondly, Congress must pass legislation that will allow states to restrict the sale of violent video games to children. In 2011, with vast amounts of money, the video game industry convinced the Supreme Court to strike down California's law preventing minors from buying ultra-violent video games. Two justices, one liberal and one conservative, voted against the majority. In their dissent, they highlighted the absurdity of extending free-speech privileges, for sales to children, by companies that make billions of dollars selling video games in which children are invited to hack, stab, suffocate, shoot, and otherwise maim and kill the likenesses of other human beings.
In his dissent, Justice Stephen Breyer wrote, ''What sense does it make to forbid selling to a 13-year-old boy a magazine with an image of a nude woman, while protecting a sale to that 13-year-old of an interactive video game in which he actively, but virtually, binds and gags the woman, then tortures and kills her?''
The only common denominator in all these tragic massacres that have plagued our country has been exposure to violent video games. We have truly raised an assassination generation that has committed unthinkable crimes as children, and they will grow up and commit crimes as adults that we never dreamed of in our darkest nightmares.
But there is hope. By regulating children's exposure to media violence, we can raise a new generation. This is how we can have the greatest possible impact on violence in our society'--and save the most lives. It's our duty to all the families who suffered through these tragedies to stem the tide of violence, one ''Off'' switch at a time.
(Written with input and assistance from Katie Miserany and Joe Grossman.)
Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, is author of the book Assassination Generation: Video Games, Aggression, and the Psychology of Killing with Kristine Paulsen and Katie Miserany.
The Partisan Brain: An Identity-Based Model of Political Belief: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:21
Over 2 billion people use social media every day, and many use it to read and discuss politics. Social media also facilitate the spread of fake news and hyper-partisan content.
Online discussions of politicized topics, including political events and issues (e.g., same-sex marriage, climate change, gun control), resemble an echo chamber. That is, posts on these topics are shared primarily by people with similar ideological preferences.
Political polarization is most likely when users employ moral/emotional language. This may reflect ideological differences between people on the left versus right or partisanship.
Online partisan criticism that derogates political opponents increases political polarization.
Liberals are somewhat more likely to share cross-ideological content on social media (i.e., information posted by people with different ideological beliefs).
Democracies assume accurate knowledge by the populace, but the human attraction to fake and untrustworthy news poses a serious problem for healthy democratic functioning. We articulate why and how identification with political parties '' known as partisanship '' can bias information processing in the human brain. There is extensive evidence that people engage in motivated political reasoning, but recent research suggests that partisanship can alter memory, implicit evaluation, and even perceptual judgments. We propose an identity-based model of belief for understanding the influence of partisanship on these cognitive processes. This framework helps to explain why people place party loyalty over policy, and even over truth. Finally, we discuss strategies for de-biasing information processing to help to create a shared reality across partisan divides.
Connecting mental illness and mass shooting misses the point, experts say - NBC News
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:41
In the wake of the tragedy in Parkland, Florida, where a gunman killed 17 students and staff, the Trump administration and many Republicans have said that the best way to end the seemingly constant stream of mass shootings is by combating mental illness.
And while some think it a reasonable idea, mental health and mass shooting experts aren't so sure.
Dr. James Alan Fox, a criminologist with Northeastern University and author of ''Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder,'' said it's dangerous to assume that the mentally ill tend to commit these shootings.
"There's not really a correlation," said Fox, who maintains a database on mass shootings. "We like to think that these people are different from the rest of us. We want a simple explanation and if we just say they're mentally ill, case closed. Because of how fearful dangerous and deadly their actions are, we really want to distance ourselves from it and relegate it to illness."
Related: Trump vows mental health care fix after Florida shooting. He also wants to slash coverage.
Despite this, gun violence is an open question that is now dogging Washington, as politicians discuss how to resolve a seemingly unending number of mass shootings. And now Republicans have primarily framed the issue as a mental health crisis.
Broward County Mayor Beam Furr told NPR that Parkland shooter Nikolas Cruz had shown signs of mental illness '-- as many mass shooters have '-- and "had been a client at some mental health facilities."
In response to the shooting, President Donald Trump said he would help the nation with "the difficult issue of mental health."
The claim appeared at odds with his administration's 2019 budget proposal that included a 22.5 percent cut to Medicaid, which accounted for a quarter of 2014's mental health spending nationwide, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation.
On Thursday, Attorney General Jeff Sessions said that he intends to have the Department of Justice work with other federal agencies "to study the intersection of mental health and criminality and violence and identify how we can stop people before these heinous crimes occur."
Trump previously pushed that same perspective after the shooting in Sutherland Springs, Texas, stating "mental health is your problem here" and calling the shooter "a very deranged individual."
House Speaker Paul Ryan Thursday touched on the issue of gun control when he said mentally ill individuals might be "slipping through the cracks and getting guns."
Related analysis: After Florida shooting, Trump offers comfort '-- to gun owners
But Fox remains skeptical that a greater emphasis on mental health and background checks will bring about change.
"Most mass murderers don't have criminal records or mental health treatment," said Fox. "The reason we should have [background checks] occurs every day in America. We have an average of 40 shooting homicides a day. That's the reason, not the occasional mass shooting."
Experts say that the public has to be careful with how it thinks about gun violence and mental illness, otherwise it could stigmatize those who suffer from mental health issues.
And considering that suicide by firearm killed 313,641 people between 1999 and 2015, according to the National Center for Injury Prevention, it appears much more likely that the mentally ill will hurt themselves than others.
Dr. Jonathan Metzl, director of the Center for Medicine, Health and Society at Vanderbilt University, said that these mass shootings highlight Americans' desire to reaffirm a stigmatization of the mentally ill as "ticking time bombs" to avoid more difficult conversations about gun violence.
"Mass shootings are horrific and terrifying," he said. "But if we really want to stop gun violence in this country, everyday gun violence is predictable and could be stopped. Ending everyday gun violence would help end mass shootings as well."
According to Everytown for Gun Safety, 34 percent of the mass shootings that occurred between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2016 were committed by those considered to be "prohibited possessors" '-- or people who are unable to purchase guns because of their age, criminal conviction(s), history of addiction, a domestic abuse conviction or a person who has been "adjudicated as a mental defective" or been admitted to a mental institution.
According to a 2016 report published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), just ensuring weapons don't enter the hands of the mentally ill isn't enough to prevent mass shootings from occurring regularly. Instead, the report suggests that public health and education campaigns are needed to teach people how to report concerning behavior to authorities and how to learn coping skills for anger and conflict resolution.
The report also proposes that policies and laws be focused on dangerous behavior that shows risk for committing gun violence, rather than a blanket category for the mentally ill, and recommends that institutions and communities develop threat assessment teams that can evaluate reports of potential danger.
As Fox asserts, the belief that the mentally ill are more likely to take part in a mass shooting appears to be a misleading. There were 198,760 homicides committed by a firearm in the United States between 1999 and 2015, according to the National Center for Health Statistic. Despite the high number, the APA report from 2016 says that fewer than 1 percent of firearm homicides are committed by a person diagnosed with a mental illness.
Metzl has researched the correlation between mental illness and gun violence, and he said that it's a tenuous connection at best.
"There's no mental illness diagnosis that explains causality," Metzl said. "There's no mental illness whose symptoms are shooting anyone else. Most mental illnesses cause people to withdraw from society."
How Facebook uses AI for suicide prevention
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:31
For Facebook, this was just the start. The company now has more than 7,500 community operations staffers reviewing cases of potential self-punishment, as well as other sensitive issues like bullying and sexual violence.
"Anything that is safety related, like a threat of suicide or self-harm, is actually prioritized, so it's sent for faster review," said Monika Bickert, Facebook's head of global policy management.
Facebook employees also sought help from Dan Reidenberg, the executive director of SAVE (Suicide Awareness Voices of Education). More than a decade ago, employees struggling with deaths of people they knew were reaching out because they felt they had to take action, Reidenberg said.
The first thing Reidenberg did was deliver a list of phrases that are most commonly used by people at risk of suicide. Reidenberg started working with the company on technology summits that Facebook facilitates every two years, where representatives of smaller and larger companies discuss challenges and issues in the field.
"Tech companies, they're so global in nature," Reidenberg said. "They really do need to be monitoring on a continual basis."
But the compassion team saw a bolder opportunity to make a difference, taking advantage of Facebook's vast engineering resources. It turned to the company's AI lab.
Early last year, Muriello and others from the compassion team gave an internal talk at the company's Silicon Valley headquarters on how they were starting to use AI in the realm of suicide prevention. Ozertem attended the talk with a colleague from the Applied Machine Learning group, which helps various teams implement core technology from Facebook's research lab.
School shootings in the United States - Wikipedia
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:23
This article primarily lists in chronology and provides details of school shootings in the United States. It consists of incidents in which a firearm was discharged at a school infrastructure or campus, including incidents of shootings on a school bus. This list contains shooting incidents that occurred on the campuses of K-12public schools and private schools, as well as colleges and universities.
It excludes incidents that occurred during wars or police actions, as well as murder-suicides by rejected suitors or estranged spouses, and suicides or suicide attempts involving only one person. Mass shootings by staff of schools that involve only other employees are covered at workplace killings. This list does not include bombings such as the Bath School disaster.
Raine (2002) suggests findings indicate a greater activity of the autonomic nervous system during adolescence is probable as a protection, with relation to acts of violent crime. [1][2] The RCHE (Research into Child Health in Europe project (Rigby et al. 2005) states, factors which are the opposite to risk are protective factors. [3]
According to Raine (2002), immaturity is one of many identified factors increasing the likelihood of an individual committing criminal acts of violence and outburts of aggression. [4] This fact is supported by findings on brain development occurring as individuals age from birth.
According to the Australian-based Raising children network and Centre for Adolescent Health (and a number of other sources [5]): the main change occurring in the developing brain during adolescence is the (so-called)pruning (synaptic pruning results from the way in which the nervous system in humans develops from firstly an over-production of parts of the nervous system, axons, neurons, and synapses, to then later in the life of the organism, make redundant the use of numerous of these parts, i.e. pruning (apoptosis '' cell death))[6] of unused connections in thinking and processing, while this is occurring within the brain, retained connections are strengthened. These changes occur in certain parts of the brain firstly; the pre-frontal cortex, the brain location where decision-making occurs, is the concluding area for development. While the pre-frontal cortex is developing, children and teenagers might possibly rely more on the brain part known as the amygdala; involving thinking that is more emotionally active, including aggression and impulsiveness. As a consequence each individual is more likely to want to make riskier (i.e. risk) choices (choices which are more risky, or to make more risky choices).[7]
Steinberg (2004 [8]) identified the fact of adolescents taking more risks typically, than adults, Deakin et al. (2004), and, Overman et al. (2004) indicate a decline in risk taking from adolescence to adulthood, Steinberg (2005), Figner et al. (2009), and, Burnett et al. (2010) identified adolescent age individuals as more likely to take risks than young-children and adults. [9]
A tradition of education existed and exists amongst the indigenous tribal peoples of America, where-by "knowledge, values and history (Skinner 1999, in Parish, Klem & Brown)" from one generation was conveyed to another, by vocal transmission (i.e. by speaking, by voice).[10] The cultural tradition of indigenous native American was recognized by Franklin D. Roosevelt during 1933, during 1966 President Nixon accepted the tradition, the first native American school opened as the Rough Rock Demonstration School during 1966, the tradition was formally recognised by the Indians Education Act of 1972.[11][12]
During 2010, death as a result of being shot featured as part of the total number of dead individuals in the numbers dead by the 1st cause of death, (CDC figures) Unintentional injury (12,341 deaths), 2nd (homicides, by any cause '' 4,678) and 3rd (suicide by any cause '' 4600 deaths) most probable cause of death in the age group 15 to 24 years of age.[14]
The most deaths to have occurred in one incident, occurred on the 6th of April 2007, and caused 32 deaths, in addition to the suicide of the perpetrator (total 33 deaths), the second was 14 December 2012, causing 28 deaths, the third, is joint held by two incidents of the 14th of February 2018, and the 1st of August 1966, both causing 17 deaths.
1st pattern The pattern of killings (pre-2013 amendment list, and presuming all members of the group are not native tribe deaths i.e.1864, November 29 - Sand Creek Massacre (part of 140) as an anomaly) is a variation of a spilt of the first pattern 26, 26 i.e. The sequence runs 26, 26, 12, 12, 21, 21, 14, 14, 14, 14
1764 July 26, (0), 26, (3), 12, (1), 12, (3), 21, (1), 21, (2), 14, (1), 14, (3), 14, (0), 14 February 2018
In comparison, of data for mass-murders to serial killers, in order to glean patterns,[16] the examination of data of a serial killer by two electrical engineers (Simkin & Chowdhury 2014 [17]) found a pattern in the inter-murder time-period (J. Fallon et al.), based on the statistical identity known as power law.[18]
There are 25 incidents listed, in the number of dead found at an incident (4), for an incident of killing to be defined as mass-murder, according to pre-January 14, 2013 amended law, the amendment does not include perpetrator either suicide or killing by police services, [19] and has the number as 3, sufficient for a definition of mass killings, [20] this gives 37 listed.
Everytown for Gun Safety, an organization that advocates against gun violence, has compiled a list of incidents since 2013. [34][35]
The first shooting was during the year 1840, later shootings occurred during the years 53, 56, 58, 60, 64, 67 (3 shootings), 68, 71, 72, 73, 74 (2), 78, 79, 80, 81 (2), 82 (3), 83 (2), 84 (3), 87, 89, 90 (2), 91 (2), 92 (2), 93, 94, 98.
From the commencement of the 21st century to the most recently occurring shooting (of February 20, 2018), the number of shootings is 208 +1 (this total is currently at a +1 value to the number shown : 60 + 146 shootings; including the most recent of February 14, 2018, to represent the fact of the likelihood of the number listed in this article not including all the actual occurred number, and to represent the absolute certainty of the number simply being at a +1 value by probability of another shooting at some time during 2018).
(Numbers 2000's & 2010's verified true, by adding together of year-numbers shown, using numbers counted under "Historical details" within this article - 21st February 2018)
The total number of school-children killed by bullets to date (as of 1 February 2018[update]) is 219 school-children.
killed by gun-shot, or as a result of gun-shot: (254) injured: (409). Of the 254 total, there were 114 school-children killed, (of these, 14 were killed unintentionally, 11 died by suicide plus 1 by the execution of a suicide pact, and 1 by Russian Roulette). Not included in the group but still relevant were; 1 intruder at a school aged about 16, 1 infant, and 1 foetus in the womb of a school-child.[77]
killed by gun-shot, or as a result of gun-shot: 4, 5, 10, 6, 1, 11, 10, 34, 19, 3, 11, 5, 40, 15, 16, 19, 9, 9 (227 not including 2018), injured: 1, 19, 9, 5, 5, 10, 15, 6, 20, 11, 7, 12, 16, 29, 35, 37, 25, 16 (278 not including 2018)
Of the 227 killed, 90 school-children were killed from the action of bullet fired from gun. Of these, 23 were Elementary school age students (aged between 6 years of age and 10 to 14 years of age) killed by the same method, 12 were killed unintentionally, and 2 school-girl friends died together by the execution of a suicide-pact.
DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001764-07-26-0000 July 26, 1764 Greencastle, Pennsylvania ! Greencastle, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 1 by shooting (10 in total)0,000,001 2Enoch Brown school massacre: Perhaps the earliest shooting to happen on school or college property, in what would become the United States, was the notorious Enoch Brown school massacre during the Pontiac's War. Four Delaware (Lenape) American Indians entered the schoolhouse near present-day Greencastle, Pennsylvania, shot and killed schoolmaster Enoch Brown, and nine children (reports vary). Only two children survived. However, this incident may only incidentally be considered a school "shooting" because only the teacher was shot, while the other 9 victims were killed with melee weapons. DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001840-11-12-0000 November 12, 1840 Charlottesville, Virginia ! Charlottesville, Virginia 0,000,001 10,000,001 0John Anthony Gardner Davis, a law professor at the University of Virginia, was shot by student Joseph Semmes, and died from his wound three days later.[39][40]000000001853-11-02-0000 November 2, 1853 Louisville, Kentucky ! Louisville, Kentucky 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Student Matthew Ward took a pistol to school, where he shot the schoolmaster Mr. Butler as revenge for what Ward thought was excessive punishment of his brother the day before. Ward was acquitted.[41]000000001856-08-16-0000 August 16, 1856 Florence, Alabama ! Florence, Alabama 0,000,001 20,000,001 0The schoolmaster had a tamesparrow and had warned the students not to harm it, threatening death. One of the boys stepped on the bird and killed it; he was afraid to return to school but did so. After lessons, the master took the boy into a private room and strangled him to death. The boy's father went to the school and shot the schoolmaster dead.[42]000000001858-07-08-0000 July 8, 1858 Baltimore, Maryland ! Baltimore, Maryland 0,000,001 10,000,001 0The 15-year-old son of Col. John T. Farlow (Baltimore's Marshal of Police 1867''70), was killed during a Sabbath School gathering. The perpetrator escaped, but several arrests were made.[43]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001860-01-21-0000 January 21, 1860 Todd County, Kentucky ! Todd County, Kentucky 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A son of Col. Elijah Sebree was killed by another student. Young Sebree was threatening the other boy and said he intended to kill him. The other student got a gun and walked up to Sebree in the schoolhouse, where he killed him.[44]000000001864-02-06-0000 February 6, 1864 Ashland County, Ohio ! Ashland County, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 0George W. Longfelt, the school teacher of the Pyfer's School House, killed student Alfred Desem and fled.[45]000000001864-11-29-0000 November 29, 1864 Colorado ! Colorado 0,000,001 part of 1400,000,001 unknownChildren were among the 140 Cheyenne and Arapaho tribal natives shot at the Sand Creek massacre. [137][138]000000001867-02-16-0000 February 16, 1867 Knights Ferry, California ! Knights Ferry, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Mr. McGinnis was killed by his daughter's teacher after McGinnis threatened the teacher for expelling his daughter from school. When McGinnis' son learned of this, he went to the school and killed the teacher.[46]000000001867-04-02-0000 April 2, 1867 Madison, Florida ! Madison, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Frank Pope, a pupil at the St. John's seminary, killed his teacher Mr. Bristow with a pistol.[47]000000001867-06-08-0000 June 8, 1867 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 113-year-old Arthur Day, secretly took a loaded pistol to Public School No. 18 to shoot a dog he said had bitten him. While playing with the pistol, Day accidentally injured classmate Robert Morton.[48]000000001868-12-22-0000 December 22, 1868 Chattanooga, Tennessee ! Chattanooga, Tennessee 0,000,001 30,000,001 0A boy who refused to be whipped by his teacher left the school. The next day he returned with his brother and a friend for revenge. Not finding the teacher at the school, they continued to his house, where a gun battle took place and three died. Only the original boy who initiated the attack survived.[33]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001871-01-27-0000 January 27, 1871 Knoxville, Tennessee ! Knoxville, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 0John Roberts, aged ten or twelve, accidentally had one of his eyes shot out at school and died.[49]000000001872-02-01-0000 February 1, 1872 Washington, Pennsylvania ! Washington, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At the all-girls Union School, 17-year-old Thomas McGiffin shot and seriously wounded the principal, Prof. Wilson, in the hip because the professor refused to deliver a note to one of the young ladies for him. McGiffin was a son of Col. Norton McGiffin, and brother of US naval hero Philo McGiffin.[50]000000001873-02-11-0000 February 11, 1873 Wisconsin ! Wisconsin 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Chris Foote shot the school mistress for whipping his son.[139]000000001874-02-20-0000 February 20, 1874 Agency, Montana ! Agency, Montana 0,000,001 10,000,001 0After being ejected from school for disobedience, 20-year-old Thomas Squires, fatally shot Prof. Hayes in the abdomen three times without warning.[52]000000001874-04-09-0000 April 9, 1874 Lebanon, Tennessee ! Lebanon, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 0John R. Breckinridge, son of the late Robert Jefferson Breckinridge, attending classes in law at Cumberland University in LebanonTennessee, was killed by John L. Anderson, the Mayor's son. The latter was reportedly "crazed with liquor."[53][54]000000001878-05-24-0000 May 24, 1878 St. Paul, Minnesota ! St. Paul, Minnesota 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 12-year-old boy, Luckert, accidentally wounded Allie McDonald, another boy at the Neill school. The bullet passed out, and the youth was expected to recover. His mother Mrs. McDonald went to the police station, but did not file a formal complaint.[55]000000001879-05-24-0000 May 24, 1879 Lancaster, New York ! Lancaster, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Telegraph operator Frank Shugart, severely injured Mr. Carr, superintendent of the stables at a girls' school.[56]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001880-04-24-0000 April 24, 1880 Brazil, Indiana ! Brazil, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Benjamin Corbery shot at Cora Brubach, 10-years-of age, the bullet passed through her cheek. [69]000000001881-12-01-0000 December 1, 1881 Santa Monica, California ! Santa Monica, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 0While working late on the program for the children's concert at the school house, the school master Mr. O'Donnell and one of the parents got into an argument. The parent, Mr. Williams, pulled a gun and fatally shot O'Donnell in the back.[57]000000001881-12-22-0000 December 22, 1881 Shelby County, Indiana ! Shelby County, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 0School teacher Charles J. Gregory shot at a pupil at close range because he refused to write on a slate. The bullet missed the boy. The teacher was arrested.[58]000000001882-01-16-0000 January 16, 1882 Iola, Kansas ! Iola, Kansas 0,000,001 00,000,001 0A group of boys shot into a school house, but no one was hurt. Two of the boys were arrested and pleaded guilty three weeks later. They were fined $9.00 each.[59]000000001882-04-13-0000 April 13, 1882 Huntsville, Texas ! Huntsville, Texas 0,000,001 00,000,001 1G.W. Gray, a student at the Sam Houston Normal School, wounded another student, M. J. Jordan. They were arguing over a comic valentine.[60]000000001882-06-06-0000 June 6, 1882 Morristown, Indiana ! Morristown, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Charles J. Gregory (a school-teacher) shot an expelled student Add Anderson, Add Anderson had threatened the teacher and then made a motion as if to draw a weapon, resulting in his shooting. [69]000000001883-02-14-0000 February 14, 1883 Florence, Nebraska ! Florence, Nebraska 0,000,001 00,000,001 3As some children were playing and throwing snowballs outside the Ponca Creek school house, three young men pulled up in a wagon. They engaged the children in a snowball fight. When they were leaving, one of the men, Lem Harbaugh, pointed his .45 caliber needle gun at the children, accidentally shooting and wounding three of them. Feeling great remorse, Harbaugh later surrendered himself to the authorities.[61]000000001883-11-20-0000 November 20, 1883 Barber County, Kansas ! Barber County, Kansas 0,000,001 00,000,001 0A bunch of drunken cowboys stopped at several schoolhouses, forcing two teachers to drink whiskey and firing numerous shots at three schoolhouses.[62]000000001884-02-28-0000 February 28, 1884 Danville, Virginia ! Danville, Virginia 0,000,001 00,000,001 2As Allen Wamack, a 15-year-old boy, drove by a "Negro" school house, he called out "school butter." (an insult meaning a cobbing, or a whipping).[63] The school students ran out and attacked him, firing several shots at him, he returned fire hitting two students.[64]000000001884-03-06-0000 March 6, 1884 Boston, Massachusetts ! Boston, Massachusetts 0,000,001 00,000,001 0As news of outlaw Jesse James reached the East Coast, young boys started to imitate him. For instance, boys armed with guns shot at police investigating their activities at the Concord-street schoolhouse.[65]000000001884-03-15-0000 March 15, 1884 Gainesville, Georgia ! Gainesville, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 0In the middle of the day, a group of very drunk Jackson County farmers were shooting their revolvers as they headed down the street, driving people into their homes. As they approached the female academy, the girls fled from the yard into the school. The gang followed and fired several rounds into the front door, but no one was hurt.[66]000000001887-06-12-0000 June 12, 1887 Cleveland, Tennessee ! Cleveland, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Will Guess went to the school and killed Miss Irene Fann, his little sister's teacher, for whipping her the day before.[67]000000001889-06-13-0000 June 13, 1889 New Brunswick, New Jersey ! New Brunswick, New Jersey 0,000,001 00,000,001 0Charles Crawford, upset over an argument with a school trustee, went up to the window and fired a pistol into a crowded school room. The bullet lodged in the wall just above the teacher's head.[68]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001890-04-24-0000 April 24, 1890 Brazil, Indiana ! Brazil, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1While the pupils of the Meridian Street School were at play, Ben Corbery drew a revolver and seriously wounded 10-year-old Cora Brubach, in the face. The girl had told the teacher of Ben's misconduct.[70]000000001890-12-27-0000 December 27, 1890 Staunton, Virginia ! Staunton, Virginia 0,000,001 10,000,001 0At the Kable's Military Academy a 15-year-old student, A.H. Hathaway of Dennison, Texas, was accidentally killed by his 17-year-old classmate James Whitworth of Sulphur Springs, Texas, while they were playing with an old pistol.[71]000000001891-03-30-0000 March 30, 1891 Liberty, Mississippi ! Liberty, Mississippi 0,000,001 00,000,001 14During a school exhibition and concert given at the Parson Hill schoolhouse, where the large audience was composed of blacks and whites: teachers, pupils, and spectators, an unknown gunman fired a double barreled shotgun into the assemblage. Fourteen people were wounded, some seriously.[72]000000001891-04-09-0000 April 9, 1891 Newburgh, New York ! Newburgh, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1+70-year-old James Foster, fired a shotgun at a group of students in the playground of St. Mary's Parochial School, causing minor injuries to several of the students.[73]000000001892-06-29-0000 June 29, 1892 Van Wert, Ohio ! Van Wert, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Convoy teacher, B.L. Richie, was killed by 14-year-old student, Shirley Longsworth, son of Dr. Longsworth.[74]000000001892-10-10-0000 October 10, 1892 Lawrence, Kansas ! Lawrence, Kansas 0,000,001 00,000,001 2At the University of Kansas, two students, E. Higgins and Jack Craycroft, were injured as they were walking back to their dorm rooms after football practice. Law student Fred Bassett fired a double barreled shotgun as they passed his home, he said he had warned them not to trespass on his farm, which students frequently did.[75]000000001893-03-26-0000 March 26, 1893 Plain Dealing, Louisiana ! Plain Dealing, Louisiana 0,000,001 40,000,001 1During an evening school dance at Plain Dealing High School, a fight broke out. When the smoke cleared, two students were killed, two more were fatally wounded, and the high school's Professor Johnson was wounded in the arm.[27]000000001894-10-17-0000 October 17, 1894 Parkersburg, West Virginia ! Parkersburg, West Virginia 0,000,001 20,000,001 0When school was let out, 15-year-old Willis Gardner, was killed and his 8-year-old brother fatally stabbed in a quarrel among a group of boys.[76]000000001898-12-13-0000 December 13, 1898 Charleston, West Virginia ! Charleston, West Virginia 61+During the school exhibition, a group of young men tried to break up a student performance. When the teacher Fisher tried to throw them out, they turned on him. Audience members joined the fray. The fight resulted in deaths: Harry Flasher was shot in the heart and instantly killed, Henry Carney was fatally shot in the back, Ralph Jones and two others were also fatally shot, and George Gibson was shot in the hand; Haz Harding had his skull crushed and several others received minor wounds.[26]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001903-02-24-0000 February 24, 1903 Inman, South Carolina ! Inman, South Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Edward Foster, a 17-year-old student at Inman High School, was fatally wounded by his teacher Reuben Pitts after jerking a rod from Pitts' hands to avoid punishment. According to the teacher, Foster struck the pistol Pitts had drawn, and caused it to fire. Pitts was acquitted of murder on grounds of self-defense.[78]000000001903-07-21-0000 July 21, 1903 Jackson, Kentucky ! Jackson, Kentucky 0,000,001 20,000,001 1At the Cave Run School, James Barrett and Mack Howard argued over a card game and fought a duel with pistols, they killed each other. 12-year-old student, James Vires, was shot in the abdomen while sitting at his desk during the gunfight.[79]000000001904-04-06-0000 April 6, 1904 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Two students had been fighting for most of a year over a girl. In their last fight, Henry Schaze threw 16-year-old Paul Jelick to the ground, drew a revolver, and killed his rival.[140]000000001904-11-16-0000 November 16, 1904 Riverside, California ! Riverside, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 1At the Indian School, a gun fight broke out between pupils. Charles Colby was shot in the head with a pistol, then returned fire, killing Tom Bucanoros instantly, and fatally wounding Fred Smith.[81]000000001904-12-16-0000 December 16, 1904 Magee, Mississippi ! Magee, Mississippi 0,000,001 10,000,001 1Parent, E.E. Mangum, was shot through the head and killed by the principal of the high school, Professor J.E. Woodward. Mangum had argued with Woodward, who had given Mangum's 15-year-old son a severe whipping. Mangum lost his temper, shooting Woodward through the wrist.[141]000000001905-02-09-0000 February 9, 1905 Colusa, California ! Colusa, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At the request of his childhood friend, Pearl Cruse, 17-year-old Elmer Hildreth, who did not attend her school, went to a meeting between Miss Cruse and her teacher. It ended in "a hand to hand" encounter between teacher and pupil. When Ingrim went after Hildreth with an axe, Hildreth shot him in the stomach. Hildreth was arrested and bail was posted by five prominent men in the community. Hildreth was found to have acted in self-defense and no charges were filed. Ingrim survived.[83]000000001905-10-05-0000 October 5, 1905 Hickman, Kentucky ! Hickman, Kentucky 0,000,001 00,000,001 0While returning from church, Professor Emmet W. Roach, was ambushed by an assassin.[84]000000001907-03-23-0000 March 23, 1907 Carmi, Illinois ! Carmi, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Parent George Nicholson killed John Kurd at a schoolhouse during a school rehearsal. Kurd had made a disparaging remark about Nicholson's daughter during her recital.[142]000000001907-12-20-0000 December 20, 1907 Chico, California ! Chico, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 09-year-old Arthur Roberts, was shot in the head and killed outside his school during a military drill by school children of the Dayton school district. Armed with old guns believed to be empty, the children had pulled their triggers. The Roberts boy threw his hands to his head and cried, "I'm shot."[143]000000001908-01-10-0000 January 10, 1908 Council Bluffs, Iowa ! Council Bluffs, Iowa 0,000,001 00,000,001 0At around 6 a.m., as George O Mortensen, 35-year-old janitor of the Washington street school building, was unlocking the outer door of the school, someone discharged a shotgun from only a few feet. The shot riddled the door within a foot of his head.[87]000000001908-03-11-0000 March 11, 1908 Boston, Massachusetts ! Boston, Massachusetts 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Suffering from melancholia, due to overwork, thirty-nine year-old Miss Sarah Chamberlain Weed, killed thirty-four year-old Elizabeth Bailey Hardee, then shot herself, at the Laurens School, a fashionable boarding school.[88]000000001909-03-17-0000 March 17, 1909 Delphi, Indiana ! Delphi, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A dispute had commenced between two groups, juniors in contrary to seniors. Larry Coble was shot while on the roof of the school attaching the flag of his junior class, by a double-barrel shot-gun, after a senior had fired but missed him, using a revolver. [69]000000001909-03-19-0000 March 19, 1909 Mount Vernon, Illinois ! Mount Vernon, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1During a school performance of "The Grand Central", John Moake, portraying the villain, was shot in the forehead and dangerously wounded by the hero, Roy Slater. The cartridge was thought to have been blank.[144]000000001909-06-10-0000 June 10, 1909 Trinidad, Colorado ! Trinidad, Colorado 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Walter Harris, 11-year-old student, accidentally shot his teacher, B.C. Briggs in the head while on a school field trip, killing him.[145]000000001909-08-18-0000 August 18, 1909 Bakersfield, California ! Bakersfield, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 0After hunting doves, a group of six young men deliberately shot out the glass at the Fruitvale School. They also shot at the nearby residence of A.J. Hunter, narrowly missing several children in the rear yard.[91]000000001909-09-11-0000 September 11, 1909 Gravette, Arkansas ! Gravette, Arkansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 0John Butram, a student at the Bear Hollow School, told his fellow students that school was cancelled. The teacher A.T. Kelly insisted that the day's lesson was not over. When Butram drew a knife on his teacher, Kelly drew his gun and shot him.[146]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001910-01-12-0000 January 12, 1910 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 1"A black bearded maniac drew an automatic pistol" and fired five shots into a crowd of boys at the Harlem School, who were taunting him. 6-year-old Robert Lomas, was hit and died instantly, 6-year-old Arthur Shively, was critically wounded.[147]000000001910-03-10-0000 March 10, 1910 Ione, California ! Ione, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 0At the reform school, known as Preston School of Industry, students Albert Brown and Eugene Griffin tried to escape, stealing a revolver from the school's bakery shop. They shot at Captain William H. White when he pursued them. No one was hurt, but the boys were transferred to the penitentiary, which held adults.[94]000000001910-08-16-0000 August 16, 1910 Lexington, Kentucky ! Lexington, Kentucky 0,000,001 10,000,001 "several"A general fight broke out during school board elections. Lewis Napier was killed, and several other persons were hurt. Several were arrested.[95]000000001911-04-27-0000 April 27, 1911 Manhattan, Kansas ! Manhattan, Kansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A schoolboy had loaded a revolver earlier in the day in order to shoot a bird, the bullet had subsequently failed to discharge (misfired). An 18-year-old girl who was to use the gun in the performance of a play said she was afraid to handle it. The teacher said there was no need for her fear and pointed it at the girl, Pearl Reedy, squeezing the trigger. She was fatally wounded.[148]000000001912-01-31-0000 January 31, 1912 San Francisco, California ! San Francisco, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 0During a stone throwing confrontation near the Oriental School on Clay Street, a group of white boys found themselves trapped between two groups of Chinese boys. In an attempt to escape, Jose Aguilar, fired a BB shot air rifle twice hoping to frighten the Chinese. However, 10-year-old Wong She, had a gun and fired back. One bullet passed through Aguilar's coat sleeve as he ran and fatally struck 14-year-old James Kane in the school's rear yard.[97][98]000000001912-02-16-0000 February 16, 1912 Lagrange, New York ! Lagrange, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old May McQuade, was killed by classmate Raymond B. Carroll. Carroll alleged the shooting was accidental and he did not think the gun was loaded.[149]000000001914-11-19-0000 November 19, 1914 Sayre, Pennsylvania ! Sayre, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 0While walking to school, 14-year-old Charles Listman, killed 15-year-old Andrew Milton, over the affections of classmate, 13-year-old Minnie London.[100]000000001915-01-13-0000 January 13, 1915 Vancouver, Washington ! Vancouver, Washington 0,000,001 00,000,001 1During a parent-teachers' meeting, 15-year-old student, Murlan Decker, was accidentally shot by his younger brother, Luther.[101]000000001915-02-03-0000 February 3, 1915 Jasper, Florida ! Jasper, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 120-year-old Will Yates, teacher of Clear Pond school in Hamilton county, Fla., was killed in a fight with Claude Holtzendorff and his two sons. A whipping administered in school to one of the Holtzendorff boys started the trouble. After punishing the boy Yates armed himself, and when accosted by the Holtzendorffs, shot the father through the mouth. He was in turn shot through the body, dying an hour later.[102]000000001916-09-20-0000 September 20, 1916 Bemidji, Minnesota ! Bemidji, Minnesota 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Olga Dahl, the 19-year-old teacher at the Round Lake District School, was found tied to a tree near the school, assaulted and shot twice in the face. She had been working late after school, and a man with a revolver entered the school house and ordered her to obey him. He raped and shot her; she was expected to live. All available men in Itasca County joined in hunting the assailant.[103][104]000000001916-12-26-0000 December 26, 1916 Danville, Kentucky ! Danville, Kentucky 0,000,001 10,000,001 3+During the Christmas tree celebration at the Harris Creek School, with a packed room of children and visitors, a fight broke out. William Benedict, Sr. was instantly killed, William Benedict, Jr. was shot in the ankle, Bourdon Galloway was shot in the right arm, and Mike Gaddis was shot in the leg. Many others were injured. The disturbance was said to be started by Thomas Thornton, who had been drinking and was told to calm down by Benedict. Thornton's brother George left the room and returned with a revolver.[105]000000001917-06-05-0000 June 5, 1917 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania ! Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 116-year-old freshman, Earl Wolf, was accidentally shot in the leg with a revolver around noon time, in the company of his classmates at the Central High School.[106]000000001917-10-28-0000 October 28, 1917 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Overnight two brothers, 16-year-old William and 15-year-old Ralph Carter, broke into the May public school, robbing the phone boxes and teachers' desks. Discovered by janitor Howard Parks and policeman Thomas Conway, a gunfight broke out. William was critically wounded and not expected to live; Ralph Carter was taken to jail.[107]000000001917-11-29-0000 November 29, 1917 Manes, Missouri ! Manes, Missouri 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At the Perkins school's Thanksgiving night pie supper, 21-year-old teacher Joe Todd, was mysteriously shot. He was expected to recover.[108]000000001918-03-29-0000 March 29, 1918 Jefferson City, Missouri ! Jefferson City, Missouri 0,000,001 10,000,001 0At the Lincoln Institute, State Negro Normal School, 31-year-old Professor Romeo West, was killed in the dormitory by superintendent of school Theodore Martin. They were arguing over which dishes to use at a social. Martin said he shot in self-defense, fatally hitting West with three of five shots.[109]000000001918-04-06-0000 April 6, 1918 Reeder, North Dakota ! Reeder, North Dakota 0,000,001 10,000,001 0During the afternoon recess, a boy was looking over a 22-caliber rifle; it discharged, striking the head of the Coyne boy in the seat to the front, killing him instantly.[110]000000001919-01-09-0000 January 9, 1919 Monroe City, Missouri ! Monroe City, Missouri 0,000,001 00,000,001 0While school was in session, Hugh Claggett shot through the school house's front door while on his way home from work. No one was hurt, and he was fined $20.[111]000000001919-04-12-0000 April 12, 1919 Ogden City, Utah ! Ogden City, Utah 0,000,001 00,000,001 1During a high school assembly, six boys shot off their guns. Permission had been given in the belief the guns were loaded with blanks but they had live shot. Teacher Verna Davidson was shot in the foot.[150]000000001919-08-04-0000 August 4, 1919 Berkeley, California ! Berkeley, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Roger Sprague, an assistant in the department of chemistry at the University of California, despondent and desperate over his inability to obtain a position, slightly wounded 59-year-old Professor Edmond O'Neill, head of department, and 37-year-old Dr. Joel Henry Hildebrand, professor of chemistry, in the administration offices of Gilman Hall. He then went to California Hall and attempted to shoot 57-year-old May L. Cheney, appointment secretary, but struck only one of her hair combs before he was subdued.[151]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001920-02-14-0000 February 14, 1920 Durant, Oklahoma ! Durant, Oklahoma 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At the Durant Normal School, teacher Albert McFarland, was seriously wounded by one of his pupils.[152]000000001920-03-04-0000 March 4, 1920 Cincinnati, Ohio ! Cincinnati, Ohio 0,000,001 00,000,001 114-year-old student, Lawrence Angel, shot his teacher, Beatrice Conner, through the arm for sending him to the principal's office.[153]000000001920-05-01-0000 May 1, 1920 Summerville, Georgia ! Summerville, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 0At the High School, 15-year-old student Alexander Potter, fired six shots at his teacher, Prof. Ransom, but missed. Potter was upset over having received a severe thrashing and expulsion. Potter was sentenced to six years at a reform school.[154]000000001920-05-15-0000 May 15, 1920 Bowling Green, Ohio ! Bowling Green, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 0While attending her son's school track meet, Mrs. F. Mahl was killed accidentally by shot from the starter's pistol.[155]000000001920-08-01-0000 August 1, 1920 Ogden, Utah ! Ogden, Utah 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Mike Smults, the night watchman at the Utah school for the Deaf and Blind, shot a 10-year-old boy, Dennis McDonald, as he and his brother Clinton cut through the campus. The watchman said he fired into the air as a warning.[156]000000001920-10-22-0000 October 22, 1920 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Mrs. Carmila Rindoni went to the school and twice shot Rosalind I. Reynolds, her son's teacher, for spanking her son the day before. Mrs. Rindoni was arrested, and Miss Reynolds was expected to recover.[157]000000001920-11-04-0000 November 4, 1920 Middlesboro, Kentucky ! Middlesboro, Kentucky 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Prof. Barnes of Middlesboro High School was fatally shot by Adolphus Oaks, for whipping his sister the week before. Barnes had already submitted his resignation to the school board, as his students had boycotted his class in protest over the whipping. He intended to leave the city that weekend. Oaks went to jail.[158]000000001922-02-17-0000 February 17, 1922 Valdosta, Georgia ! Valdosta, Georgia 0,000,001 20,000,001 0John Glover broke into the school house, where he killed a girl and fatally wounded a boy. A mob tracked and killed Glover 7 miles (11 km) away in Indianola, now Naylor, Georgia.[159]000000001922-08-01-0000 August 1, 1922 Ardmore, Oklahoma ! Ardmore, Oklahoma 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Bryant Hignight and four other students were hanging out at the outhouse of the Mount Zion school. Hignight fired two shots. One entered Raymond Guin's head, killing the boy instantly. Three of the boys were questioned, but all said it was an accident.[160]000000001926-12-29-0000 December 29, 1926 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania ! Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 112-year-old Frederick Heilman was shot through the right instep when Gettysburg College janitor, Joseph Carver, fired in the direction of a group of boys attempting to force their way into the college gymnasium. Carver had shot into the ground, attempting to scare the boys, and was not aware that a bullet had ricocheted. Mr Heilman chose not to prefer criminal charges.[161]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001930-05-22-0000 May 22, 1930 Ringe, Minnesota ! Ringe, Minnesota 0,000,001 10,000,001 024-year-old Douglas Petersen, killed 20-year-old teacher, Margaret Wegman, who was standing in the doorway of a rural schoolhouse.[115]000000001931-05-28-0000 May 28, 1931 Duluth, Minnesota ! Duluth, Minnesota 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Katherine McMillen, 24-year-old teacher at the Howard Gensen rural school near Duluth, was accidentally killed by a pupil who brought a revolver to school.[162]000000001934-09-14-0000 September 14, 1934 Gill, Massachusetts ! Gill, Massachusetts 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Headmaster Elliott Speer was murdered by a shotgun blast through the window at Northfield Mount Hermon School. The crime was never solved.[163]000000001935-05-07-0000 May 7, 1935 Irvington, New York ! Irvington, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Dr. Paul Kyle, head of the Kyle School for Boys, was found killed in the school, just before classes were to begin that day.[164]000000001936-05-19-0000 May 19, 1936 Williamstown, Massachusetts ! Williamstown, Massachusetts 0,000,001 20,000,001 1Lewis Jack Somes, Jr. shot and killed classmate Robert Henneberry and wounded William Hartz, Jr. before killing himself in Lehman Hall at Williams College.[165]000000001936-06-04-0000 June 4, 1936 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania ! Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Wesley Clow killed his Lehigh University English instructor, C. Wesley Phy. Clow went to Phy's office and demanded that Phy change his grade to a passing mark. Clow committed suicide after shooting Phy.[166]000000001937-06-04-0000 June 4, 1937 Isabel, Kansas ! Isabel, Kansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 016-year-old Robert Douthitt, was accidentally killed backstage during high school play practice. The revolver was to have been loaded with blanks, but it held live ammunition.[167]000000001937-09-24-0000 September 24, 1937 Toledo, Ohio ! Toledo, Ohio 0,000,001 00,000,001 212-year-old Robert Snyder wounded his principal, June Mapes, in her office at Arlington Public School when she declined his request to call a classmate. He fled the grounds, and wounded himself.[168]000000001938-01-24-0000 January 24, 1938 Blencoe, Iowa ! Blencoe, Iowa 0,000,001 10,000,001 017-year-old Edward Marley was accidentally killed by a fellow actor while rehearsing for a play at Blencoe High School.[169]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001940-05-06-0000 May 6, 1940 Pasadena, California ! Pasadena, California 0,000,001 50,000,001 2South Pasadena Junior High School murders: Outraged by his dismissal, following conflicts with other staff, thirty-eight-year-old Verlin H. Spencer shot and killed 62-year-old superintendent of the South Pasadena city schools George C. Bush, 50-year-old principal of South Pasadena High School John E. Alman, and 52-year-old School District business manager Will R. Speer. He then attempted to kill Bush's secretary, 32-year-old Dorothea Talbert; she was struck near the shoulder. He later shot and killed 45-year-old art teacher Ruth Sturgeon, with whom he'd been in conflict, fatally wounding her in the chest and, following an intense struggle, 35-year-old mechanical arts teacher Verner V. Vanderlip, another with whom he had a grievance. Spencer was cornered by police as he attempted to escape through the school cafeteria; as one officer aimed, Spencer pressed the .22 caliber automatic pistol against his right side and fired twice, critically wounding himself. Police later found a suicide note from Spencer to his wife, Polly. He survived his wounds and was tried for murder. Pleading guilty to all charges, he received 5 consecutive life terms. He was discharged from California's Department of Correction in 1977, aged 75. Verlin Spencer died January 11, 1991.[22][170][171]000000001940-07-04-0000 July 4, 1940 Valhalla, New York ! Valhalla, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Angered by the refusal of his daughter, 15-year-old Melba, to leave a boarding school and return home, 47-year-old Joseph Moshell, went to the school, where he killed his daughter.[172]000000001942-10-02-0000 October 2, 1942 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Irwin Goodman, 36-year-old mathematics teacher at William J. Gaynor Junior High School, was killed in the school corridor by a youth.[173]000000001946-06-26-0000 June 26, 1946 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 15-year-old student, who refused to give his pocket money to a gang of seven youths, was shot in the chest in the Public School 147 annex of Brooklyn Automotive Trades High School.[174]000000001947-02-02-0000 February 2, 1947 Madill, Oklahoma ! Madill, Oklahoma 0,000,001 20,000,001 062-year-old Ellis Laird killed his estranged wife, 40-year-old teacher, Jessie Laird, inside her first grade classroom. He then took his own life. All of this took place in the presence of several pupils.[175]000000001948-12-24-0000 December 24, 1948 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 14-year-old student was fatally wounded in the head by a shot from fellow student, 17-year-old Robert Ross. The youth was accidentally shot when he chanced into range where Ross was target shooting near a lake at the school.[176]000000001949-03-11-0000 March 11, 1949 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old student at Stuyvesant High School was accidentally shot in the arm by a fellow student who was 'showing off' with a pistol in a classroom.[177]000000001949-11-12-0000 November 12, 1949 Columbus, Ohio ! Columbus, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Ohio State University freshman James Heer grabbed a .45 caliber handgun from the room of a Delta Tau Delta fraternity brother, and killed 21-year-old Jack McKeown, a senior and also a fraternity brother.[178]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001950-07-22-0000 July 22, 1950 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old boy was shot in the wrist and abdomen at the Public School 141 dance during an argument with a former classmate.[118]000000001951-01-24-0000 January 24, 1951 Alton, Illinois ! Alton, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 061-year-old Henry Suhre, quartermaster at Western Military Academy, was killed in the cadet store on campus.[179]000000001951-03-12-0000 March 12, 1951 Union Mills, North Carolina ! Union Mills, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Professor W.E. Sweatt, superintendent and teacher at the Alexander School, was killed by students, 16-year-old Billy Ray Powell, and 19-year-old Hugh Justice, whom he had reprimanded.[180]000000001951-06-04-0000 June 4, 1951 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Carl Arch, a 50-year-old intruder to a girls' gym class, was killed by a police officer at Manhattan's Central Commercial High School.[181]000000001951-11-27-0000 November 27, 1951 St. Louis, Missouri ! St. Louis, Missouri 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old student, David Brooks, was fatally shot as fellow pupils looked on. Two former students were sought by police.[182]000000001952-04-09-0000 April 9, 1952 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 15-year-old boarding school student shot a dean rather than give up his pin-up pictures of girls in bathing suits.[183]000000001952-07-14-0000 July 14, 1952 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Bayard Peakes walked into the offices of the American Physical Society (APS) at Columbia University, where he killed secretary Eileen Fahey. Peakes was reportedly upset that the APS had rejected a paper of his.[184]000000001953-10-02-0000 October 2, 1953 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Bernice Turner, killed 14-year-old Pasquale Coletta inside the science classroom at Kelly High School. The shooting was later ruled to be accidental.[185]000000001954-03-31-0000 March 31, 1954 Newton, Massachusetts ! Newton, Massachusetts 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old John Frankenberger, was accidentally killed in a classroom at Day Junior High School when a pistol being held by a classmate discharged.[186]000000001954-05-15-0000 May 15, 1954 Chapel Hill, North Carolina ! Chapel Hill, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 2Putnam Davis Jr. was killed during a fraternity house carnival at the Phi Delta Theta house at the University of North Carolina. William Joyner and Allen Long were wounded during the exchange of gunfire in their room. The incident followed an all-night beer party. Long told police that, while the three were drinking beer at 7 a.m., Davis pulled out a gun and started shooting.[187]000000001955-01-11-0000 January 11, 1955 Swarthmore, Pennsylvania ! Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 0After some of his dormmates urinated on his mattress during hazing, Robert B. Bechtel, a 22-year-old student proctor at Swarthmore College, returned to his third floor Wharton Hall dorm with a shotgun and killed fellow student, 19-year-old Francis Holmes Strozier.[188] Betchtel was acquitted of murder by reason of insanity and spent five years in a psychiatric hospital.[189]000000001956-05-04-0000 May 4, 1956 Seat Pleasant, Maryland ! Seat Pleasant, Maryland 0,000,001 10,000,001 215-year-old student, Billy Ray Prevatte, fatally shot 32-year-old teacher, Frazer Cameron, and injured 25-year-old athletic coach, Francis Daniel Wagner, and 31-year-old teacher, Robert Hicks, at Maryland Park Junior High School. He just left, after growing tired of waiting outside the principal's office awaiting a reprimand for failing to turn in a written physical education assignment, and returned with a rifle.[190]000000001956-10-20-0000 October 20, 1956 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A Booker T. Washington Junior High School student was wounded in the forearm by another student armed with a home-made weapon.[191]000000001957-10-02-0000 October 2, 1957 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old student was shot in the leg by a 15-year-old classmate at a city high school.[192]000000001958-03-04-0000 March 4, 1958 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 17-year-old student shot a boy in the Manual Training High School.[193]000000001958-05-01-0000 May 1, 1958 Massapequa, New York ! Massapequa, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 15-year-old Massapequa High School freshman was killed by a classmate in a washroom.[194]000000001959-09-24-0000 September 24, 1959 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Twenty-seven men and boys and an arsenal were seized in the Bronx as the police headed off a gang war resulting from the fatal shooting of a teenager at Morris High School.[195]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001960-02-02-0000 February 2, 1960 Hartford City, Indiana ! Hartford City, Indiana 0,000,001 30,000,001 044-year-old school principal Leonard Redden killed teachers Harriett Robson and Minnie McFerren inside their classrooms at William Reed School. Redden then fled to a wooded area where he killed himself.[119]000000001960-03-30-0000 March 30, 1960 Alice, Texas ! Alice, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Donna Dvorak, brought a target pistol to Dubose Junior High School, and fatally shot 15-year-old Bobby Whitford, in their 9th-grade science class. Dvorak believed Whitford posed a threat to one of her girlfriends.[196]000000001960-06-07-0000 June 7, 1960 Blaine, Minnesota ! Blaine, Minnesota 0,000,001 10,000,001 041-year-old mail-carrier, Lester Betts, confronted 33-year-old principal, Carson Hammond, in his Blaine Elementary School office, and shot him dead with a 12-gauge shotgun.[197][198]000000001961-01-04-0000 January 4, 1961 Delmont, South Dakota ! Delmont, South Dakota 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Donald Kurtz, 17-year-old senior at Delmont High School, was fatally wounded by a .22 caliber bullet from a rifle. The shot, intended as a sound effect for a school play, hit him in the chest during a rehearsal just minutes before the play was to take place.[199]000000001961-10-17-0000 October 17, 1961 Denver, Colorado ! Denver, Colorado 0,000,001 10,000,001 114-year-old Tennyson Beard, got into an argument with 15-year-old William Hachmeister, at Morey Junior High School, and wounded him. Another shot fatally struck 14-year-old Deborah Faith Humphrey.[200]000000001966-04-27-0000 April 27, 1966 Bay Shore, New York ! Bay Shore, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 048-year-old teacher, John S. Lane, was fatally wounded when he tried to stop 16-year-old student James Arthur Frampton. The youth was walking through the halls of Bay Shore Senior High School with a shotgun, searching for boys whom he had argued with earlier that day. Lane died about six weeks later of his wounds.[201]000000001966-08-01-0000 August 1, 1966 Austin, Texas ! Austin, Texas 0,000,001 170,000,001 31University of Texas massacre: 25-year-old engineering student, Charles Whitman, got onto the observation deck at the University of Texas-Austin, from where he killed seventeen people and wounded thirty-one during a 96-minute shooting rampage. He had earlier murdered his wife and mother at their homes.[202] It was the deadliest shooting on a U.S. college campus until the Virginia Tech shooting in 2007.000000001966-10-05-0000 October 5, 1966 Grand Rapids, Minnesota ! Grand Rapids, Minnesota 0,000,001 10,000,001 1Grand Rapids High School student, 15-year-old David Black, killed school administrator Forrest Willey and seriously wounded fellow student, 14-year-old Kevin Roth.[205]000000001966-11-12-0000 November 12, 1966 Mesa, Arizona ! Mesa, Arizona 0,000,001 50,000,001 218-year-old Bob Smith, took seven people hostage at Rose-Mar College of Beauty and ordered them to lie down in a circle. He shot each in the head. Four women and a 3-year-old girl died, a woman and a baby were injured but survived. Police arrested Smith, who reportedly admired Richard Speck and Charles Whitman.[207]000000001967-05-03-0000 May 3, 1967 Northlake, Illinois ! Northlake, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 118-year-old dropout, Michael Pisarski killed his former girlfriend, 17-year-old Christine Mitchell inside West Leyden High School. The school's athletic director was wounded.[208]000000001968-01-30-0000 January 30, 1968 Miami, Florida ! Miami, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 016-year-old Blanche Ward killed fellow student, 16-year-old Linda Lipscomb, at Miami Jackson High School. According to Ward, she was threatened with a razor by Lipscomb during an argument over a fountain pen, and in the ensuing struggle the gun went off.[209]000000001968-02-08-0000 February 8, 1968 Orangeburg, South Carolina ! Orangeburg, South Carolina 0,000,001 30,000,001 27In the days leading up to February 8, 1968, about two hundred mostly student civil rights protesters gathered on the campus of South Carolina State University to protest the continued racial segregation of the All Star Bowling Lane after passage in 1964 of federal legislation prohibiting such action. That night, students started a bonfire. As police attempted to put out the fire, an officer was struck and injured by an object. Police later said they believed they were under attack by small weapons fire. The officers fired into the crowd, killing 18-year-old Samuel Hammond Jr., 17-year-old Delano Herman Middleton, and 19-year-old Henry Ezekial Smith, and wounding twenty-seven others.[210]000000001968-03-25-0000 March 25, 1968 High Point, North Carolina ! High Point, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old David Lee Walker, was killed just outside Central High School, by 15-year-old Gerald Locklear.[211]000000001968-05-22-0000 May 22, 1968 Miami, Florida ! Miami, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Ernest Lee Grissom, a 15-year-old student at Drew Junior High School, seriously wounded a teacher and a 13-year-old student after he had been reprimanded for behavior.[212]000000001969-01-17-0000 January 17, 1969 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Alprentice Carter and John Huggins, two student members of the Black Panther Party, were fatally shot during a student meeting inside Campbell Hall at the University of California, Los Angeles. Reportedly there was disagreement over who would control the school's African American Studies Center. The shooter, Claude Hubert, was never found; three other men were later arrested in connection with the shooting.[213]000000001969-01-23-0000 January 23, 1969 Washington, D.C. ! Washington, D.C. 0,000,001 10,000,001 045-year-old Cardozo Senior High School assistant principal, Herman Clifford, was killed in the school's hallway, by 18-year-old Ronald Joyner, while trying to stop him and two other youths who had robbed the school's bank.[214]000000001969-05-13-0000 May 13, 1969 Winston-Salem, North Carolina ! Winston-Salem, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 013-year-old Ernest Napoleon Carter Jr. was accidentally killed, by a 13-year-old classmate at Hanes Junior High School who was armed with a pistol. The shooter was charged with involuntary manslaughter. Carter's mother filed a lawsuit against the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Board of Education for $50,000 in damages.[215]000000001969-11-19-0000 November 19, 1969 Tomah, Wisconsin ! Tomah, Wisconsin 0,000,001 10,000,001 046-year-old Martin Mogensen, principal of Tomah Junior High School, was killed in his office by a 14-year-old boy.[216]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001970-01-05-0000 January 5, 1970 Washington, D.C. ! Washington, D.C. 0,000,001 10,000,001 115-year-old Tyrone Perry, was killed at Hine Junior High School. In a separate incident another student at a different school was wounded.[120]000000001970-02-11-0000 February 11, 1970 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ! Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 2University of Pennsylvania professors, 40-year-old Walter Koppelman, and 45-year-old Oscar Goldman, were shot by 33-year-old disgruntled graduate student, Robert Cantor, during a seminar. Cantor then took his own life. Koppelman died March 5 from his injuries, but Goldman recovered.[217]000000001970-05-04-0000 May 4, 1970 Kent, Ohio ! Kent, Ohio 0,000,001 40,000,001 9Kent State shootings: During protests of the Vietnam War at Kent State University, armed National Guard Soldiers opened fire on unarmed students, killing four people.[218]000000001970-05-15-0000 May 15, 1970 Jackson, Mississippi ! Jackson, Mississippi 0,000,001 20,000,001 12Jackson State killings: Two students were killed and twelve others injured when police opened fire on students gathered to protest the US military presence in Cambodia.[220]000000001970-11-20-0000 November 20, 1970 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Two students were shot while standing in a second floor hallway of Harlan High School. 15-year-old Kenneth House, was shot in the lower left abdomen, his condition was described as serious. 14-year-old Portia Walls, suffered a superficial wound on her lower back. The incident was thought to have involved gang recruiting in the school.[223]000000001971-02-02-0000 February 2, 1971 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ! Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 056-year-old teacher, Samson L. Freedman, was killed as he left Morris E. Leeds School, by 14-year-old student, Kevin Simmons. Freedman had suspended Simmons earlier in the day for cursing in the hallway.[224]000000001971-11-11-0000 November 11, 1971 Spokane, Washington ! Spokane, Washington 0,000,001 20,000,001 421-year-old former MIT student, Larry J. Harmon, armed with a rifle, killed 68-year-old caretaker, Hilary Kunzon, who came upon him wrecking St. Aloysius Roman Catholic Church, then fled onto the campus of Gonzaga University, where he wounded four more people before police officers killed him. Harmon was described by his father as a religious fanatic claiming to have visions.[225]000000001973-02-26-0000 February 26, 1973 Richmond, Virginia ! Richmond, Virginia 0,000,001 10,000,001 017-year-old Wayne Phillips, was killed when he was caught between two youths who were fighting in the hallway of Armstrong High School.[226]000000001973-11-06-0000 November 6, 1973 Oakland, California ! Oakland, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 1School superintendent Marcus Foster, was killed and his assistant Robert Blackburn, was wounded when members of the Symbionese Liberation Army opened fire on them as they exited a school board meeting. Two members of the SLA were later arrested and convicted of the crime. Both were sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. The SLA had reportedly believed that Foster supported a measure to install police on school grounds and make students carry identification cards. In reality, Foster opposed both measures.[227]000000001974-01-17-0000 January 17, 1974 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 052-year-old elementary school principal, Rudolph Jezek Jr., was killed in his office by 14-year-old Steven Guy, a former student said to be angry about being transferred to a social adjustment center.[228]000000001974-03-22-0000 March 22, 1974 Brownstown, Indiana ! Brownstown, Indiana 0,000,001 10,000,001 048-year-old Jessie Blevins, athletic director at Brownstown Central High School, was fatally shot in the school parking lot by a 17-year-old student waiting for him. He gave the police no motive.[229]000000001974-10-04-0000 October 4, 1974 Kent, Ohio ! Kent, Ohio 0,000,001 00,000,001 119-year-old McKeesport student, Ray D. Gilmore, was wounded in a scuffle with two men in his third floor campus dormitory room. 26-year-old Benjamin F. Goodman and 22-year-old Carl Bell, who were not students, had their .32 caliber pistols taken and were wrestled to the floor by other students.[230]000000001974-12-30-0000 December 30, 1974 Olean, New York ! Olean, New York 0,000,001 30,000,001 11During a two-and-a-half-hour siege, 18-year-old honor student, Anthony Barbaro, the best on his rifle team, killed three adults in and around his high school and wounded eleven other persons. He shot from the windows out at the street and neighborhood. The school was closed for the Christmas holiday.[232]000000001975-02-24-0000 February 24, 1975 Penns Grove, New Jersey ! Penns Grove, New Jersey 0,000,001 10,000,001 124-year-old David Gary killed the 33-year-old Reverend Thomas Quinlan, inside a classroom at St. James School. Quinlan was the school's principal. A teacher was also wounded.[233]000000001975-03-18-0000 March 18, 1975 St. Louis, Missouri ! St. Louis, Missouri 0,000,001 10,000,001 016-year-old Stephen Goods, a bystander, was killed during a fight between other teens. Three youths were convicted for the homicide.000000001975-09-11-0000 September 11, 1975 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ! Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 0,000,001 10,000,001 5Student James Briggs killed fellow student Randy Truitt at Grant High School, wounding several others.[234]000000001976-02-12-0000 February 12, 1976 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 5Intruders entered Murray-Wright High School, shooting and wounding five students after an apparent dispute over a girlfriend of one of the intruders.[235]000000001976-07-12-0000 July 12, 1976 Fullerton, California ! Fullerton, California 0,000,001 70,000,001 2The gunman, 37-year-old Edward Charles Allaway, was a custodian at the California State University, Fullerton library. Allaway killed seven people and wounded two others in the library's first-floor lobby and at the building's Instructional Media Center (IMC), located in the basement.000000001976-11-10-0000 November 10, 1976 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 046-year-old Al Lewis, killed his estranged wife, 46-year-old Betty McCaster, as she was teaching thirty-six 6-and-7-year-old students at Burt Elementary School.[236]000000001977-04-07-0000 April 7, 1977 Whitharral, Texas ! Whitharral, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 0High School principal, M. O. Tripp, was killed on the front steps of the school by 17-year-old student, Ricardo Lopez, for unknown reasons.[237]000000001978-01-11-0000 January 11, 1978 Hopkinsville, Kentucky ! Hopkinsville, Kentucky 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At 8:10 a.m., 13-year-old student, Andre Davis, was wounded while watching a fight between two students in the front lobby of Christian County Middle School, one of whom had a gun. A 16-year-old was charged with the assault.[238]000000001978-02-09-0000 February 9, 1978 St. Albans, West Virginia ! St. Albans, West Virginia 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Hayes Junior High School student, Stuart Wayne Perrock, killed 14-year-old schoolmate, Arthur Clinton Smith.[239]000000001978-02-22-0000 February 22, 1978 Lansing, Michigan ! Lansing, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 1After being taunted for his beliefs, 15-year-old Roger Needham, self-proclaimed neo-Nazi, killed one student and wounded a second with a pistol at Everett High School.[240]000000001978-04-26-0000 April 26, 1978 Dallas, Texas ! Dallas, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 038-year-old Woodrow Porter, a janitor at Paul Dunbar Elementary School, was killed by the 56-year-old grandmother of an 8-year-old who was allegedly spanked by Porter earlier.[241]000000001978-05-18-0000 May 18, 1978 Austin, Texas ! Austin, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 013-year-old John Daniel Christian, son of Lyndon B. Johnson's former press secretary George Christian, killed his English teacher, 29-year-old Wilbur Grayson, with his father's rifle in front of approximately thirty classmates at Murchison Junior High School. Christian was arrested and charged but not prosecuted; he was committed to a mental hospital where he was treated for a period and released.000000001978-10-17-0000 October 17, 1978 University City, Missouri ! University City, Missouri 0,000,001 00,000,001 418-year-old Larry Ward and two companions were escorted from the halls of University City High School following a fight with 18-year-old student, Carl Triplett. Ward ran back into the building with a gun and fired shots into a group, critically injuring Triplett in the chest and hip, and wounding 17-year-old Angela Darden and 16-year-old Jennifer Pride. Ward sustained a head injury as he was tackled by assistant principal, Franklin McCallie. His companions grabbed the gun and fled.[243]000000001978-10-17-0000 October 17, 1978 Lanett, Alabama ! Lanett, Alabama 0,000,001 00,000,001 113-year-old Robin Robinson, was paddled by Lanett Junior High School principal, Lewis Hoggs, after having a disagreement with another student. Robinson left the school, and returned with a .22-caliber handgun and shot Hoggs, grazing the top of his head.[245] Robinson was arrested two hours later about two blocks from the school, and later charged in juvenile court.000000001979-01-29-0000 January 29, 1979 San Diego, California ! San Diego, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 9Cleveland Elementary School shooting: 16-year-old Brenda Spencer opened fire on Grover Cleveland Elementary School from her home across the street, killing two adults and wounding nine people.[249][250][251][252]000000001979-04-16-0000 April 16, 1979 Milwaukee, Wisconsin ! Milwaukee, Wisconsin 0,000,001 00,000,001 117-year-old Timothy Stahle was critically wounded in the leg and upper thigh, with shot gun pellets, as he threw rocks at the windows of Wisconsin Lutheran High School. 28-year-old school janitor, Kenneth B. Stein, was arrested.[253]000000001979-09-28-0000 September 28, 1979 Charlestown, Massachusetts ! Charlestown, Massachusetts 0,000,001 00,000,001 115-year-old sophomore, Darryl Williams, was shot in the neck by a sniper during the half-time interval, while standing with teammates and coach in the end zone of the Charlestown High School football field. The player for the predominantly black Jamaica Plain High School team was left paralysed. A racial motivation was determined by Mayor Kevin White.[254] 17-year-old white youths, Joseph Nardone and Stephen McGonagle, were charged with the shooting and received ten year sentences.[255]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001980-01-07-0000 January 7, 1980 Stamps, Arkansas ! Stamps, Arkansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 016-year-old Evan Hampton, high school freshman student at Stamps High School, waited in a classroom for 19-year-old student Mike Sanders, whom he immediately killed. Hampton went to the principal's office, turning in the gun and waiting for his arrest by police.[121]000000001980-03-20-0000 March 20, 1980 Dallas, Texas ! Dallas, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 049-year-old fifth grade teacher, Rosie Pearson, was killed in J. Leslie Patton School by an unknown assailant.[256]000000001980-03-26-0000 March 26, 1980 Big Rapids, Michigan ! Big Rapids, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Business professor Robert Brauer was killed in class by his 20-year-old student, Thomas Kakonis, at Ferris State College; Kakonis had failed an exam in his class. Kakonis is the son of an associate dean at the college.[257]000000001980-10-31-0000 October 31, 1980 Hueytown, Alabama ! Hueytown, Alabama 0,000,001 10,000,001 117-year-old Rudy Farmer, pulled out a .22 caliber pistol and wounded a fellow student in the art room of Hueytown High School, he then turned his gun on himself.[258]000000001981-01-27-0000 January 27, 1981 Fayetteville, Arkansas ! Fayetteville, Arkansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 019-year-old former freshman, James Howard Taylor, brought a 12-gauge single-shot shotgun into the Delta Delta Delta sorority house on the University of Arkansas campus. He entered the house at 5:45 p.m. and terrorized an initiation dinner. After attempting to negotiate a surrender, he was shot by police when he aimed his shot gun into the dining room.[259]000000001981-04-17-0000 April 17, 1981 Ann Arbor, Michigan ! Ann Arbor, Michigan 0,000,001 20,000,001 0As students fled their rooms, after a homemade firebomb set a minor blaze on the sixth floor hallway of Bursley Hall dormitory, 22-year-old psychology student, Leo E. Kelly Jr., fired a sawn-off 12-gauge shotgun at his University of Michigan schoolmates at point-blank range. 19-year-old pre-medical student, Edward Siwik, and 21-year-old resident advisor, Douglas C. McGreaham, died at hospitals a few hours later. Kelly had been dismissed from UM once and was on the verge of another dismissal because of falling grades.[260][261] In 1982, he was convicted on two counts of first-degree murder and sentenced to life.000000001981-12-16-0000 December 16, 1981 Portland, Oregon ! Portland, Oregon 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Shortly before noon in Engineering Hall on the school's campus in north Portland, 34-year-old University of Portland night janitor, John C. Holbrook, killed 37-year-old engineering teacher, Brian D. Massey, before taking his own life.[263]000000001982-03-19-0000 March 19, 1982 Las Vegas, Nevada ! Las Vegas, Nevada 0,000,001 10,000,001 217-year-old Valley High School student, Patrick Lizotte, killed his teacher Clarence Pigott and wounded two students.000000001982-04-07-0000 April 7, 1982 Littleton, Colorado ! Littleton, Colorado 0,000,001 10,000,001 013-year-old Deer Creek Junior High School student, Scott Darwin Michael, was killed by 14-year-old classmate, Jason Price Rocha. Rocha was tried as an adult and sentenced to twelve years, plus one year of parole.[265]000000001982-11-12-0000 November 12, 1982 Jackson, Mississippi ! Jackson, Mississippi 0,000,001 20,000,001 018-year-old school dropout, James Hartzog, killed his girlfriend, 17-year-old Faye Williams in her algebra class at Wingfield High School. Hartzog then took his own life.[266]000000001983-01-20-0000 January 20, 1983 St. Louis County, Missouri ! St. Louis County, Missouri 0,000,001 20,000,001 1Eighth grade Parkway South Middle School student David F. Lawler entered a study hall classroom and opened fire, killing 15-year-old Randall Koger, and injuring 15-year-old Greg Saffo. Lawler then took his own life.000000001984-02-24-0000 February 24, 1984 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 12Tyrone Mitchell killed two people and wounded twelve others when shooting at students leaving 49th Street Elementary School.000000001984-04-20-0000 April 20, 1984 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 013-year-old Kelly Crittendon, was accidentally killed by two classmates in a classroom at the Precious Blood School.[267]000000001984-05-17-0000 May 17, 1984 Pleasant Hill, Iowa ! Pleasant Hill, Iowa 0,000,001 20,000,001 017-year-old student, Todd Dunahoo, killed 16-year-old Valerie Rockafellow in the hallway at Southeast Polk High School, then turned the gun on himself.[268]000000001984-10-24-0000 October 24, 1984 Celina, Ohio ! Celina, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 045-year-old Shirley Shindeldecker, killed school bus driver 54-year-old Gene Green, as he stopped to pick up the son of Shindeldecker's estranged husband. After serving nineteen months of her sentence, Shindeldecker was found innocent by reason of insanity, and released.[269]000000001985-01-21-0000 January 21, 1985 Goddard, Kansas ! Goddard, Kansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 3Armed with a rifle and a handgun, 14-year-old James Alan Kearbey, killed principal, James McGee, and wounded two teachers and a student at Goddard Junior High School.[270]000000001985-10-18-0000 October 18, 1985 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 6Murray-Wright High School shooting: During half-time of the homecoming football game between Northwestern and Murray-Wright high schools, a youth opened fire with a shotgun, injuring six students with whom he had fought earlier in the day.[271]000000001985-11-27-0000 November 27, 1985 Spanaway, Washington ! Spanaway, Washington 0,000,001 30,000,001 014-year-old Heather Smith, killed 15-year-old Gordon Pickett, who was her ex-boyfriend, and 14-year-old Christopher Ricco, in the gymnasium at Spanaway Junior High School. She later took her own life.[272]000000001985-12-03-0000 December 3, 1985 Concord, New Hampshire ! Concord, New Hampshire 0,000,001 10,000,001 0At Concord High School, Louis Cartier, a 16-year-old dropout, entered the school with a shotgun and took students hostage, 18-year-old Patrick Lena Lena and 16-year-old Scott Hayes. Responding police officers fatally shot him after he aimed at football coach, Don LeBrun.[273][274]000000001985-12-10-0000 December 10, 1985 Portland, Connecticut ! Portland, Connecticut 0,000,001 10,000,001 1After being suspended for refusing to take off his hat while at school, 13-year-old student Floyd Warmsley pulled out a firearm at Portland Junior High School, shooting and wounding the 53-year-old school secretary Lynn Haddad, and killing 36-year-old janitor David Bangston.[275][276]000000001986-03-06-0000 March 6, 1986 Dolton, Illinois ! Dolton, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At about 9:40 a.m., as 52-year-old math teacher Norma Cooper`s third-period algebra class was beginning in a second-floor classroom in the C Building at Thornridge High School, she was shot in the shoulder by a freshman student, with a large-caliber handgun, registered to the youth`s father, a security guard. He is charged with attempted murder, unlawful use of a weapon and aggravated battery. The freshman, a resident of Harvey, was enrolled in the class and apparently had recently received poor grades.[277]000000001986-04-29-0000 April 29, 1986 Senath, Missouri ! Senath, Missouri 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A new student, 16-year-old Ritchie Overman, killed studious 15-year-old Leslie Lynn Wyatt, using a 20-gauge shotgun, in front of twenty-six "totally horrified" science class students and teacher Sheila Adams, at Senath-Hornersville High School.[278][279]000000001986-05-09-0000 May 9, 1986 Fayetteville, North Carolina ! Fayetteville, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 3A 17-year-old student shot three classmates at Pine Forest High School with a .25-caliber handgun wounding them. One student was critically injured and treated for a neck wound.[280]000000001986-05-16-0000 May 16, 1986 Cokeville, Wyoming ! Cokeville, Wyoming 0,000,001 20,000,001 74Cokeville Elementary School hostage crisis: 43-year-old former town marshal David Young, and his 47-year-old wife, Doris Young, took 136 children and eighteen adults hostage at Cokeville Elementary School.[281][282]000000001986-12-04-0000 December 4, 1986 Lewistown, Montana ! Lewistown, Montana 0,000,001 10,000,001 314-year-old Kristofer Hans intended to shoot his French teacher at Fergus High School, for a failing grade. Instead, Henrietta Smith, who was substituting for LaVonne Simonfy, was shot in the face and died. Hans fired several other shots as he fled, wounding vice principal John Moffatt,[284] and two students. He then ran about a mile to his home, where he was arrested after the police surrounded his house. A classmate said Hans had repeatedly threatened to kill Ms. Simonfy, saying, "I'm going to blow Simonfy's head off."[285] He was charged as an adult, convicted and sentenced to 206 years in prison.[286]000000001987-02-04-0000 February 4, 1987 Northridge, California ! Northridge, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 035-year-old associate professor of Computer Science Djamshid (Amir) Asgari was confronted in the Engineering Building of California State University, Northridge by 25-year-old graduate student Fawwaz Abdin. Abdin was angry about a low grade Asgari had given him a year earlier, which caused him to be put on academic probation. After Asgari refused to change his grade, Abdin shot him twice, then himself. Asgari later died at the Northridge Hospital.[287]000000001987-03-02-0000 March 2, 1987 De Kalb, Missouri ! De Kalb, Missouri 0,000,001 20,000,001 0After constant teasing about his weight, 12-year-old honors student Nathan Ferris killed a 13-year-old classmate, Timothy Perrin, after he bullied him, then turned the gun on himself.[288]000000001987-04-16-0000 April 16, 1987 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 2Murray-Wright High School second shooting: A ninth-grade student at Murray-Wright High School killed 17-year-old Chester Jackson, a student athlete, and wounded 17-year-old Damon Matthews, and 18-year-old Tomeka Turner.[289]000000001987-09-28-0000 September 28, 1987 Lansing, Illinois ! Lansing, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1After being kicked off the soccer team for smoking on school grounds, 16-year-old student Blake Docter, of Illiana Christian High School wounded 44-year-old John Hoogewerf in the chest, the teacher who had reported him for smoking.[290]000000001987-12-16-0000 December 16, 1987 Katy, Texas ! Katy, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 0After being refused a date from his classmate, 15 year-old Ramesh Guzman Tumalad shot and killed himself with a .357 Magnum revolver before 23 of his fellow freshman Algebra students at Mayde Creek High School. The evening prior to the shooting, the boy discussed committing suicide to the girl after she informed school administration of his obsession with her.[291]000000001988-02-11-0000 February 11, 1988 Largo, Florida ! Largo, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 2Pinellas Park_High shooting: 15-year-old students, Jason Harless and Jason McCoy, took stolen .38-caliber revolvers to Pinellas Park High School. Harless shot two assistant principals and a student-teacher inside the school's cafeteria. 53-year-old Richard Allen died from his injuries, Nancy Blackwelder and intern Joseph Bloznalis were wounded.[292]000000001988-05-20-0000 May 20, 1988 Winnetka, Illinois ! Winnetka, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 530-year-old Laurie Dann, killed 8-year-old Nick Corwin, inside Hubbard Woods School. Five additional students were wounded. Dann later committed suicide after taking hostages in a nearby home.[293]000000001988-07-10-0000 July 10, 1988 Milwaukee, Wisconsin ! Milwaukee, Wisconsin 0,000,001 00,000,001 125-year-old Robin Jenkins, was shot in the elbow after a basketball game turned violent about 7:45 Siefert Elementary School. A 28-year-old man was taken into custody the following day.[294]000000001988-09-23-0000 September 23, 1988 West Side, Chicago ! West Side, Chicago 0,000,001 20,000,001 0The gun-man shot a custodial worker at Montefiore Special Elementary School, before being killed by a police officer. [295][296]000000001988-09-26-0000 September 26, 1988 Greenwood, South Carolina ! Greenwood, South Carolina 0,000,001 20,000,001 9Oakland Elementary School shooting: 19-year-old James William Wilson entered Oakland Elementary School and started firing shots in the cafeteria. Two students were wounded and a first-grade teacher. After reloading his gun in a girls' restroom, he was confronted by physical education teacher, Kat Finkbeiner, who tried to stop him; she was wounded twice. He then entered a third-grade classroom and shot toward the students, killing 8-year-olds Shequila Tawoon Bradley and Tequila Maria Thomas, and wounding five others.[297]000000001988-11-22-0000 November 22, 1988 Abilene, Texas ! Abilene, Texas 0,000,001 00,000,001 116-year-old student Mason Staggs shot Cooper High School teacher, Rick Maloney in the face with a pistol, severely injuring the teacher. Staggs left the school and went fishing.[298]000000001988-12-16-0000 December 16, 1988 Virginia Beach, Virginia ! Virginia Beach, Virginia 0,000,001 10,000,001 1At Atlantic Shores Christian School, 16-year-old student Nicholas Elliott shot two teachers with a Mac-10 9-millimeter machine pistol, killing 41-year-old Karen Farley, and critically wounding 37-year-old Sam Marino, then began firing on a classroom full of students before the gun jammed and any students were hit.[299]000000001989-01-17-0000 January 17, 1989 Stockton, California ! Stockton, California 0,000,001 60,000,001 32Stockton schoolyard shooting: 24-year-old Patrick Edward Purdy fatally shot five children and wounded 32 others at the Cleveland Elementary School, before taking his own life. The victims were children of refugees from Southeast Asia. Purdy had a history of violence, alcoholism and drug addiction, and criminality.[301]000000001989-02-10-0000 February 10, 1989 Kearns, Utah ! Kearns, Utah 0,000,001 00,000,001 0At Thomas Jefferson Junior High School, a 12-year-old boy fired a handgun at a vice principal, William Crumbaugh. No one was injured.[302]000000001989-12-05-0000 December 5, 1989 McKeesport, Pennsylvania ! McKeesport, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 1While riding the school bus, 16-year-old Serra Catholic High School student, Robert Butler, shot 16-year-old schoolmate, Adam Ference, in the back of the head before fatally shooting himself.[303] Ference was in critical condition but survived.[304]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000001990-03-27-0000 March 27, 1990 Brooklyn, New York ! Brooklyn, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A black youth was taunted with racial slurs by three white youths in the stairwell of a public school in the Bensonhurst area of Brooklyn. The 14-year-old was then shot and slightly wounded, because he had acted as peacemaker when the same boys had clashed with another black teen the month before.[305]000000001990-09-11-0000 September 11, 1990 San Antonio, Texas ! San Antonio, Texas 0,000,001 00,000,001 33 students were wounded when gunfire broke out at Sam Houston High School. The incident took place at 11:55 a.m. and was gang related. 17-year-old John Campbell was wounded in the right foot, 18-year-old Larry Johnson was wounded in the right thigh and calf, and a 16-year-old received a chest wound. 18-year-old Kenneth Wolford, and two other male students were arrested and charged.[306]000000001991-02-06-0000 February 6, 1991 Donna, Texas ! Donna, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old Raul Calvo shot himself dead while playing Russian roulette inside a biology classroom at Donna High School.[307]000000001991-04-23-0000 April 23, 1991 Compton, California ! Compton, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A teenager aimed and fired a handgun at a security guard who had chased him and three friends off the grounds of Ralph J. Bunche Middle School. He instead killed 11-year-old Alejandro Vargas, a bystander and student at the school.[308]000000001991-09-18-0000 September 18, 1991 Crosby, Texas ! Crosby, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 017-year-old Arthur Jermel Jack, was killed by 15-year-old LaKeeta Cadoree, in the cafeteria at Crosby High School.[309]000000001991-11-01-0000 November 1, 1991 Iowa City, Iowa ! Iowa City, Iowa 0,000,001 60,000,001 1University of Iowa shooting: 28-year-old former graduate student, Gang Lu, killed four members of University of Iowa's faculty and a research student, and seriously wounded another student. 47-year-old professor of physics and astronomy, Christoph K. Goertz, 45-year-old associate professor of physics and astronomy, Robert Alan Smith, 44-year-old chairman of the physics and astronomy department, Dwight R. Nicholson, 56-year-old associate vice president for academic affairs, Dr. Theresa Anne Cleary, shot in the head and died the following day, and 27-year-old research investigator in physics and astronomy, Dr. Shan Linhua. 23-year-old Miya Rodolfo-Sioson, Dr. Cleary's temporary student receptionist in the grievance office, survived but was left paralyzed from the neck down. Lu then shot himself in the head, he died shortly after police arrived.[310][311][312][313]000000001991-11-25-0000 November 25, 1991 Brooklyn, New York ! Brooklyn, New York 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Thomas Jefferson High School shooting: During an argument between two teens, a stray bullet killed a third, uninvolved 16-year-old student. In 1992, 14-year-old shooter Jason Bentley, was sentenced to three to nine years in prison.000000001991-12-12-0000 December 12, 1991 Kent, Ohio ! Kent, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 051-year-old custodian, John Frazier, was killed outside a campus auditorium of Kent State University.[314]000000001992-01-29-0000 January 29, 1992 Kent, Ohio ! Kent, Ohio 0,000,001 00,000,001 126-year-old graduate student, Sarah Smith, was wounded in the chest as she was waiting for her husband to pick her up at Kent State University.[315]000000001992-02-26-0000 February 26, 1992 Brooklyn, New York ! Brooklyn, New York 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Thomas Jefferson High School second shooting: 15-year-old Kahlil Sumpter, killed fellow students, 16-year-old Tyrone Sinkler and 17-year-old Ian Moore, on the school's second-floor hallway.[316] In 1993, he was sentenced to between 6'…-- and twenty years in prison. He was released on parole in 1998.000000001992-05-01-0000 May 1, 1992 Olivehurst, California ! Olivehurst, California 0,000,001 30,000,001 10Lindhurst High School shooting: Former student, 20-year-old Eric Houston, killed three students and one teacher, and wounded nine other students and teacher before surrendering to police.000000001992-05-14-0000 May 14, 1992 Napa, California ! Napa, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Unidentified eighth grade student at Silverado Middle School shot 2 other students, possibly due to an incident the day before.[317]000000001992-10-19-0000 October 19, 1992 The Bronx, New York ! The Bronx, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 3Two 14-year-old girls and a 16-year-old boy were shot at outside a Bronx high school.[318]000000001992-11-04-0000 November 4, 1992 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 1111 students were hit by gunfire during a four-hour period in three separate school incidents, five were hospitalized. Six students at Finney High School were grazed by buckshot after three ski-masked gunmen opened fire in a crowded hallway. A 14-year-old was in custody for shooting three Foch Middle School students as they passed by the Marcus Garvey Academy. In the third incident, 16-year-old DeWayne Boyd was hit in the chest, when shots were fired at two Mumford High School students.[319]000000001992-12-14-0000 December 14, 1992 Great Barrington, Massachusetts ! Great Barrington, Massachusetts 0,000,001 20,000,001 4Wayne Lo, a student at Bard College at Simon's Rock, shot and killed one student and one professor, wounded three students and a security guard. After his rifle jammed, Lo later surrendered to authorities without further incident.[320]000000001993-01-06-0000 January 6, 1993 Brentwood, New York01Brentwood High School. Former student, Matthew Hunter, was shot by two gunmen during a basketball game between Brentwood High School and Sachem High School. The assault was over a dispute about the theft of a gold chain.[321]000000001993-01-18-0000 January 18, 1993 Grayson, Kentucky ! Grayson, Kentucky 0,000,001 20,000,001 0East Carter High School shooting: 17-year-old Scott Pennington, a student at East Carter High School, fatally shot his 48-year-old English teacher, Deanna McDavid, and 52-year-old head custodian, Marvin Hicks.000000001993-02-22-0000 February 22, 1993 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 10,000,001 015-year-old Robert Heard, fatally shot 17-year-old Michael Shean Ensley in the corridor of the Reseda High School's science building.[323]000000001993-03-18-0000 March 18, 1993 Harlem, Georgia ! Harlem, Georgia 10,000,001 1Bryant Gillom, a 10th grader, walked out of homeroom into a hallway with a .38 caliber revolver and gunned down 2 classmates. Ronricas "Pony" Gibson died at the scene with gunshot to the chest, while the other student, Ricoh Lee, took a gunshot wound in the neck. Gillom claimed he was bullied by them in addition to fighting over a girl. He was acquitted of murder but received a sentence of 5 years for possessing a weapon at school.[324]000000001993-04-15-0000 April 15, 1993 Acushnet, Massachusetts ! Acushnet, Massachusetts 0,000,001 10,000,001 044-year-old David Taber entered Ford Middle School and took three hostages. He killed school nurse Carol Day. He was found not guilty of the murder by reason of insanity.000000001993-05-14-0000 May 14, 1993 Irving, Texas ! Irving, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 017-year-old Max Alexander Martinez, killed 17-year-old Jose Balderas, with a .38 caliber revolver in a hallway in Nimitz High School during a dispute over girls.[325]000000001993-05-24-0000 May 24, 1993 Pennsburg, Pennsylvania ! Pennsburg, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old student Jason Smith killed another student who had bullied him at Upper Perkiomen High School. He was charged as an adult and sentenced to between twelve and twenty-five years in prison.[327]000000001993-09-17-0000 September 17, 1993 Sheridan, Wyoming ! Sheridan, Wyoming 0,000,001 10,000,001 429-year-old Kevin Newman, wounded four students before killing himself at Central Junior High School.[328]000000001993-11-04-0000 November 4, 1993 New Britain, Connecticut ! New Britain, Connecticut 0,000,001 10,000,001 018-year-old Miguel DeJesus, was gunned down on the steps of New Britain High School.[329] Rival gang members, 24-year-old Maurice Flanagan and 23-year-old Thomas Mejia, were charged.[330]000000001993-12-01-0000 December 1, 1993 Wauwatosa, Wisconsin ! Wauwatosa, Wisconsin 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Wauwatosa West High School shooting: 21-year-old former student, Leonard D. McDowell, shot 46-year-old associate principal, Dale Breitlow, three times with a revolver in a second-floor hallway of Wauwatosa West High School.[331] McDowell was found guilty of the murder and sane at the time of the shooting, he was sentenced to life in prison. His sentence was upheld by the state Court of Appeals in April 1997.000000001994-01-24-0000 January 24, 1994 Columbia, South Carolina ! Columbia, South Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 018-year-old Floyd Eugene Brown, shot fellow Eau Claire High School student, 17-year-old Earnest Dunlap, following an argument the week before. Brown was arrested shortly after at his home. A 16-year-old boy was also arrested for kicking Dunlap after the shooting.[333]000000001994-01-31-0000 January 31, 1994 Seattle, Washington ! Seattle, Washington 0,000,001 10,000,001 024-year-old Darrell Cloud, a former student at Whitman Middle School in North Seattle, killed 45-year-old Neal Summers, who had sexually abused Cloud since he was thirteen. Cloud served nine years in prison. He later received a $250,000 settlement in a civil suit against Seattle Schools, charging that Summers had not been adequately supervised.[334]000000001994-02-18-0000 February 18, 1994 Spartanburg, South Carolina ! Spartanburg, South Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At around 10 p.m., 24-year-old Roosevelt Johnson was shot in the leg, after a basketball game at Spartanburg High School.[335]000000001994-03-01-0000 March 1, 1994 Boonville, Missouri ! Boonville, Missouri 0,000,001 20,000,001 033-year-old Dante D. Hayes, a hunter and ex-convict, killed 58-year-old Richard Vancena, a cafeteria manager, and 33-year-old Robin Michelle Coleman, a cook, in the mess hall of Kemper Military School and College. He was drunk and looking for his wife Anna Hayes with whom he had a fight the night before. No students were harmed.[336]000000001994-04-12-0000 April 12, 1994 Butte, Montana ! Butte, Montana 0,000,001 10,000,001 010-year-old Jason Osmanson, teased because his parents have AIDS, killed an 11-year-old student on the playground of Margaret Leary Elementary School. Osmanson was sent to a private residential treatment center.000000001994-04-21-0000 April 21, 1994 Nashville, Tennessee ! Nashville, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Jeremy Bryant, killed 13-year-old Terrence Murray, in music class at J.T. Moore Middle School.[337]000000001994-10-12-0000 October 12, 1994 Greensboro, North Carolina ! Greensboro, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 1After being suspended for smoking, 16-year-old Nicholas Atkinson, returned to Grimsley High School with a 9 mm pistol. After wounding assistant principal, Bill Whites, Atkinson took his own life.[338]000000001994-10-17-0000 October 17, 1994 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old female student was shot in the thigh outside Hubbard High School when a teenage boy rode past on a bicycle and fired into a crowd. It is believed the shooting was meant for rival gang members, but the girl was hit instead. The boy lived in the neighborhood.[340]000000001994-11-07-0000 November 7, 1994 Wickliffe, Ohio ! Wickliffe, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 4Wickliffe Middle School shooting: 37-year-old former student, Keith A. Ledeger, killed 41-year-old custodian, Pete Christopher, at Wickliffe Middle School, and wounded 47-year-old assistant principal, Jim Anderson, 47-year-old police officer, Thomas Schmidt, and 50-year-old teacher, Lowell Grimm, before being injured and taken into custody.[341]000000001994-12-14-0000 December 14, 1994 Albany, New York01Ralph J. Tortorici, 26, a military veteran and psychology major at the State University of New York at Albany held hostage a large lecture hall from 9:10 a.m. until 11:30 a.m. Tortorici, armed with a .270-caliber rifle with more than two dozen rounds of ammunition and a hunting knife, walked into the ancient history class of Hans Pohlsander, saying, "Don't worry. Nobody move. You guys are getting held hostage." The standoff ended when Tortorici had his gun taken away by Jason McEnaney, a 19-year-old student. McEnaney was shot in the leg, groin, and abdomen in the exchange. Tortorici suffered from a well-document history of mental illness, argued during the hostage crisis that the government had implanted a control chip in his head during a procedure at Albany Medical Center, and ultimately committed suicide in 1999 in prison while serving a 15 1/2 year sentence.[342][343][344][345]000000001995-01-12-0000 January 12, 1995 Seattle, Washington ! Seattle, Washington 0,000,001 00,000,001 2A 15-year-old student at Garfield High School left school during the day and returned with his grandfather's handgun. He wounded two students.[346]000000001995-09-29-0000 September 29, 1995 Tavares, Florida ! Tavares, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old student Keith E. Johnson, killed 13-year-old Joey Summerall, at Tavares Middle School with a handgun that he had stolen from his neighbor's home. He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole.[347]000000001995-10-12-0000 October 12, 1995 Blackville, South Carolina ! Blackville, South Carolina 0,000,001 20,000,001 1Blackville-Hilda High School shooting: Suspended student, 16-year-old Toby R. Sincino, killed 56-year-old math teacher, Phyllis Senn, and wounded 38-year-old math teacher, Johhnny Thompson, before committing suicide at Blackville-Hilda High School.[349]000000001995-11-15-0000 November 15, 1995 Lynnville, Tennessee ! Lynnville, Tennessee 0,000,001 20,000,001 1Richland High School shooting: 17-year-old James Rouse, killed a student and teacher at Richland High School and seriously wounded another teacher with a rifle.000000001996-01-19-0000 January 19, 1996 Washington, D.C. ! Washington, D.C. 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Two masked gunmen killed 14-year-old Damion Blocker in a stairwell at Winston Education Center. 16-year-old shooter, Darrick Evans, was sentenced to 41 years to life in prison.000000001996-02-02-0000 February 2, 1996 Moses Lake, Washington ! Moses Lake, Washington 0,000,001 30,000,001 1Frontier Middle School shooting: 14-year-old Barry Loukaitis, killed a teacher and two students and wounded another student when he opened fire on his algebra class. Loukaitis was sentenced to life in prison.000000001996-02-29-0000 February 29, 1996 St. Louis, Missouri ! St. Louis, Missouri 0,000,001 10,000,001 130-year-old Mark Boyd, hired 23-year-old Malik Nettles, to kill 15-year-old Kyunia Taylor, as she rode on a school bus bound for Beaumont High School. Taylor was pregnant with a child fathered by Boyd, a baby girl was delivered by emergency caesarean section, but died 23 days later. The bus driver was also shot, he survived.[352]000000001996-08-15-0000 August 15, 1996 San Diego, California ! San Diego, California 0,000,001 30,000,001 0San Diego State University shooting: At San Diego State University, 36-year-old graduate student, Frederick Martin Davidson, killed three professors, 32-year-old Chen Liang, 44-year-old D. Preston Lowrey III, and 36-year-old Costas Lyrintzis, that he believed were involved in a conspiracy against him.[353][354] Davidson was sentenced to serve three life terms.[355]000000001996-09-17-0000 September 17, 1996 State College, Pennsylvania ! State College, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 219-year-old Jillian Robbins, killed one student and injured two outside Pennsylvania State University's HUB''Robeson Center.[356]000000001996-09-25-0000 September 25, 1996 Decatur, Georgia ! Decatur, Georgia 0,000,001 10,000,001 216-year-old David Dubose Jr., killed English teacher, Horace Morgan, on the steps of Dekalb Alternative School. Dubose was found not guilty by reason of insanity and was committed indefinitely to a state mental hospital.000000001996-10-09-0000 October 9, 1996 Sherwood, Arkansas ! Sherwood, Arkansas 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Willis Ward Johnson, killed 20-year-old James Earl Routt, as they rode a school bus.[358]000000001997-01-27-0000 January 27, 1997 West Palm Beach, Florida ! West Palm Beach, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Conniston Middle School student, Tronneal Mangum, fatally shot 14-year-old classmate, John Pierre Kamel, just minutes before school started, over a $40 debt.[359]000000001997-02-19-0000 February 19, 1997 Bethel, Alaska ! Bethel, Alaska 0,000,001 20,000,001 2Bethel Regional High School shooting: 16-year-old student, Evan Ramsey, killed Bethel Regional High School principal, Ron Edwards, and 15-year-old student, Joshua Palacios, and wounded two other students.000000001997-10-01-0000 October 1, 1997 Pearl, Mississippi ! Pearl, Mississippi 0,000,001 30,000,001 7Pearl High School shooting: 16-year-old Luke Woodham, murdered his 50-year-old mother, Mary, at home before killing his ex-girlfriend, 16-year-old student, Christina Menefee, and 17-year-old student, Lydia Kaye Dew, then wounding seven others at Pearl High School.[363]000000001997-10-15-0000 October 15, 1997 Palmetto, Florida ! Palmetto, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 1After an argument between them the day before, 13-year-old Brandon Hartsoe took a .38 revolver from his mother's dresser drawer and shot 13-year-old Lincoln Middle School classmate, Trent Murray, in the back causing serious injury, then continued to fire three more shots in the general area of other students.[364] Hartsoe was sentenced in 1998 to serve until his 18th birthday. His probation was set to end in October 2009.[365]000000001997-12-01-0000 December 1, 1997 West Paducah, Kentucky ! West Paducah, Kentucky 0,000,001 30,000,001 5Heath High School shooting: Three students were killed and five wounded by 14-year-old Michael Carneal, as they participated in a prayer circle. Carneal was sentenced to life in prison.000000001997-12-15-0000 December 15, 1997 Stamps, Arkansas ! Stamps, Arkansas 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Concealed in a wooded area on school grounds, 14-year-old Joseph "Colt" Todd, wounded two students as they were entering Stamps High School.[366]000000001998-03-01-0000 March 1, 1998 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ! Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 3At around 4:15 p.m., gunfire broke out as a crowd streamed from the Palestra after a high school championship basketball game near the University of Pennsylvania. A 22-year-old man was shot in the back and killed, and a student working at the fine arts building was shot in the leg.[367]000000001998-03-24-0000 March 24, 1998 Craighead County, Arkansas ! Craighead County, Arkansas 0,000,001 50,000,001 10Westside Middle School shootings: 13-year-old Mitchell Johnson, and 11-year-old Andrew Golden, killed a teacher and four students, and wounded ten others, as Westside Middle School emptied during a fire alarm intentionally set off by Golden.[368]000000001998-04-24-0000 April 24, 1998 Edinboro, Pennsylvania ! Edinboro, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 10,000,001 3Parker Middle School dance shooting: 14-year-old student, Andrew Wurst, fatally shot 48-year-old teacher, John Gillette, and wounded two students and another teacher at an 8th grade graduation dance. He is serving a thirty to sixty-year sentence in a prison for young offenders.[370]000000001998-05-19-0000 May 19, 1998 Fayetteville, Tennessee ! Fayetteville, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 018-year-old Jacob Lee Davis, shot 18-year-old Robert Creson, at Lincoln County High School in a dispute over a girl.[371] Davis received a life sentence on July 29, 1999.[372]000000001998-05-21-0000 May 21, 1998 Springfield, Oregon ! Springfield, Oregon 0,000,001 40,000,001 23Thurston High School shooting: After killing his parents at home, 15-year-old Kip Kinkel, drove to Thurston High School, where he killed two students and wounded 23 others. After pleading guilty, he was sentenced to 111 years of prison.[373]000000001998-06-15-0000 June 15, 1998 Richmond, Virginia ! Richmond, Virginia 0,000,001 00,000,001 214-year-old student, Quinshawn Brooker, wounded 45-year-old basketball coach and history teacher, Gregory Carter, and 74-year-old Head Start volunteer, Eloise Wilson, in the hallway of Armstrong High School.[374]000000001998-12-10-0000 December 10, 1998 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 052-year-old Professor Andrzej Olbrot, was killed by 48-year-old graduate doctoral student, Wlodzimierz Dedecjusat, at Wayne State University.[375]000000001999-01-08-0000 January 8, 1999 Carrollton, Georgia ! Carrollton, Georgia 0,000,001 10,000,001 115-year-old Andrea Garrett was found dead, and 17-year-old Jeff Miller seriously wounded in the girls' restroom at Central Carrollton County High School, after a suicide pact because Garrett's mother had previously forbidden her to see Miller.[376]000000001999-04-16-0000 April 16, 1999 Notus, Idaho ! Notus, Idaho 0,000,001 00,000,001 015-year-old Shawn Cooper, fired two shots from a shotgun near the front desk at Notus Jr. Sr. High School. There were no serious injuries, but some students were close enough to the blast to be grazed by shrapnel from the tile floor. Cooper had been undergoing treatment for bipolar disorder.[377]000000001999-04-20-0000 April 20, 1999 Littleton, Colorado ! Littleton, Colorado 0,000,001 150,000,001 21Columbine High School massacre: 18-year-old Eric Harris and 17-year-old Dylan Klebold, students at Columbine High School, killed twelve students and one teacher. They injured 21 additional people, and three more were injured while attempting to escape the school. The pair committed suicide at the end of the massacre. 000000001999-05-20-0000 May 20, 1999 Conyers, Georgia ! Conyers, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 615-year-old student Thomas "T.J." Solomon Jr., wounded six students at Heritage High School. A 15-year-old girl was hospitalized in critical condition, and the other victims suffered from non-life-threatening injuries. Solomon initially faced up to 351 years of prison if convicted of aggravated assault and other charges. In 2000 he was found guilty but mentally ill and was sentenced to forty years in prison and sixty-five years of probation.[379]000000001999-11-19-0000 November 19, 1999 Deming, New Mexico ! Deming, New Mexico 0,000,001 10,000,001 013-year-old Victor Cordova Jr., fatally shot 13-year-old Deming Middle School schoolmate, Araceli Tena. Cordova said he had intended to commit suicide but was jostled by others and his gun moved.[380]000000001999-12-06-0000 December 6, 1999 Fort Gibson, Oklahoma ! Fort Gibson, Oklahoma 0,000,001 00,000,001 6Before his middle school opened, 13-year-old Seth Trickey opened fire in the courtyard. While there were no fatalities, several students felt sparks from the bullets hitting the building walls. Five were injured, including a girl who was shot in the face. Trickey brought the gun from home.[381]A 2015 investigation by CNN identified "more than 40 people...charged with Columbine-style plots" since the 1999 Columbine High School massacre and found that almost all were white male teenagers and almost all had studied the Columbine attack or cited the Columbine perpetrators Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold as inspiration.[382]
DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002000-02-29-0000 February 29, 2000 Flint, Michigan ! Flint, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Shooting of Kayla Rolland: At Buell Elementary School, 6-year-old Dedrick Owens fatally shot 6-year-old classmate Kayla Rolland. Owens has since been the youngest documented school shooter.000000002000-05-26-0000 May 26, 2000 Lake Worth, Florida ! Lake Worth, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 013-year-old honor student, Nathaniel Brazill, was sent home for throwing water balloons, but returned to his Lake Worth Middle School with a family pistol. He fatally shot teacher Barry Grunow, a popular teacher, he was Brazill's favorite.000000002000-08-28-0000 August 28, 2000 Fayetteville, Arkansas ! Fayetteville, Arkansas 0,000,001 20,000,001 036-year-old James Easton Kelly, a PhD candidate in Comparative Literature at University of Arkansas, killed 67-year-old Dr. John R. Locke, the English professor overseeing his coursework. Kelly had been dismissed from this PhD program for lack of progress toward his degree. Kelly shot Dr. Locke three times before committing suicide in the director's office, which had been isolated by campus police.[384]000000002000-09-26-0000 September 26, 2000 New Orleans, Louisiana ! New Orleans, Louisiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 213 year-olds Darrel Johnson, and Alfred Anderson were initially charged with attempted first-degree murder in the shooting of 15 year-old William Pennington. Pennington, after being shot, managed to gain control of the gun and shoot Johnson in the back.[385] Charges were later reduced to Aggravated Battery.000000002000-12-01-0000 December 1, 2000 San Diego, California ! San Diego, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 15-year-old Junipero Serra High School student who showed off a handgun on campus and threatened to shoot a classmate, ended up accidentally shooting himself, causing minor injuries.[386]000000002001-03-05-0000 March 5, 2001 Santee, California ! Santee, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 13Santana High School shooting: 15-year-old student, Charles Andrew Williams, killed two students, 14-year-old Bryan Zuckor, and 15-year-old Randy Gordon, at Santana High School and wounded thirteen others. He was arrested and convicted of murder and attempted murder. He was sentenced to life with the chance of parole after serving fifty years.[124]000000002001-03-07-0000 March 7, 2001 Williamsport, Pennsylvania ! Williamsport, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 114-year-old student, Elizabeth Catherine Bush, wounded fellow student Kimberly Marchese in the cafeteria of Bishop Neumann High School; she had been frequently teased and suffered from depression .[387]000000002001-05-16-0000 May 16, 2001 Parkland, Washington ! Parkland, Washington 0,000,001 20,000,001 040-year-old music instructor and organist James D. Holloway was shot multiple times with a .22-caliber handgun at Pacific Lutheran University by a 55-year-old man from Tacoma. The shooter was not a student or employee of the university and also killed himself. The victim was apparently chosen at random as the shooter had a personal dispute with a different staff member who was not on campus that day.[388]000000002001-03-22-0000 March 22, 2001 El Cajon, California ! El Cajon, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 518-year-old former student, Jason Hoffman, opened fire at Granite Hills High School, injuring five people. He was convicted of assault and sentenced to prison, where he committed suicide in 2002.[389]000000002001-03-30-0000 March 30, 2001 Gary, Indiana ! Gary, Indiana 0,000,001 10,000,001 017-year-old Donald Ray Burt Jr., fatally shot Neal Boyd, IV with one bullet to the head in a parking lot outside Lew Wallace High School.[390]000000002002-01-15-0000 January 15, 2002 New York City, New York ! New York City, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 217-year-old Vincent Rodriguez, wounded two students at Martin Luther King, Jr. High School in Manhattan, with a semi-automatic pistol. He was retaliating for the victims having harassed his girlfriend. In February 2003, Rodriguez was sentenced to ten years in prison on charges of assault and attempted assault.[125]000000002002-01-16-0000 January 16, 2002 Grundy, Virginia ! Grundy, Virginia 0,000,001 30,000,001 3Appalachian School of Law shooting: Recently dismissed graduate student, 42-year-old Peter Odighizuwa, killed three at the Appalachian School of Law. 42-year-old dean Anthony Sutin, and 41-year-old professor Thomas Blackwell were killed along with 33-year-old student, Angela Dales. Three other students were also wounded.[391] Odighizuwa received three life sentences and an additional 28 years without the possibility of parole until 2005.[392]000000002002-02-20-0000 February 20, 2002 Milwaukee, Wisconsin ! Milwaukee, Wisconsin 0,000,001 10,000,001 016-year-old Washington High School student, Joseph Johnson Jr., was killed by Phillip D. Jackson Jr., when violence erupts between rival fans in the parking lot, after a basketball game between Vincent High School.[393]000000002002-06-11-0000 June 11, 2002 Conception, Missouri ! Conception, Missouri 0,000,001 30,000,001 271-year-old Lloyd Robert Jeffress opened fire at random in the halls of Conception Abbey, a monastery in northwest Missouri.He killed two monks and seriously wounded another two before fatally shooting himself. Two weapons, a Chinese-made replica of the AK-47 and a sawed-off .22-caliber rifle, were found near the body.[394]
000000002002-10-07-0000 October 7, 2002 Bowie, Maryland ! Bowie, Maryland 0,000,001 00,000,001 1In the Beltway sniper attacks, one victim of several was 13-year-old Iran Brown, who was wounded as he arrived at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland. His aunt, a nurse who had just dropped him off, rushed him to a hospital emergency room. Despite serious injuries, Brown survived the attack.[395][396]000000002002-10-28-0000 October 28, 2002 Tucson, Arizona ! Tucson, Arizona 0,000,001 40,000,001 0Failing nursing college student and Gulf War veteran, 40-year-old Robert Stewart Flores Jr., killed three assistant professors of nursing at the University of Arizona, 50-year-old Robin Rogers, 44-year-old Cheryl McGaffic, and 45-year-old Barbara Monroe, before turning the gun on himself.[397]000000002002-10-29-0000 October 29, 2002 Jersey City, New Jersey ! Jersey City, New Jersey 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 15-year-old student was shot in the abdomen and wounded inside a basement of Lincoln High School, during an argument with another student. Another 15-year-old student was arrested and charged with attempted murder.[398]000000002003-04-14-0000 April 14, 2003 New Orleans, Louisiana ! New Orleans, Louisiana 0,000,001 10,000,001 3John McDonogh High School shooting. 18-year-old Steven Williams, and 17-year-old James Tate opened fire with an AK-47 and a handgun in the gymnasium of John McDonogh High School, killing a 15-year-old student and wounding three female students. Williams was sentenced to life imprisonment, and Tate was sentenced to fifteen years.[126][127]000000002003-04-24-0000 April 24, 2003 Red Lion, Pennsylvania ! Red Lion, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 20,000,001 014-year-old student James Sheets, entered Red Lion Area Junior High School armed with his stepfather's pistols. He killed the school's principal, Eugene Segro, before killing himself.[399]000000002003-05-09-0000 May 9, 2003 Cleveland, Ohio ! Cleveland, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 2On May 9, 2003, Biswanath Halder, a 62-year-old business school alumnus of Case Western Reserve University, killed a graduate student and wounded a professor and another student using a semi-automatic rifle. He held the building and its nearly 100 occupants hostage for seven hours before being apprehended by a SWAT team. He was sentenced to life in prison.[401]000000002003-09-24-0000 September 24, 2003 Cold Spring, Minnesota ! Cold Spring, Minnesota 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Rocori High School shooting: 15-year-old John Jason McLaughlin, shot 15-year-old freshman Seth Bartell and 17-year-old senior Aaron Rollins at Rocori High School. Rollins was killed immediately, and Bartell died from his wounds sixteen days later. McLaughlin was sentenced to life in prison with the chance of parole in 2038.000000002004-02-02-0000 February 2, 2004 Washington, D.C. ! Washington, D.C. 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Thomas J. Boykin was acquitted of the murder of 17-year-old James Richardson, a football player at Ballou High School in Southeast Washington.[129]000000002004-02-09-0000 February 9, 2004 East Greenbush, New York ! East Greenbush, New York 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Jon W. Romano in East Greenbush, New York fired two rounds from a shotgun, wounding one teacher. He was tackled by the assistant principal and charged with one count of attempted murder.[403]000000002004-05-07-0000 May 7, 2004 Randallstown, Maryland ! Randallstown, Maryland 0,000,001 00,000,001 4Two students were charged with a school shooting that arose from a dispute after a basketball game at Randallstown High School. Four persons were injured, two seriously. One student was paralyzed from the waist down.[404]000000002005-02-08-0000 February 8, 2005 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1An 18-year-old student at Bowen High School was shot in the leg as she left the school around 2:30 p.m.[130]000000002005-03-02-0000 March 2, 2005 Dover, Tennessee ! Dover, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old Jason Clinard, killed his bus driver, 47-year-old Joyce Gregory, as she stopped to pick him up. Gregory had earlier reported Clinard for using snuff on the school bus. Clinard was given a life sentence.[405]000000002005-03-21-0000 March 21, 2005 Red Lake, Minnesota ! Red Lake, Minnesota 0,000,001 100,000,001 7Red Lake shootings: 16-year-old student Jeffrey Weise, killed his grandfather and grandfather's companion at their home, where he had been living, at the Red Lake Indian Reservation. He drove to Red Lake Senior High School. Armed with his grandfather's police weapons, Weise killed five students, one teacher, and one security guard, wounding seven others, before committing suicide.[406]000000002005-09-13-0000 September 13, 2005 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At Harlan Community Academy High School, a fight broke out between two 15-year-old boys in the gymnasium. Christopher Huff took out a pistol, shooting the other youth in the leg. A police officer on duty at the school arrested the gunman. The suspected shooter was charged as an adult with aggravated battery with a firearm.[407]000000002005-11-08-0000 November 8, 2005 Jacksboro, Tennessee ! Jacksboro, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 2Campbell County High School shooting: Inside the Campbell County High School office, 15-year-old Kenneth Bartley, shot the school principal, Gary Seale. He shot assistant principals Ken Bruce and Jim Pierce. Bruce later died from his wound. Bartley was sentenced to forty-five years in prison with chance of parole after twenty-nine years.[408][409]000000002006-01-13-0000 January 13, 2006 Longwood, Florida ! Longwood, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 115-year-old Christopher Penley, took a pellet gun to class at Milwee Middle School. After refusing to drop the weapon, he was shot when he pointed it at a police officer.[131]000000002006-02-23-0000 February 23, 2006 Roseburg, Oregon ! Roseburg, Oregon 0,000,001 00,000,001 114-year-old freshman Vincent Wayne Leodoro, shot student 16-year-old Joseph Monti, four times in the back with a semi-automatic handgun at Roseburg High School. Leodoro walked away from the school campus, and was confronted near a restaurant by six police officers. He threatened suicide but was persuaded to surrender.[410] He was found guilty of attempted murder and assault in July 2006, and will be held in prison until he turns twenty five years old.[411]000000002006-03-14-0000 March 14, 2006 Reno, Nevada ! Reno, Nevada 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Pine Middle School shooting: In the hallway of Pine Middle School, 14-year-old James Scott Newman, injured two 14-year-old classmates, Alexander Rueda and Kenzie McKeon, with a revolver belonging to his parents. Two students received minor wounds. Newman was subdued by a physical education teacher. The youth was arrested and charged as an adult for attempted murder, use of a deadly weapon and use of a firearm by a minor.[412] He later pleaded guilty to charges of two counts of battery with a deadly weapon, and was sentenced as a juvenile. Newman was sentenced to house arrest until he completed two-hundred hours of community service.[413]000000002006-08-24-0000 August 24, 2006 Essex Junction, Vermont0,000,001 20,000,001 3Christopher Williams, 26, shot his girlfriend's mother, Linda Lambesis, 57 at her home and from there he went to Essex Elementary School where Andrea, his girlfriend, worked. After he arrived at the elementary school, which was not in session at the time, he shot and killed Mary Alicia Shanks, 56, and shot Mary Snedeker, 52, nonfatally. He left the school and allegedly shot Chad Johansen, 26 nonfatally. He then turned the gun on himself, but did not die as a result.[414]000000002006-08-30-0000 August 30, 2006 Hillsborough, North Carolina ! Hillsborough, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 2After shooting and killing his father, teenager Alvaro Castillo went to his high school, where he wounded two students. He was reportedly obsessed with the Columbine shootings and had written an email to the current Columbine high school principal before committing his own crime.[415]000000002006-09-02-0000 September 2, 2006 Shepherdstown, West Virginia ! Shepherdstown, West Virginia 0,000,001 30,000,001 049-year-old Douglas W. Pennington, killed himself and his two sons, 26-year-old Logan P. Pennington, 24-year-old Benjamin M. Pennington, during a visit to the campus of Shepherd University.[416][417]000000002006-09-17-0000 September 17, 2006 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ! Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 5Five Duquesne basketball players were shot early Sunday morning during an apparent act of random violence on campus, leaving three hospitalized '-- two of them in critical condition.[418]000000002006-09-27-0000 September 27, 2006 Bailey, Colorado ! Bailey, Colorado 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Platte Canyon High School hostage crisis: 53-year-old drifter, Duane Roger Morrison, walked into Platte Canyon High School and took six girls hostage. He sexually assaulted them. As a SWAT team stormed the classroom, he killed 16-year-old Emily Keyes, then took his own life.[419]000000002006-09-29-0000 September 29, 2006 Cazenovia, Wisconsin ! Cazenovia, Wisconsin 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Weston High School shooting: At around 8 a.m., 15-year-old freshman, Eric Hainstock, entered Weston High School. He aimed a 20-gauge shotgun at social studies teacher, Chuck Keller, before it was wrestled from him by school custodian, Dave Thompson. Hainstock then shot 49-year-old high school principal, John Alfred Klang, with a .22 caliber revolver. Klang died later that afternoon.[421] Hainstock was charged and convicted of murder, and is serving a life sentence. He will be eligible for parole in 2037.000000002006-10-02-0000 October 2, 2006 Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania ! Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 60,000,001 3West Nickel Mines School shooting: 32-year-old milk truck driver, Charles Carl Roberts IV, killed five Amish girls and wounded five others before killing himself in an Amish school in the hamlet of Nickel Mines, in Bart Township, Lancaster County.[423]000000002006-10-09-0000 October 9, 2006 Joplin, Missouri ! Joplin, Missouri 0,000,001 00,000,001 013-year-old student Thomas White fired one shot from a Mac-90 rifle at a hallway ceiling at Memorial Middle School. The gunshot struck a water pipe, and nobody was injured. He also tried repeatedly to shoot principal Stephen Gilbreth at near-point-blank range as Gilbreth ushered him out of the school. Joplin police say the attempt was foiled by an improperly seated ammunition clip in the rifle. The principal was not injured. White was tried as an adult on charges of assault and firearms possession, and in 2009 he was sentenced to ten years of prison.[424]000000002007-01-03-0000 January 3, 2007 Tacoma, Washington ! Tacoma, Washington 0,000,001 10,000,001 018-year-old student Douglas S. Chanthabouly, killed 17-year-old Samnang Kok, in the hallways of Henry Foss High School following a personal disagreement. In 2009, Chanthabouly was sentenced to 23 years in prison on a charge of second-degree murder.[132]000000002007-03-07-0000 March 7, 2007 Compton, California ! Compton, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1During an argument with several non-students and students, a student was shot in the elbow and wounded in the eating area at Centennial High School. The shooting occurred an hour after classes were dismissed, and students in after-school activities were sent home.[425]000000002007-04-16-0000 April 16, 2007 Blacksburg, Virginia ! Blacksburg, Virginia 0,000,001 330,000,001 23Virginia Tech shooting: 23-year-old student, Seung-Hui Cho, killed thirty-two students and faculty members at Virginia Tech, and wounded another seventeen students and faculty members in two separate attacks before committing suicide. The incident is the third-deadliest mass shooting by a single gunman in modern U.S. history.000000002007-10-10-0000 October 10, 2007 Cleveland, Ohio ! Cleveland, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 4SuccessTech Academy shooting: Asa H. Coon, a 14-year-old suspended student, returned to SuccessTech Academy, where he fired shots at people inside the school building, wounding two teachers and two students. He shot himself in the head, committing suicide.[426]000000002007-11-06-0000 November 6, 2007 Miami Gardens, Florida ! Miami Gardens, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 143-year-old 11th grade algebra teacher, Sergio Miranda, was shot by 19-year-old Patrick Lively, outside Miami Carol City Senior High School during a robbery but was expected to survive.[427][428] In 2011, Lively received a life sentence.[429]000000002008-02-04-0000 February 4, 2008 Memphis, Tennessee ! Memphis, Tennessee 0,000,001 00,000,001 1At Hamilton High School, a student shot a 16-year-old student in the leg during a classroom argument over rap music. The victim's injury was not life-threatening.[133]000000002008-02-08-0000 February 8, 2008 Baton Rouge, Louisiana ! Baton Rouge, Louisiana 0,000,001 30,000,001 0Latina Williams, a 23-year-old nursing student at Louisiana Technical College killed two classmates and herself in a second floor classroom.[430]000000002008-02-11-0000 February 11, 2008 Memphis, Tennessee ! Memphis, Tennessee 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Following a feud that started off campus earlier in the week, a 19-year-old senior was shot by a 17-year-old sophomore during a gym class held in the cafeteria with about 75 other students at Mitchell High School, before handing the gun to a coach making no attempt to flee. The victim suffered at least two gunshot wounds and was in critical condition, the suspected shooter was in custody. "He walked up to him, shot him, and made a statement to the coach that 'It's over now,' ", said principal, Daniel Ware.[431]000000002008-02-12-0000 February 12, 2008 Oxnard, California ! Oxnard, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Murder of Larry King: 14-year-old Brandon McInerney, shot 15-year-old Lawrence "Larry" King, twice in the head in the computer laboratory of E.O. Green Junior High School. McInerney was apprehended in a nearby neighborhood. King, who was openly homosexual, died two days later. McInerney was initially charged with a hate crime, but that charge was dropped. McInerney pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 21 years in prison.[432]000000002008-02-14-0000 February 14, 2008 DeKalb, Illinois ! DeKalb, Illinois 0,000,001 60,000,001 21Northern Illinois University shooting: 27-year-old Steven Kazmierczak, shot multiple people in a lecture hall of Northern Illinois University, killing five and injuring 21, before taking his own life. Kazmierczak was not enrolled at the university, but had attended in the years prior to the attack.[433]000000002008-08-14-0000 August 14, 2008 Federal Way, Washington ! Federal Way, Washington 0,000,001 10,000,001 026-year-old Omero Mendez was waiting at the Lakota Middle School campus to pick up his girlfriend's son. He was confronted by 16-year-old Luis F. Cosgaya-Alvarez and two of his friends, driving in an SUV. Cosgaya-Alvarez flashed gang signs at Mendez, and shot him once in the head. Mendez later died of his injuries. Cosgaya-Alvarez was arrested a few days later in Seattle and was charged with murder. Cosgaya-Alvarez pleaded guilty to murder and weapon enhancements, and was sentenced to eighteen years in prison.[434]000000002008-08-21-0000 August 21, 2008 Knoxville, Tennessee ! Knoxville, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 0At Central High School, 15-year-old Jamar Siler killed 15-year-old Ryan McDonald. In 2011, Siler was sentenced to thirty years in prison after pleading guilty to murder in a plea agreement.000000002008-09-02-0000 September 2, 2008 Willoughby, Ohio00A 15-year-old student brought a handgun into South High School, and shot two rounds, one into the ceiling and one shattering a trophy case. The student then put the gun to his head. Then Assistant Principal Jeff Lyons talked the student out of doing any harm.000000002008-10-16-0000 October 16, 2008 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 316-year-old Christopher Walker, was killed, and three other teenagers were seriously wounded during a drive-by shooting near Henry Ford High School, soon after classes let out. Three teenagers were arrested and charged in connection with the shooting. The shooter, 15-year-old William Morton, was sentenced to life without parole, and Devon Bell was sentenced to forty-two years of prison.[435]000000002008-10-26-0000 October 26, 2008 Conway, Arkansas ! Conway, Arkansas 0,000,001 20,000,001 1University of Central Arkansas shootings: Four young men fatally shot two students, 18-year-old Ryan Henderson, and 19-year-old Chavares Block, and wounded a 19-year-old campus visitor in the leg, outside the Arkansas Hall dormitory of University of Central Arkansas.[436]000000002008-11-13-0000 November 13, 2008 Fort Lauderdale, Florida ! Fort Lauderdale, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old Amanda Collette, was killed in the hallway at Dillard High School. The shooter, 15-year-old Teah Wimberly, was sentenced to twenty-five years to life on a first-degree murder charge.[437]000000002009-01-09-0000 January 9, 2009 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 5After attendees were leaving a basketball game at Dunbar High School, a truck pulled over and someone inside fired shots at the crowd, wounding five people, three critically. 18-year-old Georgio Dukes, was arrested and charged a week later with five counts of felony aggravated battery with a firearm. Police believe that the attack was gang-related.[134]000000002009-04-26-0000 April 26, 2009 Hampton, Virginia ! Hampton, Virginia 0,000,001 00,000,001 318-year-old Odane Greg Maye, a former student of Hampton University, followed a 43-year-old pizza delivery man into his former dormitory. Armed with three guns, Maye wounded the delivery man, then the dorm monitor. Lastly, Maye shot himself in a suicide attempt. He survived and was convicted of two charges of malicious wounding, two counts of using a gun in a felony; burglary; and shooting in an occupied building. He was sentenced to fourteen years of prison in November 2009, and was ordered by a judge to pay more than $62,000 in restitution to his victims for lost wages.[438]000000002009-05-18-0000 May 18, 2009 Cambridge, Massachusetts ! Cambridge, Massachusetts 0,000,001 10,000,001 020-year-old Jabrai Copney, 23-year-old Jason Aquino, and 19-year-old Blayn Jiggetts, of New York City, invited 21-year-old Justin Cosby, of Cambridge, into a Harvard College dormitory. After trying to rob him of a pound of marijuana, they shot him. Copney turned himself in four days later. Copney was convicted of murder. His partners pleaded guilty to armed robbery and manslaughter. His girlfriend, 21-year-old Brittany Smith, pleaded guilty to accessory after the fact, firearm possession, and misleading a grand jury.[439]000000002009-05-18-0000 May 18, 2009 Larose, Louisiana ! Larose, Louisiana 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old Larose-Cut Off Middle School student, Justin Doucet, carried his backpack to a restroom, where he put on camouflage clothes, took out a semi-automatic handgun before storming into a classroom. He was going to shoot his school teacher, Jessica Plaisance, but the gun did not fire. He returned to the restroom and shot himself in the head, dying a week later of his wounds.[440][441]000000002009-06-16-0000 June 16, 2009 San Francisco, California ! San Francisco, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 3After students were being let out of International Studies Academy on the first day of summer school classes, a man left a car and opened fire, wounding three people, including a 17-year-old female student. An 18-year-old man was arrested for being an accessory in the crime.[442]000000002009-09-03-0000 September 3, 2009 San Bruno, California ! San Bruno, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 20-year-old student was wounded in the parking lot of Skyline College after an argument between him and other men. The college campus was placed on lockdown. Three San Francisco residents, 18-year-old Germaine B. Benjamin, 20-year-old Dimaryea J. McGhee, and 18-year-old Jacori W. Bender, were each arrested and charged with felony firearm offenses.[443]000000002009-10-16-0000 October 16, 2009 Conway, South Carolina ! Conway, South Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 016-year-old student, Trevor Varinecz was killed by a school resource officer after allegedly stabbing the officer.Above figures as of February 21, 2018.
DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002010-02-05-0000 February 5, 2010 Madison, Alabama ! Madison, Alabama 0,000,001 10,000,001 014-year-old student, Hammad Memon, killed 14-year-old Todd Brown at Discovery Middle School as classes were changing. The shooting was possibly related to gang activitiy. In May 2013, Memon pleaded guilty to the murder and was sentenced to thirty years of prison. After Memon is released from prison, he is likely to be deported to his native Pakistan.[445]000000002010-02-12-0000 February 12, 2010 Huntsville, Alabama ! Huntsville, Alabama 0,000,001 30,000,001 32010 University of Alabama in Huntsville shooting: 44-year-old biology professor, Amy Bishop, killed the chairman of the biology department, 52-year-old Gopi K. Podila, and biology professors, 50-year-old, Maria Ragland Davis and 52-year-old Adriel D. Johnson. She also wounded biology professors, Luis Rogelio Cruz-Vera and Joseph G. Leahy, and staff assistant, Stephanie Monticciolo.000000002010-02-19-0000 February 19, 2010 DeKalb, Illinois ! DeKalb, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Less than a week after Northern Illinois University solemnly marked the second anniversary of a mass shooting on campus that claimed the lives of five students, the DeKalb school was the scene of further gun violence. 24-year-old NIU student, Brian Mulder, refused entry to 22-year-old Zachary R. Isaacman, when he had tried to follow a female resident into the Stevenson Residence Hall North, where they were living, because he was not a resident. Moments later, while outside the dorm smoking with a friend, Mulder was shot by Isaacman, with a handgun in the leg above the knee. Isaacman tried to flee, but was caught by police within minutes.[446]000000002010-02-23-0000 February 23, 2010 Littleton, Colorado ! Littleton, Colorado 0,000,001 00,000,001 2At Deer Creek Middle School, 32-year-old Bruco Strong Eagle Eastwood opened fire from a rifle in a parking lot, and wounded two eighth-graders Reagan Webber and Matt Thieu, before being restrained by 57-year-old Math teacher, David Benke, and held until his arrest. The boy's wounds were critical for the four days following the shooting.[447] In October 2011, Eastwood was found not guilty by reason of insanity.[448]000000002010-03-09-0000 March 9, 2010 Columbus, Ohio ! Columbus, Ohio 0,000,001 10,000,001 151-year-old Ohio State University custodian, Nathaniel Brown, killed a co-worker and wounded another.000000002010-09-08-0000 September 8, 2010 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Two students were wounded in front of Mumford High School by 17-year-old Steven Jamal Hare. He was tried as an adult and charged with assault with intent to kill. In 2012, Hare was sentenced to 27 years in prison.[449]000000002010-09-28-0000 September 28, 2010 Austin, Texas ! Austin, Texas 10,000,001 0A 19-year-old sophomore student Colton Tooley, wielding an AK-47 and wearing a ski mask, opened fire and then killed himself in a University of Texas library[450]000000002010-10-01-0000 October 1, 2010 Salinas, California ! Salinas, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old student Jose Daniel Cisneros was killed after being shot several times on an athletic field at Alisal High School while walking to school. Police said that the shooting was gang-related.[451]000000002010-10-08-0000 October 8, 2010 Carlsbad, California ! Carlsbad, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 241-year-old Brendan O'Rourke climbed over a fence and opened fire with a handgun in a playground of Kelly Elementary School, which had 230 students; two second-grade female students were grazed in the arms before O'Rourke was subdued by a construction worker. He was found guilty of seven counts of attempted murder and was sentenced to 189 years to life in prison.[452]000000002010-11-29-0000 November 29, 2010 Marinette, Wisconsin ! Marinette, Wisconsin 0,000,001 10,000,001 015-year-old Samuel Hengel, took 23 students and a teacher hostage inside a classroom of Marinette High School for five hours. He had stormed into the class, firing with a handgun at a movie projector. Police persuaded Hengel to release the hostages. After officers entered the building, Hengel shot himself in the head. He died the next day.[453]000000002010-12-06-0000 December 6, 2010 Aurora, Colorado ! Aurora, Colorado 0,000,001 00,000,001 1In a gang-related attack outside Aurora Central High School, a 17-year-old girl was paralysed. She was one of a group of students outside the school. 20-year-old Luis Enrique Guzman-Rincon, had fired shots from a car trying to hit gang rivals. Guzman-Ricon was sentenced to thirty-five years in prison.[454]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002011-01-05-0000 January 5, 2011 Omaha, Nebraska ! Omaha, Nebraska 0,000,001 20,000,001 2At Millard South High School, 18-year-old student, Robert Butler Jr., killed assistant principal Dr. Vicki Kaspar and wounded principal Curtis Case before opening fire at police in the front office area, causing the school nurse to be wounded by gunshot debris. Butler then drove to a parking lot and shot himself as police cornered him.[455]000000002011-03-25-0000 March 25, 2011 Martinsville, Indiana ! Martinsville, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Michael Phelps, a 15-year-old suspended student, returned to Martinsville West Middle School with a handgun. In the entrance of the school, Phelps shot 15-year-old Chance Jackson twice in the abdomen, critically wounding him. Phelps fled the school and dropped the handgun; he was arrested shortly after. Jackson had to undergo surgery three times to save his life; he suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder. Phelps was convicted of attempted murder in August 2011, and was sentenced to thirty years in prison and five years of probation.[456]000000002011-03-31-0000 March 31, 2011 Houston, Texas ! Houston, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 5Multiple gunmen opened fire during a powder puff football game at Worthing High School. One man, an 18-year-old former student named Tremaine De Ante' Paul, died. Five other people were injured.[457]000000002011-05-23-0000 May 23, 2011 Pearl City, Hawaii ! Pearl City, Hawaii 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 14-year-old male student is accused of firing a handgun on the campus of Highlands Intermediate School, wounding one student. The gunman was arrested on suspicion of attempted murder. Two other suspects were arrested in connection with the shooting.[458]000000002011-10-24-0000 October 24, 2011 Fayetteville, North Carolina ! Fayetteville, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Cape Fear High School shooting: 15-year-old Catilyn Abercrombie, was shot in the neck with a rifle by fellow student, 15-year-old Charles Underwood, at Cape Fear High School. She was hospitalized for two months in a serious condition. Underwood was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He was convicted of attempted first-degree murder and sentenced to fifteen years in prison.[459]000000002011-12-08-0000 December 8, 2011 Blacksburg, Virginia ! Blacksburg, Virginia 0,000,001 20,000,001 022-year-old, Ross Truett Ashley, part-time business student at Radford University, killed a police officer engaged in an unrelated traffic stop on the campus of Virginia Tech, he then committed suicide in a nearby parking lot.[460]000000002011-12-09-0000 December 9, 2011 Edinburg, Texas ! Edinburg, Texas 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Two students were shot after school at Harwell Middle School in Edinburg, Texas while trying out for their school's basketball team. The shooting allegedly was done by an adult off campus, who was shooting at a target range.[461]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002012-01-10-0000 January 10, 2012 Houston, Texas ! Houston, Texas 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A student opened fire with a handgun at North Forest High School, wounding another student. The shooter said that he had been confronted by three students who had been bullying him and he shot in self-defense. He hit a 16-year-old bystander in the leg. The 18-year-old suspect was charged with aggravated assault with a deadly weapon.[462]000000002012-02-27-0000 February 27, 2012 Chardon, Ohio ! Chardon, Ohio 0,000,001 30,000,001 3Chardon High School shooting: 17-year-old Thomas "T. J." Lane, took a semi-automatic handgun and a knife to Chardon High School, where he fired ten shots at a group of students sitting in the cafeteria. He killed three boys and wounded three other students. One 16-year-old died immediately, two others died the following day. Lane was arrested early the next morning while standing near his car. He was charged as an adult with murder, attempted murder, and firearms offenses. In March 2013, he was convicted and sentenced to three life sentences without the possibility of parole.[464]000000002012-03-06-0000 March 6, 2012 Jacksonville, Florida ! Jacksonville, Florida 20A murder-suicide resulted in two deaths on the campus of the Episcopal School of Jacksonville. Shane Schumerth, a Spanish teacher who had been fired that morning returned to the campus in the early afternoon via a pedestrian entrance, armed with an AK-47 which he concealed in a guitar case. He entered the office of the Head of School, Dale Regan, and fired multiple shots, fatally wounding her. Schumerth then killed himself, in the office.[465]000000002012-04-02-0000 April 2, 2012 Oakland, California ! Oakland, California 0,000,001 70,000,001 3Oikos University shooting: 43-year-old One L. Goh, was accused of shooting dead seven students with a handgun and wounding three others at Oikos University, a Christian college. He fled the scene, stealing a victim's car, and was apprehended hours later nearby. Goh was charged with seven counts of murder. In January 2013, Goh was determined to be mentally unfit for trial and committed for treatment.[466]000000002012-08-16-0000 August 16, 2012 Memphis, Tennessee ! Memphis, Tennessee 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Two Hamilton High School students were wounded in the parking lot of the school. The attack was believed to be gang-related.[467]000000002012-08-27-0000 August 27, 2012 Perry Hall, Maryland ! Perry Hall, Maryland 0,000,001 00,000,001 115-year-old Robert Gladden, fired two shots with a shotgun inside the cafeteria at Perry Hall School. He hit a 17-year-old senior in the lower back, causing critical wounds. The youth has Down syndrome. Gladden was subdued by two school faculty members, and arrested. In February 2013, he was sentenced to thirty-five years in prison on attempted murder charges.[468]000000002012-09-07-0000 September 7, 2012 Normal, Illinois ! Normal, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 0A 14-year-old student fired multiple gunshots in a classroom ceiling at Normal Community High School, and was tackled by a teacher. Nobody was injured. The student was arrested and charged with sixteen felony counts.[469][470]000000002012-10-06-0000 October 6, 2012 Mobile, Alabama ! Mobile, Alabama 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A University of South Alabama student, Gil Collar, was fatally shot by a campus police officer. Collar, 18, was at the time under the influence of a hallucinogenic, 25I-NBOMe. Acting erratically, he had repeatedly approached the police officer "in a fighting stance", while naked and unarmed. Officer Trevis Austin, equipped with pepper spray and a baton, felt his life was threatened and shot him, once through the chest.[471] Austin was cleared of any wrongdoing by the university.[472]000000002012-10-19-0000 October 19, 2012 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 018-year-old Banner Academy South student, Terrance Wright, was killed during an attempted robbery. Wright was approached by five would-be robbers as he left the school about 3:40 p.m.. He was shot in the chest as he fought back when one assailant was going through his pockets. Wright had been picked on at his previous high school because he was gay, which led him to transfer to Banner.[473]000000002012-10-31-0000 October 31, 2012 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 4At a Halloween party on the University of Southern California campus, an argument escalated and 20-year-old Brandon Spencer, used a handgun to shoot rival gang member, Geno Hall, seven times, critically wounding him. Spencer wounded three other people, none were students at USC, they were hospitalized with less serious injuries. Spencer was arrested just minutes after the shooting, which took place outside USC's Grand Ballroom at around 11:30 p.m.[474] In April 2014, he was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to forty years to life in prison.[475]000000002012-12-14-0000 December 14, 2012 Newtown, Connecticut ! Newtown, Connecticut 0,000,001 280,000,001 2Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: 20-year-old Adam Lanza, killed twenty-six people and himself. He first killed his mother at their shared home before taking her guns and driving to the school. Lanza brought four guns with him. He killed twenty first-grade children aged six and seven during the attack at school, along with six adults, including four teachers, the principal, and the school psychologist. Two other persons were injured. Lanza then killed himself as police arrived at the school.[476]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002013-01-07-0000 January 7, 2013 Fort Myers, Florida ! Fort Myers, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 0Shots were fired at Apostolic Revival Center Christian School, leaving 27-year-old Kristopher Smith dead in what was believed to be a retaliation killing, possibly for his talking with police about a previous incident.[477][478]000000002013-01-10-0000 January 10, 2013 Taft, California ! Taft, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 216-year-old student, Bryan Oliver, entered a science classroom of Taft Union High School with a shotgun and opened fire, critically wounding 16-year-old student Bowe Cleveland. He shot at but missed another student. The classroom teacher Ryan Heber convinced Oliver, to drop his weapon. He was later arrested. On January 14, he was charged with two counts of attempted murder and assault with a firearm. He was convicted and accepted a plea deal with a sentence of 27 years and 4 months.[480] According to the attorney[481] for the Cleveland family, they were not satisfied with the sentence.000000002013-01-12-0000 January 12, 2013 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old Osborn High School student is wounded after a basketball game.000000002013-01-15-0000 January 15, 2013 St. Louis, Missouri ! St. Louis, Missouri 0,000,001 00,000,001 2A 34-year-old gunman wounded an administrator in his office on the fourth floor of Stevens Institute of Business and Arts. The suspected gunman, Sean Johnson, a part-time student, wounded himself in a stairwell. Both the administrator and Johnson were hospitalized in stable conditions. Johnson was charged with three felony charges, including assault.[482][483]000000002013-01-15-0000 January 15, 2013 Hazard, Kentucky ! Hazard, Kentucky 0,000,001 30,000,001 0Two people were killed and a third person was wounded at the parking lot of Hazard Community and Technical College.[484] The third victim, 12-year-old Taylor Cornett, died from her wounds the next day.[485] 21-year-old Dalton Lee Stidham, was arrested and charged with three counts of murder.000000002013-01-16-0000 January 16, 2013 Chicago, Illinois ! Chicago, Illinois 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 17-year-old boy, Tyrone Lawson, was killed in a parking lot of Chicago State University. The shooting happened after high school basketball games held on the campus, where Lawson had been a spectator. Police arrested two brothers, Michael McNabb, 33, and Brian Hewlett (under the alias Stephen Gilbert), 30 after the shooting and recovered a weapon.[486][487]000000002013-01-22-0000 January 22, 2013 Houston, Texas ! Houston, Texas 0,000,001 00,000,001 3Lone Star College''North Harris shooting: Outside Lone Star College''North Harris, two men got into an argument. One wounded the other. He also wounded a maintenance man, and accidentally shot himself in the leg. The shooter fled into the woods and was arrested hours later. The charges against the initial suspect were dropped and another man was arrested.[488]000000002013-01-31-0000 January 31, 2013 Phoenix, Arizona ! Phoenix, Arizona 0,000,001 00,000,001 0An argument between two rival gangs escalated to what police described as a "gun battle" at Cesar Chavez High School. Approximately fifteen shots were fired in the vicinity of people waiting to get into a scheduled boys' basketball game. No one was injured.[489]000000002013-01-31-0000 January 31, 2013 Atlanta, Georgia ! Atlanta, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 2A 14-year-old male student was wounded at Price Middle School. The gunman, a 15-year-old student, was believed to be arguing with the other student before using a handgun to shoot him. A teacher was also wounded. Afterward, the gunman was disarmed by a school resource officer and arrested; police charged him with aggravated assault.[490][491]000000002013-03-18-0000 March 18, 2013 Orlando, Florida ! Orlando, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 0At the University of Central Florida, 30-year-old student James Oliver Seevakumaran pulled a fire alarm at the Tower One dormitory, to attract a crowd. He pointed a handgun at his roommate and threatened to shoot him in their room; he released the roommate, who ran out and called 9-1-1. Seevakumaran then fatally shot himself in the head. Authorities found an assault weapon, a couple hundred rounds of ammunition and four homemade bombs inside his backpack.[492]000000002013-04-12-0000 April 12, 2013 Dublin, Virginia ! Dublin, Virginia 0,000,001 00,000,001 2New River Community College shooting incident: Two women were wounded during a shooting at the campus of New River Community College. 18-year-old Neil Allen MacInnis, was taken into custody. In June 2014, he was sentenced to 38 years in prison.[493]000000002013-04-16-0000 April 16, 2013 Grambling, Louisiana ! Grambling, Louisiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 3Three students were injured on the campus of Grambling State University.[494]000000002013-04-18-0000 April 18, 2013 Cambridge, Massachusetts ! Cambridge, Massachusetts 0,000,001 20,000,001 1At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, near Building 32, the Ray and Maria Stata Center, a campus police officer was shot multiple times and killed. The shooting was believed to be perpetrated by the suspects of the Boston Marathon bombings three days prior to this shooting. The two suspects were brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. About three hours after the MIT shooting, Tamerlan died in a gunfight with police in Watertown, Massachusetts. Another officer was seriously wounded. Dzhokhar was arrested 18 hours afterward in Watertown, and was hospitalized in critical condition from a gunshot wound to the neck.[495]000000002013-05-14-0000 May 14, 2013 Birmingham, Alabama ! Birmingham, Alabama 0,000,001 00,000,001 0Allegedly responding to a student fight, a mother of a student fired a weapon on the campus of Ossie Ware Mitchell Middle School. No one was injured.[496]000000002013-06-07-0000 June 7, 2013 Santa Monica, California ! Santa Monica, California 0,000,001 60,000,001 42013 Santa Monica shooting: 23-year-old John Zawahri, began a killing spree at his home. After killing his 55-year-old father, Samir "Sam" Zawahri, and 25-year-old brother, Chris Zawahri, he set the house ablaze. Dressed all in black with body armor and wielding an AR-15-type semi-automatic rifle, Zawahri carjacked 41-year-old Laura Siska, shooting 50-year-old Debra Fine, as she attempted to intervene, before forcing Siska to drive to Santa Monica College. Upon arriving on the college campus, Zawahri began shooting at passing vehicles, including a police car and a city bus, leaving three people with minor injuries. Zawahri next targeted a Ford Explorer, killing the driver, 68-year-old campus groundskeeper, Carlos Navarro Franco, and fatally wounding the passenger, his 26-year-old daughter Marcela Diaz-Franco, a student at the college, who died two days later. 68-year-old Margarita Gomez, who was collecting cans outside the library, died after being shot in the abdomen and chest. Zawahri opened fire on students who were trying to run away. It ended at the college library where he opened fire on students studying for finals, before being fatally wounded in an exchange of gunfire with responding police officers.[497]000000002013-08-20-0000 August 20, 2013 Decatur, Georgia ! Decatur, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 0Armed with an automatic rifle, 21-year-old Michael Brandon Hill fired six shots inside the front office of Ronald E. McNair Discovery Learning Academy. He barricaded himself in the office, where police returned fire. Nobody was injured. Children were evacuated. After talking with school bookkeeper, Antoinette Tuff in the front office, he was persuaded to surrender before anyone was hurt. Hill was arrested and charged.[499]000000002013-08-23-0000 August 23, 2013 Sardis, Mississippi ! Sardis, Mississippi 0,000,001 10,000,001 215-year-old student, Roderick Bobo, was killed during a football game at North Panola High School in what was termed a gang-related shooting. Two others were injured in the shooting. Three men were charged as being responsible for the crime.[500]000000002013-08-30-0000 August 30, 2013 Winston-Salem, North Carolina ! Winston-Salem, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 15-year-old male student was shot at Carver High School, at 2:30 p.m.. He was hospitalized with minor injuries. An 18-year-old male student was apprehended without further incident. The suspected gunman is charged with assault with a deadly weapon inflicting serious injury, carrying a concealed gun, possessing and discharging a firearm, and carrying a firearm onto educational property. The shooting was believed related to a dispute between the suspect and the victim.[501]000000002013-10-04-0000 October 4, 2013 Pine Hills, Florida ! Pine Hills, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 2A 16-year-old student was shot in the hip outside Agape Christian Academy after a fight broke out at 2 p.m.. An innocent bystander was hit by a stray bullet or shrapnel. The two victims were treated for minor injuries. The suspected shooter reportedly fled in a car with several other males, and was not caught.[502]000000002013-10-21-0000 October 21, 2013 Sparks, Nevada ! Sparks, Nevada 0,000,001 20,000,001 212-year-old seventh-grade student Jose Reyes opened fire with a handgun at the basketball courts of Sparks Middle School, injuring one student in the shoulder. Michael Landsberry, a teacher and veteran, tried to intervene and was killed by Reyes. Reyes also wounded a student trying to help the teacher. Reyes then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. The shooting happened before classes, and the school was evacuated and was closed for the week.[503]000000002013-11-02-0000 November 2, 2013 Greensboro, North Carolina ! Greensboro, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 21-year-old student was wounded at North Carolina A&T State University. The victim was hospitalized for serious but non-life-threatening injuries. The university was temporarily locked down that night. No suspects are in custody.[504]000000002013-11-03-0000 November 3, 2013 Lithonia, Georgia ! Lithonia, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 2A Stephenson High School student and a janitor were shot in an apparent confrontation between football team members and a group of teens who were not attending the school. Both were innocent bystanders.[505]000000002013-11-13-0000 November 13, 2013 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ! Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 3After classes ended, at least one gunman came out of the woods and opened fire on three students as they were walking to their cars at Brashear High School. One student was grazed in the head, another was struck in the neck and shoulder, and a third was hit in the leg and foot. Six people were taken into custody. The shooting is believed to be drug-related.[506]000000002013-12-04-0000 December 4, 2013 Winter Garden, Florida ! Winter Garden, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 15-year-old student was wounded by a 17-year-old student near a soccer field on the campus of West Orange High School. The shooting occurred after a fight broke out between the two students. The 17-year-old suspected shooter was taken into custody several miles away from the school, and is charged with attempted murder, aggravated battery with a firearm, possession of a firearm by a minor and possession of a firearm on school grounds. In October 2014, the shooter was sentenced to twenty-five years in prison.[507]000000002013-12-13-0000 December 13, 2013 Centennial, Colorado ! Centennial, Colorado 0,000,001 20,000,001 018-year-old Karl Pierson, shot 17-year-old student Claire Davis in the head, fatally injuring her, in a hallway in Arapahoe High School. Pierson then took his own life. Pierson was armed with a shotgun, three Molotov cocktails, and a machete. His intention was to shoot the librarian who had disciplined him. Claire Davis died from her injuries on December 21, 2013.[508]000000002013-12-19-0000 December 19, 2013 Fresno, California ! Fresno, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Four teens (16, 16, 16 and 17 years old) entered Edison High School in what was believed as a gang-initiation process. After accosting a 62-year-old woman about a mile away from school grounds, they found an athletic trainer who taught at Edison High and shot him several times in the leg and stomach.[509]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002014-01-09-0000 January 9, 2014 Jackson, Tennessee ! Jackson, Tennessee 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old student was charged with bringing a gun to school at Liberty Technology Magnet High School and shooting a classmate in the thigh. The incident occurred outside the front of the school.[510]000000002014-01-13-0000 January 13, 2014 New Haven, Connecticut ! New Haven, Connecticut 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 14-year-old boy was shot outside of a basketball game at the Hillhouse High School athletic facility, suffering wounds in his hand and leg.[cite]000000002014-01-14-0000 January 14, 2014 Roswell, New Mexico ! Roswell, New Mexico 0,000,001 00,000,001 3Two people were wounded inside the gymnasium of Berrendo Middle School, at about 8:10 a.m.. An 11-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl were airlifted to a hospital in Lubbock, Texas in critical condition. The 12-year-old suspected shooter, Mason Campbell, a seventh grade student, was apprehended at the scene after he was talked down by a staff member and dropped the shotgun. A staff member received minor injuries. Campbell was charged with three counts of aggravated battery with a deadly weapon. He was sentenced to a maximum sentence of confinement in a juvenile detention facility until he is twenty one years old.[511]000000002014-01-17-0000 January 17, 2014 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ! Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 2A student allegedly shot two other students in the gymnasium at Delaware Valley Charter School. Both victims, a male and a female, were shot in the arm. They were taken to a nearby hospital and are in stable condition, police say. Police Commissioner Charles Ramsey said at a news conference that the shooter ran out of the school after the shooting but was taken into custody near his home. 17-year-old Raisheem Rochwell was arrested and charged as an adult for aggravated assault, recklessly endangering another person and firearms offenses. Rochwell was sentenced to two years of juvenile detention.[512]000000002014-01-20-0000 January 20, 2014 Chester, Pennsylvania ! Chester, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 1One person was critically injured at Widener University. The incident occurred around 10 p.m. outside the university sport's complex and led to an 8-hour university lock-down. The suspect was not immediately found.[513]000000002014-01-21-0000 January 21, 2014 West Lafayette, Indiana ! West Lafayette, Indiana 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 21-year-old student, Andrew Boldt, was killed in a classroom building on the campus of Purdue University. 24-year-old student Cody Cousins was found guilty of the murder and was sentenced to sixty-five years of prison. In October 2014, Cousins committed suicide in his cell.[514]000000002014-01-24-0000 January 24, 2014 Orangeburg, South Carolina ! Orangeburg, South Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 20-year-old student was killed at South Carolina State University. A 19-year-old was arrested and charged with murder.[515]000000002014-01-25-0000 January 25, 2014 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A man was killed at Los Angeles Valley College. Two suspects were arrested in the fatal shooting.[516]000000002014-01-27-0000 January 27, 2014 Carbondale, Illinois ! Carbondale, Illinois 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A group of students at Rebound High School got in an argument in the school's parking lot. One student pulled out a gun and shot another student in the ensuing altercation. An 18-year-old suspect is facing charges of attempted murder.[517]000000002014-01-28-0000 January 28, 2014 Nashville, Tennessee ! Nashville, Tennessee 0,000,001 00,000,001 1One student was shot in the leg in an apparent altercation over a gambling debt at Tennessee State University.[518]000000002014-01-30-0000 January 30, 2014 Palm Bay, Florida ! Palm Bay, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Three students were fighting in a parking lot of Eastern Florida State College and one pulled out a gun and shot another of the students. All three students claimed self-defense.[519]000000002014-01-31-0000 January 31, 2014 Des Moines, Iowa ! Des Moines, Iowa 0,000,001 00,000,001 1After a basketball game at North High School, there was gunfire in a parking lot of the school. Six males in a black jeep had come moments before the shooting and returned at the time it happened. A 15-year-old girl was injured by a ricocheting bullet. While officers were gaining control of the area, teachers on the scene led students into the school building for safety.[520]000000002014-02-10-0000 February 10, 2014 Salisbury, North Carolina ! Salisbury, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 16-year-old student was shot in the stomach on the campus of Salisbury High School during a dispute in the school gym. 17-year-old suspect was charged with assault with a deadly weapon with intent to kill inflicting serious injury, possession of a firearm on school property and discharging a weapon on school property.[521]000000002014-02-10-0000 February 10, 2014 Lyndhurst, Ohio ! Lyndhurst, Ohio 0,000,001 00,000,001 0Five shots were fired in the parking lot of Charles F. Brush High School, including one which hit an unoccupied police car. No one was reported to be injured, though a school basketball game was going on at the time.[522]000000002014-02-12-0000 February 12, 2014 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A male victim was shot in the back in a possible gang-related drive-by shooting near the University of Southern California. The suspect fled into the University Campus. The victim was last reported in stable condition before being transported to a local hospital.[523]000000002014-02-22-0000 February 22, 2014 Augusta, Georgia ! Augusta, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A shooting involving a campus police officer occurred at a Georgia Regents University dormitory complex. A male suspect entered a vehicle and nearly struck an officer, who opened fire. The suspect was taken to Georgia Regents Medical Center with injuries that were not believed to be critical.[524]000000002014-03-12-0000 March 12, 2014 Miami, Florida ! Miami, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 0An elementary school teacher was killed outside The Academy of Knowledge Preschool by her husband.000000002014-03-25-0000 March 25, 2014 College Park, Georgia ! College Park, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 0An argument between students led to shots being fired in a Benjamin Banneker High School parking lot during the afternoon. Investigators believe multiple people were present when shots were fired, but it was not known how many could face charges for the incident. No one was injured in the shooting.[525]000000002014-04-09-0000 April 9, 2014 Greenville, North Carolina ! Greenville, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 0Just after the lunch hour, at D. H. Conley High School, a car drove past the school and witnesses said an occupant reached out of a car window and fired shots in the direction of the school. This incident occurred on Worthington and Tull Roads, directly in front of the school. No one was injured.[526]000000002014-04-11-0000 April 11, 2014 Detroit, Michigan ! Detroit, Michigan 0,000,001 10,000,001 0After a Friday evening student awards ceremony called "Grammy Night", four men who were affiliated with a gang fired into a crowd in the parking lot of East English Village Preparatory Academy. One 19-year-old, Darryl Smith, was fatally shot in the head. Smith was not a student at the academy.[527]000000002014-05-04-0000 May 4, 2014 Augusta, Georgia ! Augusta, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Two men fired shots inside a dormitory at Paine College on Sunday, injuring one student in the head. Neither of the suspects were students at the college.[528]000000002014-05-05-0000 May 5, 2014 Augusta, Georgia ! Augusta, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 1An active shooter situation was reported at Paine College with one person reported to be shot. The suspect was apparently apprehended and in custody. It was the second shooting incident to occur at the college campus in two days.[529]000000002014-05-08-0000 May 8, 2014 Lawrenceville, Georgia ! Lawrenceville, Georgia 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A person was shot on a student parking lot roof at Georgia Gwinnett College, receiving an injury. The specific cause has not been identified.[530]000000002014-05-14-0000 May 14, 2014 Richmond, California ! Richmond, California 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 14-year-old student was injured during a drive-by shooting in front of John F. Kennedy High School at 8:30 a.m.. He was shot as he was running towards the school campus after a fight took place. The student suffered a serious but stable injury to his leg. Police are searching for a suspect.[531]000000002014-06-05-0000 June 5, 2014 Seattle, Washington ! Seattle, Washington 0,000,001 10,000,001 219-year-old students, Paul Lee and Sarah Williams, and 24-year-old student, Thomas Fowler, were shot inside a hallway of Otto Miller Hall at Seattle Pacific University.[532] Freshman Lee was rushed to Harborview Medical Center but later died. The shooter was subdued with pepper spray and tackled to the ground by student building monitor, Jon Meis, as he paused to reload his shotgun. 26-year-old Aaron Rey Ybarra was arrested at the scene and has been charged with premeditated and attempted murder.[533]000000002014-06-10-0000 June 10, 2014 Troutdale, Oregon ! Troutdale, Oregon 0,000,001 20,000,001 1At around 8:30 a.m. shots were fired at Reynolds High School. 14-year-old freshman Emilio Hoffman was killed, a physical education teacher was injured, and the gunman, 15-year-old Jared Padgett, exchanged gunfire with police officers and then committed suicide in a restroom stall.[534]000000002014-09-09-0000 September 9, 2014 Miami, Florida ! Miami, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Towards the end of the school day, one alternative school student in Miami was shot as a small group of students tussled. The injury was minor, requiring hospitalization, and five young adults were later questioned.[535]000000002014-09-27-0000 September 27, 2014 Terre Haute, Indiana ! Terre Haute, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 20-year-old Indiana State University student was shot by another student on Saturday inside a residence hall. The injuries were not fatal, and a full recovery was expected. The shooter was arrested on the following day.[536]000000002014-09-30-0000 September 30, 2014 Albemarle, North Carolina ! Albemarle, North Carolina 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Two students got in an argument at Albemarle High School around 7:30 a.m. on Tuesday, and one of the students shot the other twice including once in the leg. The student who committed the shooting was allegedly involved in a stabbing of a football player last year at West Montgomery High School, which is only 20 miles (32 km) away in Mount Gilead, North Carolina. The school had held an active shooter training over the summer, which prepared the school for this incident.[537]000000002014-09-30-0000 September 30, 2014 Louisville, Kentucky ! Louisville, Kentucky 0,000,001 00,000,001 1One student was injured at Fern Creek Traditional High School. The incident occurred around 1 p.m., reportedly after student became enraged in a hallway and pulled out a gun. The student was arrested later that day.[538]000000002014-10-03-0000 October 3, 2014 Fairburn, Georgia ! Fairburn, Georgia 0,000,001 10,000,001 0After a homecoming football game, a fatal shooting of 17-year-old Kristofer Hunter, occurred in the Langston Hughes High School parking lot. The assailant, 18-year-old Eric Dana Johnson Jr., turned himself in a week later.[539]000000002014-10-24-0000 October 24, 2014 Marysville, Washington ! Marysville, Washington 0,000,001 50,000,001 1Marysville Pilchuck High School shooting. 15-year-old freshman, Jaylen Fryberg, shot five students in the school cafeteria of Marysville Pilchuck High School, fatally wounding four, before committing suicide.[540]000000002014-11-20-0000 November 20, 2014 Tallahassee, Florida ! Tallahassee, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 3At around 12:40 a.m. EST, a gunman opened fired in or near the Strozier Library at Florida State University. Three people suffered gunshot injuries and were taken to a local area hospital. One was in critical condition, another was in good condition, and the third was shortly released after treatment. The gunman, later identified as Myron May, an alumnus from the school, started firing towards responding police officers and was fatally shot by them on the steps of the library.[541]000000002014-11-20-0000 November 20, 2014 Miami, Florida ! Miami, Florida 0,000,001 10,000,001 1Two teens were shot during a fight at Miami Carol City High School. One of the boys died.[542]000000002014-12-05-0000 December 5, 2014 Claremore, Oklahoma ! Claremore, Oklahoma 0,000,001 10,000,001 038-year-old Thomas Floyd Fees, a former Tulsa police officer, fired two gunshots within the campus of Rogers State University during an attempt to enter a university building, before committing suicide. He had previously been arrested the day before for entering a female student's dormitory room with observable intent to commit a sexual assault.[543]000000002014-12-12-0000 December 12, 2014 Portland, Oregon ! Portland, Oregon 0,000,001 04Rosemary Anderson High School shooting: A gunman shot three students and a man outside Rosemary Anderson High School in north Portland. A 16-year-old girl was in critical condition, while the others suffered minor injuries. Two men, aged eighteen and twenty-two, were arrested in connection with the shooting.[544]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002015-01-15-0000 January 15, 2015 Milwaukee, Wisconsin ! Milwaukee, Wisconsin 0,000,001 00,000,001 3A 15-year-old boy, a student's father, and a teacher were each injured in the school parking lot at Wisconsin Lutheran High School. The student had unspecified injuries that were treated. The father was shot in the knee and the teacher was grazed in the toe. A 36-year-old man was charged in the shooting.[545]000000002015-01-16-0000 January 16, 2015 Ocala, Florida ! Ocala, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Two were injured in gunfire that occurred after a Friday night basketball game. One was injured directly by a bullet, the other by ricocheting glass.[546]000000002015-02-04-0000 February 4, 2015 Frederick, Maryland ! Frederick, Maryland 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Two students were shot near the gymnasium of Frederick High School during a junior varsity (JV) boys' basketball game. Approximately two hundred students, staff, and faculty were placed on lockdown for several hours after the shooting while police searched for the suspects. No suspects have been apprehended, although witnesses report seeing four black males dressed all in black who are considered by police to be suspects in this shooting.[547]000000002015-02-14-0000 February 14, 2015 Merced, California ! Merced, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A teenager was found killed in the parking lot of Tenaya Middle School. The shooting was reported to have occurred after school hours.[548]000000002015-02-23-0000 February 23, 2015 Daytona Beach, Florida ! Daytona Beach, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 3Two students argued outside the music building at Bethune-Cookman University when one pulled out a gun. Both had guns and it is not disclosed who did the shooting, injuring three students. A reward was offered to help solve this case.[549]000000002015-03-30-0000 March 30, 2015 University City, Missouri ! University City, Missouri 0,000,001 00,000,001 1Police said one person has been arrested for a shooting at Pershing Elementary School. The shooting occurred in the parking lot, with a 34-year-old-man being shot in the buttocks.[550]000000002015-04-13-0000 April 13, 2015 Goldsboro, North Carolina ! Goldsboro, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A faculty member was killed with a rifle in the school library of Wayne Community College. The suspected 20-year-old gunman, Kenneth Stancil, was arrested in Florida the next day. As of January 2017, Stancil, an admitted Neo-Nazi is being investigated for a hate crime.[551]000000002015-04-16-0000 April 16, 2015 Paradis, Louisiana ! Paradis, Louisiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A police officer was shot outside a school in a school zone while he was directing school buses into J.B. Martin Middle School, and the suspect was apprehended at the scene.[552]000000002015-04-27-0000 April 27, 2015 Lacey, Washington ! Lacey, Washington 0,000,001 00,000,001 0A 15-year-old student at North Thurston High School walked into the commons area and fired two shots into the ceiling from a .357 magnum pistol. Brady Olson, a teacher at the school, was able to tackle the student before they could turn the gun on other students. No one was injured or killed. The student is facing charges of firing and possessing a gun on school property.[553]000000002015-05-12-0000 May 12, 2015 Jacksonville, Florida ! Jacksonville, Florida 0,000,001 00,000,001 2Police report that a 16-year-old shot five bullets into a school bus and injured two students. Apparently, there was an argument that touched on previous events.[554]000000002015-05-24-0000 May 24, 2015 Flint, Michigan ! Flint, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 7In the early morning hours of Memorial Day weekend, a group of people were at Southwestern Classical Academy in the parking lot. Shots rang out and seven were injured, with two men being apprehended and charged.[555]000000002015-08-27-0000 August 27, 2015 Savannah, Georgia ! Savannah, Georgia 0,000,001 10,000,001 022-year-old student Christopher Starks was fatally shot in a student union building at Savannah State University. The shooter has not been identified.[556]000000002015-09-03-0000 September 3, 2015 Sacramento, California ! Sacramento, California 0,000,001 10,000,001 2A man was arguing with at least one other person escalated into a physical fight on the parking lot of Sacramento City College. A man opened fire, killing a 25-year-old student and wounding two others. The shooting suspect has not been arrested.[557]000000002015-09-14-0000 September 14, 2015 Cleveland, Mississippi ! Cleveland, Mississippi 0,000,001 20,000,001 0A geography professor at Delta State University fatally shot a fellow history professor. The geography professor was chased by police and eventually died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.[558]000000002015-09-30-0000 September 30, 2015 Harrisburg, South Dakota ! Harrisburg, South Dakota 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A principal was shot in the arm and wounded at Harrisburg High School after an argument with a student. The suspect, a 16-year-old student at the school, was taken into custody and is charged with first-degree attempted murder.[559]000000002015-10-01-0000 October 1, 2015 Roseburg, Oregon ! Roseburg, Oregon 0,000,001 100,000,001 9Umpqua Community College shooting: At around 10:40 a.m. PDT, a gunman, identified as 26-year-old student Christopher Harper-Mercer, opened fire in a hall on the Umpqua Community College campus, killing eight students and one teacher, and injuring nine others. Mercer then committed suicide after engaging responding police officers in a brief gunfight.[560]000000002015-10-09-0000 October 9, 2015 Flagstaff, Arizona ! Flagstaff, Arizona 0,000,001 10,000,001 3One student died and three others were wounded in a shooting at Northern Arizona University. It is unclear what sparked the shooting, which took place near Mountain View Hall, a dormitory that houses most of the campus' students involved in Greek organizations. An 18-year-old student was arrested and charged with murder and aggravated assault.[561]000000002015-10-09-0000 October 9, 2015 Houston, Texas ! Houston, Texas 0,000,001 10,000,001 1One person died and another person was injured after someone opened fire outside a Texas Southern University dorm.[562]000000002015-10-22-0000 October 22, 2015 Nashville, Tennessee ! Nashville, Tennessee 0,000,001 10,000,001 3One person was killed and three others were wounded in a shooting at an outdoor courtyard at Tennessee State University. The shooting may have stemmed from an argument over a dice game. A suspect has not been identified or arrested.[563]000000002015-11-01-0000 November 1, 2015 Winston-Salem, North Carolina ! Winston-Salem, North Carolina 0,000,001 10,000,001 1One person died and another person was injured after someone opened fire on the campus of Winston-Salem State University. A 21-year-old non-student suspect is sought.[564]000000002015-11-20-0000 November 20, 2015 North Las Vegas, Nevada ! North Las Vegas, Nevada 0,000,001 10,000,001 0A 16-year-old student was fatally shot during a fight after school hours that involved multiple people on the campus of Mojave High School.[565]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002016-01-22-0000 January 22, 2016 Indianapolis, Indiana ! Indianapolis, Indiana 0,000,001 00,000,001 1A 15-year-old male was shot in the leg and injured during a night-time basketball game at Lawrence Central High School.[566]000000002016-01-29-0000 January 29, 2016 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ! Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 0,000,001 00,000,001 0A gunshot was fired during a fight in a stairwell at Franklin High School, and no injuries were reported. Three people were detained.[567]000000002016-02-09-0000 February 9, 2016 Muskegon Heights, Michigan ! Muskegon Heights, Michigan 0,000,001 00,000,001 4Four people, including two students, were injured during a basketball game event in the parking lot of Muskegon Heights High School.[568]000000002016-02-12-0000 February 12, 2016 Glendale, Arizona ! Glendale, Arizona 0,000,001 20,000,001 0Two 15-year-old girls died in an apparent Murder-Suicide at Independence High School.[569]000000002016-02-29-0000 February 29, 2016 Middletown, Ohio ! Middletown, Ohio 0,000,001 00,000,001 415-year-old Cameron Smith, and 14-year-old Cooper Caffrey, were shot when 14-year-old James Austin Hancock, opened fire in the Madison High School cafeteria with a .380 caliber handgun. 15-year-old Brant Murray, and 14-year-old Katherine Douchette, also suffered shrapnel injuries.[570] Hancock was apprehended in a nearby wooded field.[571]000000002016-04-23-0000 April 23, 2016 Antigo, Wisconsin ! Antigo, Wisconsin 0,000,001 10,000,001 2Two students at a prom at Antigo High School were shot and injured by 18-year-old former student Jakob Wagner. Wagner later exchanged fire with a school resource officer in the school's parking lot, and was captured after being shot and wounded by police. He died hours later in a hospital.000000002016-06-01-0000 June 1, 2016 Los Angeles, California ! Los Angeles, California 0,000,001 20,000,001 02016 UCLA shooting. Mainak Sarkar, age 38, a Ph.D. student, killed his former professor, William S. Klug, age 39, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, in an engineering building at UCLA. Sarkar then killed himself. Sarkar, who lived in Minnesota, also killed his former wife, Ashley Hasti, age 31, in her Brooklyn Park, Minnesota home.[572][573]000000002016-06-08-0000 June 8, 2016 Dorchester, Massachusetts13One student was killed and three other individuals were injured when gunfire erupted outside of the Jeremiah Burke High School following a fire-alarm causing an evacuation of the school. Two suspects have been arrested.[574]000000002016-09-09-0000 September 9, 2016 Alpine, Texas ! Alpine, Texas 12A 14-year-old female student shot a 16-year-old girl in an Alpine High School restroom before committing suicide. A police officer accidentally shot another officer during the incident.000000002016-09-28-0000 September 28, 2016 Townville, South Carolina ! Townville, South Carolina 22Townville Elementary School shooting: Two students and one teacher were wounded after a teen opened fire at Townville Elementary School. The suspect's father was found dead at his home soon after the shooting. One of the victims, six-year-old Jacob Hall, died 3 days after the shooting.[575][576]000000002016-10-11-0000 October 11, 2016 Mobile, Alabama ! Mobile, Alabama 01A student was shot in the abdomen and wounded at Vigor High School. The suspect, a 16-year-old boy, turned himself in and was charged with assault.[577]000000002016-10-13-0000 October 13, 2016 Columbus, Ohio ! Columbus, Ohio 02Two students were shot and wounded on the front lawn of Linden McKinley STEM Academy. One was shot in the shoulder, and the other shot in the chest, and were hospitalized in stable condition.[578]000000002016-10-18-0000 October 18, 2016 San Francisco, California ! San Francisco, California 04Four students were shot outside June Jordan High School for Equity, a San Francisco public high school. One female victim was in critical condition, while three male victims suffered minor injuries. .[579] Two people were arrested in the shooting.[580]000000002016-10-25-0000 October 25, 2016 Sandy, Utah01Police say the two teens ages 14 and 16 were involved in a confrontation on the far north end of Union Middle School. The boys got into an argument. The argument lead to a shooting. The 14 year old shot the 16 year old twice. He was sent to the hospital in critical but stable condition.[581]000000002016-12-01-0000 December 1, 2016 Bountiful, Utah00At Mueller Park Junior High School, a 15-year-old student fired one shot into the ceiling and then pointed the weapon at his own neck. The student was confronted verbally by a teacher and another student and later arrested in possession of a shotgun, a handgun, and ammunition for each.[582]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002017-01-20-0000 January 20, 2017 West Liberty, Ohio01A 17-year-old student was charged with attempted murder and other crimes after bringing a gun to West Liberty-Salem High School and firing two shots at 17-year-old student in a bathroom with a shotgun. The victim was injured. The student was "also is accused of discharging the weapon in the school's hallway before returning to the bathroom, where he was eventually taken into custody."[583]000000002017-01-20-0000 January 20, 2017 Seattle, Washington01A 34-year-old man was shot in Red Square at University of Washington while protesting the visit of controversial journalist Milo Yiannopoulos. The shooter turned himself in to the university police and later questioned and released without being charged with a crime.[584]000000002017-03-21-0000 March 21, 2017 King City, California01An 18-year-old King City High School student was shot outside the school's auditorium. The gunman ran across the school's campus and baseball field, and fled the area. The school was then placed on lockdown. The victim was hospitalized with life-threatening injuries.[585] A suspect was arrested in August 2017.[586]000000002017-04-10-0000 April 10, 2017 San Bernardino, California31North Park Elementary School shooting: Cedric Anderson, age 53, of Riverside, California, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound after shooting and killing his estranged wife, Karen Elaine Smith, age 53, in a classroom. An eight-year-old student was also fatally shot, and a seven-year-old student was injured.[587]000000002017-05-04-0000 May 4, 2017 Irving, Texas20North Lake College: Adrian Victor Torres killed a 20-year-old student, Janeera Nickol Gonzalez, whom he was stalking. He fatally shot her three times and the college went into lockdown before discovering that the suspect has died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.[588]000000002017-09-13-0000 September 13, 2017 Rockford, Washington13Freeman High School: Three students injured and one killed after a shooter opened fire. The suspect, a 15-year-old student, was taken into police custody.[589]000000002017-09-20-0000 September 20, 2017 Mattoon, Illinois01Mattoon High School: A 14-year-old male student was subdued by a female teacher when he attempted to open fire in the school cafeteria at 11:33 a.m. Multiple shots were fired in the process, and one student was struck in the chest and was driven to a nearby hospital suffering non-life-threatening wounds. The student was taken into custody without further incident.[590][591]000000002017-11-14-0000 November 14, 2017 Rancho Tehama Reserve, California618Rancho Tehama Reserve shootings: Neighbor on a rampage injured one student at Rancho Tehama Elementary School and fatally shot five adults at several locations.[592] The secretary heard the gunfire near the school and ordered the school to go on lockdown. After a custodian and the teachers put it into action, 43 year-old Kevin Neal rammed a truck into the gate of the school and fired at the classrooms hitting one student when a bullet pierced the wall. Neal fatally shot himself after sheriff's deputies rammed his vehicle during a pursuit.[592][593]000000002017-12-07-0000 December 7, 2017 Aztec, New Mexico30Aztec High School shooting: William Atchison, 21-year-old former male student snuck into Aztec High School disguised as a student and hid in an unlocked washroom with a Glock 9mm hidden in his bag. He retreated from the washroom after being spotted by a school custodian who chased him shouting "active shooter" and "lockdown". Atchinson was able to shoot and kill two students who were caught in the hallway before he killed himself.[594][595] He had been investigated in 2016 by the FBI when he asked "where to find cheap assault rifles for a mass shooting" on an online forum.[596][597]DateLocationDeathsInjuriesDescription000000002018-01-20-0000 January 20, 2018 Winston-Salem, North Carolina10A student was fatally shot on the campus of Wake Forest University.[598][599]000000002018-01-22-0000 January 22, 2018 Italy, Texas01A 16-year-old male student fired at a 15-year-old classmate in the cafeteria of Italy High School. The gunman left the school immediately after opening fire.[600][601][602]000000002018-01-22-0000 January 22, 2018 New Orleans, Louisiana01Shots were fired from a truck in the parking lot of NET Charter High School, targeting a crowd of students during lunch time. One student was slightly injured, apparently from injuries unrelated to gunfire. One person was arrested in connection with the shooting.[598]000000002018-01-23-0000 January 23, 2018 Marshall County, Kentucky218Marshall County High School shooting: A 15-year-old male student shot 16 people in the lobby at Marshall County High School and caused non-gunshot injuries to 4 others. Two 15-year-old students died: one killed at the scene, another died of wounds at Vanderbilt Medical Center.[603][604][605]000000002018-02-01-0000 February 1, 2018 Los Angeles, California05Two 15-year-old students, a boy and a girl, were shot and injured inside a classroom at Sal Castro Middle School, which shares a campus with Belmont High School. Three other people suffered injuries unrelated to gunfire. A 12-year-old girl was arrested and put in custody. She had a pistol in her backpack and it discharged for unknown reasons.[606]000000002018-02-05-0000 February 5, 2018 Oxon Hill, Maryland01A student was taken to hospital after exiting Oxon Hill High School and going to speak to individuals in a vehicle who then attempted to rob, and subsequently shot and wounded him in the school's parking lot. Two other students were arrested and charged with attempted murder and robbery.[607]000000002018-02-14-0000 February 14, 2018 Parkland, Florida0,000,001 1714Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting: A 19-year-old former student who had been expelled began shooting students and staff members with a semi-automatic rifle at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School after pulling a fire alarm. 17 people were killed, and fourteen others were injured. The suspect, Nikolas Cruz, blended in with the crowd of fleeing students and was arrested in a residential area of neighboring Coral Springs after walking away from the school.[608] He is facing charges of murder and attempted murder.[609]
Direct-to-consumer advertising - Wikipedia
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:22
Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTC advertising) usually refers to the marketing of pharmaceutical products but also applies to the direct marketing of medical devices, consumer diagnostics and sometimes financial services. This form of advertising is directed toward patients, rather than healthcare professionals. The rhetorical objective of direct-to-consumer advertising is to directly influence the patient-physician dialogue in order to increase sales of a particular pharmaceutical drug.[1]
The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for regulating DTC advertising in the United States. The FDA's latest version of guidelines, though still in draft form, for pharmaceutical drug advertising was updated in 2009.[2] Forms of DTC advertising include TV, print, radio and other mass and social media. There are ethical and regulatory concerns regarding DTC advertising, specifically the extent to which these ads may unduly influence the prescribing of the prescription medicines based on consumer demands when, in some cases, they may not be medically necessary.
Countries permitting DTC [ edit] To date four nations permit DTC in the pharmaceutical industry:[3][4]
New Zealand (1981)United States (1985)[4][5]Brazil (2008) '' In 2008 a new resolution from ANVISA (Control Agency for Sanitary Vigilance), Resolution 96 from December 17 was released, with focus on medication advertisement. It allows direct-to-consumer advertising of non-prescription medication, with restrictions on the type of drug and words and images that can be used, among other things.[6] Advertisements for prescription medications can only appear in scientific, medical, or health professional journals.[7]Hong Kong (1953)[8]History [ edit] Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCPA) laws and regulations in the United States have gradually become more relaxed since they were first introduced in the 1960s. Consequently, expenditures on advertisements for prescription drugs in the United States have grown to approximately $4.5 billion per year.[9]
In 1962 Congress gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate prescription drug labeling and advertising, but the FDA did not establish implementing regulations until 1969.[9][10] Pharmaceutical companies shifted the focus of their marketing efforts to licensed medical doctors in the 1970s, as the FDA mandated that only doctors could prescribe medicine.[10]
After a series of Patient Rights campaigns in the 1970s persuaded a large segment of the population to be actively involved in their own medical care, the drug company Pfizer launched the first pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer campaign in 1980, promoting its brand but not marketing any prescription medication.[9] In 1981, Boots aired the first targeted drug advertisement for the drug Rufen, promoting the pain killer as a cheaper alternative to leading brands. Soon after Merck launched a campaign promoting its pneumonia vaccine.[10]
DTC marketing significantly increased starting in 1997, after the FDA suggested ways pharmaceutical companies could meet what had previously been a legally vague regulatory provision; the FDA also exempted certain types of advertisements from providing a full summary of major side effects and contraindications of a drug's effectiveness.[10] In 2004, the FDA further relaxed DTCPA regulations to require only a brief description of the drug and its side effects '' provided that consumers could access full summary information elsewhere.[9]
In 2002, the Secretary of Health and Human Services began requiring all draft FDA regulatory letters, including letters related to advertising violations, to be reviewed and approved by the FDA's Office of Chief Counsel before they are issued.[11]
On 2 August 2005, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America released its Guiding Principles on Direct to Consumer Advertisements About Prescription Medicines, with the intent to stop congressional action to end industry self-regulation.[12]
This great amount of advertising has been successful in raising the prescription rate of DTC drugs by 34.2% from 1998 to 1999, compared to only a 5.1% increase in other prescriptions during the same time.[13]
The apparent commercial success of DTC advertising drew criticism from public health officials and physicians.[14]
On 17 November 2015, the American Medical Association called for a ban on all U.S. prescription drug and medical device advertising directly to consumers. Representatives of the leading physician's association argued that such commercial broadcasts encourage patients to take medications unnecessarily and to choose more expensive drugs. However, such a ban would require authorization by the United States Congress.[15]
On 4 March 2016, Senator Al Franken introduced a bill to Congress that would eliminate tax breaks for pharmaceutical companies advertising directly to consumers. In a similar move, representative Rosa DeLauro called for a three-year moratorium on advertising of newly approved prescription drugs. Such bans on advertising have faced substantial criticism by the pharmaceutical industry. Representatives from Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) stated that drug advertising campaigns are aimed at providing consumers with information to become actively involved in their own health care.[16]
Economic [ edit] Supporters of DTCPA argue that advertisements increase competition which leads to lower prescription drug prices and new development, citing, for instance, that between 1997 to 2001, spending on research and development in the US increased 59% while spending on promoting drugs directly to patients increased 145%. However, other experts have asserted that funding for R&D is determined by several other factors.[17][9]
Public health [ edit] Arguments in favor of DTCPA assert that advertising informs consumers of new treatment options, generating new doctor visits and thereby reducing the rate of undiagnosed illnesses.
DTC advertising, among other patient education initiatives, can educate consumers and patients about therapeutic options that may not have been proactively mentioned by their healthcare professional. Proponents of DTCPA claim this provides a vital opportunity for the public to be aware of what is available to them and to engage in an educated discussion with their doctor. According to one study, every additional $28 spent on DTCPA prompts one patient visit within the following 12 months. Another study observes that DTCPA promotes communication between patients and their doctors about medications. Thirty percent of Americans indicate they talk with their doctor about a medicine they saw on TV.[18]
In addition, surveys show that increased advertising has had a positive impact on the degree to which people adhere to a given course of treatment '' but only among those who were already on medication prior to exposure to DTCPA. Among this population, a 10% increase in exposure to drug advertising increases the rate of adherence between 1% and 2%.[19]
Economic [ edit] Some studies have asserted that DTCPA misleads patients into demanding heavily-advertised drugs, leading to superfluous or sub-optimal treatment. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have determined that 47% of all antibiotics prescribed in the United States are unnecessary, imposing significant additional costs on affected households.[20] Another study found that young people living in West Palm Beach, Florida found that a 10% increase in advertising expose increased the total number of prescriptions by 5%; a higher percentage change than in Denver, Colorado '' where DTCPA expenditures per person are lower.[21] Critics also argue that resources spent on DTCPA could otherwise be spent on developing new drugs and medical therapies. Nine of the 10 largest pharmaceutical companies worldwide spend more money on sales and marketing than on research and development.[22] US pharmaceutical companies are estimated to have spent 5.2 billion dollars on prescription drug advertising in 2015 most of which was spend on television advertising.[23]
Doctor-Patient Relationship [ edit] When consumers approach their doctor with a health concern, or to request a change in medication for a condition they already have, often their first and most persuasive source of information was a pharmaceutical advertisement. This leads consumers to direct their doctors' visits from the start by prompting a conversation about a certain drug or course of treatment. Doctors may be more likely to prescribe the medicine patients requested even when it may not be the most cost-effective, medically sound or safe course of treatment. Of those patients who sought medical treatment because of an advertisement, 44% report their doctor prescribed the medication that they requested.[19] 47% of doctors expressed feeling pressured to prescribe a drug because their patient requested it by name.[24] When new drugs are marketed directly to patients, the use of these drugs accelerates, even though trials and testing may not have yet had enough time to identify long-term side effects or rare reactions to the drug. Recently-released drugs usually are only tested in small pre-marketing clinical trials.[25]
New demand for a particular drug can also create adverse public health harm. A higher rate of antibiotic consumption '' driven in part by DTCPA '' is creating anti-biotic resistant infection strains that in turn pose a public health hazard.[20]
DTCPA has contributed to illicit drug use of certain pharmaceutical drugs, as drug addicts seek out prescriptions based on their greater knowledge of drugs available on the market.[19]
Drug Safety [ edit] DTCA can lead to patients using newer drugs. Drug advertisements predominately advertise new drugs.[26] Advertisements generally begin within a year of drugs entering the market.[26] Newer drugs have had less time to be studied. This can result in drugs being withdrawn from the market after initial approval. From 1997 to 2001, 10 drugs were removed from the U.S. market.[27]
Medicalization [ edit] Pharmaceutical companies' desire to make a profit can lead to marketing more drugs to more people. The bounds for what is considered ill may broaden. Advertisements display ''unfortunate facts of life'' like wrinkling or baldness as a disease to be treated with drugs.[24]
References [ edit] ^ Mogull, Scott A.; Balzhiser, Deborah (September 2015). "Pharmaceutical Companies Are Writing the Script for Health Consumerism". Commun. Des. Q. Rev. 3 (4): 35''49. doi:10.1145/2826972.2826976. ISSN 2166-1200. ^ Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Guidances (Drugs) - Advertising". ^ Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Direct-to-consumer advertising under fire. The World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 4 January 2017. ^ ab Mogull, Scott A. (2008). "Chronology of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Regulation in the United States". AMWA Journal. 23: 3. ^ "WHO - Direct-to-consumer advertising under fire". ^ "RESOLU‡ƒO-RDC Nº 96, DE 17 DE DEZEMBRO DE 2008"(PDF) . Retrieved August 13, 2017 . ^ "Advertising Regulation for Medication in Brazil". The Brazil Business. Retrieved 2018-02-21 . ^ "Drug Office - Undesirable Medical Advertisements Ordinance". ^ abcde Ventola, C. Lee (2011). "Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising". Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 36 (10): 669''684. ISSN 1052-1372. PMC 3278148'¯ . PMID 22346300. ^ abcd Donohue, Julie (2006). "A History of Drug Advertising: The Evolving Roles of Consumers and Consumer Protection". The Milbank Quarterly. 84 (4): 659''699. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2006.00464.x. ISSN 0887-378X. PMC 2690298'¯ . PMID 17096638. ^ Donohue, J. M.; Cevasco, M.; Rosenthal, M. B. (2007). "A Decade of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (7): 673''681. doi:10.1056/nejmsa070502. PMID 17699817. ^ Arnold, Matthew (2006-10-01). 40 years of DTC. MMM, 1 October 2006. Retrieved from ^ Sheehan, Kim. Controversies in Contemporary Advertising; Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003; pp 209-215. ^ Kerber, Ross. Doctors Criticize Sleeping-Pill Ad (Lunesta from Sepracor Inc.). Boston Globe, Boston, Aug. 18, 2005, p HS05. ^ E Silverman (2015). "American Medical Association wants to ban drug ads to consumers".STAT (Pharmalot). Retrieved 4 January 2017. ^ E Silverman (2016)."Lawmaker seeks to end tax breaks for consumer drug ads".STAT (Pharmalot). Retrieved 4 January 2017. ^ Hollon, Matthew F. (2004-02-01). "Direct-To-Consumer Marketing of Prescription Drugs". CNS Drugs. 18 (2): 69''77. doi:10.2165/00023210-200418020-00001. ISSN 1172-7047. ^ Iizuka, Toshiaki; Jin, Ginger Zhe (2005-09-01). "The Effect of Prescription Drug Advertising on Doctor Visits". Journal of Economics & Management Strategy. 14 (3): 701''727. doi:10.1111/j.1530-9134.2005.00079.x. ISSN 1530-9134. ^ abc McKinlay, John B.; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Marceau, Lisa D.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Fischer, Michael A. (April 2014). "Effects of patient medication requests on physician prescribing behavior: results of a factorial experiment". Medical Care. 52 (4): 294''299. doi:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000096. ISSN 1537-1948. PMC 4151257'¯ . PMID 24848203. ^ ab "CDC Press Releases". CDC. Retrieved 2017-08-12 . ^ "Cause and Effect: Do Prescription Drug Ads Really Work? - Knowledge@Wharton". Knowledge@Wharton. Retrieved 2017-07-28 . ^ Anderson, Richard (2014-11-06). "Pharmaceutical industry gets high on fat profits". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-08-12 . ^ Orelli, Brian (June 9, 2017). "6 Reasons Why Prescription Drug Prices Are Extremely Expensive -- The Motley Fool". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 2017-08-12 . ^ ab Metzl, Jonathan. ''Selling Sanity Through Gender.'' Ms Magazine, Fall, 2003. ^ Lyles, Alan (2002-05-01). "Direct Marketing of Pharmaceuticals to Consumers". Annual Review of Public Health. 23 (1): 73''91. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.23.101001.140537. ISSN 0163-7525. ^ ab Donohue, Julie, Marisa Cevasco, and Meredith Rosenthal. ''A Decade of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs.'' The New England Journal of Medicine, 357:7 (August 16, 2007): 673-681. ^ Fisher, Jill A, and Ronald, Lorna. ''Sex, Gender, and Pharmaceutical Politics: From Drug Developing to Marketing.'' Gender Medicine, 7:4 (August 2010): 357-70. Further reading [ edit] Frosch, D. L.; Krueger, P. M.; Hornik, R. C.; Cronholm, P. F.; Barg, F. K. (2007). "Creating Demand for Prescription Drugs: A Content Analysis of Television Direct-to-Consumer Advertising". The Annals of Family Medicine. 5: 6''13. doi:10.1370/afm.611. PMC 1783924'¯ . PMID 17261859. Kornfield, R.; Donohue, J.; Berndt, E. R.; Alexander, G. C. (2013). "Promotion of Prescription Drugs to Consumers and Providers, 2001''2010". PLoS ONE. 8 (3): e55504. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055504. PMC 3587616'¯ . PMID 23469165. External links [ edit]
Timeline of Worldwide School Shootings
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:22
Feb. 2, 1996Moses Lake, Wash.
Two students and one teacher killed, one other wounded when 14-year-old Barry Loukaitis opened fire on his algebra class.Mar. 13, 1996Dunblane, Scotland
16 children and one teacher killed at Dunblane Primary School by Thomas Hamilton, who then killed himself. 10 others wounded in attack.Apr. 28-29, 1996Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia
Martin Bryant, age 28, opened fire at a penal colony, killing 35 people and wounding 23. It was Australia's worst mass killing.Feb. 19, 1997Bethel, Alaska
Principal and one student killed, two others wounded by Evan Ramsey, 16.Mar. 1997Sanaa, Yemen
Eight people (six students and two others) at two schools killed by Mohammad Ahman al-Naziri.Oct. 1, 1997Pearl, Miss.
Two students killed and seven wounded by Luke Woodham, 16, who was also accused of killing his mother. He and his friends were said to be outcasts who worshiped Satan.Dec. 1, 1997West Paducah, Ky.
Three students killed, five wounded by Michael Carneal, 14, as they participated in a prayer circle at Heath High School.Dec. 15, 1997Stamps, Ark.
Two students wounded. Colt Todd, 14, was hiding in the woods when he shot the students as they stood in the parking lot.Mar. 24, 1998Jonesboro, Ark.
Four students and one teacher killed, ten others wounded outside as Westside Middle School emptied during a false fire alarm. Mitchell Johnson, 13, and Andrew Golden, 11, shot at their classmates and teachers from the woods.Apr. 24, 1998Edinboro, Pa.
One teacher, John Gillette, killed, two students wounded at a dance at James W. Parker Middle School. Andrew Wurst, 14, was charged.May 19, 1998Fayetteville, Tenn.
One student killed in the parking lot at Lincoln County High School three days before he was to graduate. The victim was dating the ex-girlfriend of his killer, 18-year-old honor student Jacob Davis.May 21, 1998Springfield, Ore.
Two students killed, 22 others wounded in the cafeteria at Thurston High School by 15-year-old Kip Kinkel. Kinkel had been arrested and released a day earlier for bringing a gun to school. His parents were later found dead at home.June 15, 1998Richmond, Va.
One teacher and one guidance counselor wounded by a 14-year-old boy in the school hallway.Apr. 20, 1999Littleton, Colo.
14 students (including killers) and one teacher killed, 23 others wounded at Columbine High School in the nation's deadliest school shooting. Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, had plotted for a year to kill at least 500 and blow up their school. At the end of their hour-long rampage, they turned their guns on themselves.Apr. 28, 1999Taber, Alberta, Canada
One student killed, one wounded at W. R. Myers High School in first fatal high school shooting in Canada in 20 years. The suspect, a 14-year-old boy, had dropped out of school after he was severely ostracized by his classmates.May 20, 1999Conyers, Ga.
Six students injured at Heritage High School by Thomas Solomon, 15, who was reportedly depressed after breaking up with his girlfriend.Nov. 19, 1999Deming, N.M.
Victor Cordova Jr., 12, shot and killed Araceli Tena, 13, in the lobby of Deming Middle School.Dec. 6, 1999Fort Gibson, Okla.
Four students wounded as Seth Trickey, 13, opened fire with a 9mm semiautomatic handgun at Fort Gibson Middle School.Dec. 7, 1999Veghel, Netherlands
One teacher and three students wounded by a 17-year-old student.Feb. 29, 2000Mount Morris Township, Mich.
Six-year-old Kayla Rolland shot dead at Buell Elementary School near Flint, Mich. The assailant was identified as a six-year-old boy with a .32-caliber handgun.Mar. 2000Branneburg, Germany
One teacher killed by a 15-year-old student, who then shot himself. The shooter has been in a coma ever since.Mar. 10, 2000Savannah, Ga.
Two students killed by Darrell Ingram, 19, while leaving a dance sponsored by Beach High School.May 26, 2000Lake Worth, Fla.
One teacher, Barry Grunow, shot and killed at Lake Worth Middle School by Nate Brazill, 13, with .25-caliber semiautomatic pistol on the last day of classes.Sept. 26, 2000New Orleans, La.
Two students wounded with the same gun during a fight at Woodson Middle School.Jan. 17, 2001Baltimore, Md.
One student shot and killed in front of Lake Clifton Eastern High School.Jan. 18, 2001Jan, Sweden
One student killed by two boys, ages 17 and 19.Mar. 5, 2001Santee, Calif.
Two killed and 13 wounded by Charles Andrew Williams, 15, firing from a bathroom at Santana High School.Mar. 7, 2001Williamsport, Pa.
Elizabeth Catherine Bush, 14, wounded student Kimberly Marchese in the cafeteria of Bishop Neumann High School; she was depressed and frequently teased.Mar. 22, 2001Granite Hills, Calif.
One teacher and three students wounded by Jason Hoffman, 18, at Granite Hills High School. A policeman shot and wounded Hoffman.Mar. 30, 2001Gary, Ind.
One student killed by Donald R. Burt, Jr., a 17-year-old student who had been expelled from Lew Wallace High School.Nov. 12, 2001Caro, Mich.
Chris Buschbacher, 17, took two hostages at the Caro Learning Center before killing himself.Jan. 15, 2002New York, N.Y.
A teenager wounded two students at Martin Luther King Jr. High School.Feb. 19, 2002Freising, Germany
Two killed in Eching by a man at the factory from which he had been fired; he then traveled to Freising and killed the headmaster of the technical school from which he had been expelled. He also wounded another teacher before killing himself.Apr. 26, 2002Erfurt, Germany
13 teachers, two students, and one policeman killed, ten wounded by Robert Steinhaeuser, 19, at the Johann Gutenberg secondary school. Steinhaeuser then killed himself.Apr. 29, 2002Vlasenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina
One teacher killed, one wounded by Dragoslav Petkovic, 17, who then killed himself.Oct. 28, 2002Tucson, Ariz.
Robert S. Flores Jr., 41, a student at the nursing school at the University of Arizona, shot and killed three female professors and then himself.Apr. 14, 2003New Orleans, La.
One 15-year-old killed, and three students wounded at John McDonogh High School by gunfire from four teenagers (none were students at the school). The motive was gang-related.Apr. 24, 2003Red Lion, Pa.
James Sheets, 14, killed principal Eugene Segro of Red Lion Area Junior High School before killing himself.Sept. 24, 2003Cold Spring, Minn.
Two students are killed at Rocori High School by John Jason McLaughlin, 15.Sept. 28, 2004Carmen de Patagones, Argentina
Three students killed and 6 wounded by a 15-year-old Argentininan student in a town 620 miles south of Buenos Aires.Mar. 21, 2005Red Lake, Minn.
Jeff Weise, 16, killed grandfather and companion, then arrived at school where he killed a teacher, a security guard, 5 students, and finally himself, leaving a total of 10 dead.Nov. 8, 2005Jacksboro, Tenn.
One 15-year-old shot and killed an assistant principal at Campbell County High School and seriously wounded two other administrators.Aug. 24, 2006Essex, Vt.
Christopher Williams, 27, looking for his ex-girlfriend at Essex Elementary School, shot two teachers, killing one and wounding another. Before going to the school, he had killed the ex-girlfriend's mother.Sept. 13, 2006Montreal, Canada
Kimveer Gill, 25, opened fire with a semiautomatic weapon at Dawson College. Anastasia De Sousa, 18, died and more than a dozen students and faculty were wounded before Gill killed himself.Sept. 27, 2006Bailey, Colo.
Adult male held six students hostage at Platte Canyon High School and then shot and killed Emily Keyes, 16, and himself.Sept. 29, 2006Cazenovia, Wis.
A 15-year-old student shot and killed Weston School principal John Klang.Oct. 3, 2006Nickel Mines, Pa.
32-year-old Carl Charles Roberts IV entered the one-room West Nickel Mines Amish School and shot 10 schoolgirls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years old, and then himself. Five of the girls and Roberts died.Jan. 3, 2007Tacoma, Wash.
Douglas Chanthabouly, 18, shot fellow student Samnang Kok, 17, in the hallway of Henry Foss High School.April 16, 2007Blacksburg, Va.
A 23-year-old Virginia Tech student, Cho Seung-Hui, killed two in a dorm, then killed 30 more 2 hours later in a classroom building. His suicide brought the death toll to 33, making the shooting rampage the most deadly in U.S. history. Fifteen others were wounded.Sept. 21, 2007Dover, Del.
A Delaware State Univesity Freshman, Loyer D. Brandon, shot and wounded two other Freshman students on the University campus. Brandon is being charged with attempted murder, assault, reckless engagement, as well as a gun charge.Oct. 10, 2007Cleveland, Ohio
A 14-year-old student at a Cleveland high school, Asa H. Coon, shot and injured two students and two teachers before he shot and killed himself. The victims' injuries were not life-threatening.Nov. 7, 2007Tuusula, Finland
An 18-year-old student in southern Finland shot and killed five boys, two girls, and the female principal at Jokela High School. At least 10 others were injured. The gunman shot himself and died from his wounds in the hospital.Feb. 8, 2008Baton Rouge, La.
A nursing student shot and killed two women and then herself in a classroom at Louisiana Technical College in Baton Rouge.Feb. 11, 2008Memphis, Tenn.
A 17-year-old student at Mitchell High School shot and wounded a classmate in gym class.Feb. 12, 2008Oxnard, Calif.
A 14-year-old boy shot a student at E.O. Green Junior High School causing the 15-year-old victim to be brain dead.Feb. 14, 2008DeKalb, Ill.
Gunman killed five students and then himself, and wounded 17 more when he opened fire on a classroom at Northern Illinois University. The gunman, Stephen P. Kazmierczak, was identified as a former graduate student at the university in 2007.Sept. 23, 2008Kauhajoki, Finland
A 20-year-old male student shot and killed at least nine students and himself at a vocational college in Kauhajok, 330km (205 miles) north of the capital, Helsinki.Nov. 12, 2008Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
A 15-year-old female student was shot and killed by a classmate at Dillard High School in Fort Lauderdale.Mar. 11, 2009Winnenden, Germany
Fifteen people were shot and killed at Albertville Technical High School in southwestern Germany by a 17-year-old boy who attended the same school.Apr. 30, 2009Azerbaijan, Baku
A Georgian citizen of Azerbaijani descent killed 12 students and staff at Azerbaijan State Oil Academy. Several others were wounded.Nov. 5, 2009Killeen, Tex.
A shooting at the Fort Hood army post kills 13 and injures 29. Ten of those killed are military personnel, while one is a civilian. The alleged shooter is Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan, an army psychiatrist, was shot four times by an officer on the scene, but he survived the attack.Feb. 5, 2010Madison, Ala.
At Discovery Middle School, a ninth-grader was shot by another student during a class change. The boy, whose name was not released, pulled out a gun and shot Todd Brown in the head while walking the hallway. Brown later died at Huntsville Hospital.Feb. 12, 2010Huntsville, Ala.
During a meeting on campus, Amy Bishop, a biology professor, began shot her colleagues, killing three and wounding three others. A year earlier, Bishop had been denied tenure.Mar. 9, 2010Columbus, Ohio
A man opens fire at Ohio State University, killing two employees and wounding one other. The shooter had recently received an "unsatisfactory" job evaluation and was going to be fired on March 13.Jan. 5, 2011Omaha, Nebr.
Two people were killed and two more injured in a shooting at Millard South High School. Shortly after being suspended from school, the shooter returned and shot the assistant principal, principal, and the school nurse. The shooter then left campus and took his own life.Jan. 8, 2011Tuscon, Ariz.
Arizona Rep. Gabrielle Giffords was shot in an assassination attempt. At least 17 others are shot by a gunman, identified as Jared Lee Loughner, who opened fire on the congresswoman's constituent meeting outside a local grocery store. Six people are fatally wounded, including U.S. District Court Judge John Roll, and a young girl.Jan. 5, 2011Houston, Tex.
Two people opened fire during a Worthing High School powder-puff football game. One former student died. Five other people were injured.Apr. 7, 2011Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
A 23-year-old former student returned to his public elementary school in Rio de Janeiro and began firing, killing 12 children and seriously wounding more than a dozen others, before shooting himself in the head. While Brazil has seen gang-related violence in urban areas, this was the worst school shooting the country has ever seen.May 10, 2011San Jose, California
Three people were killed in a parking garage at San Jose State University. Two former students were found dead on the fifth floor of the garage. A third, the suspected shooter, died later at the hospital.July 22, 2011Tyrifjorden, Buskerud, Norway
A gunman disguised as a policeman opened fire at a camp for young political activists on the island of Utoya. The gunman kills 68 campers, including personal friends of Prime Minister Stoltenberg. Police arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian who had been been linked to an anti-Islamic group.Dec. 8, 2011Blacksburg, Va.
A Virginia Tech police officer was shot and killed by a 22-year old student of Radford University. The shooting took place in a parking lot on Virginia Tech's campus.Feb. 10, 2012Walpole, N. H.
A 14-year-old student shot himself in front of 70 fellow students.Feb. 27, 2012Chardon, Ohio
At Chardon High School, a former classmate opened fire, killing three students and injuring six. Arrested shortly after the incident, the shooter said that he randomly picked students.Mar. 6, 2012Jacksonville, Fla.
Shane Schumerth, a 28-year-old teacher at Episcopal High School, returned to the campus after being fired and shot and killed the headmistress, Dale Regan, with an assault rifle.Mar. 19, 2012Toulouse, France
Mohammed Merah, a French man of Algerian descent, shot and killed a rabbi, two of his children, and another child at a Jewish school. Police believe he had earlier shot and killed three paratroopers. Merah said he was a member of Al Qaeda and that he was seeking revenge for the killing of Palestinian children.Apr. 2, 2012Oakland, Calif.
One Goh, a 43-year-old former student at Oikos University, a Christian school populated by mostly Korean and Korean-Americans, opened fire on the campus, killing seven people and wounding several others.July 20, 2012Aurora, Colo.
During a midnight screening of the film The Dark Knight Rises, a gunman opens fire on the crowded theater. At least 12 people are killed and 38 others are wounded. The suspect, James Holmes, set off a smoke device in the front of the theater before opening fire. Directly after the incident, Holmes, age 24, was arrested in a parking lot behind the theater.Aug. 5, 2012Oak Creek, Wis.
A gunman opens fire at a Sikh temple, killing six people and wounding three. Police shot and killed the suspect, Wade Michael Page, after the attack. Page, a neo-Nazi, served in the U.S. Army from 1992 to 1998.Dec. 11, 2012Portland, Ore.
Jacob Tyler Roberts, 22, opened fire in the Clackamas Town Center mall, located 11 miles from downtown Portland, Oregon. Using an AR-15 semiautomatic assault rifle, Roberts killed two people and wounded one other. He then took his own life.Dec. 14, 2012Newtown, Conn.
Adam Lanza, 20, killed 20 children and six others at the Sandy Hook Elementary School. He killed his mother, Nancy, at her home prior to the massacre at the school. Lanza committed suicide after the rampage. The shooting was the second deadliest in U.S. history, behind the 2007 shooting at Virginia Polytechnic Institute that claimed 32 people.Sept. 16, 2013Washington, D.C.
Former Navy reservist Aaron Alexis, 34, killed 12 people at the Washington Navy Yard, near the U.S. Capitol. He was killed in a shootout with police. Alexis was employed at the base by a military subcontractor.Sept. 21, 2013Nairobi, Kenya
Shabab militants, who are based in Somalia, attacked an upscale mall, killing nearly 70 people and wounding about 175. The siege lasted for three days, with persistent fighting between government troops and militants. The attack was meticulously planned, and the militants proved to be challenging for the government to dislodge from the Westgate mall.Oct. 21, 2013Sparks, Nev.
A middle-school student shoots and kills Michael Landsberry, a math teacher at Sparks Middle School. The student then shot himself in front of other students.Apr. 2, 2014Killeen, Tex.
An Iraq war veteran opens fire at the Fort Hood Army base and kills three people before turning the gun on himself. At least 16 people are injured. The suspect, Army Specialist Ivan Lopez, was being evaluated for post-traumatic stress disorder, according to the Pentagon. Another fatal shooting at the base took place in 2009.May 23, 2014Isla Vista, Calif.
A gunman, identified as Elliot Rodger, kills six people and wounds 13 others in Isla Vista, Calif., a small town near Santa Barbara. He stabs three men in his apartment before driving to locations throughout the town where he kills three students from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Before the rampage, Rodger, age 22, posts a video called "Elliot Rodger's Retribution" on his YouTube Channel and writes a 137-page manifesto. In both, he expresses his anger over being rejected by women and his plans for revenge.June 5, 2014Seattle, Wash.
A man armed with a shotgun opens fire at Seattle Pacific University, killing one student and wounding two others. The suspect, Aaron Ybarra, 26, is not a student at the college. He was subdued by a student security guard and taken into custody.Oct. 24, 2014Marysville, Wash.
Jaylen Ray Fryberg, a popular freshman at Marysville-Pilchuck High School, opens fire in the cafeteria, killing two students and critically wounding three others before turning the gun on himself.Jan. 7, 2015Paris, France
Three masked gunmen storm the office of Charlie Hebdo, a satirical weekly magazine, and kill 12 people, including the paper's top editors and cartoonists, as well as two police officers. The provocative magazine is known for publishing charged cartoons that satirized Islamic terrorists and the Prophet Muhammad.June 17, 2015Charleston, S. C.
A white male opened fire during a prayer service at the historically significant Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, killing nine people, including Rev. Clementa Pinckney, the church's pastor and a state senator. The alleged gunman, Dylann Storm Roof, 21, sat in the church for about an hour before beginning the rampage. He was caught about 200 miles away on June 18.July 16, 2015Chattanooga, Tenn.
A gunman opened fire at a Navy and Marine recruiting center, killing four Marines. Three other people, including a recruiter and police officer were injured. One of the injured men later died of his wounds. The suspect, identified as Muhammad Youssef Abdulzeez, was shot and killed by police.Oct. 1, 2015Roseburg, Ore.
A gunman opened fire at Umpqua Community College. Nine people were killed and seven more wounded. The suspected shooter, 26- year-old Chris Harper Mercer, killed himself after exchanging gunfire with the police.Dec. 2, 2015San Bernardino, Calif.
Fourteen people were killed and more than 20 wounded when two people opened fire at a holiday party at the Inland Regional Center, a service facility for people with disabilities and special needs. The suspects, husband and wife Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik, were killed in a shootout with police after the rampage. Officials said they believe the attack was terrorism related.Feb. 20, 2016Kalamazoo, Mich.
An Uber driver, Jason Brian Dalton, went on a killing rampage throughout the town of Kalamazoo, Michigan killing 6 people. He started the 6-hour deadly spree by shooting a woman outside her townhouse, leaving her in critical condition. Then Dalton killed two men in a brightly-lit Kia dealership parking lot, after which he moved into a Cracker Barrel parking lot, killing four women there. A 14-year-old girl was also left in critical condition, but survived. The killer was arrested two hours after the shootings.Feb. 25, 2016Hesston, Kans.
A gunman opened fire at Excel Industries, a ride-on mower manufacturing plant, killing three people and wounding 14. A police officer and the assailant exchanged gunfire, and the suspect was killed. While driving to the plant, he fired several shots out of the car window, wounding three people. The gunman, who worked at Excel Industries, used an assault rifle in the shooting spree. His name was not released.Apr. 23, 2016Antigo, Wis.
An 18-year-old boy named Jakob Wagner opened fire at the Antigo High School prom. He shot 4 of his fellow students, none of which died from the injuries sustained. He was then chased out of the building and exchanged fire with a school police officer. Wagner was shot down in a field after trying to flee the scene. He died in the hospital a few hours later.June 1, 2016Los Angeles, Calif.
On the campus of UCLA a week before finals, a gunman shot and killed an instructor, William S. Klug, before killing himself. Assistant Professor Klug, 39, was a father of two who worked in the mechanical and aerospace engineering department.June 12, 2016Orlando, Fla.
A mass shooting at an Orlando nightclub in the early hours of Sunday, June 12, 2016, left 50 people dead, including the gunman, and more than 50 injured. The shooter was identified as Omar Mateen, 29, who entered the nightclub armed with an assault rifle and a pistol. According to authorities, Mr. Mateen pledged his allegiance to ISIS via a 911 call from inside the nightclub. This massacre is the deadliest mass shooting on U.S. soil.July 7, 2016Dallas, Tex.
Five police officers were killed and seven others wounded in a deadly ambush during a protest against recent fatal police shootings of two black men in Baton Rouge, La. and Minnesota. The shooter was military veteran Micah Xavier Johnson, 25, of Mesquite, Texas, who deliberately targeted the law enforcement officers.Sept. 28, 2016Townville, S. C.
A homeschooled teenager, Jesse Osborne, 14, shot and killed his father, then drove to the local elementary school playground where he shot two male students and a female teacher. The teacher and one of the boys were treated and released from the hospital; the other boy later died. The shooter was charged with murder.Oct. 18, 2016San Francisco, Calif.
Four males waited in the parking lot of San Francisco's June Jordan School for Equity and City Arts and Technology High School as students were released for the day, opening fire and injuring four students including a 15-year-old female who was critically injured.Apr. 10, 2017San Bernadino, Calif.
A teacher at North Park Elementary School is shot and killed by her husband in her classroom. The shooter, who would go on to take his own life with his gun, also shot two students. One, eight years old, was fatally wounded, and another injured.Oct. 1, 2017Las Vegas, Nev.
64-year-old Stephen Paddock, a retired area man, killed 58 and injured over 800 from the window of his room in the Mandalay Bay hotel. Paddock fired more than 1,000 rounds from 24 legally acquired guns. Paddock had no connections to hate groups, and no clear motive has ever been established. This is the worst attack by a single perpetrator in U.S. history.Nov. 5, 2017Sutherland Springs, Tex.
Devin Kelley opened fire at the First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs, killing 26 and injuring 20 more. He was shot by a civilian while fleeing. He crashed his escape vehicle, then committed suicide. Kelley was prohibited from gun ownership after being court-martialed in the Air Force, however the FBI was not notified and he was still able to acquire firearms. This was the deadliest ever attack at a place of worship in the U.S.Nov. 14, 2017Rancho Tehama, Calif.
Near the end of a two-day rampage killing, Kevin Neal drives a truck into Rancho Tehama Elementary. Neal had killed several neighbors, his wife, and a number of strangers prior. Police suspected Neal was going to kill his neighbors' son.Jan. 23, 2018Marshall County, Ky.
A sophomore student at Marshall County High School went to his school and opened fire in the school lobby. He shot 16 people in the lobby at Marshall County High School and injured to 4 more by other means. Two students died. Feb. 14, 2018Parkland, Florida
A former student at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School who had been expelled for behavioral reasons, Nikolas Cruz, brought a semi-automatic rifle to his old school. He triggered a fire alarm and shot the fleeing students and faculty. The suspect, was arrested a distance away after he escaped in the crowd of students. He now faces charges for the murder of 17 people, and the attempted murder of 14 more.
After Florida shooting, Michael Ian Black says 'boys are broken'
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 20:20
CLOSEAccused Florida shooter, Nikolas Cruz, is being called a monster by many, including the couple who was taking care of him after the death of his mother. USA TODAY
This photo provided by the Broward County (Fla.) Jail shows Nikolas Cruz. Authorities say Cruz, a former student opened fire at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Fla., on Wednesday, Feb. 14, 2018, killing more than a dozen people and injuring several. (Photo: Broward County (Fla.) Jail via AP)
After 19-year-old Nikolas Cruz was accused of gunning down 17 people at a Florida high school last week, comedian Michael Ian Black started a thread on Twitter that sparked a vitriolic debate about the role of gender in gun violence. It began with the tweet, "Deeper even than the gun problem is this: boys are broken."
Black's tweet has been liked nearly 65,000 times. In an interview with NPR on Sunday, he elaborated.
"I think it means that there is something going on with American men that is giving them the permission and space to commit violence," he said. "And one of the main things we focus on correctly is guns and mental health, but I think deeper than that is a problem, a crisis in masculinity."
Many people on Twitter praised Black for his take.
Critics accused of him of overgeneralizing, and of demonizing boys and men.
The problem Black identifies is one feminists have been talking about for decades. It's called toxic masculinity, the stereotypical sense of masculinity that embodies behaviors, such as denying help or emotions, which psychologists and sociologists say are harmful to men and to society. It's the things in our culture '-- from toys given to movies watched to messages parents consciously and unconsciously send '-- that tells boys and men "being a real man" means repressing feelings and consistently demonstrating strength and dominance.
"We often talk about gender in terms of women ... getting the short end of the stick. ... Well, masculinity isn't easy either," Jennifer Carlson, a sociology professor at the University of Arizona who studies gun politics and gender, told USA TODAY after the mass shooting in Las Vegas last October. "That's not your ticket to the good life. It isn't easy to be a man in the United States. Demands put on men '-- whether it's to be the protector, to be the provider, to respond to situations in certain ways, to prove yourself as a man '-- end up being not just outwardly destructive but also inwardly destructive."
A 2017 study in the Journal of Adolescent Health found many norms around gender, what's expected of boys and girls, become entrenched in adolescence and have negative impacts that carry into adulthood.
Among consequences the study noted when boys conform to gender stereotypes:
Engaging in physical violence to a much greater extent than girlsDying more frequently from unintentional injuriesBeing more prone to substance abuse and suicideHaving a shorter life expectancy than womenData shows gun violence is disproportionately a male problem. Of the 97 mass shootings in which three or more victims died since 1982, only three were committed by women (one of those being the San Bernardino attack in which a man also participated), according to a database from the liberal-leaning news outlet Mother Jones. Men also accounted for 86% of gun deaths in the United States, according to an analysis by the non-partisan non-profit Kaiser Family Foundation.
Experts say culture plays a big role in why men are so drawn to guns and why they're so much more likely to die by them.
GUN DEBATE:It's not really about what you think
After the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the National Science Foundation asked researchers to look at what is known and unknown about youth violence. Published in 2016, the report found masculinity is a factor that cannot be ignored.
"Young men may be particularly sensitive to cultural influences on masculinity in adolescence when they are physically maturing, particularly in the context of popular media that glorify violence and domination of others," researchers wrote. "The least physically developed young boys may lose out in pecking orders that value height, big muscles, athletic prowess, and mature looks. Guns could become a great equalizer in this tournament of recognition."
In a Q&A published this January in the journal Signs, masculinity expert Michael Kimmel said the term "toxic masculinity" is now so loaded he chooses to frame the problem for men somewhat differently.
"There's going to be a time in your life, if there hasn't already, when you are going to be asked to betray your own values, your own ethics, your own idea of what it means to be a good man, in order to prove to others that you're a real man," said Kimmel, founder and director of the Center for the Study of Men and Masculinities at Stony Brook University.
In his interview with NPR, Black was asked what he thinks healthy masculinity looks like.
"I don't know. I mean, I really don't," he said. "I know that I only started feeling comfortable in my own skin as an adult man in my 40s when I stopped trying so hard to '-- and this is going to sound counterintuitive '-- but be a guy."
You may also be interested in:
ANALYSIS:Men pay a steep price when it comes to masculinity
EXPERTS:'Guns don't kill people; men and boys kill people'
RESEARCH:Gender stereotypes are destroying girls, and they're killing boys
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We Have a President Who Won't Defend Our Nation
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 13:31
All through the past week, it seemed as if the nation was slouching through each day burdened by the whiplash of headlines that defined hourly a new, distorting definition of what it now means to be president of the United States. It began Tuesday, when Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats informed the U.S. Senate intelligence committee that ''frankly, the United States is under attack.''
Coats sat at a long table alongside the directors of the CIA, the FBI, and the head of the National Security Agency. All were in agreement: Russia had declared war on our country.
The president, Donald Trump, did nothing. This is the first time across all the dust-covered years of our history, centuries filled with courage and honor, that the elected commander in chief chose to tweet instead of plan to defend the country.
Tuesday became Wednesday and the Senate used the time to prove it has evolved into an assembly paralyzed by partisanship, polarization, and a politics so petty and cynical that even an overwhelmingly popular policy'--allowing thousands brought here years ago by their parents'--could not gain approval to stay. Dreams of simply being able to continue living the lives they've led for years, crushed and nearly dead.
The president, Donald Trump, did something. He poked and prodded open wounds. Pulled at scabs of intolerance and resentment. Lied and kept changing his position on the issue of ''The Dreamers'' and the more he lied, the more he tweeted, the more he defined who he is: a man of no substance, no real feeling.
Then on Wednesday, a school door opened at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High in Parkland, Florida, and the latest merchant of death, a 19-year-old man, stood in a corridor holding an AR-15. Within minutes, hallway floors were slippery with blood as the shooter roamed room to room with full magazines and a weapon that sounds like a cannon when fired indoors.
Students screamed. Ran. Died. The gunman's appetite waned within minutes, and minutes were all it took to hang a casualty count of 17 on a disgraceful scoreboard filled with so many past massacres that the total is often lost. The numbing reality is that the most powerful country the world has ever known is so weak it cannot stop murders committed with ease by people who simply have to show up and squeeze a trigger.
The president, Donald Trump, said nothing. He tweeted his sorrow and regret that more students did not come forward with warnings about the demons inside the teenager who escaped from the school in a pack of fleeing students before stopping for a cold drink at a Walmart.
On Thursday, a nation's eyes filled with tears as the wails of survivors, the unrelenting pain and grief of parents, pain that will never diminish or disappear, all tumbled together alongside the unsurprising absence of courage from so many politicians that it was easy to sense the nuts and bolts of the Republic, the foundation of our democracy, the rules, the morality, the compassion, the deeply ingrained characteristics that have kept the light that is America shining so brightly for so long, to feel all of it coming loose in a slowly moving earthquake whose disruptive core is located in the Oval Office.
The president, Donald Trump, appeared on TV. He forgot to use the word ''gun.''
Friday dawned with dead young students being prepared for burial in Florida. And in Washington, Robert Mueller, who has worn the nation's uniform in war, headed a Homicide Unit, and changed the culture of the FBI in the wake of September 11th, announced the indictment of 13 Russian nationals and three Russian business outfits for conspiring to conduct cyber-warfare against the United States. The men who sat at the table Monday in front of the Senate Intelligence Committee no doubt nodded in agreement.
The president, Donald Trump, did not. He began to tweet, an activity that would consume him most of Friday, through the weekend and nearly all Sunday morning. His tweets became increasingly deranged.
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He ended the week having done nothing to defend the country. He ended the week thinking only of himself, not an unusual event. He ended the week as he began it, wrapping himself in a fantasy that is slowly drifting away.
So we have the dead children in Florida. We have those living at the margin, people who gave one of the few things they truly own, a vote, to Trump and they too will be disappointed by this man who has no beliefs, no emotional IQ, no understanding of the history and honor necessary to lead this wounded nation. We have others who have been here for decades and want only the opportunity to stay and participate in the only country they've ever known. And we have 535 individuals in Congress, a majority of them having dropped their duty to represent a common good.
And now we have another President's Day.
But this time we do not have a true and trusted president.
Gov. Jerry Brown Signs Bill Removing Penalty for Using Gun in Crime | Breitbart
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 16:30
He did this at the same time that he signed other legislation making it illegal for teachers to be armed on K-12 campuses for self-defense.
Liberal logic''teachers are not allowed to shoot back if under attack and criminals face no mandatory sentence enhancement for using a gun in carrying out an attack.
Assembly Bill 424 made it illegal for teachers to be armed for self-defense and Senate Bill 620 removed the mandatory enhancement for using a gun for crime. SB 620 removed the mandatory enhancement from the Penal Code and placed it at the discretion of the judge presiding over the case.
The ChicoER observed, ''So on one hand Brown and the Legislature make it more difficult for a teacher to protect children against gun-wielding criminals, while on the other they reduce potential penalties for gun-wielding criminals.''
Bills like AB 424 and SB 620 were the result of lawmakers scrambling to find any remaining areas where gun bills could be passed. After all, California Democrats passed so many laws in 2016, via Gunpocalypse, that the bills they passed this year served to either extend extant controls or repeal mandatory gun penalties for criminals, as in the case of sentencing guidelines.
Yet as with older gun controls, these new controls only impact law-abiding citizens. We saw proof of this in ''the wave of legal purchases'' that preceded the implementation of the laws contained in Gunpocalypse. Law-abiding citizens were getting out and buying everything they could while doing so was still legal.
The ChicoER noted such purchases ''tell us that new gun laws have their greatest effect on law-abiding shooters, not those bent on criminal or violent misuse. Gang members and other gun criminals, by their nature, don't make legal purchases. Rather, they acquire weapons and ammo surreptitiously, in ways that don't leave paper trails of ownership.''
AWR Hawkins is the Second Amendment columnist for Breitbart News and host of ''Bullets with AWR Hawkins,'' a Breitbart News podcast. He is also the political analyst for Armed American Radio. Follow him on Twitter: @AWRHawkins. Reach him directly at
Kimmel, Media Say The NRA Buys Politicians. Here's Why That's Idiotic. | Daily Wire
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 22:35
On Thursday evening, late night talk show host and self-appointed member of the intellectual set Jimmy Kimmel tore into the NRA after another mass shooting at a school. In tears, he said, ''Somewhere along the line, these guys forgot they work for us. Not the NRA. Us. And this time, we're not going to allow you to bow your head in prayer for two weeks, until you get it all clear and you move on to the next thing. We're going to make sure you do something this time.''
That's no shock '-- Kimmel has targeted the NRA before. Immediately after the shooting, he tweeted, ''It is too late to not politicize school shootings. We see you, NRA-supported US Representatives. And we're f***ng coming for you on election day.'' Meanwhile, The Washington Post ran a headline spotlighting the NRA in fully activist fashion: ''Have your representatives in Congress received donations from the NRA?''
Actor and director Rob Reiner chimed in similarly:
So, does the NRA buy politicians?
There are two real questions to be answered in answering that one: first, does the NRA really spend an outsized amount of money on politics? Second, as a general matter, do outside organizations ''buy'' the support of politicians, or do they simply support politicians with whom they agree?
On the first question, between 1998 and 2016, the NRA spent approximately $13 million on all candidates, parties, and leadership political action committees, according to the Left's favorite fact-checker, Politifact. The NRA also spends money on ''outside expenditures,'' meaning ads they cut themselves, for example, in the amount of $144.3 million, plus another $45.9 million on lobbying. That's a grand total of $203.2 million on political activities over 18 years, or approximately $22.6 million per 2-year election cycle. The NRA spends far more in presidential years than non-presidential years '-- according to OpenSecrets, the NRA spent some $54.4 million in 2016 on politics.
Let's look at some other political actors, by way of contrast.
According to the National Institute for Labor Relations Research, labor unions spent $1.713 billion on political activities and lobbying for the 2016 election cycle alone. That's not unusual: they also spent $2.2 billion on political activities in 2008 and 2010, and $1.69 billion in 2012.
Planned Parenthood, the nation's leading abortion mill, spent $33.9 million on outside spending from the 2012 through 2016 election cycles, according to OpenSecrets. EMILY's List, another abortion group, spent $33.2 million on politics in 2016. NextGen Climate Action, a leftist group pushing climate change legislation, spent $22.9 million.
In other words, lots of groups spend lots of money '-- but the notion that the NRA is disproportionately ''buying'' politicians is asinine.
Which brings us to the second question: is the NRA actually even ''buying'' anyone? The answer here is obviously no. The NRA isn't paying politicians off to change their positions anymore than Planned Parenthood is doing so. There's a reason the NRA supports pro-gun candidates and Planned Parenthood supports pro-abortion candidates. They pick the candidates who support their agenda and support them. They don't go around offering cash in briefcases in order to convince those who disagree to go along with their agenda.
The NRA, in reality, is a powerful lobbying organization because a huge number of Americans agree with their agenda. Most gun-owners, even if they aren't members, see the NRA as a vital organization in defending their Second Amendment rights. Congress isn't beholden to the NRA '-- it's beholden to its own constituents, many of whom support the NRA's belief system as a general matter.
UPDATED: Comparing Death Rates from Mass Public Shootings and Mass Public Violence in the US and Europe - Crime Prevention Research CenterCrime Prevention Research Center
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:54
1) In his address to the nation after the Planned Parenthood attack, Obama claimed: ''I say this every time we've got one of these mass shootings: This just doesn't happen in other countries.''
Senator Harry Reid made a similar statement on June 23rd: ''The United States is the only advanced country where this type of mass violence occurs. Let's do something. We can expand, for example, background checks. '... We should support not giving guns to people who are mentally ill and felons.''
We prefer not to make purely cross-sectional comparisons, but this claim is simply not true. The data below looks at the period of time from the beginning of the Obama administration in January 2009 until the end of 2015. Mass public shootings '' defined as four or more people killed in a public place, and not in the course of committing another crime, and not involving struggles over sovereignty. The focus on excluding shootings that do not involve other crimes (e.g., gang fights or robberies) has been used from the original research by Lott and Landes to more recently the FBI. We cover the period from the beginning of the Obama administration to the current date, from 2009 to the Charleston massacre (this matches the starting period for another recent study we did on US shootings and we chose that because that was the starting point that Bloomberg's group had picked). The cases were complied doing a news search. The starting year was picked simply because it was the beginning of the Obama administration and it matched the time frame of a recent Bloomberg report (a report that we evaluated here). A comparison across the entire world is available here.
Some people have defended President Obama's statement by pointing to the word ''frequency.'' But, even if one puts it in terms of frequency, the president's statement is still false, with the US ranking 12th compared to European countries.
Click on Tables to Enlarge
The average incident rate for the 28 EU countries is 0.0602 with a 95% confidence Interval of .0257 to .09477. The US rate is 0.078 is higher than the EU rate, but US and the average for EU countries are not statistically different. The average fatality rate for the 28 EU countries is 0.114 with a 95% confidence Interval of -.0244 to .253. The US rate is 0.089 is lower than the EU rate, but they are again not statistically significantly different.
There were 27% more casualties per capita from mass public shootings in EU than US from 2009-15
The CPRC has also collected data on the worst mass public shootings, those cases where at least 15 people were killed in the attack.
There were 16 cases where at least 15 people were killed. Out of those cases, four were in the United States, two in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom.
But the U.S. has a population four times greater than Germany's and five times the U.K.'s, so on a per-capita basis the U.S. ranks low in comparison '-- actually, those two countries would have had a frequency of attacks 1.96 (Germany) and 2.46 (UK) times higher.
Small countries such as Norway, Israel and Australia may have only one major attack each, one-fourth of what the U.S. has suffered, but the US population is vastly greater. If they suffered attacks at a rate adjusted for their population, Norway, Israel and Australia would have had attacks that were respectively 16, 11, and 3 times greater than the US.
There is also the issue of what President Obama meant by ''mass violence.'' If you include bombings, many countries face many more bombings than the US does. On March 22nd, 2016, Belgium had a bombing attacks at an airport and subway that killed 31 people and wounded 180. That is worse than any mass public shooting in the US in terms of fatalities and woundings. Or take just the bombing cases in Russia. Russia had few mass public shootings, but it suffered from numerous bomb attacks, with 1.31 mass bombing murders per million people.
Regarding worldwide terrorism rates, the US State Department has these number for 2007 to 2011. Click on figure to enlarge.
2) From Post on June 23, 2015: Last Friday, Obama said: ''If congress had passed some common sense gun reforms after Newtown, after a group of children had been gunned down in their own classroom. Reforms that 90% of the American people supported, we wouldn't have prevented every act of violence, or even most, we don't know if it would have prevented what would have happened in Charleston, but we might still have some more Americans with us.''
'-- There is no evidence that 90% of Americans supported the reforms that Obama was pushing. It is true that 80% to 90% of Americans say that they support background checks on ''all gun buyers'' (see also here and here), but that is not the same as saying that they supported universal background checks and it is not the same thing as them saying that they supported the law that Obama wanted. When asked this question people may be thinking of guns being purchased at a store and possibly a gun show, but it isn't at all clear that they are talking about a transfer between friends (either a gift or a sale) and it is very doubtful that they are referring to transfers between family members. Surveys that specifically address the background check bill before the Senate in 2013 do not show overwhelming support. The most support that I can find for such a bill was in Washington State where initiative 594 was passed with 59% support, not 90%, and it had spending that out did the initiative's opponents by about 33-to-1.
'-- None of the laws that Obama has put forward would have had any impact on either Newtown or Charleston. The Charleston killer apparently did pass a background check, and, in any case, he obtained his gun by stealing it from his Mom.
On Monday, June 22nd, President Obama made similar comments and also added: ''And one of those actions we could take would be to enhance some basic commonsense gun safety laws that, by the way, the majority of gun owners support.'' This claim has the same problem that Obama's other statement has.
3) From Post on June 23, 2015: Here is another claim by Obama from last Friday: ''You don't see murder on this kind of scale, with this kind of frequency, in any other advanced nation on Earth.''
Glenn Kessler at the Washington Post has this useful discussion on an earlier similar claim by Obama.
The best proxy for ''industrialized countries'' is the membership of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. There are currently 34 countries in the OECD, but the agency also includes Brazil and Russia in its statistical data. (The two countries have been negotiating for membership but talks have been suspended with Russia because of the Crimea crisis.)
The OECD says the average homicide rate among the 36 countries is 4.1 per 100,000 people.
According to the 2014 data, at the top of the list is Brazil, with a homicide rate 25.5, or six times the average. Next on the list is Mexico, with a homicide rate of 23.4, followed by Russia at 12.8.
Then comes a tie for fourth place'--Chile and the United States both have a homicide rate of 5.2. Estonia follows close behind with a homicide rate of 4.7. . . .
The bigger question is the one of causation that President Obama keeps pushing and the evidence on that can be found here and here. His claim on that is also clearly wrong.
UPDATE: Politifact has discussion on fatality rates from mass public shootings, where they rank the US as the fourth highest country. Their analysis looks at data from 2000 to 2014, but it is clear that their analysis is flawed. They have a much broader definition of these attacks where they included cases where no one was killed. Still they are missing a large number of cases in foreign countries, even when one is looking cases where 4 or more people were killed.
For example for France, they claim that from 2000 to 2014 there is only one such shooting and eight people were killed in that case. They missed at least 16 deaths in just cases where four or more people have been killed. We have also added in a few cases prior to 2000. However, we do not believe that we have obtained more than a fraction of the mass public shootings in Europe prior to 2009.
Paris, France, August 9, 1982: 6 killed and 22 wounded in an attack at a Jewish Restaurant by the Abu Nidal Organization .Bayonne, France, September 25, 1985: 4 killed and one wounded A terrorist attack at the Monbar Hotel where four Basques were killed by the group GAL (''Antiterrorist Liberation Groups'').Cuers, France, September 24, 1995: ‰ric Borel shot to death 12 people and wounded 4 others while walking down a street in the town of Cuers. He has killed three members of his family the previous day.Tours, France, Oct. 29, 2001: Four people were killed and ten wounded when a French railway worker started shooting at a busy intersection
There are also other attacks in France that met their criteria, but we would not normally collect For Finland
For Germany
Berlin, Germany, September 17, 1992: 4 killed, one wounded. Masked gunmen burst into a Berlin restaurant late on a Thursday night and killed four men, including a leading Kurdish politician from Iran.Sittensen, Germany, February 4, 2007: Six people killed
For Switzerland
Zug, Switzerland, Sept. 27, 2001: A man whose lawsuits had been denied murdered 14 members of a cantonal parliament.
For Italy
For Belgium
For Spain
Zarautz, Spain, November 3, 1980: 5 killed and 5 wounded. Base separatists killed traffic department workers who were drinking at a bar in the town. Arguably shouldn't be included because it may be involving struggles over sovereignty.Tatarstan, hunting camp, April 26, 1992: 9 killed and 1 wounded. The 1992 Tatarstan shooting was a mass murder. On 26 April 1992, 23-year-old Andrey Shpagonov, former huntsman went to a hunting camp. He went to steal firearms.Yaroslavsky, Primorsky Krai, August 25, 2002: 5 killed and 10 wounded. The Yaroslavsky shooting was a mass murder that occurred in Yaroslavsky, Primorsky Krai, Russia on August 25, 2002, when 40-year-old police captain Sergey Semidovskiy (Russian: ÐеÑÐ"ей Ðемидовский) killed five people and wounded ten others in and outside a bar with a Saiga carbine, after an argument with several customers.Kizlyar, Republic of Dagestan, February 18, 2018: ''Five women were killed and several others were injured after a gunman opened fire with a hunting rifle on people leaving a church service in Russia's Dagestan region on Sunday, Russian media outlets reported.''For Bosnia
Lipnaca, Bosnia-Herzegovina, May 29, 2008: six killed and one wounded
For Serbia
Jabukovac, Serbia, July 27, 2007: Nine killed and three wounded
For India
Jammu, India, July 22, 2002: Islamic militants killed 27 Hindus and injured at least 30 others, some criticallyGujarat, India, September 24 and 25 2002: To terrorists attacked the Akshardham temple complex and killed 31 people and wounded 80 others by using automatic weapons and hand grenades
Punjab, India, July 23, 2015: Islamic terrorists killed 7 people and wounded at least 15 others. Other Indian cases may be found here.For Nigeria
Osun State, Nigeria, Saturday, July 10, 1999: The Black Axe Confraternity attacked students at the Obafemi Awolowo University and killing five people and injuring of eleven.
Mamudo, Yobe State, Nigeria, July 6, 2013: Islamic group Boko Haram killed 42 children and teachers at a boarding school.
Gujba, Yobe State, Nigeria, September 29, 2013: gunmen from the Islamic group Boko Haram entered the male dormitory in the College of Agriculture and killed ''as many as 50 dead.'' Most of the dead were Muslim college students.
Borno massacre, in Konduga, Borno State, on February 14, 2014: Boko Haram Islamic militants killed at least 121 Christian villagers.
Izghe, Borno State, February 15, 2014: Islamic group Boko Haram killed 105 men and 1 elderly woman
Yobe State, Nigeria, February 25, 2014: 59 boys were killed at the Federal Government College of Buni Yadi. The boys were separated from the girls and the young girls were told to get married at a very early age.
Gamboru and Ngala in Borno State, Nigeria, May 5 and 6, 2014: Boko Haram Islamic militants killed more than 300 residents.
Borno massacre, in Konduga, Borno State, on May 7, 2014: Boko Haram Islamic militants killed at least 200 Christian villagers. Several others were injured.
For Philippines
Manila, Philippines, December 20, 2013: Philippines mayor and 3 others killed in shooting at Manila airport. ''[D]ead include Ukol Talumpa, the mayor of Labangan, a town in the southern Philippines, and his wife and 28-year-old niece, said Supt. Jose Erwin Villacorte, director of the Manila region's Southern Police District.''
Kawit, Cavite, Philippines, January 4, 2013: Ronald Baquiran Bae shot to death 8 people and wounded 12 others. ''On Jan. 4, a failed local candidate opened fire on his village neighbors, killing 8 people '-- including a pregnant woman and child '-- and wounding 10.''
Ipil, Philippines, April 3, 1995: The Islamic Command Council fired on residents and took hostages. 53 civilians killed. Not clear that this should be classified with the other cases because much of the attack involved robbing of eight banks.
Maguindanao, Mindanao, Philippines, November 23, 2009: Andal Ampatuan, Jr. and his clan (a ''leading Muslim political clan'') attacked Esmael Mangudadatu's family members and supporters, and accompanying journalists. 57 killed (34 were journalists) and at least 4 wounded. The victims were on their way to file a certificate of candidacy for Esmael Mangudadatu, vice mayor of Buluan town, they were kidnapped and killed.
Digos, Davao Del Sur, Philippines, June 25, 1989: 39 people, many of them children, were mercilessly gunned-down by the communist New People's Army (CPP-NPA) rebels while they were attending a Sunday mass. This appears to be a battle over sovereignty.
For Azerbaijan
Baku, Azerbaijan, April 30, 2009: Farda Gadirov shot to death 12 people (students and staff) at the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy
For Brazil
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 7, 2011: Wellington Menezes de Oliveira shot to death 12 children between the ages of 12 and 14 at the Tasso da Silveira Municipal School
For Israel
Tel Aviv, Israel, June 7, 2016: Two attackers were both dressed as Orthodox Jews started shooting at around 10 p.m. local time in an upscale area of cafes and restaurants near the central military headquarters and Defense Ministry compound. At least 4 died.
UPDATE: Politifact references an email that John Lott sent them about their claim that Obama's claims on mass public shootings were ''mostly false.'' Their discussion is available here.Facebook Twitter Google+ LinkedIn
CPRC original research, International Comparisons, mass public killings non-shootings, mass public shootings
Mother of Exploited Shooting Survivor Turns Out to Be A CNN VIP & Anti-Trump Activist - Big League Politics
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:16
The mother of a teenager who survived the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting appears to have high level connections at CNN.
''Great VIP tour,'' said a post by Rebecca Boldrick showing a series of photos taken in 2016 at CNN world headquarters.
One photo shows her children sitting at an anchor's desk.
Boldrick is the mother of David Hogg, who has gained internet fame for his activism in the days since the shooting:
The two recently appeared in a nationally televised interview on ABC.
(Screenshot: ABC News)Hogg and his merry band of anti-gun crusaders have been paraded around by nearly every cable news network in America.
Apparently, activism runs in the family. A series of Facebook posts show that Boldrick is an avowed Democrat and anti-Trumper.
I can't be silent any more. I tried to be respectful during the elections. I can't sit by and do nothing with what is'...
Posted by Rebecca Boldrick on Monday, January 30, 2017
I have created a private group to air my thoughts about what is happening in America at the moment. If you would like to'...
Posted by Rebecca Boldrick on Monday, January 30, 2017
''I can't sit by and do nothing with what is going on currently in the USA,'' says one of Boldrick's posts. ''If you like what Trump is currently doing please unfriendly [sic] or block me because you won't like what I am going to begin posting.''
The tone of her son's Twitter posts bear a strange resemblance to Boldrick's Facebook posts:
Controversy has abounded as teenagers lecture Americans on gun ownership and the Second Amendment.
Is this organic, grassroots teen activism in the wake of a horrible tragedy, or are these children being exploited in an orchestrated effort to serve the political interests of adults?
How did Cho Seung-Hui kill so many people with just a pair of handguns?
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:14
Glock 9 mm pistol with two clips On Monday, Virginia Tech student Cho Seung-Hui killed 33 people, including himself, and injured many others during a campus shooting spree. According to a CNN timeline, the gunman killed most of the victims over a span of about 10 to 15 minutes, carrying only a Glock 9 mm semiautomatic handgun and a .22-caliber pistol. How could he have killed so many people with just a couple of guns?
He had lots of extra ammunition. Neither of the guns he carried'--authorities haven't announced yet whether one or both were used'--is particularly powerful or dangerous. In fact, the tiny .22 might be considered a "Saturday night special"; it's one of the smallest-caliber firearms available. (In contrast, the Columbine killers used a 9 mm handgun, a 9 mm rifle, and two shotguns.) The caliber of a weapon refers to the diameter of the inside of the barrel of the gun, expressed in either inches'--as in the case of the .22'--or in millimeters. (A 9 mm weapon translates to about .35 on the inches scale'--much more than a .22, but smaller than the .38 or .45 that a police officer might use.) The higher the caliber, the bigger the bullet, and the more likely it will cause serious bodily harm. Of course, a bullet from any gun could cause death if it struck the heart, brain, other vital organ, or a major blood vessel.
The deadliness of a gun also depends on the number of cartridges it holds and the speed with which the shooter can reload and fire. A magazine for a 9 mm handgun can contain between eight and 24 cartridges. Reloading one can take a little while, but Cho may have been carrying preloaded extras; in that case, he could have released an old magazine and replaced it with a new one in just a few seconds. There has also been speculation that Cho may have used high-capacity magazines that would have allowed him to shoot more without reloading. (These are illegal or restricted in some states, but not in Virginia.) If the .22 was a revolver'--police have not yet announced whether the .22 was semiautomatic'--it may have taken more like 10 to 15 seconds to reload.
Both of Cho's guns are common and easily obtained, depending on state and local laws. Cho was born in South Korea but moved to America 14 years ago. Legal permanent U.S. residents are permitted to purchase guns if they pass background checks and meet other requirements, even if they are not citizens. However, possessing a gun on the Virginia Tech campus was a violation of school policy'--the campus has long required that they be checked with the campus police. Recently, a state bill that would have forced colleges to allow guns on campus failed to make it out of committee.
Torie Bosch is a Slate copy editor.
Got a question about today's news?Ask the Explainer.
Explainer thanksEdward Robinson of the George Washington University Department of Forensic Science and Pete Striupaitis of the Northeastern Illinois Regional Crime Lab.
Na Oxfam ook seksaantijgingen bij Rode Kruis
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 11:22
Plan International is in opspraak vanwege seksueel misbruik. Het is na Oxfam, Artsen Zonder Grenzen en het Rode Kruis het zoveelste schandaal binnen een hulporganisatie dat naar buiten komt.
In een mail informeert Plan International hun donateurs over zeker zes gevallen van misbruik waarbij kinderen het slachtoffer waren. Deze ongevallen vonden plaatsen tussen de zomer 2016 en de zomer van 2017.
Bij het ontucht zouden geen Nederlanders betrokken zijn. De Nederlandse tak werd woensdag door het hoofdkantoor ingelicht over de situatie. 'žEr waren een medewerker en vijf externen, zoals vrijwilligers en medewerkers van partnerorganisaties, bij betrokken'', legt algemeen directeur Monique van 't Hek uit.
De zes daders zijn ontslagen, tegen vijf van hen is aangifte gedaan. 'žWij zullen lering trekken uit wat er is gebeurd en ons beleid en de controles nog meer aanscherpen'', gaat Van 't Hek verder. 'žWe hebben diverse gedragscodes en een zerotolerancebeleid ten aanzien van (seksueel) wangedrag.''
Bij Artsen zonder Grenzen was vorig jaar wereldwijd 24 keer sprake van seksueel misbruik of wangedrag. In zeven gevallen was de Nederlandse afdeling verantwoordelijk, vijf mensen werden ontslagen. Wereldwijd raakten twintig mensen hun baan kwijt nadat ze zich hadden misdragen.
Medewerkers van Oxfam in Ha¯ti kwamen onlangs in opspraak omdat ze tijdens de hulpoperatie na de aardbeving jonge prostituees inhuurden voor seksfeesten.
Woensdag kwam naar buiten dat er ook binnen het Rode Kruis seksueel ontucht van dergelijke aard is gepleegd. In door rampen getroffen gebieden werden er seksfeesten georganiseerd, waarvoor prostituees werden ingehuurd.
Mark Cuban under fire following expos(C) alleging rampant sexual misconduct in Dallas Mavericks workplace | Fox News
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 11:32
Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban said allegations of rampant sexual misconduct at the team's workplace were "abhorrent," as the entrepreneur and his NBA franchise come under increased scrutiny after Sports Illustrated's explosive expos(C).
Cuban told SI the reports were ''all new to me."
''The only awareness I have is because I heard you guys were looking into some things," Cuban said. "...Based off of what I've read here, we just fired our HR person. I don't have any tolerance for what I've read."
Cuban said he had not been previously told about any of the accusations and blamed the failure to address the issues on the team's human resources director.
''It's wrong. It's abhorrent. It's not a situation we condone. I can't tell you how many times, particularly since all this [#MeToo] stuff has been coming out recently I asked our HR director, 'Do we have a problem? Do we have any issues I have to be aware of?' And the answer was 'No,''' Cuban said.
Mark Cuban called the report by Sports Illustrated ''abhorrent.'' (Reuters)
The SI article published Tuesday alleged misogynistic behavior by several male front office employees -- including ex-Mavericks' CEO and president Terdema Ussery.
''It was a real life 'Animal House,''' a former employee told SI. ''And I only say 'was' because I'm not there anymore. I'm sure it's still going on.''
Despite Cuban's claims he had no knowledge of the ''corrosive workplace culture of the Dallas Mavericks,'' a few employees told Sports Illustrated the owner knew but turned a blind eye.
''Of course Mark knew [about the instances of harassment and assault]. Everyone knew,'' one employee said.
One woman, who alleged she endured sexual harassment while working in the Mavericks workplace, said she believed Cuban ''turned a blind eye'' because the revenue continued to roll in while Ussery worked with the team.
A source told Sports Illustrated the office had a ''locker room culture,'' yet the ''real locker room,'' filled with the team's players, always treated the employees with respect.
''I had hundreds of interactions with players and never once had an issue'...they always knew how to treat people. Then I'd go to the office and it was this zoo, this complete s--- show. My anxiety would go down dealing with players; it would go up when I got to my desk,'' the source said.
A few women, who asked not to be named, told SI that Ussery's issues were well known among women in the office.
One woman said Ussery repeatedly told her she was ''getting gang-banged'' during the weekend while others said the CEO put his hand on their thighs during meetings and propositioned them for sex.
One employee said a friend told her to ''watch out for the president [Ussery]'' and not to get ''trapped in an elevator with him''
Another woman said she left her job due to Ussery's alleged lewd behavior after more than ten years in sales with the Mavericks.
The president was investigated in 1998 by the team for alleged inappropriate behavior after a few females workers complained about his conduct. Following the investigation, the Mavericks updated the employee handbooks and hired a new person to run human resources.
But Ussery remained with the team, and even had his contract extended for three years, eventually leaving the team in 2014.
''I am deeply disappointed that anonymous sources have made such outright false and inflammatory accusations against me,'' Ussery told SI in a statement. ''During my career with the Mavericks, I have strived to conduct myself with character, integrity and empathy for others." beat writer Earl K. Sneed was also named in the SI investigation. Sneed had previously been arrested for assault and was accused of beating his girlfriend. He plead guilty in 2012 to ''misdemeanor charges of family violence assault and interference with emergency request.''
Despite the arrest, Sneed continued in his job -- though he could not travel across the border to Canada to cover games against the Toronto Raptors due to his assault record.
Sources told SI that Sneed began dating a woman in the workplace and allegedly had a violent altercation after which the woman was left with a swollen face.
The woman in question told SI she was only told of Sneed's arrest record when she reported him to human resources.
''He shouldn't have a job there,'' she said.
Employees said Mark Cuban turned a blind eye to the allegations of sexual misconduct in the workplace. (Reuters)
Following the report, Cuban said he suspended Sneed and fired Buddy Pittman, the head of human resources for the Mavericks. Following the article's publication, the team announced Sneed was fired.
The Associated Press reported the team hired an outside counsel to probe the alleged inappropriate behavior.
Following the report, the NBA released a statement.
''The Dallas Mavericks have informed us of the allegations involving former team president Terdema Ussery and writer Earl Sneed. This alleged conduct runs counter to the steadfast commitment of the NBA and its teams to foster safe, respectful and welcoming workplaces for all employees. Such behavior is completely unacceptable and we will closely monitor the independent investigation into this matter,'' NBA Executive Vice President of Communications Mike Bass wrote in a statement.
Law sectionabout ANNOYING a Child
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:33
PART 1. OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS [25 - 680] ( Part 1 enacted 1872. )
TITLE 15. MISCELLANEOUS CRIMES [626 - 653.75] ( Title 15 enacted 1872. )
CHAPTER 2. Of Other and Miscellaneous Offenses [639 - 653.2] ( Chapter 2 enacted 1872. )
647.6. (a) (1) Every person who annoys or molests any child under 18 years of age shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars ($5,000), by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by both the fine and imprisonment.
(2) Every person who, motivated by an unnatural or abnormal sexual interest in children, engages in conduct with an adult whom he or she believes to be a child under 18 years of age, which conduct, if directed toward a child under 18 years of age, would be a violation of this section, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars ($5,000), by imprisonment in a county jail for up to one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment.
(b) Every person who violates this section after having entered, without consent, an inhabited dwelling house, or trailer coach as defined in Section 635 of the Vehicle Code, or the inhabited portion of any other building, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison, or in a county jail not exceeding one year, and by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars ($5,000).
(c) (1) Every person who violates this section shall be punished upon the second and each subsequent conviction by imprisonment in the state prison.
(2) Every person who violates this section after a previous felony conviction under Section 261, 264.1, 269, 285, 286, 288a, 288.5, or 289, any of which involved a minor under 16 years of age, or a previous felony conviction under this section, a conviction under Section 288, or a felony conviction under Section 311.4 involving a minor under 14 years of age shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, four, or six years.
(d) (1) In any case in which a person is convicted of violating this section and probation is granted, the court shall require counseling as a condition of probation, unless the court makes a written statement in the court record, that counseling would be inappropriate or ineffective.
(2) In any case in which a person is convicted of violating this section, and as a condition of probation, the court prohibits the defendant from having contact with the victim, the court order prohibiting contact shall not be modified except upon the request of the victim and a finding by the court that the modification is in the best interest of the victim. As used in this paragraph, ''contact with the victim'' includes all physical contact, being in the presence of the victim, communication by any means, any communication by a third party acting on behalf of the defendant, and any gifts.
(e) Nothing in this section prohibits prosecution under any other provision of law.
(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 43, Sec. 20. (SB 1023) Effective June 27, 2012.)
The Purge
Publishing platform Medium suspends far-right figures | TheHill
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:20
The online publishing platform Medium has suspended the accounts of prominent far-right figures Mike Cernovich, Jack Posobiec and Laura Loomer.
Medium spokesperson Sandee Roston told The Hill that the company does ''not comment on individual accounts.''
Roston did point to a Feb. 7 post detailing an update to its rules.
''We have all seen an increase and evolution of online hate, abuse, harassment, and disinformation, along with ever-evolving campaigns of fraud and spam,'' Medium's rules update reads. ''We have strengthened our policies around this type of behavior.'' ''We do not allow calls for intolerance, exclusion, or segregation based on protected characteristics, nor do we allow the glorification of groups which do any of the above,'' the new rules specify.
The platform's new rules include banning misinformation campaigns and lets the company consider ''off-platform action,'' in its decision to ban users.
In its previous set of rules , the company had billed itself as a ''free and open platform for anyone to write their views and opinions,'' and said it believes ''free expression deserves a lot of leeway, so we generally think the best response to bad ideas is good ideas, not censorship.''
This language has been scrubbed from the current version of its platform rules.
The account of white supremacist leader Richard Spencer has not yet been deleted. Unlike Cernovich, Posobiec and Loomer, however, Spencer has not posted on Medium.
Loomer is also currently suspended from posting on Twitter for seven days over Tweets regarding the shooting at a high school in Parkland, Fla.
She is also banned from Uber and Lyft after tweeting that ''someone needed to create a non Islamic form of @uber or @lyft because I never want to support another Islamic immigrant driver.''
Retracted: How an Alt-Right Bot Network Took Down Al Franken
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:20
Newsweek has retracted its story about a conservative botnet effort to force the resignation of Senator Al Franken.
The initial report was based on research conducted by Unhack The Vote, a group examining outside influence in U.S. elections and politics. It alleged that a "decidedly alt-right" botnet "weaponized" anti-Franken stories and amplified pressure on Franken to resign after allegations of sexual misconduct. Newsweek was unable to independently verify their claims after a further review of their work.
Newsweek regrets the error.
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Russia Collusion
Opinion | Whatever Trump Is Hiding Is Hurting All of Us Now - The New York Times
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 12:17
Thomas L. Friedman
President Trump in Washington on Friday. Credit Tom Brenner/The New York Times Image Feb. 18, 2018Our democracy is in serious danger.
President Trump is either totally compromised by the Russians or is a towering fool, or both, but either way he has shown himself unwilling or unable to defend America against a Russian campaign to divide and undermine our democracy.
That is, either Trump's real estate empire has taken large amounts of money from shady oligarchs linked to the Kremlin '-- so much that they literally own him; or rumors are true that he engaged in sexual misbehavior while he was in Moscow running the Miss Universe contest, which Russian intelligence has on tape and he doesn't want released; or Trump actually believes Russian President Vladimir Putin when he says he is innocent of intervening in our elections '-- over the explicit findings of Trump's own C.I.A., N.S.A. and F.B.I. chiefs.
In sum, Trump is either hiding something so threatening to himself, or he's criminally incompetent to be commander in chief. It is impossible yet to say which explanation for his behavior is true, but it seems highly likely that one of these scenarios explains Trump's refusal to respond to Russia's direct attack on our system '-- a quiescence that is simply unprecedented for any U.S. president in history. Russia is not our friend. It has acted in a hostile manner. And Trump keeps ignoring it all.
Up to now, Trump has been flouting the norms of the presidency. Now Trump's behavior amounts to a refusal to carry out his oath of office '-- to protect and defend the Constitution. Here's an imperfect but close analogy: It's as if George W. Bush had said after 9/11: ''No big deal. I am going golfing over the weekend in Florida and blogging about how it's all the Democrats' fault '-- no need to hold a National Security Council meeting.''
At a time when the special prosecutor Robert Mueller '-- leveraging several years of intelligence gathering by the F.B.I., C.I.A. and N.S.A. '-- has brought indictments against 13 Russian nationals and three Russian groups '-- all linked in some way to the Kremlin '-- for interfering with the 2016 U.S. elections, America needs a president who will lead our nation's defense against this attack on the integrity of our electoral democracy.
What would that look like? He would educate the public on the scale of the problem; he would bring together all the stakeholders '-- state and local election authorities, the federal government, both parties and all the owners of social networks that the Russians used to carry out their interference '-- to mount an effective defense; and he would bring together our intelligence and military experts to mount an effective offense against Putin '-- the best defense of all.
What we have instead is a president vulgarly tweeting that the Russians are ''laughing their asses off in Moscow'' for how we've been investigating their interventions '-- and exploiting the terrible school shooting in Florida '-- and the failure of the F.B.I. to properly forward to its Miami field office a tip on the killer '-- to throw the entire F.B.I. under the bus and create a new excuse to shut down the Mueller investigation.
Think for a moment how demented was Trump's Saturday night tweet: ''Very sad that the FBI missed all of the many signals sent out by the Florida school shooter. This is not acceptable. They are spending too much time trying to prove Russian collusion with the Trump campaign '-- there is no collusion. Get back to the basics and make us all proud!''
To the contrary. Our F.B.I., C.I.A. and N.S.A., working with the special counsel, have done us amazingly proud. They've uncovered a Russian program to divide Americans and tilt our last election toward Trump '-- i.e., to undermine the very core of our democracy '-- and Trump is telling them to get back to important things like tracking would-be school shooters. Yes, the F.B.I. made a mistake in Florida. But it acted heroically on Russia. What is more basic than protecting American democracy?
It is so obvious what Trump is up to: Again, he is either a total sucker for Putin or, more likely, he is hiding something that he knows the Russians have on him, and he knows that the longer Mueller's investigation goes on, the more likely he will be to find and expose it.
Donald, if you are so innocent, why do you go to such extraordinary lengths to try to shut Mueller down? And if you are really the president '-- not still head of the Trump Organization, who moonlights as president, which is how you so often behave '-- why don't you actually lead '-- lead not only a proper cyberdefense of our elections, but also an offense against Putin.
Putin used cyberwarfare to poison American politics, to spread fake news, to help elect a chaos candidate, all in order to weaken our democracy. We should be using our cyber-capabilities to spread the truth about Putin '-- just how much money he has stolen, just how many lies he has spread, just how many rivals he has jailed or made disappear '-- all to weaken his autocracy. That is what a real president would be doing right now.
My guess is what Trump is hiding has to do with money. It's something about his financial ties to business elites tied to the Kremlin. They may own a big stake in him. Who can forget that quote from his son Donald Trump Jr. from back in 2008: ''Russians make up a pretty disproportionate cross section of a lot of our assets.'' They may own our president.
But whatever it is, Trump is either trying so hard to hide it or is so na¯ve about Russia that he is ready to not only resist mounting a proper defense of our democracy, he's actually ready to undermine some of our most important institutions, the F.B.I. and Justice Department, to keep his compromised status hidden.
That must not be tolerated. This is code red. The biggest threat to the integrity of our democracy today is in the Oval Office.
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MoA - Mueller Indictment - The "Russian Influence" Is A Commercial Marketing Scheme
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:11
February 17, 2018
Mueller Indictment - The "Russian Influence" Is A Commercial Marketing SchemeYesterday the U.S. Justice Department indicted the Russian Internet Research Agency on some dubious legal grounds. It covers thirteen Russian people and three Russian legal entities. The main count of the indictment is an alleged "Conspiracy to Defraud the United States".
The published indictment gives support to our long held believe that there was no "Russian influence" campaign during the U.S. election. What is described and denounced as such was instead a commercial marketing scheme which ran click-bait websites to generate advertisement revenue and created online crowds around virtual persona to promote whatever its commercial customers wanted to promote. The size of the operation was tiny when compared to the hundreds of millions in campaign expenditures. It had no influence on the election outcome.
The indictment is fodder for the public to prove that the Mueller investigation is "doing something". It distracts from further questioning the origin of the Steele dossier. It is full of unproven assertions and assumptions. It is a sham in that none of the Russian persons or companies indicted will ever come in front of a U.S. court. That is bad because the indictment is build on the theory of a new crime which, unless a court throws it out, can be used to incriminate other people in other cases and might even apply to this blog. The later part of this post will refer to that.
In the early 1990s some dude in St.Petersburg made a good business selling hot dogs. He opened a colorful restaurant. Local celebrities and politicians were invited to gain notoriety while the restaurant served cheap food for too high prices. It was a good business. A few years later he moved to Moscow and gained contracts to cater to schools and to the military. The food he served was still substandard.
But catering bad food as school lunches gave him, by chance, the idea for a new business:
Parents were soon up in arms. Their children wouldn't eat the food, saying it smelled rotten.
As the bad publicity mounted, Mr. Prigozhin's company, Concord Catering, launched a counterattack, a former colleague said. He hired young men and women to overwhelm the internet with comments and blog posts praising the food and dismissing the parents' protests.
''In five minutes, pages were drowning in comments,'' said Andrei Ilin, whose website serves as a discussion board about public schools. ''And all the trolls were supporting Concord.''
The trick worked beyond expectations. Prigozhin had found a new business. He hired some IT staff and low paid temps to populate various message boards, social networks and the general internet with whatever his customers asked him for.
You have a bad online reputation? Prigozhin can help. His internet company will fill the net with positive stories and remarks about you. Your old and bad reputation will be drowned by the new and good one. Want to promote a product or service? Prigozhin's online marketeers can address the right crowds.
Pic: A Russian influencer
To achieve those results the few temps who worked on such projects needed to multiply their online personalities. It is better to have fifty people vouch for you online than just five. No one cares if these are real people or just virtual ones. The internet makes it easy to create such sock-puppets. The virtual crowd can then be used to push personalities, products or political opinions. Such schemes are nothing new or special. Every decent "western" public relations and marketing company will offer a similar service and has done so for years.
While it is relatively easy to have sock-puppets swamp the comment threads of such sites as this blog, it is more difficult to have a real effect on social networks. These depend on multiplier effects. To gain many real "likes", "re-tweets" or "followers" an online persona needs a certain history and reputation. Real people need to feel attached to it. It takes some time and effort to build such a multiplier personality, be it real or virtual.
At some point Prigozhin, or whoever by then owned the internet marketing company, decided to expand into the lucrative English speaking market. This would require to build many English language online persona and to give those some history and time to gain crowds of followers and a credible reputation. The company sent a few of its staff to the U.S. to gain some impressions, pictures and experience of the surroundings. They would later use these to impersonate as U.S. locals. It was a medium size, long-term investment of maybe a hundred-thousand bucks over two or three years.
The U.S. election provided an excellent environment to build reputable online persona with large followings of people with discriminable mindsets. The political affinity was not important. The personalities only had to be very engaged and stick to their issue - be it left or right or whatever. The sole point was to gain as many followers as possible who could be segmented along social-political lines and marketed to the companies customers.
Again - there is nothing new to this. It is something hundreds, if not thousands of companies are doing as their daily business. The Russian company hoped to enter the business with a cost advantage. Even its mid-ranking managers were paid as little as $1,200 per month. The students and other temporary workers who would 'work' the virtual personas as puppeteers would earn even less. Any U.S. company in a similar business would have higher costs.
In parallel to building virtual online persona the company also built some click-bait websites and groups and promoted these through mini Facebook advertisements. These were the "Russian influence ads" on Facebook the U.S. media were so enraged about. They included the promotion of a Facebook page about cute puppies. Back in October we described how those "Russian influence" ads (most of which were shown after the election or were not seen at all) were simply part of a commercial scheme:
The pages described and the ads leading to them are typical click-bait, not part of a political influence op.
One builds pages with "hot" stuff that hopefully attracts lots of viewers. One creates ad-space on these pages and fills it with Google ads. One attracts viewers and promotes the spiked pages by buying $3 Facebook mini-ads for them. The mini-ads are targeted at the most susceptible groups.
A few thousand users will come and look at such pages. Some will 'like' the puppy pictures or the rant for or against LGBT and further spread them. Some will click the Google ads. Money then flows into the pockets of the page creator. One can rinse and repeat this scheme forever. Each such page is a small effort for a small revenue. But the scheme is highly scaleable and parts of it can be automatized.
Because of the myriad of U.S. sanctions against Russia the monetization of these business schemes required some creativity. One can easily find the name of a real U.S. person together with the assigned social security number and its date of birth. Those data are enough to open, for example, a Paypal account under a U.S. name. A U.S. customer of the cloaked Russian Internet company could then pay to the Paypal account and the money could be transferred from there to Moscow. These accounts could also be used to buy advertisement on Facebook. The person who's data was used to create the account would never learn of it and would have no loss or other damage. Another scheme is to simply pay some U.S. person to open a U.S. bank account and to then hand over the 'keys' to that account.
The Justice Department indictment is quite long and detailed. It must have been expensive. If you read it do so with the above in mind. Skip over the assumptions and claims of political interference and digest only the facts. All that is left is, as explained, a commercial marketing scheme.
I will not go into all its detail of the indictment but here are some points that support the above description.
Point 4:
Defendants, posing as US. persons and creating false U.S. personas, operated social media pages and groups designed to attract U.S. audiences. These groups and pages, which addressed divisive US. political and social issues, falsely claimed to be controlled by US. activists when, in fact, they were controlled by Defendants. Defendants also used the stolen identities of real U.S. persons to post on social media accounts. Over time, these social media accounts became Defendants' means to reach significant numbers of Americans ...
Point 10d:
By in or around April 2014, the ORGANIZATION formed a department that went by various names but was at times referred to as the "translator project." This project focused on the US. population and conducted operations on social media platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. By approximately July 2016, more than eighty ORGANIZATION employees were assigned to the translator project.
(Some U.S. media today made the false claim that $1.25 million per month were spend by the company for its U.S. campaign. But Point 11 of the indictment says that the company ran a number of such projects directed at a Russian audience while only the one described in 10d above is aimed at an U.S. audience. All these projects together had a monthly budget of $1.25 million.)
(Point 17, 18 and 19 indict individual persons who have worked for the "translator" project" "to at least in and around [some month] 2014". It is completely unclear how these persons, who seem to have left the company two years before the U.S. election, are supposed to have anything to do with the claimed "Russian influence" on the U.S. election and the indictment.)
Point 32:
Defendants and their co-conspirators, through fraud and deceit, created hundreds of social media accounts and used them to develop certain fictitious U.S. personas into "leader[s] of public opinion" in the United States.
The indictment then goes on and on describing the "political activities" of the sock-puppet personas. Some posted pro-Hillary slogans, some anti-Hillary stuff, some were pro-Trump, some anti-everyone, some urged not to vote, others to vote for third party candidates. The sock-puppets did not create or post fake news. They posted mainstream media stories.
Some of the persona called for going to anti-Islam rallies while others promoted pro-Islam rallies. The Mueller indictment lists a total of eight rallies. Most of these did not take place at all. No one joined the "Miners For Trump" rallies in Philly and Pittsburgh. A "Charlotte against Trump" march on November 19 - after the election - was attended by one hundred people. Eight people came for a pro-Trump rally in Fort Myers.
The sock-puppets called for rallies to establish themselves as 'activist' and 'leadership' persona, to generated more online traffic and additional followers. There was in fact no overall political trend in what the sock-puppets did. The sole point of all such activities was to create a large total following by having multiple personas which together covered all potential social-political strata.
At Point 86 the indictment turns to Count Two - "Conspiracy to Commit Wire Fraud and Bank Fraud". The puppeteers opened, as explained above, various Paypal accounts using 'borrowed' data.
Then comes the point which confirms the commercial marketing story as laid out above:
Point 95:
Defendants and their co-conspirators also used the accounts to receive money from real U.S. persons in exchange for posting promotions and advertisements on the ORGANIZATION-controlled social media pages. Defendants and their co-conspirators typically charged certain U.S. merchants and U.S. social media sites between 25 and 50 U.S. dollars per post for promotional content on their popular false U.S. persona accounts, including Being Patriotic, Defend the 2nd, and Blacktivist.
There you have it. There was no political point to what the Russian company did. Whatever political slogans one of the company's sock-puppets posted had only one aim: to increase the number of followers for that sock-puppet. The sole point of creating a diverse army of sock-puppets with large following crowds was to sell the 'eyeballs' of the followers to the paying customers of the marketing company.
There were, according to the indictment, eighty people working on the "translator project". These controlled "hundreds" of sock-puppets online accounts each with a distinct "political" personality. Each of these sock-puppets had a large number of followers - in total several hundred-thousands. Now let's assume that one to five promotional posts can be sold per day on each of the sock-puppets content stream. The scheme generates several thousand dollars per day ($25 per promo, hundreds of sock-puppets, 1-5 promos per day per sock-puppet). The costs for this were limited to the wages of up to eighty persons in Moscow, many of them temps, of which the highest paid received some $1,000 per month. While the upfront multiyear investment to create and establish the virtual personas was probably significant, this likely was, over all, a profitable business.
Again - this had nothing to do with political influence on the election. The sole point of political posts was to create 'engagement' and a larger number of followers in each potential social-political segment. People who buy promotional posts want these to be targeted at a specific audience. The Russian company could offer whatever audience was needed. It had sock-puppets with pro-LGBT view and a large following and sock-puppets with anti-LGBT views and a large following. It could provide pro-2nd amendment crowds as well as Jill Stein followers. Each of the sock-puppets had over time generated a group of followers that were like minded. The entity buying the promotion simply had to choose which group it preferred to address.
The panic of the U.S. establishment over the loss of their preferred candidate created an artificial storm over "Russian influence" and assumed "collusion" with the Trump campaign. (Certain Democrats though, like Adam Schiff, profit from creating a new Cold War through their sponsoring armament companies.)
The Mueller investigation found no "collusion" between anything Russia and the Trump campaign. The indictment does not mentions any. The whole "Russian influence" storm is based on a misunderstanding of commercial activities of a Russian marketing company in U.S. social networks.
There is a danger in this. The indictment sets up a new theory of nefarious foreign influence that could be applied to even this blog. As U.S. lawyer Robert Barns explains:
The only thing frightening about this indictment is the dangerous and dumb precedent it could set: foreign nationals criminally prohibited from public expression in the US during elections unless registered as foreign agents and reporting their expenditures to the FEC.
Mueller's new crime only requires 3 elements: 1) a foreign national; 2) outspoken on US social media during US election; and 3) failed to register as a foreign agent or failed to report receipts/expenditures of speech activity. Could indict millions under that theory.
The legal theory of the indictment for most of the defendants and most of the charges alleges that the "fraud" was simply not registering as a foreign agent or not reporting expenses to the FEC because they were a foreign national expressing views in a US election.
Author Leonid Bershidsky, who prominently writes for Bloomberg, remarks:
I'm actually surprised I haven't been indicted. I'm Russian, I was in the U.S. in 2016 and I published columns critical of both Clinton and Trump w/o registering as a foreign agent.
As most of you will know your author writing this is German. I write pseudo-anonymously for a mostly U.S. audience. My postings are political and during the U.S. election campaign expressed an anti-Hillary view. The blog is hosted on U.S, infrastructure paid for by me. I am not registered as Foreign Agent or with the Federal Election Commission.
Under the theory on which the indictment is based I could also be indicted for a similar "Conspiracy to Defraud the United States".
(Are those of you who kindly donate for this blog co-conspiractors?)
When Yevgeni Prigozhin, the hot dog caterer who allegedly owns the internet promotion business, was asked about the indictment he responded:
"The Americans are really impressionable people, they see what they want to see. [...] If they want to see the devil, let them see him."
Posted by b on February 17, 2018 at 03:09 PM | Permalink
The indictment is of individuals who will never be caught, never be tried. So it is accusation only. It is safe to accuse those who will never contest the accusation. So if it indicts simple commercial profit from click bait as an evil political attack, that will never be defended against, never be challenged in court. It will by design stand unchallenged, an accusation that is "proof" of itself to all who wish to believe it.
Posted by: Mark Thomason | Feb 17, 2018 3:15:25 PM | 1
Welcome earthlings. I bring you good tidings from free Russia, where we are in the midst of CIA plundering. But that nothing new.
My master want me ask, will America be free anytime soon? Exit the matrix please.
Posted by: RusBot_AQF4 | Feb 17, 2018 3:44:48 PM | 2
Excellent work, b! The indictment has all the logic of a dog chasing its tail.
Posted by: karlof1 | Feb 17, 2018 3:52:13 PM | 3
I only glanced at my Twitter feed today as the craziness is hard to endure. A puff piece of an indictment and everyone is seriously raising the question if the US are going to be taken over by Russia and begging for more sanctions.
While the US are causing actual and serious harm in foreign countries, past, present and future.
Posted by: BX | Feb 17, 2018 3:53:21 PM | 4
I think that there are tons of such companies, and the reason Mueller could identify this one is that it is a small outfit that did not bother with a more sophisticated payment scheme using intermediaries in tax heavens like Cyprus or Panama (see Panama papers) that could create legal persons having actual American bank accounts with ownership that is hard to trace (physical owner is a Panamanian attorney who represents a Cypriote attorney who represents Latvian attorney who represents Maldivian attorney... , and none will disclose the client without a court order valid in their country.
I have very small experience with "social media", I follow several Twitter accounts and I never access Facebook, but I noticed "sponsored content" on many news sites that get ad money, and often it reeks of political manipulation, presumably with heavy money behind it. So this is the newest instance of "they hang small thiefs".
Posted by: Piotr Berman | Feb 17, 2018 3:54:21 PM | 5
Damn good write, It was explained so well even I could understand. Thanks a bunch.
Posted by: ken | Feb 17, 2018 4:03:12 PM | 6
LOL and Thanks b.
Posted by: jo6pac | Feb 17, 2018 4:16:07 PM | 7
A Virtual Reality Guantanamo in Virtual Reality AmeriKKKa?
Posted by: Hoarsewhisperer | Feb 17, 2018 4:19:37 PM | 8
thanks b... this is an excellent overview.. i didn't have the heart to do the work you did here... i guess we are all guilty, lol...
Posted by: james | Feb 17, 2018 4:34:33 PM | 9
b-thank you! Do you see a further motive here, is this a first step in ending "trolls" on media, or to be clear; whomever the US Justice Dept deems a troll?
Posted by: frances | Feb 17, 2018 4:40:07 PM | 10
Great post
Posted by: par4 | Feb 17, 2018 4:41:15 PM | 11
How did Facebook and Twitter find the "Russia-connected" accounts? They claimed that they had all by themselves investigated and identified accounts with connections to "Russia", FB says that the suspended accounts were also somehow interconnected.
A "connection" to Russia is in itself no proof that the accounts were operated by Russians. People seeking anonymity from NSA and FBI spies would be likely to use Russian VPN and even banking services. Only later was it claimed that these accounts were operated by the mysterious and possibly non-existent "Internet Research Agency".
Where did this information or claim come from? The claim is odd as the St. Petersburg "troll factory" was exposed already 3 years ago. The consensus in Russia is that it does not even exist. Even if it existed, it would be an unlikely outfit for a sensitive, secret operation, as their activities (if any) would be closely monitored by Western intelligence agencies.
It is marginally possible that the NSA had monitored and identified the "Russia-connected" accounts - possible even tracing them to their operators in Russia - and gave this information to Facebook and Twitter in September 2017. It this is the case, then Facebook and Twitter lied about how they had identified the accounts.
(It is also possible that the accounts were fake Russians operated by U.S. intelligence agencies as a insurance policy against a Trump presidency.)
Posted by: Petri Krohn | Feb 17, 2018 4:54:41 PM | 12
Thanks for simplifying the BS, b. It reminds me of the earlier DHS "assessment." Much ado about nothing or little.
Posted by: Curtis | Feb 17, 2018 5:04:47 PM | 13
I can only paste my yesterday's response on SST. This whole thing is an embarrassment. I am sure real SVR people laughed their socks off when read this "incitement" written by amateurs. Here are some points I make:
while I was driving home from work I desperately tried to recall when any serious intelligence asset in the history of spying addressed the other in open with "OK, Gestapo got me", or sent a telegram to Lubyanka "OK, I got busted by FBI", nor do I expect CIA assets in Russia, the moment FSB gets to them, start sending e-mails to Langley with "Dudes, got to run, FSB is on my tail". Not only it goes against anything real professionals do, but even real military guards rank and file, guarding weapons and ammo depots have parole and response which are secret "words" known only to them--all that is required by basic field manuals. Now, I am pretty sure that real serious SVR assets have a well trained and worked out open communications protocols which include secret ciphered words and phrases for a number of urgent contingencies. Even boy-scouts do that. I am sure that real SVR officer or agent would write, in case of being under FBI surveillance and feeling a heat something like that: "Got a serious caries problem in my low far left mole. Hurts like hell, need to make a dentist appointment", or "Have issues with bowel movement, need to take stool softener." And who in our time doesn't need a stool softener, right? So, yes, there are huge questions about this Mueller's "work", for me at least, and I do not deny the possibility, albeit asses the probability as very low, that Russia could have been involved in some form into "influencing" something, but this is not it. Money laundering? Yes, that is more like it but then serious SVR assets on assignment to subvert US democracy are not engaged into questionable financial activities.
Posted by: SmoothieX12 | Feb 17, 2018 5:10:37 PM | 14
To emphasize a fact already alluded to, there could be no "Russian influence" because the chain of command as detailed by the indictment stops at chef Prigozhin, long identified as the chief architect of the profit-seeking Internet Research Agency. So whatever happened in that agency was a personal/corporate effort, and not anything promoted by the Russian government. IOW, regarding a suggested event, if b were indicted would it constitute "German influence?" No.
Judging from the indictment, there is apparently no evidence that the US government, or the Trump campaign, was involved which is logical since whatever happened was a private affair by Prigozhin. "Collusion" implies Russia/Trump contact. But the fake-news NYTimes headlines: "Indictment Makes Trump's Hoax Claim Harder to Sell."
Also there is no information yet on the alleged DNC hacking.
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 5:18:54 PM | 16
@ 14
Regarding your mention of SST, here are two (puzzling) Lang comments on the indictment:
>Looks to me like a very professional operation I look forward to more indictments. Let's see them! pl
>Mueller has made a good start with the St. Petersburg 13. He needs to clear up the rest or these "loose ends" will remain forever in the realm of urban myth and partisan propaganda. pl
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 5:29:39 PM | 17
@ 16
And what exactly were the US NGOs like the IRI doing in Russia?
They were promoting democracy for the US State Department.
. . .I kid you not, as The Angry Arab would say. (But he would mean it; I'm being facetious.)
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 5:35:09 PM | 18
Most excellent article, b
Could you comment on this. All things being equal the marketing scheme would have spread
their positive and derogatory posts equally to any given candidate, yet Mueller says
Hillary was under attack.
Section 43
"They engaged in operations primarily intended to communicate derogatory information about Hillary Clinton, to denigrate other candidates such as Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, and to support Bernie Sanders and then-candidate Donald Trump."
Posted by: liburl | Feb 17, 2018 5:37:13 PM | 19
@1 There must be some Russians who are sorely tempted to send those 13 indicted to the USA, arms outstretched, and loudly shouting "This is slander! Bring it on, Mueller, I want my day in court!".
Because I would think that his worst nightmare would be that his bluff is called and someone ends up having to actually prosecute this "crime" in a court of law.
Talk about a hopeless brief......
Posted by: Yeah, Right | Feb 17, 2018 5:38:03 PM | 20
@Don Bacon
My impression is that Colonel, being a true American patriot and a man with vast experience, might be simply embarrassed himself for all this. US is literally going insane and humiliates itself non-stop, so, in my humble opinion, what else does he have to say? This is my personal impression but I could be wrong, of course. The whole Russiagate is a psychiatric pathology unparalleled in modern history.
Posted by: SmoothieX12 | Feb 17, 2018 5:40:53 PM | 21
The indictment is the sequel to the Trump dossier. Both works of fiction.
That piece in the indictment about a US person holding up a sign on 29th May...
"The Americans are really impressionable people, they see what they want to see. [...] If they want to see the devil, let them see him."
That seems to apply to both the Americans that write the impressions, and those that read them.
Posted by: Peter AU 1 | Feb 17, 2018 5:43:02 PM | 22
@Don Bacon
For some reason my response didn't post, so the short version of it--I think he may be embarrassed for this whole thing.
Posted by: SmoothieX12 | Feb 17, 2018 5:46:02 PM | 23
The whole "Russian influence" storm is based on a misunderstanding of commercial activities of a Russian marketing company in U.S. social networks.
I posit there there is no 'misunderstanding' at all. At the beginning of his excellent piece 'b' writes that "The indictment is fodder for the public to prove that the Mueller investigation is "doing something". That looks like intelligent design to me (! ;) ), or am I missing something?*
Considering US behavior over the last quarter of a century or so whereby they seem to incapable of
looking beyond their noses at any possible mid or even long term consequences of their actions (allies too), and/or are simply disinterested (job done, move on), I looks far more like the latter. A case of, "Frankly my dear, I don't give a damn!"
*The cat's been messing up my sleep. My legs are very humpworthy.
Posted by: et Al | Feb 17, 2018 5:53:32 PM | 24
Let's get it on....from The Hill:
A White House spokesman accused Democrats and the mainstream news media of creating more recent "chaos" in America than the Russian government.
In an interview with "Fox & Friends" on Saturday, Hogan Gidley blamed the two groups for causing "chaos" by spreading stories related to Robert Mueller's special counsel investigation into possible collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia.
"There are two groups that have created chaos more than the Russians and that's the Democrats and the mainstream media,'' Gidley said.
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 6:15:32 PM | 26
@ 25
Not only is Mueller "doing something," as you suggest he's constructed a self-licking ice cream cone, i.e. he doesn't have to do anything else like take his charges into a courtroom (unless some smart-ass Russian calls him on it as suggested above). He knew the establishment media and politicians would go for it and they did.
But they may have underestimated Trump. I think Trump's national security adviser McMaster has already exhibited his general officer stupidity. He may have signed his exit papers with his enthusiasm for the indictment.
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 6:29:01 PM | 28
The copy of the indictment on NPR's web site that b's article links to is currently unavailable because the site never responds. Perhaps under DDOS attack?
Because of that issue I could not view the linked document. being There is a .jpg version of the indictment that's difficult to read being passed around by mainstream media. That looks like it could be an amateur job of obfuscation to me, considering that the original on the DoJ website is a completely legible (and text copyable) PDF:
To view the doc sooner and to prevent eyestrain, I recommend the DoJ version.
Posted by: Paul E. Merrell | Feb 17, 2018 6:34:03 PM | 29
Anti-Russian hysteria is simply a belated recognition that Moscow is winning the Second Cold War. And the scariest part of it all is that the latter is gaining the upper hand without even trying. The West is doing the job of destroying itself with such enthusiasm that all Putin has to do is to sit tight, remain silent and not resist interfering in the process. Which is exactly what he's doing.
US Deep State is ruining America, German government is killing Germany, British ruling class has all but obliterated UK, and so on. There is not a single healthy entity here, and they all need to blame someone for this unfolding catastrophe, and Russia is the most convenient target.
This won't work because the credibility of the accusers is almost non-existent by now.
Without the 180-degree course correction the most far-gone and damaged part of the West - the USA - has very little shelf life left in it. And once it expires for good (give or take 5 years, and no later than the last Putin's term ends), the whole modern world will fracture and shatter to pieces with it.
Good or bad, but the legend of Vladimir Putin as the "man who destroyed the West" is already set in stone and will from now on live forever. And it's his detractors who placed him on a world's highest pedestal and immortalized him. The irony...
Posted by: telescope | Feb 17, 2018 6:43:13 PM | 30
Correction - please read "resist" instead of "not resist".
Posted by: telescope | Feb 17, 2018 6:45:15 PM | 31
If I had to guess I would say that a trade off between the two halves of the amerikan empire party is what has happened here.
The dems have agreed to say that while the russkies 'did it' there was no collusion from the trump campaign and in return the rethugs have agreed the russkies were 'at it' without their knowledge.
It is handy for both sides as the morons in the dem party can keep up the lie that hil the shill lost because of outside influence, thereby avoiding the unpalatable truth that she was the worst prez candidate since Alfred E Neuman, and the rethug derps can say "see I told ya we didn't do it" without having to confront the idiotic meeting Don jnr attended with a bunch of sleazy Russian lawyers.
In other words things can continue as before with both sides continuing to put forward low-life scoundrels you wouldn't wish on yer mother-in-law as "the next president of amerika".
Posted by: Debsisdead | Feb 17, 2018 7:02:11 PM | 32
Only later was it claimed that these accounts were operated by the mysterious and possibly non-existent "Internet Research Agency".
Where did this information or claim come from? The claim is odd as the St. Petersburg "troll factory" was exposed already 3 years ago. The consensus in Russia is that it does not even exist. Even if it existed, it would be an unlikely outfit for a sensitive, secret operation, as their activities (if any) would be closely monitored by Western intelligence agencies.
Posted by: Petri Krohn | Feb 17, 2018 4:54:41 PM | 12
To emphasize a fact already alluded to, there could be no "Russian influence" because the chain of command as detailed by the indictment stops at chef Prigozhin, long identified as the chief architect of the profit-seeking Internet Research Agency. So whatever happened in that agency was a personal/corporate effort, and not anything promoted by the Russian government.
Also there is no information yet on the alleged DNC hacking.
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 5:18:54 PM | 17
It has been pointed out several times in the last 48 hrs, on this website, that the so-called "Internet Research Agency", in all liklihood, doesn't even exist, or what little existence it has suggests some sort of non-russian (CIA/MI6 etc) intelligence front, created simply for the purpose of smearing the Russian state/Putin.
yet this "Internet Research Agency" idiocy persists nonetheless.
Petri Krohn pointed it out @ 12, before that guy posting @17 posted his nonsense, and he acts as if Krohn's post and the link to the Saker article on the "Internet Research Agency", ( never even existed, as if it has never been mentioned nor links to it posted on this or any other thread at MOA. Either he didn't read it or he did and has dismissed it entirely and doesn't even have the honesty to aat least acknowledge its existence.
This sort of stupidity is what people are up against - .
Posted by: Bobby Mueller | Feb 17, 2018 7:06:27 PM | 33
Thanks for the summary, reading the full text of an indictment is torture because they are basically a string of non-sequiturs with occasional references to the actual criminal code. For example, 'Jeff and his co-conspirators regularly neglect to cut their lawns which impacts the real estate value of their neighbors .... we are charging him with bank fraud"
Is it a federal crime to create a fake facebook account?
I am still scratching my head at Mueller's core charge, is it a fed. crime to create a fake facebook account and post political content? If this is what Mueller is alleging, with B's qualifications, 'foreigner', 'political content during election cycle', and 'failure to register as foreign agent' doesn't the prosecutor have to cite the statute.
What federal statute applies to fake facebook accounts?
Posted by: Christian Chuba | Feb 17, 2018 7:10:26 PM | 34
Mueller's indictments are meaningless chaff, thrown up to distract from the fact that after months and months of Putin nonsense he has a big massive Nothing-Burger.
None of these people will ever be apprehended let alone actually charged in person, with anything. So Mueller can claim what he likes about them because none of these claims in his risible "indictment" are ever intended to be tested in any court of law anywhere on the planet.
The FBI has no jurisdiction in Russia last time I checked.
Posted by: Bobby Mueller | Feb 17, 2018 7:16:26 PM | 35
Great piece. It's time I bookmarked this blog.
Posted by: GM | Feb 17, 2018 7:25:01 PM | 36
1) Russians posted cute cat and dog pictures on Facebook.
2) U.S. Air Force massacred 644 (maybe) Russian mercenaries in Deir ez-Zor.
This weeks two Russia stories are intervened.
Dmitry Utkin, the alleged founder of the likely non-existent Wagner Group is also the General Director of Concord Management and Consulting, the parent company of Yevgeny Prigozhin's Concord Catering. Both companies were indicted by Mueller.
Posted by: Petri Krohn | Feb 17, 2018 7:57:33 PM | 37
The entirety of the discussion surrounding the bogus accusations of "Russian meddling" presupposes that elections in the US are valid democratic exercises where "the people" use their vote to influence and/or change the government. This is an unwarranted assumption that has no basis in reality.
It also presupposes that US elections are "free and fair" which of course they are not. The US elections are rigged affairs right from the get-go as anyone who has studied the details of election rules and regulations know.
Of course in every election we are bombarded with propaganda about how ''your vote makes a difference'' and associated nonsense. According to the official version ordinary citizens control the state by voting for candidates in elections. The President and other politicians are supposedly servants of ''the people'' and the government an instrument of the general populace. This version is a myth. It does not matter who is elected because the way the system is set up all elected representatives must do what big business and the state bureaucracy want, not what ''the people'' want. Elected representatives are figureheads. Politicians' rhetoric may change depending on who is elected, but they all have to implement the same policies given the same situation. Elections are a scam whose function is to create the illusion that ''the people'' control the government, not the elite, and to neutralize resistance movements. All voting does is strengthen the state & ruling class, it is not an effective means to change government policy.
By regarding society from a class perspective, one can see through the machinations of the rich. Marx explained that "in any epoch, the ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas..." The ruling class insists on control. Hence it demands unchallenged domination of the political system. It acts to mold all social institutions -- including schools, media, & political parties -- to serve its own interests. Any group that might oppose it (such as militant labor unions, leftist intellectuals, antiwar types, consumer & environmental advocates, etc) it tries to marginalize, coopt or destroy.
The political system that best serves the interests of the rich is the one that A) obediently does their bidding, while B) posing theatrically as a "democracy," in a convincing enough way so that most people don't catch on that they're simply being played. Objective "B" serves to greatly reduce resistance.
The illusion of "choice" and "free elections" is very important to the ruling class. They recognize that this pretty illusion makes their job much easier, so they want to preserve it. The rituals of campaigns & elections function to con most of the population into believing that "they're free." Most people will never clearly recognize that the choice they're being offered is a highly contrived one. They're being forced to choose between 2 parties which are united against them, rigged to serve the interests of their oppressors.
In today's US, especially at the national level, elections are worse than worthless -- they simply perpetuate illusions & waste time. They are degrading & repulsive exercises in Madison Avenue PR techniques, where "the truth" is off limits from the get-go. Effort should be directed not at participating in this system, but at bringing it down, exposing its corrupt essence, & building genuinely constructive alternatives.
Posted by: Allen | Feb 17, 2018 8:03:06 PM | 38
Don't worry b. If Meuller or someone were to try to charge you it would be a complete joke. Even Americans are not so stupid. Besides, you would become the new Julian Assange. It would become a giant circus.
Posted by: blues | Feb 17, 2018 8:10:56 PM | 39
I suspect this will be just phase one if they can get away with it. It will take time, but the powers that be will be persistent. All establishment parties, and more particularly the giant corporate forces behind them, want these kind of restrictions on the net and have since Hillary lost against Obama. Going after "foreigners" is the logical first step, the low hanging fruit, but by no means the last.
Moon Of Alabama indirectly helped get Trump elected (or get Hillary NOT elected), so did Assange, and so did countless sites foreign and domestic that were fact oriented (and willing to dig and in many cases such as MOA, perceptive). The point is Trump isn't about to thank them, he's going after them as much and as hard as the DNC and for the same reasons. Like any business, he will take advantage of what ever is out there "blowing in his direction" when he can't afford not to. Now that he is in power, however, he will - within his power - crush anyone with the ability to threaten him. Because willingly or not he is part of something much bigger, truly international, with vast technological as well as financial, political and military resources, that (accurately) sees the Internet as Actual Freedom of Expression, and therefore as a very real threat, he has a lot of force on his side.
Posted by: Brooklin Bridge | Feb 17, 2018 8:20:50 PM | 40
Saying, "phase one" above was inaccurate. The recent rewinding of Net Neutrality would be a better "phase one" but even that would be inaccurate. Suffice it to say, this is one of the early battles against an open internet which is itself part of a larger battle between International Finance Capitalism and the people (or anything in it's way).
Posted by: Brooklin Bridge | Feb 17, 2018 8:41:26 PM | 41
Below are some quotes in a recent interview between ex CIA Chief James Woolsey and Laura Ingraham
But then, beginning at around 4:30, the real debacle of the conversation begins as Ingraham asks Woolsey,
"Have we ever tried to meddle in other countries' elections?"
He responds, surprisingly frankly...
"Oh probably... but it was for the good of the system..."
To which Ingraham follows up...
"We don't do that now though? We don't mess around in other people's elections?"
Prompting this extraordinary sentence from a former CIA chief...
"Well...hhhmmm, numm numm numm numm... only for a very good the interests of democracy"
Posted by: psychohistorian | Feb 17, 2018 8:48:29 PM | 42
Thanks for another good write up. Of course this is all bullshit, the only question is who is going to buy it Outside of the spectrum of Clinton and Blair neoliberals and the Military Industrial Complex insiders, I see very few people willing to sign onto this PR campaign.
If Mueller really wanted to trip up Trump, he would have gone after the Exxon Rosneft deals involving Rex Tillerson and Igor Sechin. But then, he would have had to address Clinton Foundation deals as well.
China wins, Russia and America are Cold War leftovers similar to the French and British Empires after Suez Canal 1956 right, FSB and CIA cannot handle the new world reality ha ha ha
Posted by: nonsense factory | Feb 17, 2018 8:49:44 PM | 43
I should also have emphasized that it is not only Mueller, (and the Dems) (oh yes, and the Russians under our beds), going after real, or un-disneyfied journalism on the net. I made it sound like the article posted was about Trump. My point was rather, that it might as well be one person with Trump's face on one side and Mueller's (twisted in with Hillary's) face on the other.
Posted by: Brooklin Bridge | Feb 17, 2018 8:51:25 PM | 44
Posted by: blues | Feb 17, 2018 8:10:56 PM | 41
I'm sure b will be heartened to hear that many of us will think of him a coupla times a day while he sits rotting in the hole of some supermax.
Fortunately it will never come to that chiefly because the arseholes have bigger fish to fry and there is no desire in DC to get offside with Germany with so many other 'allies' already dirty on them.
But this does mean we should exercise a bit of commonsense, b has to be pushed to an extreme to delete a post which is as it should be, nevertheless say back in '12 I posted "I'd like to rip off Obama's head and shit down the hole in his neck", ten years from now some fed contractor looking for a reason to go after MoA found it, they could give b a hard time for letting it stay up, especially if the original poster is untraceable.
It doesn't mean 'giving in' and only saying what the pricks say is permissable, we can still express ourselves vehemently, state our opinions but not couch it in terms that arseholes can easily use to cause trouble.
Myself I would have thought freedom of expression amendments would permit threats against any of the low life scum who have been prez but AFAIK no one has got a judgement overturning that encroachment on freedom of speech.
Posted by: Debsisdead | Feb 17, 2018 9:04:00 PM | 45
good for him
CNN: Trump: 'Case closed'
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 9:51:27 PM | 46
So if the Christopher Steele dossier was funded by the DNC can we assume the Russian bots and Prighozin are funded by Perkins Coie. As far as I recall the DNC paid Perkins Coie millions for their legal work recruiting and resourcing Steele but disbursements to Steele and his 'russian' contacts were only a fraction of that.
The real 'russian' influencers are Christopher Steele, Fusion GPS principals, Nellie Ohr and husband of DoJ notoriety, Perkins Coie lawyers, John Podesta and Hillary Clinton. We are waiting for Mueller to get the picture and say/do something.
Posted by: uncle tungsten | Feb 17, 2018 10:32:19 PM | 48
@ uncle tungsten who wrote:
The real 'russian' influencers are Christopher Steele, Fusion GPS principals, Nellie Ohr and husband of DoJ notoriety, Perkins Coie lawyers, John Podesta and Hillary Clinton. We are waiting for Mueller to get the picture and say/do something.
Do you not understand that Mueller and your list all work for the same elite? They will give you the next act in this circus when they are ready or another crisis opportunity presents itself.
I don't understand folks that think that Trump is going to be mankind's savior rather than the immoral grifter he seems in his Apprentice position for his family being "real" plutocrats.
Posted by: psychohistorian | Feb 17, 2018 11:13:13 PM | 49
Mr Barns has made a mistake in his article. Mueller DID NOT INDICT the Russians on those charges, while laying out that it is illegal. It is suspected he did not do so because of comparisons to the behavior of Christopher Steele.
Posted by: MikeN | Feb 17, 2018 11:20:09 PM | 50
@ ph 51
You don't like the elite nor Trump.
What other choice is there?
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 17, 2018 11:23:46 PM | 51
Even if we say the Russians interfered in the recent election, so what? How many elections have the Americans interfered with? How many democracies have they overthrown? How many wars and invasions have they started? Or what about voter apathy in the States? Never mind the fact that tens of millions of working class voters are disillusioned with the American political and economic system, instead we're made to believe that alleged Russian meddling which is immeasurable and insignificant even if it did occur, changed the election results. The' democratic' party is desperately trying to absolve itself by pointing at an imaginary enemy. The Americans are their own worst enemies.
Posted by: Ninel | Feb 18, 2018 12:02:37 AM | 52
@ Don Bacon who asked me what other choice is there
The short answer is structural change instead of ongoing lipstick on the pig that is our form of social organization.
I don't believe in benevolent dictators which is what Trump is trying to become. Clinton II is a war criminal.
We don't have either capitalism nor a democracy but do have those that own private finance running America and the rest of the Western world through their private Central Banks in the various nations. If we don't make finance a public utility and reign in unfettered inheritance of private property then it will continue to not matter which puppet is dancing for public consumption.
Posted by: psychohistorian | Feb 18, 2018 12:45:51 AM | 53
The short-sightedness of the American Press is hard to believe.
Posted by: Steve | Feb 18, 2018 1:14:48 AM | 54
The irony of this indictment is so thick that it is overwhelming.
The US has as far back as I can recall, as an political aware person, say 1973, been implicated in regime change or meddling. In Europe less violent than the rest of the world, but never the less they were there, as was the USSR. Spending money, influencing, subverting, coercing and in some cases resorting to violence, in order to get their government of choice. Italy and Greece were places that were sought out because of the strong left. And things did get violent from both sides. Those not old enough , look it up, there is plenty of evidence, declassified documents available. Northern Ireland was another place they meddled quite openly.
In the rest of the world, especially in South America, it was far, far more violent and less covert, almost all South American countries suffered.
It is blatantly hysterical, mind boggling hysterical, that Israel's influence and is silently accepted, but Israeli influence is so huge that opposition can be suppressed.
To counter foreign "meddling" the US is quietly regulating the Internet, introducing the Great US Firewall.
What a pathetic nation, what a joke....
Posted by: Den Lille Abe | Feb 18, 2018 1:52:42 AM | 55
@35 CHristian Chuba,
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act seems to make a Federal crime of creating fake accounts or acting beyond the terms of service on a website.
@51 psychohistorian,
There is value in making service to the elites so fraught and dangerous that it's not worth the risk. 100 years ago, labor was using firebombs and simple thuggery to make this point. Today, as much as I hate to see it weaponized, nude selfies and other conduct unbecoming a WASP might do.
Posted by: Jonathan | Feb 18, 2018 2:28:29 AM | 56
To further my previous comment:
The problem as I see it is that most people are unlikely to directly engage in politics. Memberships in political parties (in Europe , at least) has generally declined. Except the "populist" parties, where the only qualification for engagement is hate. And hate is a strong and powerful emotion.
Normal political parties has had a hard time attracting members, they cannot meet peoples wish of change now, the parties of course subscribing to the constitutional rules and boundaries in place. So change will be slow and cumbersome.
The parts of the populace that are left out, the unemployed, immigrants, are far more likely to be politically active, whereas the well off, the wealthy working and middle class, are too busy for politics, pursuing even more wealth, hollidays and gadgets.
It is depressing that the political parties, both right and left, have not been able to unify on this matter and counter this trend.
European politics is slowly being re- defined, and we have to see the fringe setting the political agenda, the vile populist parties have conquered the scene and setting the agenda, while the majority is scratching their collective bums.
Exactly the left as the left in the seventies (Peoples front of Judea, Life of Brian), fractured, mindless academic, completely irrelevant and clueless.
That many social democratic parties embraced liberalism in the nineties and early oughts, almost killed the Social-democratic idea.
But we have not given up yet, by being active CAN change the direction, and has slowly changed directions, but we must also use the tactics and means available i.e. we need a Tailor Swift, a Lady Gaga to draw attention and when the audience is there, hope people will see the light (look up, Blues brothers) and engage actively.
A great article b, and sorry if my comment is slightly out of order and relevance.
Posted by: Den Lille Abe | Feb 18, 2018 2:36:11 AM | 57
b's assessment rings true to me. It also fits with the view that we are all merely viewers of the first Reality TV Show Presidency. It's more entertainment to distract and divide us, and addresses none of the real threats we are facing.
The demonization of Putin and rebooting of the Cold War against Russia was underway no later than 2013. The "Russian Meddling" narrative serves as a big excuse to escalate it, but is just one of many that have been promoted.
Meanwhile, the Trump Administration continues or expands the very rapacious economic policies and murderous foreign policies which Candidate Trump denounced, and Democrats are attacking him (and progressives) from the right.
Posted by: Daniel | Feb 18, 2018 2:40:17 AM | 58
Is there any evidence of Russian govnerment involvement? If not, we basically have regular people using freedom of speech - maybe thats a crime today according to the establishment? Sickening.
As most of you will know your author writing this is German. I write pseudo-anonymously for a mostly U.S. audience. My postings are political and during the U.S. election campaign expressed an anti-Hillary view. The blog is hosted on U.S, infrastructure paid for by me. I am not registered as Foreign Agent or with the Federal Election Commission.
Its not only you, but everyone here that comment, thats the unfortunate dangerous situation this hysteria has led to.
Posted by: Anonymous | Feb 18, 2018 3:15:13 AM | 59
For hundred times it is all provocation against Russia, psyop that intensified since Putin returned to power and started rebuilding Russian military after another western provocation in Georgia and later in Moldova, it became exponential after Ukrainian putsch in 2014.
Ultimately removal and Putin and now Xi who will follow Putin to be elected four times breaking the western imposed rotation of CIA agents in the Chinese and Russian leadership is the ultimate goal of the Western globalists to be replaced by oth Chinese and Russian oligarchs wth more consmopolitan autlooke devoid of notions of nation states but rather global imperial provinces of US western emporium.
These are neocons sick dreams but as we see they will not be stopped without real bottom up anti oligarchic revolution and instead escalate into preprogrammed chaos and global conflict among people while harmony among oligarchy.
Posted by: Kalen | Feb 18, 2018 3:38:32 AM | 62
@liburl @20 - "Could you comment on this. All things being equal the marketing scheme would have spread
their positive and derogatory posts equally to any given candidate, yet Mueller says
Hillary was under attack."
Aside from the "Russian influence" there were commercial fake-news site created and run from Macedonia. These were widely reported about. for example by Wired: Inside the Macedonian Fake-News Complex.
The people running these sites did not care who would win the election. But they found that stories about Trump generated MORE TRAFFIC than pro Clinton stories. (BTW: U.S. main stream media found the same and was therefore full of Trump stories.) More traffic/followers is their sole point.
What Veles produced, though, was something more extreme still: an enterprise of cool, pure amorality, free not only of ideology but of any concern or feeling about the substance of the election. These Macedonians on Facebook didn't care if Trump won or lost the White House.
Trump groups seemed to have hundreds of thousands more members than Clinton groups, which made it simpler to propel an article into virality. (For a week in July, he experimented with fake news extolling Bernie Sanders. ''Bernie Sanders supporters are among the smartest people I've seen,'' he says. ''They don't believe anything. The post must have proof for them to believe it.'') He posted under his own name but also under the guise of one of 200 or so bogus Facebook profiles that he'd purchased for this purpose. (A fake profile with a Russian name cost about 10 cents; for an American name, the price went up to 50 cents.)
Posted by: b | Feb 18, 2018 3:52:42 AM | 63
Just come across this The water runs milky and can feel like fire.In this impoverished county, Trump's $1.5 trillion infrastructure plan may not helpText for link (not the URL)
In the impoverished county Warfield, a tiny town on Martin County in Kentukey, ordinary American people couldn't get safe water to drink for years, like a third world country. It needs $13 million for repairment but the local government does not have the money to replace the rusty water supply pipe. Yet USG just increases military budget to $700+ bllions and has wasted trillions $$$ on unnecessary wars in Syria/Iraqi/Afghanistan. You just wonder where USG's priority lays.
Posted by: mali | Feb 18, 2018 5:09:34 AM | 64
"... The sole point of creating a diverse army of sock-puppets with large following crowds was to sell the 'eyeballs' of the followers to the paying customers of the marketing company [Concord Catering] ..."
In other words, what Prigozhin's company is doing is hardly much different from what Facebook originally was set up to do: sell its followers, their details and their behaviours to paying customers, be they marketing organisations or the US government.
Posted by: Jen | Feb 18, 2018 5:40:31 AM | 65
No Russian influence-just more fake news, more lies, more manipulation, more of the same pantomime politics starring puppet politicians and directed by the dangerous psychopaths who rule us and who are rushing us down a one way street to extinction...
Posted by: Rich | Feb 18, 2018 7:27:05 AM | 66
"Inter-state strategic competition, not terrorism, is now the primary concern in U.S. national security"
2018 National Defense Strategy
Posted by: ConfusedPundit | Feb 18, 2018 7:36:38 AM | 67
Mueller would not have bothered indicting 13 Russian nationals unless he thought that it would further his investigation. He is proceeding slowly and methodically and that is causing our sensation and bombshell-driven media to explode in frustration.
At some point he will produce enough sworn testimony that is mutually contradictory or inconsistent to the point that one partner of the other will have to face charges of perjury.
Posted by: ralphieboy | Feb 18, 2018 7:44:23 AM | 68
European MSM are salivating at these indictements as "smoking gun" for Russian "hyjacking of US democracy". As ukronazi - supported by NATO countries - are escalating military attacks in Donbass, an all-out offensive in Summer is likely. Europeans are fed with propaganda and are sleepwalking into war at Russian border
Posted by: Buenaventuradurruti | Feb 18, 2018 8:03:08 AM | 69
Posted by: b | Feb 18, 2018 3:52:42 AM | 63
And anti-Hillary news probably produced many clicks, too.
However, there is no separation of private/public any more. Just as facebook is linked to the NSA, and just as the NSA is about industrial espionage as much as politics, some of the customers of these commercial enterprises in all likelihood were public.
As long as we don't manage to have public control of secret services all kind of murky stuff is going to happen.
Russia had skin in the game (just as Julian Assange, in a different matter) as Hillary had come out on stronly opposing Russia's stabilization policies of the post soviet space.
The obvious elephant in the room is that US election machines can easily be hacked.
Posted by: somebody | Feb 18, 2018 8:07:27 AM | 70
@21 -- it's on a spectrum: next stop on the line after 'crazy' is 'destruction'... and the criminals-in-charge seem to be doing exceptionally well at it. Check out Political Ponerology.
"They walk among us. On the outside. they're just like you and me, but on the inside they are unfeeling automatons who care only for themselves. They are the psychopaths, and they are in control of our governments, our corporations, our military and all of the positions of power. Join us this week on The Corbett Report as we delve into Political Ponerology, a diagnosis of our politicians and a brief look at the bigger picture.'' (2017 '' 54min)
Posted by: sheepdogs | Feb 18, 2018 9:14:47 AM | 72
@somebody 70
Russia had skin in the game
No, Russia was not mentioned in the indictment.
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 18, 2018 9:31:42 AM | 73
As clearly pointed out in the article, the US government could be dragged into international court for threatening every country in the world with prosecution for voicing unapproved political opinions on the world wide internet inhibiting their free speech rights. It would be interesting to see which governments defended their citizens or picked the other side to share in the suppression of free political speech all over the world. Who wants to see China issuing arrest warrants on Americans or Iran issuing arrest warrants on Israelis, Erdogan demanding England cease criticizing islam or face incarceration in turkish jails?
Posted by: dunce | Feb 18, 2018 9:34:07 AM | 74
why organize demonstrations?
b's assertion that this was a run of the mill, money making scheme, makes perfect sense except for the part about organizing staged political events. If a company was just casting a wide demographic net in order to obtain the most ad revenue then why take it to this level? The more conspicuous you are the more likely you are to get banned from FB and have to start all over again with creating new accounts, including paypal accounts.
BTW B's theory makes the most sense of anything that I have heard. This is the only 'loose end' versus the frayed ends of 'Russia is trying to create discord' theory. If Russian Intelligence was actually behind this they unnecessarily provoked the U.S. just to make themselves poison. Pol's don't even want to speak to their ambassadors anymore. This has been a disaster for them.
This also means that the FBI concocted a counter-intelligence operation when they must have figured out that this was just a marketing scam. Rooms in hell are being prepared for them. They are helping to restart a Cold War just to save their own rear ends.
Posted by: Christian Chuba | Feb 18, 2018 9:58:57 AM | 75
Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 18, 2018 9:31:42 AM | 73
I am not talking about the indictment. I am talking about Russian interest in anybody not Hillary.
Western Strategy toward Russia and the Post-Soviet Space
In 2012 then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called Russia's push for a Eurasian Customs Union ''a move to re -Sovietize the region,'' and warned, ''we are trying to figure out effective ways to slow down or prevent it."
Posted by: somebody | Feb 18, 2018 10:07:14 AM | 76
Way back when, McCann-Erickson tried to create billboards to appeal to the 'largest public.'
They pegged -> blondine + slim + dreamy eyes + blue background + sunlight + plainish text' get the picture (!), the end result of the accumulation of 'likes' (teased out with surveys, focus groups, etc.) was too generic, looked too calculated, didn't appeal, wasn't succesful in terms of sales of common consumer products.
Segmenting the audience in terms of the addressee, what papers, magazines, radio stations, roads, etc. were capted by what audience has always been part of advertising strategy since Sumer. At some point the idea that aiming at a small segment of a potential audience could be more successful - a narrow demographic could be 'galvanised' and the 'edginess/ novelty/ originality' could even attract others. The prime ex. is advertising > to male homosexuals (women didn't have enough surplus income) before being \gay/ was basically decriminalised (dates vary), accepted, popularised, culminating with gay marriage. This kind of advertising proved to be +++/3. Today a similar boost is going on based on 'sexual desires of another kind', sad story not for now.
Segmenting the population but not the target audience is a staple of the advertising industry and relates in a deep-rooted way to identity politics ( la Killary, where all is drowned in what demographic you belong to, how it is defined, what rights can be demanded, how you can attack and denigrate others, claim victim insult, then privileges etc.,) a mainstay of ''Capitalism'', in the sense of a society driven by some aspects of the 'free-market' in which allegiance, belief, and **hope** in some 'brethren' group, lacking any other outlets, aka a form of tribalism, are turned into cash profits.
The internet revolutionised the industry, in the sense that it became possible to prompt the audience to self-select what it was exposed to. So many schemes were tried out, b outlines some, that is exactly right'...and of course 'political attitudes' come into play, as they are (US) a summary of various aspects of variously defined demographic categories.
The end result is that political attitudes as judged, and their manipulation, become a staple of commercial marketing outside of any what one might call 'genuine politics.'
It follows that external threats are over-represented, Russia as 'interfering' in US elections is just some dumb marketing ploy, totally ridiculous, but an outcome of processes that remain very opaque (tried to give one path here.)
Posted by: Noirette | Feb 18, 2018 10:12:21 AM | 77
Thanks, b.
It is too bad your comment @63 requires patience and digging to arrive at. Too bad it wasn't part of your original article.
It provides insight into the curious distribution of articles between the candidates. Why is it reported that there were more favorable Trump articles then unfavorable and more unfavorable than favorable Clinton articles. The answer was the click count, what click-bait generated the most $income$.
Posted by: librul | Feb 18, 2018 10:38:22 AM | 78
INdeed, western media is fanatical these days, its only war they have in mind and they want Trump to start it for them it seems.
We also could forget about Trump will meet with Putin for diplomacy, that is completely off now.
Posted by: Anon | Feb 18, 2018 10:54:35 AM | 79
This whole "Russia did it' operation stinks of other than Hillary lost the election and this must be set straight. We know Hillary was getting rich on selling influence. We also know that Trump had real estate 'dealings' with Russian oligarchs that likely involve money laundering and/or tax evasion. Elites interact across the international scene to run business operations that are legit or not as they can operate above the law with impunity. Meanwhile as this fireworks show grabs the attention the American public, complete with such inanities as a 'Trump revolution' and a 'Q anon' Trump revolution warrior, all as a fictitious manipulation, the Trump administration has given everything and more that Wall Street has asked for. This is likely the real reason for this shiny sideshow as hardly anyone is reporting on the goodies Wall Street robber barons have accrued for themselves. The Marten's "Wall Street On Parade" being one of a few web sites that have kept their eye on the ball. Just sayin'....
Posted by: BRF | Feb 18, 2018 10:56:47 AM | 80
Hasn't anyone considered a more simple explanation for the announcement of these indictments and especially their senindipitous timing?
Indictments were based on junk overflow info laying around from Special Counsel's investigation. Announcement took place on same day Gov of Fla called for head of FBI to resign due to missing the ball re: Fla school shooter debacle. I.e.; this was announced to protect the FBI. Diversion!
Posted by: Snow Belt Willie | Feb 18, 2018 11:23:28 AM | 81
Reposting to the correct thread:
Obama, the faux populist, had the ''Birthers'' on his ass for years saying that Obama wasn't qualified to be President and - ''stirring the pot'' which included accusations that Obama was a Muslim socialist that sought to destroy America.
Now Trump, another faux populist, faces outlandish accusations of Russian collusion. As with Obama and the Birthers, nothing is likely to come of this.
Should we just ignore the parallels? And the possibility that it is all theater for public consumption? And the implication that the elections themselves were just theater?
Some say that the Russian investigation is meant to cover for Hillary's embarrassing failure to win the Presidency. But was she ever really in it to win it? Oh sure, she went thru the motions and raised a lot of money but her email server scandal was a atheist for a women in public life for years and who planned another run for President.
What Hillary has really done is to emasculate the Democratic Party and squash discontent from the left.
Others says that Trump's election represents a counter-coup. I used to think this too. But what has changed? How much different is Trump's center-right rule from how centrist Hillary would have governed? I think it foolish to believe that Hillary would've started WWIII. No, the smart move was to pretent to fight ISIS, co-opt the Kurds (the effort begun under Obama), and grab Eastern Syria - exactly as Trump has done.
Posted by: Jackrabbit | Feb 18, 2018 11:25:24 AM | 82
Correction: atheist ==> amateurish
Posted by: Jackrabbit | Feb 18, 2018 11:27:33 AM | 83
Correction: atheist ==> amateurish
Posted by: Jackrabbit | Feb 18, 2018 11:28:30 AM | 84
Smoothie #21-you are 100% right on-MUELLER IS SICK.....
Posted by: sejmon | Feb 18, 2018 11:30:04 AM | 85
Christian Chuba 75
I have only skimmed through the indictment, but to obvious pieces of fiction stood out. The placard holder of 29th May - JFK's birth date, and the Russian busy deleting emails that were evidence and simultaneously sending out emails bragging about. How much of the rest is fiction?
I think the shady Russian company sort of fitted as a foundation stone to build the fictional narrative of the idictment as a replacement for the now discredited golden showers/Trump/Russia collusion narrative.
Posted by: Peter AU 1 | Feb 18, 2018 12:01:01 PM | 86
Thanks for this illuminating analysis of the reality behind the US/Western Russophobia "hologram".
As the information in B's #71 post suggests, this indictment even reads more like a tawdry work of fiction than a rigorous, meticulous legal pleading. It's a lurid rat's nest of trash-tabloid doubletalk.
It's basically a narrative that recycles and clumsily stitches together some well-worn factoids and hype from the Russophobia infoganda campaign.
It's like a jigsaw puzzle assembled by meth freaks who just hammered random pieces together until they're all used up. The result is roughly rectangular, but the contents are fractured and incoherent, with no resemblance to the picture on the cover of the box.
In short, it's just the latest Beltway MacGuffin: "an object, event, or character in a film or story that serves to set and keep the plot in motion despite usually lacking intrinsic importance".
The legal underpinnings are sketchy and virtually nonexistent, to the point where the "indictment" has to rely on preposterous, tortured interpretations of existing crimes, and invent new crimes, to give this piece of chicanery a very faint, pastel "color of law".
It isn't plausible enough to support a show trial, even given the state of post-9/11 US kangaroo jurisprudence. It's just something to string along complacent, submissive, and desperate rubes in the belief that US citizens are victims of malicious predators: Russia, Putin, and "not my President" Trump.
Speaking of which, as B. notes, the main count of the indictment is an alleged "Conspiracy to Defraud the United States". I know, it's too easy-- but this may be a "be careful what you criminalize" moment too.
After all, it's a succinct capsule description of the everyday work of the US Congress-- and, for that matter, the other two rotten branches of government. And if our Elected Misrepresentatives are brought to the dock, the evidence of their heinous criminality will not be nearly as elusive and obscure as the long-sought Russian "smoking guns".
Posted by: Ort | Feb 18, 2018 12:19:58 PM | 87
51;Trump.Who can you trust?dnc or the liberals?The msm?Or the gop?All garbage,all in the pockets of israel.
Posted by: dahoit | Feb 18, 2018 12:36:38 PM | 88
The questions is still imo, if the indictment accusations are correct, that is:
1. who are those russian people that alleged traveled to America?
2. do they represent anyone? where do their alleged millions of money coming from?
whats the purpose of their acts?
Posted by: test | Feb 18, 2018 12:46:16 PM | 89
@63 / 71 b... thanks for those additional insights and links... hopefully others check them out..
Posted by: james | Feb 18, 2018 1:10:10 PM | 90
Test 90
Read the indictment. People are named, and factual or fictitious money trails described.
That's the good part of using an existing organisation that sort of fits as a foundation for the Russian meddling fictional narrative.
Russia may very well have pulled off something sharp with the US elections, but if they did, this is not it. (At the same time I don't see any need for Russia to do anything. With the use of so many fictional narratives over the years, US has got itself into a hell of a mess all on its own)
Posted by: Peter AU 1 | Feb 18, 2018 1:14:42 PM | 91
I say again. The motive for Mueller announcing the indictments when he did, was to have everyone talking about them, rather than having attention remain fixed on the FBI dropping the ball on stopping the Fla HS shooter.
Remember, on Fri when these Indictments were announced, the main narrative was blaming the FBI for not doing their job re: the Fla shooting. Even the Gov of Fla was calling for the Director to resign. It makes no difference to Mueller that his indictments are based on obvious bogus and junk evidence. All he wanted, was to switch attention away from the FBI being culpable in the Fla shooting deaths. And the more everyone tries to analyze his silly Indictments, the more he succeeds.
Remember too, Mueller was the past Director of FBI, he will do anything to protect it's s reputation.
Posted by: Snow Belt Willie | Feb 18, 2018 1:29:03 PM | 92
"The problem as I see it is that most people are unlikely to directly engage in politics. Memberships in political parties (in Europe , at least) has generally declined. Except the "populist" parties, where the only qualification for engagement is hate. And hate is a strong and powerful emotion...."
Den Lille Abe@ 57
The exception to this rule is the Labour party in the UK whose membership has increased very steadily since Corbyn first ran for the leadership. There is no mystery in this he is putting forward a radical (mildly in historic terms) programme which is underpinned by the promise of restoring democracy both within the party and in the management of the economy.
The result has been to give people the hope of being able to take part in politics without the fear of being overwhelmed by block votes, money and media propaganda. The fact that Corbyn has succeeded in the face of unanimous and ruthless propaganda campaigns has strengthened not just his position but the strategy of building a mass party and developing policy without fear of elites.
These are early days yet but the trend, which began with the Die Linke, Podemos and Syriza phenomena which seem both to have succumbed to instant corruption, has been evident for some time: there is a massive constituency for radical change it simply requires mobilisation. Which may involve burning down the old institutions like the various social democratic parties and starting again.
Posted by: bevin | Feb 18, 2018 1:45:52 PM | 93
How do we start a movement to sponsor and defend one of the accused individuals to stand up to this indictment for the good of humanity?
Posted by: joe | Feb 18, 2018 2:00:30 PM | 94
Indeed, as members of the cabal seem to suggest, anybody who worked with Mueller knows his integrity. Thanks to the integrity of Mueller et al, the country is in 21 trillion debt with another 21 trillion unaccounted for in HUD and DOD.
Posted by: Dawn Garmon | Feb 18, 2018 2:22:26 PM | 95
Peter AU
I dont doubt that there is alot of disinformation in this idictment - it sounds like the Steele document - but thats the issue, to
debunk or verify that this or that russian travelled to America and for what reason. If not, the russian claim will live on forever and hurt US- EU - Russia relations.
Posted by: test | Feb 18, 2018 3:08:02 PM | 96
@89 test... one could just as easily ask about all the yanks going to russia as part of ngos, and other such organizations and what there purpose is in russia... so, instead of looking at this as one sided, consider reading the links @63/71 to see just how stupid and trashy this is... as for trash - facebook and twitter get my vote... stupid made in america psyc ops trash that belong in the gutter and they can take the cia/fbi and nsa who are all over it and join them in the gutter too..
Posted by: james | Feb 18, 2018 3:11:11 PM | 97
did mccarthyism hurt russia? no - it just made the usa look more stupid... same deal here..
Posted by: james | Feb 18, 2018 3:12:32 PM | 98
We also know that Trump had real estate 'dealings' with Russian oligarchs that likely involve money laundering and/or tax evasion.
Posted by: BRF | Feb 18, 2018 10:56:47 AM | 80
We do?
Where do we "know" that from?
I seem to have missed that completely. Maybe I blinked at the wrong moment.
You seem extraordinary well informed. Care to share, with the rest of us less-well-informed, where you "know" that from?
Posted by: Bobby Mueller | Feb 18, 2018 3:12:36 PM | 99
better call up mueller and get him to lay a charge, lol! they were messing with the usa election!!!
buzzfeed article from november 2016....
""I started the site for a easy way to make money," said a 17-year-old who runs a site with four other people. "In Macedonia the economy is very weak and teenagers are not allowed to work, so we need to find creative ways to make some money. I'm a musician but I can't afford music gear. Here in Macedonia the revenue from a small site is enough to afford many things."
Most of the posts on these sites are aggregated, or completely plagiarized, from fringe and right-wing sites in the US. The Macedonians see a story elsewhere, write a sensationalized headline, and quickly post it to their site. Then they share it on Facebook to try and generate traffic. The more people who click through from Facebook, the more money they earn from ads on their website.
Earlier in the year, some in Veles experimented with left-leaning or pro''Bernie Sanders content, but nothing performed as well on Facebook as Trump content."
Posted by: james | Feb 18, 2018 3:21:15 PM | 100
Mueller charges attorney with lying to the FBI
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:10
A prosecutor said van der Zwaan, who is a Dutch national, worked closely with Gates and another person who is based in Ukraine on that report.
Van der Zwaan entered his guilty plea in U.S. District Court in Washington.
Judge Amy Jackson agreed to sentence van der Zwaan on an expedited basis because his wife, Eva Khan, is pregnant and living in London.
Eva Khan, an art critic who married van der Zwaan last year, is due to deliver their child in August. She is the daughter of German Khan, a Russian oligarch who is suing research firm Fusion GPS over a dossier alleging salacious and unverified ties between President Donald Trump and Russia. The private intelligence-gathering firm's now-infamous dossier was compiled by former British spy Christopher Steele.
Khan and two other Russian investors in the financial institution Alfa Bank filed a libel suit against the firm last fall, claiming the dossier damaged their reputations.
Van der Zwaan faces a sentence of up to five years in prison and a $250,000 fine.
But given his background and his cooperation with Mueller's probe, van der Zwaan is more likely to be sentenced to six months or less, with possibly no jail time at all, and anywhere from a $500 to $9,500 fine.
The FBI is holding van der Zwaan's passport. For now, his travel is limited to within Washington, but he will be allowed to travel to New York on two days' notice.
The charges were levied on the same day the special counsel announced a surprise indictment against 13 Russian individuals and three entities alleged to have waged a campaign of "information warfare" against the U.S. in the 2016 presidential election.
Skadden, in a statement to CNBC, said, "The firm terminated its employment of Alex van der Zwaan in 2017 and has been cooperating with authorities in connection with this matter."
Olympic Fever
Commotie in Zuid-Korea - Blokhuijsen gebeten hond | Winterspelen |
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 11:13
Nadat Zuid-Koreaanse media melding maakten van de oproep, werd op sociale media fel gereageerd op de Noord-Hollander. Hij werd omschreven als 'racistisch', 'onnozel' en 'onwetend van een andere cultuur.' Het IOC, zo werd geopperd, zou hem moeten straffen door hem zijn accreditatie in te nemen. Blokhuijsen verwees met zijn uitlatingen naar de traditie dat sommige Zuid-Koreanen nog altijd hondenvlees eten. Vroeger was het vooral eten voor de armste bevolking. Vandaag de dag is het vooral een delicatesse voor de hogere kringen. Na de ophef die ontstond, haastte Blokhuijsen zich om op Twitter zijn excuses te maken. 'Ik zeg sorry tegen de Zuid-Koreaanse bevolking. Het was niet mijn intentie om jullie en jullie land te beledigen. Ik geef om het welzijn van dieren in het algemeen en ik hoop dat we deze aarde een betere wereld kunnen maken voor mens en dier. Ik geniet van de Olympische Spelen en wil jullie bedanken voor de gastvrijheid', zo viel te lezen. Ook chef de mission Jeroen Bijl putte zich in verontschuldigingen. Hij bood namens de Nederlandse sportkoepel NOC&NSF zijn excuses aan voor de woorden van Blokhuijsen.
Civics Lessons
Democracy vs Republic - Difference and Comparison | Diffen
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 05:04
What is a Democracy?A democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have the right to equal participation, either directly or through elected representatives, in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. To put it in very simple terms, it is a form of government where people choose their own government and the voice of the majority rules. Once the majority is established, the minority has no say.
What is a Republic?The term "republic" as used today refers to a representative democracy with an elected head of state, such as a president, serving for a limited term. Even in a republic, it's the voice of the majority that rules through chosen representatives; however, there is a charter or constitution of basic rights that protects the minority from being completely unrepresented or overridden.
Are a Democracy and Republic Mutually Exclusive?There are many who make this statement: ''The United States is a republic, not a democracy''. This makes it seem like a democracy and a republic are mutually exclusive. They usually aren't; usually a republic is a type of representational democracy with some checks and balances enshrined in the constitution that safeguard the rights of minorities. A "pure" democracy would imply the rule of the majority in every sphere of life, without such safeguards.
Is the United States a Democracy or Republic?The U.S. is a republic. Though it is now common for people, including American politicians, to refer to the U.S. as a "democracy," this is shorthand for the representational republic that exists, not for a pure democracy. The republic continues to be mentioned in the Pledge of Allegiance, which was written in 1892 and later adopted by Congress in 1942 as an official pledge.
"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic, for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
While the founders disagreed regarding the role of the federal government, none sought to build a pure democracy.
"We are now forming a republican government. Real liberty is neither found in despotism or the extremes of democracy, but in moderate governments." '--Alexander Hamilton
"It is, that in a democracy, the people meet and exercise the government in person: in a republic, they assemble and administer it by their representatives and agents. A democracy, consequently, must be confined to a small spot. A republic may be extended over a large region." '--James Madison
Americans directly elect council members, governors, state representatives and senators, and numerous other officials. (However, senators were indirectly elected in the past.) Some other officials, such as mayors, may or may not be directly elected.[1]
The president is indirectly elected via the electoral college. The legislative and executive branches then appoint a variety of officials to their positions. For example, the president (executive branch) nominates a justice to the Supreme Court when a seat needs to be filled; the Senate (legislative branch) must confirm this nomination.
ImplicationsThere are several political implications that arise from the U.S. being a republic. Laws passed by the majority '-- through their representatives in government (federal or local) '-- can be challenged and overturned if they violate the U.S. constitution. For example, Jim Crow laws mandating racial segregation were deemed unconstitutional and were repealed, and in Brown v. Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court repealed state-sponsored school segregation.
In 1967, with Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court overturned all remaining anti-miscegenation laws which banned interracial relationships, including marriages. In the 1800s, however, the court had ruled in favor of states' rights to ban interracial sex, cohabitation, and marriage. This illustrates the power of cultural mores, which influence the interpretation of the constitution.
In more recent cases, the 2010 healthcare reform bill (a.k.a. Obamacare) was challenged in the U.S. Supreme Court because it forces individuals to buy health insurance. The law was passed by a majority in Congress, but critics claim that it violates individual liberties by forcing individuals to engage in commerce, a power that the government does not have in this republic. Ultimately, the Court ruled the individual mandate was constitutional but that states should not be required to expand Medicaid.
Another example is California Proposition 8, a state constitutional amendment in which a majority of voters in California voted to make same-sex marriages illegal. Critics of the law argue that this violates the individual liberties of gay and lesbian couples, and the majority does not have a right to do that in a republic. While courts in California upheld the amendment deeming it constitutional, a federal court overturned it, judging that it was unconstitutional under both the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Yet another example is Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010). Citizens United is a conservative organization that sued the Federal Election Commission over its restrictions on campaign financing. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Citizens United, saying that the restriction of an organization or corporation's right to fund a political campaign is a restriction of that entity's free speech rights under the First Amendment.
If the U.S. was not a republic, laws passed by the government (elected by majority) could not be challenged. The Supreme Court (and, indeed, lower courts too) can determine which laws are constitutional and has the power to uphold or overturn laws it judges to be unconstitutional. This demonstrates that the rule of law and the U.S. Constitution are higher authorities than the will of the majority at any given time.
History of Democracies and RepublicsDemocracies are older than republics. Pinpointing which place or people had the world's first democracy or republic, however, is difficult. Many countries, tribes, and cultures had at least some democratic or republican procedures. For example, voting on community matters, electing elders to power, and even creating rules regarding individual rights have occurred on small and sometimes larger scales.
Even so, the most well-documentedearly democracy was found in Athens, Greece, and established around 500 BCE.[2] Under Athenian democracy, the people voted on every law. This was a pure or direct democracy where the majority had nearly complete control over rights and progress.
The most well-documented historical representational republic is the Roman Republic, which developed shortly after Athenian democracy, again around 500 BCE. The rule of law favored by the Roman Republic remains popular in most of today's governments. It is worth noting that the Roman Republic had an unwritten constitution that was constantly adapting to changing principles.[3]
Democracies and Republics TodayDespite the common use of the word "democracy" and the desire to "spread democracy," most countries throughout the world today govern as republics. However, republics differ widely, with some operating under a presidential system, where the people directly or nearly-directly elect a president who is the head of the government; a parliamentary system, where the people elect a legislature who decides the executive branch; and even constitutional and parliamentary monarchies that tend to behave as republics but often have royal figureheads.
Click to enlarge. A map showing the many different kinds of republics in the world today.References
Maidan's Georgian Connection: Will Snipers' Revelations Change West's Attitudes? - Sputnik International
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:04
Opinion22:15 16.02.2018(updated 11:56 17.02.2018) Get short URL
Commenting on the recently released testimony by Georgian ex-mercenaries accusing Ukrainian opposition leaders of ordering them to fire on both police and protesters during the 2014 Maidan Revolution in Kiev, Czech political observer Stepan Kotrba said that while testimony seems credible, it is unlikely that the West will believe it.
On February 20, 2014, unidentified snipers opened fire on protesters and police in central Kiev, killing 53 people. Opposition leaders quickly accused the "Yanukovych regime" of involvement, but a follow up investigation never found the perpetrators. This week, Sputnik published explosive testimony by Georgian snipers, shedding new light on the crime.
(C) Sputnik/ Andrey Stenin
Speaking to Sputnik Czechia, politics and media expert Stepan Kotrba explained what the snipers' testimony means for Ukrainian authorities and the Western governments that support them.Sputnik: Four years ago, a mass shooting took place on Maidan Square in Kiev, killing scores of people. Now, new information has been revealed indicating that the snipers were hired by the opposition. What can you say about this?
Kotrba: I would be interested to know what kind of connections exist between the Georgian snipers and former Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili, his security and secret services. Such information has been circulating in the media since the coup took place. For example, such information was published by an Italian television channel owned by [former Prime Minister Silvio] Berlusconi.
I would also like to see detailed testimony by retired Georgian General Tristan Tsitelashvili, who told media in April 2014 that the snipers who fired on the Maidan were ex-military and security specialists from Saakashvili's structures, led by Giya Baramadze and Givi Targamadze'...
These mercenaries are also associated with the so-called 'Georgian Legion', which now fights in eastern Ukraine on Kiev's side.
I would also like to know why [Ukrainian President Petro] Poroshenko's office has shredded a number of documents from the investigation into the shooting.
(C) Sputnik/ Andrey Stenin
Police officers and opposition supporters are seen on Maidan Nezalezhnosti square in Kiev, where clashes began between protesters and the police.
Sputnik: Will this new evidence change the West's position on the 2014 events and the current authorities in Kiev?
Kotrba: Has anyone in the West really ever believed in a 'people's revolution' in Ukraine? Myths have a knack for surviving even after they are exposed for being false.
This false flag operation was beneficial to the West; thanks to it, Brussels managed to sign an association agreement with Ukraine on conditions unfavorable to Kiev. This also interfered with the construction of China's Silk Road through Ukraine.
(C) Sputnik/ Andrey Stenin
Police officers are seen on Maidan Nezalezhnosti square in Kiev, where clashes began between protesters and the police. (File)
Sputnik: Do you find it strange at all that the pro-Western opposition in Ukraine used mercenaries to shoot at its own supporters?
Kotrba: The question is, were they really hired by the pro-Western opposition itself, or was it someone from abroad that both hired the mercenaries and paid and controlled the opposition? On the other hand, from a military point of view, there is a certain logic to this. False flag operations do not take place any other way.
The views and opinions expressed by Stepan Kotrba are those of the observer and do not necessarily reflect those of Sputnik.
(C) Sputnik/ Andrei Stenin
A protester throws stone on Maidan square in Kiev, Ukraine, Feb 19, 2014
Recent Maidan Snipers' Testimony 'Most Detailed and Crucial So Far' - Analyst - Sputnik International
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:03
Opinion19:04 20.02.2018(updated 19:13 20.02.2018) Get short URL
A recent investigation by Sputnik journalist Andrei Veselov revealed new facts behind the killings during Ukraine's Maidan. In an interview with Sputnik, Polish publicist Janusz Niedwiecki commented on the testimony by Georgian snipers who claimed Ukrainian opposition leaders ordered them to fire on police and ordinary people during the protests.
The latest testimony regarding the Maidan shooting is "shocking," Polish public figure and writer Janusz Niedwiecki told Sputnik.
"It is difficult to assess the veracity of these statements. This, of course, should be handled by a Ukrainian court; the case is in its competence. However, the very fact that someone, without hiding his name, decided to make a confession and tell in detail about how these events took place should certainly cause deep concern on our part, since it is the most detailed and most crucial testimony in this case so far," Niedwiecki said.
Earlier, Sputnik correspondent Andrei Veselov met with the purported snipers who said they were responsible for firing at people in Maidan.
READ MORE: EXCLUSIVE:'Shoot at All Targets on Maidan': New Evidence of Georgian Snipers
The agency has obtained the interrogation records of Koba Nergadze and Aleksandre Revazishvili.
Both Georgian nationals, ready to testify in a Ukrainian court, insisted that they were taking orders from Maidan leaders. Moreover, they said they had direct orders to fire at police officers and protesters in order to enrage the crowd and provoke a political crisis.
"I have a strong impression that there are forces in Ukraine that don't want this case to be properly investigated. Just like with the Odessa murders '-- that case has been blocked and came to a deadlock. Maybe it's because its ultimate resolution is against the interests of those who came to power as a result of the Maidan events," Niedwiecki said.
During their testimony, the two ex-mercenaries also mentioned snipers of other nationalities who acted at Maidan, including several Poles and Lithuanians.
Commenting on the issue, the publicist said that he doesn't believe that Polish authorities could have been involved in the crimes.
"Messages about Poles and Lithuanians being in the second group [of snipers] are very disturbing. Of course, it's hard for me to believe that the Polish authorities could have participated in political crimes despite their uncompromising and ill-conceived support for the Maidan coup," Niedwiecki said, adding however, that the possibility of involvement of some Polish individuals can't be excluded.
READ MORE: EXCLUSIVE: What Strikes Fear Into Ukraine: Sputnik Publishes Evidence by Georgian Snipers
According to the analyst, the Polish public is unlikely to learn the truth behind the shootings as the country's mainstream media, referring to Western journalists, have claimed that there were Russian nationals among the snipers.
"Unfortunately, there is no big hope for this. Until the issue is resolved in Ukraine, the Polish media won't say anything fundamentally new on the matter. As for the topics concerning Ukraine, major media outlets in Poland mindlessly repeat the Ukrainian ones, justifying this by the need to support the Ukrainian authorities," the analyst concluded.
On February 20, 2014, unknown snipers shot at people who stood gathered on Kiev's central Maidan square, killing 49 protesters and four police officers. Local opposition leaders, as well as US and EU representatives, were quick to point a finger at the "regime of Viktor Yanukovych." An official investigation failed to produce any results with the culprits still at large.
The views expressed in this article are solely those of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect the official position of Sputnik.
Uranium One Is a Curious Case - WSJ
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 15:36
President Obama sought better relations with Russia, in keeping with the policy of presidents at least since FDR.
He acceded in 2010 to a Russian government desire to acquire a company whose assets included a Nevada uranium mine on the widely accepted grounds that economic interdependence helps relations stay on a productive path. And, by the way, Russia cannot cart a uranium mine in Nevada back to Russia. If its national security were ever jeopardized, the U.S. could always seize the mine. So that's not an issue.
Would it have been embarrassing for the Obama policy if it were known that the uranium assets the Russian government sought to buy had been accumulated by Canadian entrepreneurs working closely with Bill Clinton ? That the Clinton Foundation received $145 million in pledged contributions from people associated with these transactions? That Mr. Clinton had been paid $500,000 for a speech in Moscow?
Yes. It would have raised political difficulties for Mr. Obama's Russia policy. It would have harmed the reputation of his secretary of state, Hillary Clinton. How would such knowledge have flavored a multiagency review in charge of approving the mine deal, inevitably tinged by Obama political interests? Hard to say.
The scandal would likely have remained a political one, not a legal one. But who knows? The Watergate truism that it's not the crime, it's the coverup should really be modified. Once any kind of investigation is launched on any pretext, a crime can always be found. That's a given. Not to relitigate Mrs. Clinton's emails, but if the FBI didn't find a basis to charge her aides with obstruction and evidence tampering, it's only because it didn't want to. Or take Donald Trump : Any prosecutor should hang up his spurs who can't find something in Mr. Trump's checkered business history, starting with federal Title 16, Chapter 1, Subchapter b, Part 23, Section 23.3: ''Misuse of the terms 'hand-made,' 'hand-polished,' etc.''
A slight nuance, of course, is that the Clintons ' conflict-of-interest baggage was born of exploiting their politically-earned celebrity, and not the other way around. Whether he meant it or not, Mr. Trump recognized and met expectations when he said, on taking office, he no longer would concern himself with the businesses he left behind. He had a much bigger job now. Though Mrs. Clinton would certainly have been expected to say something similar if she were elected president, she would also have been semi-obliged to insist that the Clinton Foundation was but an extension of her lifelong devotion to public service, which she would be continuing in the White House.
As history records, of course, Uranium One is the scandal that didn't happen, or is happening only belatedly. The Clinton Foundation connection did not become known. Its dealings did not become fodder for partisan opposition to President Obama or his Russia policy. Only recently have we become aware of a new and piquant fact. What if it had been known that the FBI was sitting on a case involving demonstrable malfeasance (bribery and kickbacks) by the Russian company's U.S. arm? What if an eyewitness who had helped crack the case told the FBI (as he now claims he did) that Russian uranium executives had spoken openly of currying favor with the Clinton Foundation to advance their U.S. business?
The Nevada mine transfer would have been a lot more politically controversial at the time than it was. The Obama Russia rapprochement might have run aground earlier than it eventually did when Russia in 2014 seized Crimea. Mr. Obama might have come to see his secretary of state, Mrs. Clinton, as a political liability.
Which makes it interesting that the FBI, under its then-chief Robert Mueller, appears to have sat on the case'--only getting around quietly to announcing a plea deal with the Russian executive five years later, in 2015. It is not necessarily wrong for the FBI to consider the impact on national-security policy of any criminal case that it intends nevertheless to pursue to conviction. But the fact remains: The FBI handled the Uranium One matter in a manner that avoided making immediate trouble for the policy and political interests of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton.
Which means, if a few thousand voters in the upper Midwest had woken up on a different side of the bed in November 2016, the agency's treatment of Uranium One might be one more subject of investigation by a GOP congress of President Hillary Clinton. Along with: the Steele dossier; the Steele dossier's role in an FBI application to spy on Trump associate Carter Page ; the FBI's handling of the Clinton email case; the FBI's investigation (still under way) of a questionable mixing of government and Clinton Foundation business at Mrs. Clinton's State Department.
In other words, a Clinton presidency would likely be swallowed up in investigative chaos no less than the Trump presidency. There was an awful lot of baggage to go around among the headliners of the 2016 presidential race.
War on cash
Revealed: Cash eclipsed as Britain turns to digital payments | Money | The Guardian
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:43
Notes and coins set to fall to just 21% of sales by 2026, raising questions for those who rely on the cash economy
In 2006, 62% of all payments in the UK were made using cash; in 2016 the proportion had fallen to 40%. Photograph: Alamy Stock Photo
Britain will move beyond ''peak cash'' this year, according to data gathered by the Guardian that suggests notes and coins are rapidly being supplanted as the favoured payment method, particularly in cities.
Debit cards are set to overtake cash as the most frequently used payment method in the UK later this year, according to UK Finance, which represents leading finance and banking firms.
The volume of cash removed from cash machines (ATMs) is falling fast, while other data shows customers are eschewing cash for cards '' even for small purchases such as a coffee or a beer.
In 2006, 62% of all payments in the UK were made using cash; in 2016 the proportion had fallen to 40%. By 2026, it is predicted cash will be used for just 21%, according to figures from UK Finance.
ATM data show that in 2016, there were 2.7bn withdrawals from the country's 70,000 cash machines '' the lowest number of transactions since 2010. The total amount of money withdrawn at ATMs has fallen steeply in the last few years; in 2016, people withdrew more than £6bn less than they did in 2015.
Cashpoint usage is starting to declineBank of England figures meanwhile show that while the volume of cash in the economy typically increases every year, it is now doing so at the slowest rate since 1972.
In the developed world, Sweden and Canada are at the vanguard of the recent move away from cash, as debit cards, credit cards, phone payment methods and apps and online transfers predominate.
Britain has well and truly embraced a cashless society because of its ease and convenience
Mark Latham, director at HandepayIn the UK, even at cafes and pubs, where people buy smaller value items, card payments are taking over. The pub chain Wetherspoon reported that the proportion of cash payments has fallen by about five percentage points every year for the past four years, dropping from 78% of all purchases in 2012-13 to 60% in 2016-17.
As few as one in 10 customers pay in cash at cafes '' and a few have jettisoned cash altogether.
Pret a Manger said that more than half of their customers now paid by card and that the proportion was growing; Nando's said card usage increased 3.37% in the last financial year and now made up 71.3% of all payments at its restaurants.
Cash sales are falling at WetherspoonsCash has also declined dramatically for transport payments. In 2017, train ticket payments were more than four times higher by card than by cash, according to data shared by the Rail Delivery Group, which represents train operators in the UK.
''Britain has well and truly embraced a cashless society because of its ease and convenience,'' said Mark Latham, director at Handepay, a provider of card machines. ''When [contactless payment] was first introduced in the UK in 2007, there was a lot of ambivalence, but adoption over the past few years has been rapid because of demand.''
Graham Mott, head of strategy at Link, the UK's largest cash machine network, said that the number of cash machines in Britain was likely to fall, principally in urban centres.
But concerns have been raised for vulnerable groups who might be disproportionately affected by any reduction in the ability to obtain or pay through cash. According to UK Finance, more than half of people who rely predominantly on cash to the exclusion of other payment methods have a household incomes below £15,000.
Card is taking over as a means of paying for rail tickets''I'm really concerned about this move toward a mainly cashless way of doing things,'' said Lady Tyler, who was chair of the House of Lords select committee on financial exclusion. ''These changes might suit people who are very digitally competent, they might suit banks who can reduce their costs, [but] I really don't think they are thinking about more vulnerable groups,'' she said.
Lucy Malenczuk, a senior policy manager at Age UK, warned that cash was still an extremely important method of payment for some.
''I think that older people along with other commonly excluded groups, such as very low-income consumers are at risk of being disproportionately affected if cash disappeared from society.''
However, some working in cash-handling businesses are confident that a future remains for cash.
They point to the fact there are more bank notes in circulation, totalling a higher value, than ever before - though this measure includes cash lying dormant in bank vaults and ATMs, and as such is not a reflection of usage rates.
Notable slowdown Notable slowdownMark Trevor, commercial director at Vaultex, which handles one-third of the country's cash, said while they could not provide figures, they are seeing less of a decline in cash use than other sources are reporting. ''While industry figures do show a decline in cash use, the idea that we will all be going cashless has been greatly exaggerated.''
Hate Trumps Love
CURSED! Practically Every Anti-Trump Olympian Has FAILED Miserably - Truthfeed
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 01:55
CURSED! Practically Every Anti-Trump Olympian Has FAILED Miserably Culture By Eren Moreno February 20, 2018 As the 2018 Olympic games are coming to a close, one can't help but notice how every athlete who made a political spectacle has failed miserably.
From Shani Davis to Lindsey Vonn and everyone in between, this year's games were filled with plenty of highly political, anti-Trump comments, and practically everyone who muttered them crashed and burned in their events.
From The Daily Wire
For some unknown reason, American athletes representing the United States in the Olympic games in South Korea have gone out of their way to disrespect President Trump '-- before they've even competed.
Some said they wouldn't shake his hand, others said they wouldn't go to the White House. (Again, this was before they even did anything.)
Then, they failed. So, maybe there really is a curse '-- the curse of dissing Trump.
Take American Maddie Bowman. She failed to win a gold medal '-- or a medal of any color '-- in the free-ski halfpipe. She won gold at the 2014 Olympics, but she fell on all three runs during the final on Tuesday in Pyeong Chang. In the end, she finished 11th.
Bowman told Sports Illustrated earlier this month that she wouldn't visit the White House under the current administration. ''I probably couldn't see myself '-- if I do get the opportunity to go to the Olympics and therefore get the opportunity to go to the White House. I don't think I could go,'' Bowman said.
Well, now she won't have to struggle with that dilemma. White House invites are for winners. No soup for you, come back, one year.
Figure skater Adam Rippon also said he would never visit the White House. Rippon, who is gay, said he would skip the traditional post-Olympics gathering in protest against what he sees as homophobia among the administration. ''No. I have no desire to go to the White House,'' Rippon told the Daily Mail.
Rippon has also said he would not shake hands with Vice President Mike Pence. And said it again and again and again. Then he said, ''I don't want my Olympic experience to be about Mike Pence.'' That amused Donald Trump Jr., who said on Twitter:
Really? Then Perhaps you shouldn't have spent the past few weeks talking about him. I haven't heard him mention you once???
'-- Donald Trump Jr. (@DonaldJTrumpJr) February 14, 2018
NBC loved Rippon so much they tried to hire him. At first Rippon agreed, but after a backlash, he bailed. And Rippon, not exactly humble, said this about himself: ''You know, I'm not like a gay icon, or America's gay sweetheart. I'm just America's sweetheart and I'm just an icon.''
Well. The ''icon'' finished 10th in the free skate (by our math that's seven places out of a medal).
Then there's the most famous of the Trump-hating Olympians '-- Lindsey Vonn. Before the Olympics, she said she would be representing the ''people of the United States, not the president.''
Asked if she would accept an invite to the White House to meet Trump if she were to win a gold medal , Vonn said ''absolutely not.''
''No. But I have to win to be invited,'' she added.
Problem solved. Vonn came in sixth in the Super-G ski race '-- the gold medal was won by a snowboarder from the Czech Republic. A snowboarder!
We're not happy the U.S. athletes failed (and Vonn could still win a medal in the downhill, so we're pulling for her). But it is odd that all these athletes who dissed Trump went on to lose.
Don't they know by now that if they just support him, they would have so much winning that they'd get bored with it?!
CNN's Ratings Drop 30 Percent Since Last | The Daily Caller
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 15:00
The ratings are in for CNN, and they don't look great.
According to AdWeek, CNN ''was -30 percent in total prime time viewers, and -23 percent in total day viewers from last year'' for the week of February 5''11.
CNN did not even crack the top 10 for primetime viewers on cable, while its competitors', MSNBC and Fox News, were number two and number one, respectively.
The network's commentators and guests have often been critical of President Trump.
On air, he has been compared to a communist or fascist dictator and someone with Alzheimer's. (RELATED: CNN's Ana Navarro Compares Trump To Someone With Alzheimer's Or Dementia [VIDEO])
Recently, a CNN reporter went to Iowa to talk to Trump voters, many of whom dismantled the network's Russia coverage, calling the Russia investigation a ''political witch hunt from the get-go'' and a ''disgrace.'' (RELATED: WATCH: Trump Supporters In Iowa Blow Every Single One Of CNN's Narratives Out Of The Water)
Follow Justin on Twitter
Three African Men Arrested for Cannibalism in Paris Suburb
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:35
The men, who all originally came from the African island nation of Cape Verde, were arrested on Sunday after they attacked a man who was walking in the Hector-Berlioz alley at around 6 pm and bit off pieces his ear and lower lip, Le Parisienreports.
The victim was able to fight off the attackers, wounding one of them in the ankle, before police arrived a short time later and arrested the three Africans.
Both the victim and the injured man were then taken to Montfermeil hospital.
Clichy-sous-Bois has become infamous as one of the most troubled no-go zones surrounding the French capital. The massive riots that occurred in 2005 began in the area when a pair of teenagers running from the police killed themselves by hiding in an electric power station.
Since then, Clichy-sous-Bois has been associated with further riots, as was the case last year, and with a connection to the rising tide of radical Islamic extremism in France.
Many other suburbs in the Seine-Saint-Denis area have been declared no-go zones because of their high levels of crime.
The situation in some areas has become so dangerous that the publicly-owned courier company Chronopost has announced that it will not deliver packages in certain neighbourhoods due to a lack of safety for its employees.
Random violent attacks, known in France as violences gratuites, are also on the rise across the country, with some estimating that there are at least 777 random attacks per day nationwide.
Last week one random act of violence saw a man stab six people in the heavily-migrant populated 18th arrondissement of Paris before he was arrested by police, soaked in blood.
Follow Chris Tomlinson on Twitter at @TomlinsonCJ or email at ctomlinson(at)
War on Drugs
Suspected Harlow drug dealer has now gone 33 days in police custody without pooing out his drugs - Essex Live
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:30
A suspected Harlow drug dealer has now gone 33 days in police custody as police continue wait for him to poo out his drugs.
Lamarr Chambers, 24, was arrested by police on Wednesday, January 17, for failing to stop in Ladyshot, Harlow, along with intent to supply class A drugs.
Read MoreLamarr Chambers was arrested in Ladyshot for failing to stop for police and possession with intent to supply class A drugs (Image: @OpRaptorWest) He has been held in custody since his arrest as the police wait until he poos out the drugs he is believed to have swallowed.
This afternoon (February 19), Chambers appeared at Chelmsford Magistrates' Court as police applied for another section 152 order, meaning he would remain in custody for a further five days.
Speaking on behalf of the Crown, Kathy Wilson QC said: "Mr Chambers has not properly been to the toilet for some 33 days.
"You have to consider whether or not he is not taking on enough food in order to frustrate the seizing of police evidence.
Revealed: Diet of suspected Harlow drug dealer who hasn't had a poo in 33 daysFollowing reports that Chambers had also been refusing to eat, it was revealed in court what the suspect had been consuming from inside his police cell.
After his initial arrest, he had been eating Frosties cereal bars and, as time, went on, he would eat up to eight of them a day.
However, since his last court appearance, he has now swapped his diet to that of fruit and vegetables.
It was also revealed that the suspect had eaten fish made by his mother prior to his appearance before magistrates.
"He is being more than adequately looked after by Essex Police. He has been offered fluids and food.
"His lights are dimmed at night and he is being reviewed every 24 hours. If he requests to go to the hospital he is taken there. There is reference to him passing stools.
"It is in fact questionable as to whether any faecal matter was collected.
"He did wipe his bottom and there was a stain on the toilet paper. Had any amount of faecal matter been passed, we would not be in this position today."
Read MorePoo storiesOwner of lost dog sniffs dog pooWhere you'll find germs at homeWhat happens when you flush wipesHuman poo found in phone boxOn February 10, after 24 days, Chambers broke the British record for spending the most days in custody while police wait for him to poo.
However, he has been taken to facilities at Stansted Airport in an attempt to defecate.
Defending, Andrew Horsall QC said: "There was an attempt to pass a stool at Stansted Airport.
"The police were in the same room with their backs turned.
"However, nothing happened."
Time Line ArrestLamarr Chambers, 24, was arrested by officers from Essex Police's Operation Raptor West team for failing to stop for police in Ladyshot, Harlow, along with possession with intent to supply class A drugs.
DrugsPolice allege that Chambers has swallowed the drugs.
He is staying in custody in Harlow.
15 days laterOn Thursday, February 1, Operation Raptor West confirmed on Twitter that Chambers was yet to pass out the suspected drugs.
The tweet said: "Day 15 today and no movements, unless anything changes overnight then we will be back to court tomorrow for the third time in this case requesting a further 8 days."
Back in courtChambers appeared at Chelmsford Magistrates' Court on Friday, February 2 as police put in another application for him to remain in custody in Harlow.
It was accepted, and Chambers will remain in custody for a further seven days, until Friday, February 9.
Suspect enters third weekAt 6.20pm on Wednesday, February 7, the Operation Raptor West team's account confirmed that 21 days had now passed with no movement from the suspect's bowels.
Chambers breaks British recordOn Saturday February 10 Chambers breaks the British record for spending the most days in custody while police wait for him to poo out his drugs.
It has now been 23 days and counting for Chambers and there has still been no movement or sign of the drugs he is believed to have swallowed.
Another return to courtChambers returns to Chelmsford Magistrates Court as police put in another application extend his custody.
It was granted with the 24-year-old to remain in custody until Monday, February 19.
It has now been 28 days without any movement from his bowls.
Sixth time in courtChambers appeared at Chelmsford Magistrates' Court on Monday, February 19, for the sixth time.
The police's application to extend his custody was granted until Friday, February 23.
It has now been 33 days without him going to the toilet.
Police have gathered evidence to suggest Chambers has in fact swallowed the drugs.
Read MoreChambers has been remanded in police custody until Friday, February 23, where he will appear once again in Chelmsford Magistrates' Court.
Agenda 2030
'Sinking' Pacific nation is getting bigger: study
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:33
'Sinking' Pacific nation is getting bigger: studyFebruary 9, 2018Map showing Tuvalu in the Pacific.The Pacific nation of Tuvalu'--long seen as a prime candidate to disappear as climate change forces up sea levels'--is actually growing in size, new research shows.
A University of Auckland study examined changes in the geography of Tuvalu's nine atolls and 101 reef islands between 1971 and 2014, using aerial photographs and satellite imagery.
It found eight of the atolls and almost three-quarters of the islands grew during the study period, lifting Tuvalu's total land area by 2.9 percent, even though sea levels in the country rose at twice the global average.
Co-author Paul Kench said the research, published Friday in the journal Nature Communications, challenged the assumption that low-lying island nations would be swamped as the sea rose.
"We tend to think of Pacific atolls as static landforms that will simply be inundated as sea levels rise, but there is growing evidence these islands are geologically dynamic and are constantly changing," he said.
"The study findings may seem counter-intuitive, given that (the) sea level has been rising in the region over the past half century, but the dominant mode of change over that time on Tuvalu has been expansion, not erosion."
It found factors such as wave patterns and sediment dumped by storms could offset the erosion caused by rising water levels.
The Auckland team says climate change remains one of the major threats to low-lying island nations.
But it argues the study should prompt a rethink on how such countries respond to the problem.
Rather than accepting their homes are doomed and looking to migrate to countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the researchers say they should start planning for a long-term future.
"On the basis of this research we project a markedly different trajectory for Tuvalu's islands over the next century than is commonly envisaged," Kench said.
"While we recognise that habitability rests on a number of factors, loss of land is unlikely to be a factor in forcing depopulation of Tuvalu."
The study's authors said island nations needed to find creative solutions to adapt to climate change that take into account their homeland's evolving geography.
Suggestions included moving populations onto larger islands and atolls, which have proved the most stable and likely to grow as seas rise.
"Embracing such new adaptation pathways will present considerable national scale challenges to planning, development goals and land tenure systems," they said.
"However, as the data on island change shows there is time (decades) to confront these challenges."
Explore further:Study aims to provide accurate assessment of impact of future sea level rises on coral reef islands
More information: Paul S. Kench et al. Patterns of island change and persistence offer alternate adaptation pathways for atoll nations, Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-02954-1
(C) 2018 AFP
'Sinking' Pacific nation is getting bigger: studyFebruary 9, 2018Map showing Tuvalu in the Pacific.
The Pacific nation of Tuvalu'--long seen as a prime candidate to disappear as climate change forces up sea levels'--is actually growing in size, new research shows.
A University of Auckland study examined changes in the geography of Tuvalu's nine atolls and 101 reef islands between 1971 and 2014, using aerial photographs and satellite imagery.
It found eight of the atolls and almost three-quarters of the islands grew during the study period, lifting Tuvalu's total land area by 2.9 percent, even though sea levels in the country rose at twice the global average.
Co-author Paul Kench said the research, published Friday in the journal Nature Communications, challenged the assumption that low-lying island nations would be swamped as the sea rose.
"We tend to think of Pacific atolls as static landforms that will simply be inundated as sea levels rise, but there is growing evidence these islands are geologically dynamic and are constantly changing," he said.
"The study findings may seem counter-intuitive, given that (the) sea level has been rising in the region over the past half century, but the dominant mode of change over that time on Tuvalu has been expansion, not erosion."
It found factors such as wave patterns and sediment dumped by storms could offset the erosion caused by rising water levels.
The Auckland team says climate change remains one of the major threats to low-lying island nations.
But it argues the study should prompt a rethink on how such countries respond to the problem.
Rather than accepting their homes are doomed and looking to migrate to countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the researchers say they should start planning for a long-term future.
"On the basis of this research we project a markedly different trajectory for Tuvalu's islands over the next century than is commonly envisaged," Kench said.
"While we recognise that habitability rests on a number of factors, loss of land is unlikely to be a factor in forcing depopulation of Tuvalu."
The study's authors said island nations needed to find creative solutions to adapt to climate change that take into account their homeland's evolving geography.
Suggestions included moving populations onto larger islands and atolls, which have proved the most stable and likely to grow as seas rise.
"Embracing such new adaptation pathways will present considerable national scale challenges to planning, development goals and land tenure systems," they said.
"However, as the data on island change shows there is time (decades) to confront these challenges."
Explore further:Study aims to provide accurate assessment of impact of future sea level rises on coral reef islands
More information: Paul S. Kench et al. Patterns of island change and persistence offer alternate adaptation pathways for atoll nations, Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-02954-1
(C) 2018 AFP
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:34
CRISPR. What is it? And why is the scientific community so fascinated by its potential applications? Starting with its definition, we explain how this technology harnesses an ancient bacteria-based defense system '-- and how it will impact the world around us today.
Imagine a future where parents can create bespoke babies, selecting the height and eye color of their yet unborn children. In fact, all traits can be customized to one's preferences: the size of domestic pets, the longevity of plants, etc.
It sounds like the backdrop of a dystopian science fiction novel. Yet some of this is already happening.
Since its initial discovery in 2012, scientists have marveled at the applications of CRISPR (also known as Cas9 or CRISPR-Cas9).
And with a Jennifer Lopez-produced bio-terror TV drama called C.R.I.S.P.R. on the horizon, CRISPR has reached a new peak in interest from outside the scientific community.
CRISPR may revolutionize how we tackle some of the world's biggest problems, like cancer, food shortages, and organ transplant needs. Recent reports even examine its use as a highly efficient disease diagnostics tool. But, as with any new technology, it may also cause new unintended problems.
Changing DNA '-- the code of life '-- will inevitably come with a host of important consequences. But society and industry can't have this conversation without understanding the basics of CRISPR.
In this explainer, we dive into CRISPR, from a simple explanation of what exactly it is to its applications and limitations.
TABLE OF CONTENTSWhat is CRISPR? Applications Limitations Controversies Future of CRISPR What is CRISPR?CRISPR is a defining feature of the bacterial genetic code and its immune system, functioning as a defense system that bacteria use to protect themselves against attacks from viruses. It's also used by organisms in the Archaea kingdom (single-celled microorganisms).
The acronym '' CRISPR'' stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. Essentially, it is a series of short repeating DNA sequences with ''spacers'' sitting in between them.
In short, bacteria use these genetic sequences to ''remember'' each specific virus that attacks them.
They do this by incorporating the virus' DNA into their own bacterial genome. This viral DNA ends up as the spacers in the CRISPR sequence. This method then gives the bacteria protection or immunity when a specific virus tries to attack again.
Accompanying CRISPR are genes that are always located nearby, called Cas (CRISPR-associated) genes.
Once activated, these genes make special proteins known as enzymes that seem to have co-evolved with CRISPR. The significance of these Cas enzymes is their ability to act as ''molecular scissors'' that can cut into DNA.
Image: Generalized CRISPR locus. Credit: Lee S, et al. Journal of Cellular Biotechnology
To recap: in nature, when a virus invades bacteria, its unique DNA is integrated into a CRISPR sequence in the bacterial genome. This means that the next time the virus attacks, the bacteria will remember it and send RNA and Cas to locate and destroy the virus.
While there are other Cas enzymes derived from bacteria that cut out viruses when they attack bacteria, Cas9 is the best enzyme at doing this in animals. The widely-known term CRISPR-Cas9 refers to a Cas variety being used to cut animal (and human) DNA.
In harnessing this technology, researchers have added a new step: after DNA is cut by CRISPR-Cas9, a new DNA sequence carrying a ''fixed'' version of a gene can nestle into the new space. Alternatively, the cut can altogether ''knock out'' of a particular unwanted gene '-- for example, a gene that causes diseases.
One way to think about CRISPR-Cas9 is to compare it to the Find & Replacefunction in Word: it finds the genetic data (or ''word'') you want to correct and replaces it with new material. Or, as CRISPR pioneer Jennifer Doudna puts it in her book A Crack In Creation: Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolution, CRISPR is like a Swiss army knife, with different functions depending on how we want to use it.
CRISPR research has moved so fast that it's already gone beyond basic DNA editing. In December 2017, the Salk Institute designed a ''handicapped'' version of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, capable of turning a targeted gene on or off without editing the genome at all. Going forward, this kind of process could ease the concerns surrounding the permanent nature of gene editing.
How it worksThese are the 3 key players that help the CRISPR-Cas9 tech do its work:
Guide RNA: a piece of RNA (a genetic cousin of DNA) that locates the targeted gene. This is engineered in a lab. CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9): the ''scissors'' that snip the undesired DNA out DNA: the desired piece of DNA that is inserted after the break Below, we illustrate how these parts come together to create a potential therapy.
Please click to enlarge.
The guide RNA serves as the ''GPS coordinates'' for finding the piece of DNA you want to edit and zeroes in on the targeted part of the gene. Once located, Cas9, the scissors, makes a double stranded break in the DNA, and the DNA you want to insert takes its place.
The implications for this are vast.
Yes, this technology will disrupt medical treatment. But beyond that, it could also transform everything from the food we eat to the chemicals we use as fuel, since these may be engineered through gene technology as well.
Feng Zhang, PhD, from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, described CRISPR using a helpful nursery rhyme . We can imagine a certain DNA sequence that is fixed in this way:
Twinkle Twinkle BigStar '†' Twinkle Twinkle LittleStar
In this process:
Guide RNA locates the error or the mutation: the word ''Big.'' Cas9 enzyme makes the break before and after the word ''Big.'' A bioengineered vehicle inserts the correct piece of DNA, in this case, the word ''Little.'' Key researchers in crispr's discovery The CRISPR sequence was first discovered in 1987. But its function would not be discovered until 2012.
Key people involved in the initial discovery of the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system's function include Jennifer Doudna, PhD at University of California, Berkeley, and French scientist Emmanuelle Charpentier, PhD. Through their strategic collaboration, they ushered in a new era of biotechnology.
Another important figure is Feng Zhang, PhD, who was instrumental in figuring out CRISPR's therapeutic applications using mice and human cells in 2013. Harvard geneticist George Church, PhD also contributed to early CRISPR research with Zhang.
All four researchers went on to play crucial roles in setting up some of the most well-funded CRISPR therapeutic startups, including Editas Medicine, CRISPR Therapeutics, and Intellia Therapeutics. All 3 of these companies IPO'ed in 2016 and are in the drug discovery/pre-clinical stage of testing their respective CRISPR therapeutic candidates for various human diseases.
Gene editing before CRISPRBefore CRISPR was heralded as the gene editing method, two other gene-editing techniques dominated the field: Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs). Research efforts using these tools are still ongoing.
Like CRISPR, these tools can each cut DNA. Thought they are generally more difficult to make and use, these tools do offer their own advantages:
ZFNs have an easier delivery process to the targeted gene of choice. TALENs appear to have a higher precision rate than CRISPR and may cause less ''off-target mutations'' (i.e. unintended consequences) as a result of gene editing. Each also has vital therapeutic applications.
Biotech company Cellectis uses the TALEN gene editing technology to make CAR-T therapies for leukemia, while Sangamo BioSciences makes ZFNs that can disable a gene known to be key in HIV infection. Notably, each of these companies hold key IP rights to these specific gene-editing methods, which could make it difficult for other biotech companies to use these tools.
Meanwhile, CRISPR has certainly stolen the spotlight as of late, due to its efficiency, flexibility, and cheap price tag. It's plausible that CRISPR could face similar IP issues '-- and there are already some IP controversies going on '-- but with such vast applications for this system, research on multiple fronts seems to be moving forward fast.
Applications of CRISPREvery industry can harness CRISPR as a tool: it can create new drug therapies for human diseases, help farmers grow pathogen-resistant crops, create new species of plants and animals '-- and maybe even bring back old ones.
Animal-related researchSince the initial discovery of CRISPR as a gene-editing mechanism, the list of applications has grown rapidly. Though still in early stages, ''animal models'' (i.e. lab animals) have provided key insights into how we may be able to manipulate CRISPR.
Mice have been especially telling when it comes to CRISPR's therapeutic potential. As mammals sharing more than 90% of our human genes, mice have been used as ideal test subjects.
Experiments on mice have shown that CRISPR can disable a defective gene associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), inhibit the formation of deadly proteins involved in Huntington's disease, and eliminate HIV infection.
In 2015, Chinese scientists created two super muscular beagles by disabling the myostatin gene, which directs normal muscle development. In the absence of the gene, the beagles displayed ''muscular hypertrophy,'' creating dogs which were visibly much more muscular than non-genetically modified ones.
Other CRISPR animal trials have ranged from genetically engineering long-haired goats for higher production of cashmere to breeding hornless cows to avoid the painful process of shearing horns off.
Human-related research Compared to research involving animals, CRISPR trials that edit human DNA have moved more slowly, largely due to the ethical and regulatory issues at play.
Given the permanent nature of altering a human's genome, the FDA is approaching CRISPR cautiously. Some scientists have even proposed a moratorium on CRISPR trials until we have more information on the potential impact on humans.
United States & EuropeIn the US and Europe, 2018 will be the year for CRISPR human trials.
Currently (as of 2/13/18), the University of Pennsylvania is awaiting the FDA's final approval to start a study that would evaluate the safety of using CRISPR for patients with multiple myeloma, melanoma, and sarcoma.
Europe may also see its first human CRISPR study in 2018 with CRISPR Therapeutics' study focused on a blood disorder known as beta-thalassemia, which results in abnormal red blood cell production.
While clinical trials involving patient participation are still awaiting regulatory approval, CRISPR has already been applied to both viable and non-viable human embryos.
For example, in August 2017, a team lead by reproductive biologist Shoukhrat Mitalipov of Oregon Health and Science University received private funding to use CRISPR-Cas9 to target a mutation in viable human embryos that causes the thickening of heart muscles. The altered embryos came back 72% mutation-free in the lab (higher than the usual 50% chance of inheritance).
Some critics say the gene editing of embryos is unethical, even if the edited embryos are not destined for transfer and implantation. This type of testing currently does not receive federal funding, but instead relies on private donor funding.
ChinaOn the other side of the world, Chinese researchers operate under a different regulatory framework. Some hospital ethics committees can approve studies in as little as one day, with no need to seek approval from a federal agency.
Since 2015, China has been conducting human trials using CRISPR to combat various cancers, HIV, and HPV. It is the only country in the world to conduct human trials thus far.
According to ClinicalTrials.Gov, there are 10 active or upcoming CRISPR therapy trials in China, targeting advanced cancers like stage 4 gastric and nasopharyngeal carcinomas. So far results are only anecdotal, and while some participants' tumors shrank, no formal results have been made available.
Although possible long-term side effects aren't fully understood, CRISPR is already an option for some patients in China who have exhausted all of the conventional treatments.
affected industriesPotential high impact industries for CRISPR include medicine, food, agriculture, and the industrial biotech space. Because the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system is so easy to make and use, researchers from a range of scientific disciplines can access it to genetically engineer the organism of their choice.
Pharmaceuticals & biotechnologyThe future of medicine will be written with CRISPR.
The current drug discovery process is long, given the need to ensure patient safety and gain a thorough understanding of unintended effects. Moreover, current US regulatory policies often result in a decades-long development process.
However, teams using CRISPR can bring customized therapies to market more quickly than was previously dreamed, speeding up the traditional drug discovery process.
Timeline of drug development. Credit: PhRMA
CRISPR's cheap price tag and flexibility allows accurate and fast identification of potential gene targets for efficient pre-clinical testing. Because it can be used to ''knock out'' different genes, CRISPR gives researchers a faster and more affordable way to study hundreds of thousands of genes to see which ones are affected by a particular disease.
Of course, along with providing a more streamlined drug development process, CRISPR offers the possibility of new ways to treat patients.
For example, monogenic diseases '-- diseases caused by a mutation in a single gene '-- present an attractive starting point for CRISPR trials. The nature of these illnesses provides an exact target for the treatment: the problematic mutation on a single gene.
Blood-based, single-gene diseases like beta-thalassemia or sickle cell are also great candidates for CRISPR therapy, because of their ability to be treated outside of the body (known as ex-vivo therapy). A patient's blood cells can be taken out, treated with the CRISPR system, then put back into the body.
Food & agriculture An early application of CRISPR was pioneered by yogurt company Danisco in the 2000s, when scientists used an early version of CRISPR to combat a k ey bacterium found in milk and yogurt cultures (streptococcus thermophilus) that kept getting infected by viruses. At that point, the ins and outs of CRISPR were still unclear.
Fast forward to today, when climate change will further increase the need to use CRISPR to protect the food and agriculture industries against new bacteria. For example, cacao is becoming difficult to farm as growing regions get hotter and drier. This environmental change will further exacerbate the damage done by pathogens.
''If you've eaten yogurt or cheese, chances are you've eaten CRISPR-ized cells.''
'-- Rodolphe Barrangou, former Danisco scientist & Editor-in-Chief of The CRISPR Journal
To combat this issue, the Innovative Genomics Institute (IGI) at UC Berkeley is applying CRISPR to create disease-resistant cacao. Leading chocolate supplier MARS Inc. is supporting this effort.
Gene editing can make farming more efficient. It can curb global food shortages for staple crops like potatoes and tomatoes. And it can create resilient crops, impervious to droughts and other environmental impacts.
Regulators have shown little resistance to gene-edited crops, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in particular is not regulating the space. This is largely because when CRISPR is applied to crops, t here's no foreign DNA being added: CRISPR is simply used to edit a crop's own genetics to select for desirable traits.
In 2016, the white button mushroom, modified to be resistant to browning, became the first CRISPR-edited organism to bypass USDA. In October 2017, it was announced that agriculture company DuPont Pioneer and the Broad Institute would collaborate for agriculture research using their CRISPR-Cas9 intellectual property.
In January, biotech company Yield10 Biosciencegot approval for its CRISPR-edited plant Camelina sativa (false flax), which has enhanced omega-3 oil and is used to make vegetable oil and animal feed.
These are indications that new breeds of crops could reach markets much faster than previously thought. Without USDA oversight, these items and other food products could go into production relatively quickly.
This will impact the food we eat, as food items are edited to carry more nutrients or to last longer on grocery shelves.
Another area currently generating buzz is the production of leaner livestock.
In October 2017, scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing used CRISPR to genetically engineer pig meat that had 24% less body fat.
Image: Infrared pictures of 6-month-old pigs at zero, two, four hours after cold exposure. Gene edited pigs are on the right side of the images. Credit: Zheng et al./PNAS
Researchers did this by inserting a mouse gene into pig cells in order to better regulate body temperature. Although this example technically makes the result a GMO product, it may not be too long before pigs' genes are used for the same purpose.
Future versions of this technology applied to human nutrition will be one area to look out for.
Industrial biotechnologyAnother key, but less obvious, use of CRISPR lies is in the industrial biotech space. By re-engineering microbes using CRISPR, researcher can create new materials.
How is this relevant to society at large?
From an industrial standpoint, this is big for modifying and creating new chemical products. We can alter microbes to increase diversity, create new bio-based materials, and make more efficient biofuels. From active chemicals in fragrances to those involved in industrial cleaning, CRISPR could have a great impact here by creating new and more efficient biological materials.
Jennifer Doudna's first CRISPR startup, Caribou Biosciences, was founded in 2011 for non-therapeutic research purposes across industries. It is one of the key companies providing various industries with the tools to use CRISPR for a range of purposes.
LIMITATIONSCRISPR's list of potential benefits is a long one. But the technology also brings with it a number of limitations.
Possible unintended effects and all the unknown variables are some of the drawbacks to this new technology, while new ethical questions and controversies are also emerging as human trials near.
side effect limitationsWhen using CRISPR for human therapies, safety is the biggest issue. As with any new form of technology, researchers are unsure of the entire range of CRISPR's effects.
Off-target activity is the main concern here. A single gene edit could cause unintended activity somewhere else in the genome. A possible consequence of this is abnormal growth of tissues, leading to cancer. As more research uncovers new details, this could result in more refined, precise gene targeting.
Another issue is the possibility of mosaic generation. After a CRISPR treatment, a patient could have a mix of both edited and unedited cells '-- a ''mosaic.'' As cells continue to divide and replicate, some cells may get repaired, while others won't.
Finally, immune system complications mean that these interventions and therapies may trigger an undesired response from a patient's immune system. Early research shows the immune system may dispose of Cas enzymes before they achieve their purpose, or may have an averse reaction resulting in side effects like inflammation. (In 1999, a patient in the US died of a severe immune reaction, instilling more caution in researchers when it comes to CRISPR trials.)
However, all three of these limitations have some possible solutions.
Different enzymes (''molecular scissors'') or more precise delivery vehicles can reduce off-target activity. If modified stem cells in egg or sperm (i.e. cells that can become every cell in the human body) are edited, mosaics can be avoided.
With the immune system issue, researchers can isolate different Cas proteins from more obscure bacterial strains that humans don't already have an adaptive immunity to in order to circumvent an unwanted immune response. Meanwhile, ex- vivo therapies, where scientists take a patient's blood cells out of the body and treat them before infusing them back in, can also help bypass the immune system.
Biological alternativesOne potential big limitation for CRISPR is that CRISPR-Cas9 system lacks surgical precision. The Cas enzyme cuts both strands of the DNA double helix, and this ''double-stranded break'' creates worries over the precision of the cut.
''Repairing a defective gene would be like finding a needle in a haystack and then removing that needle without disturbing a single strand of hay in the process.'' -Jennifer Doudna
While currently the Cas9 enzyme gets the most attention as the enzyme doing the ''cutting,'' scientists are actively pursuing alternatives to find better candidates.
Alternative options include a smaller version of Cas9, or a different enzyme entirely: Cpf1, which has become popular due to its easy transport to the targeted DNA location.
Besides using other Cas enzymes, alternate delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes are another option. Harmless engineered viruses can carry therapeutic genes to the site of mutation, while lipid nanoparticles can avoid immune system detection, avoiding an immune reaction. Both options present promising avenues of research.
ControversiesWhen technology can alter the code of life, its implications are far-reaching '-- as are its controversies. Here we outline a few of the main controversies surrounding CRISPR.
Design-your-own-baby?If we know where a certain gene is located, CRISPR allows us to manipulate it in many ways.
By this logic, pet owners could design the dog they want with a specified coat color and size. What's more, parents could hypothetically tinker with a gene that controls height or eye color to ''design'' their children. If we could isolate the genes associated with intelligence, that too could be manipulated.
While critics say this technology should only be reserved for therapeutic needs, the fast-paced development of CRISPR doesn't seem to be slowing down any time soon, and gene-edited organisms have already been created for non-therapeutic purposes.
In 2015, the Beijing Genome Institute (BGI) created ''micro-pigs'' by removing a gene associated with growth. At just 30 pounds, this was quite a departure from pigs' normal weight of 100 pounds. BGI originally wanted to sell each micro-pig for an estimated $1,600, with customized size and color options for consumers. Plans were eventually scrapped in 2017.
Although BGI used TALENs and not CRISPR to edit the pigs' genes, CRISPR poses a similar concern when it comes to ''designing'' future pets. T his designer application could represent a permanent, irreversible turning point in the direction of animal and human evolution.
bringing back extinct animalsWoolly mammoths were last seen 3,600 years ago. If we could bring back these ancient creatures, should we? What would be the purpose? Whether for mere curiosity or for valid scientific purposes, this area is ripe for controversy.
Simply put, de-extinction is the effort to bring back extinct animals. The process involves taking the embryo of the closest living relative of the extinct animal and using CRISPR-Cas9 to insert the extinct species' DNA, so an extinct animal could once again roam the planet.
Such initiatives are already being pursued by different scientific groups and organizations. Notably, a project by The Long Now Foundation, called ''Revive & Restore,'' aims to bring back extinct animals like the passenger pigeon and the woolly mammoth. Geneticist George Church of Broad Institute has been instrumental in bringing this project to fruition.
Credit: Revive & Restore
The woolly mammoth is of special interest to many scientists. Editing the Asian elephant genome to insert genes from conserved wooly mammoth tissue remains could undo extinction, or perhaps more likely result in a hybrid version of the ancient creature.
In this case there are also climate considerations at play: some researchers believe the mammoth's effect on far-northern forests could bring back ideal conditions to contribute to permafrost and reduce carbon release into the atmosphere.
Advocates of de-extinction also say that humans were directly responsible for many species becoming extinct, and therefore, we should make a concerted effort to reverse the trend.
Critics raise concerns that manipulating nature like this will possibly bring more harm than good, potentially creating species that wreak havoc on an environment that has already been irrevocably changed by the rise of homo sapiens.
Irreversible genetic changes for generationsUsing CRISPR for ''germline modifications'' is making the scientific community nervous.
Somatic modifications are done on body cells such as skin, brain, muscle, and heart cells, and the modifications do not get passed on to future generations. Germline modifications, on the other hand, are done in genes carried in reproductive egg or sperm cells '-- and thus will be inherited by future generations.
Working with germline cells raises the question: can we ethically choose the genetic changes we want for future unborn generations?
The consequences of making genetic changes to germline cells were one reason why, until recently, researchers were only using non-viable human embryos for CRISPR studies. Then, in March 2017, the first CRISPR experiment on viable human embryos was conducted on six embryos in China. Notably, t he experiment showed a higher success rate of gene editing than previous experiments with non-viable embryos.
Despite the controversy surrounding the issue, the clear benefit of altering germline cells is that a disease can be contained or prevented from expressing itself as an individual develops. Germline therapies are also guaranteed to reach every cell in a patient's body.
Through a germline CRISPR gene edit, an adult could hypothetically never suffer from cancer, even if he or she has a genetic predisposition to it.
BiohackersBiohackers say they want to leverage CRISPR to move the traditionally lengthy R&D process along on a faster timeline, raising the question of whether '-- and how '-- they should be regulated.
Image: DIY Bacterial Gene Engineering CRISPR Kit, Credit: The Odin
Recent crowdfunding campaigns by Do-It-Yourself (DIY) biohackers have received a lot of attention. The Odin, a biohacking startup, sells DIY Bacterial CRISPR Kits on its website for a retail price of $159. Odin's CEO, Josiah Zayner, self-injected himself with a CRISPR-modified muscle growth gene at a synthetic biology conference in San Francisco in October 2017.
For the moment, this type of biohacking remains unregulated, as it was self-injection and not experimentation on other people. However, the FDA does prohibit sales that tout this kind of self-injection for therapeutic purposes.
The future of CRISPRFuture applications of CRISPR technology are essentially as infinite as the forms of life itself. While current initiatives are mostly geared toward therapeutics or food tech, there are also some less prominent but very real applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system.
XenotransplantationXenotransplantation is the act of transplanting another animal's cells, tissues, or organs to a human recipient.
W ith the high demand for organ transplants and no supply to match it, xenotransplantation (FDA definition here ) could be the solution for many sick patients waiting for an organ transplant.
The process could look something like this:
Scientists inject human stem cells inside a living pig. These human stem cells grow and differentiate into a specific type of cell inside that pig.The stem cells are ''educated'' through Cas9 and directed to become a certain cell type (i.e. heart, liver, pancreas, etc.).The California-based Salk Institute created a lot of noise in the scientific community when it announced that it had made a chimera organism, made of both pig and human cells, in January 2017.
Xenotransplantation, Credit: eGenesis
Xenotransplantation has been previously tested in mice with rat stem cells: CRISPR-Cas9 was used to turn off the gene that makes pancreas in mice and instead, rat stem cells were inserted into mouse embryos. The mice, as programmed, went on to grow rat pancreas.
Later on, researchers inserted human stem cells (known as inducible pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) in pig embryos. The study was stopped at 4 weeks due to safety and effectiveness concerns. Researchers did note that some of the stem cells specialized in these pig embryos, which meant they were turning into the beginnings of human tissues. While this happened at a lower success level than was seen with rat pancreases in mice embryos, it was still quite a scientific feat.
Co-founded by George Church, eGenesis is also working in this area, with the goal of creating pig organs for human use. In August 2017, scientists modified over 60 genes in pig embryos to get rid of retroviruses that human bodies would reject in a transplant scenario.
If researchers figure out a way to grow human cells in a living animal, they could create organs specially matched to a patient. Each patient's stem cells could give rise to his or her own engineered organ constituted of his or her own unique DNA, reducing the risk of rejection and other consequences of organ failure.
gene drive could cause evolutionary chaosA future without mosquitoes is also a future without malaria, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, dengue fever '-- the list goes on and on. Without these insects to spread disease, lives would be saved around the world.
CRISPR could help us get there. But what seems like a good idea from the surface could have catastrophic consequences from an evolutionary standpoint.
In general, each gene has a 50% chance of being passed down. But gene drive offers a way to make a certain inheritance outcome more favorable.
If scientists alter gene drive with genetic-editing techniques, they could create a fast track for evolution.
In December 2016, researchers at Imperial College London envisioned a way to eliminate the whole mosquito population that carries the malaria parasite. This would be achieved by editing genes using the CRISPR system and adding in a DNA sequence that would ensure biased inheritance in mosquito embryos. As these mosquitoes developed and matured into adults, they would mate with other wild mosquitoes in the population, and eventually stop carrying malaria.
But what seems like such a great idea in the short-term could disrupt the natural balance of wild ecosystems, altering the course of natural evolution. The domino effect of consequences through ecosystems is impossible to predict.
Genome editing as a Weapon of mass destruction?In the February 2016 report of Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community prepared by James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, ''Genome Editing'' was listed as a potential natural security threat outlined under Weapons of Mass Destruction and Proliferation.
Genetic watchdog groups like EcoNexus and ETC Group caution that gene editing can be misused. CRISPR could give rise to a new generation of bioweapons through the engineering of new pathogens or serve as inspiration for bioterrorists. If an insect can carry and deliver toxins, this technology could be weaponized by rogue groups.
Image: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)'s Safe Genes program. Credit: DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), an agency of the Department of Defense, is already preparing for such scenarios and developing antidotes as they work to find solutions that could reverse harmful gene drive effects.
Patent warsSince initial papers on CRISPR and its applications were published in 2012, scientists Jennifer Doudna of UC Berkeley and Feng Zhang of Broad Institute have been racing to patent this technology.
The contentious fight for a key CRISPR-Cas9 patent was finally awarded to Zhang at Broad Institute by the US Patent and Trademark Office in February 2017. However, the European Patent Office (EPO) just revoked one of Broad's patents this month.
Going forward, the status of key CRISPR-related patents and their impact on research in this field will be something to watch. With plenty of patent families up in the air, the future battles for CRISPR patents will heat up.
Closing remarksThe landscape of gene editing could look completely different in 100, 50, or even 10 years.
In the future, it might be standard to tweak or design genes in plants, animals, and even human beings, irrevocably affecting the gene pool and the course of evolution.
While some ideas presented above may seem far-fetched at this the moment, that could easily change. After all, CRISPR isn't an expensive, inaccessible form of technology. It's available and in use now. From farmers to researchers, CRISPR will make its impact in our society.
Monetizing The Network
Finnish researchers examine Spotify's artist payment scheme, suggest alternative | Yle Uutiset |
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:51
File photo. Image: Tiina Jutila / Yle Ever since it debuted nearly a decade ago, the music streaming service Spotify has been both a boon and a burden for musicians. It's easy to get music on the platform, but reaching and then gaining financial support from fans is an often-difficult hurdle. Some industry insiders want Spotify to pay artists on a per-play basis.
For a fee of 9.99 euros per month, premium Spotify subscribers are able to listen to as much ad-free music as they want.
Mikko von Hertzen, who sings and plays guitar in the popular rock band the Von Hertzen Brothers, says he thinks the way Spotify and other streaming services pay artists for their compositions and performances is murky. Few artists seem to know, he says, how money is being shared.
"It's unclear to artists how money is divided and what kind of contracts we have. Consumers don't know how the money [from services] are split," von Hertzen says.
But he's not thumbs-down on services like Spotify and Apple Music. On the contrary, he considers music streaming to be a powerful platform, but says the distribution of income is unfair.
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File photo of Von Hertzen Brothers performance. Image: Miki Wallenius / Yle "If our fans mostly listen to us and other less-known artists, their money is not targeted specifically to us. Or if I listen to the Finnish indie bands that I want to support, my share of [the subscription fee] goes to the biggest artists from the biggest record companies," he says.
Many lesser-known artists have discovered Spotify as a valuable platform to reach new audiences and many of them would like to see their revenue streams directly reflect their music streams. Spotify is a Swedish-based company and music streaming is particularly popular in the Nordic region.
In Finland alone there are some 1.8 million registered Spotify users. Streaming services account for more than 70 percent of the Finnish music industry's income, so that revenue is of particular interest to artists and music rights holders.
Classical music streamers unknowingly support stars like CheekIn a rare move in 2016, Spotify released data about its streaming payment scheme for the month of March of that year to Aalto University.
A recent joint study by Finnish music industry organisations and Aalto University took a closer look at those numbers and compared the current streaming payment scheme with a different compensation model.
The study examined Spotify's current payment model '-- known as pro rata '-- and compared it to a different, individualised one. The music industry groups who commissioned the report would like to see the streaming industry switch over to a user-centric alternative.
The user-centric model, the researchers explain, pays out for each play of a specific song, which helps listeners financially support the music and musicians they're actually listening to.
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Finnish musician Cheek performs in 2015. File photo. Image: Yle In France, streaming platform Deezer and French music publishing group SACEM have been testing some user-centric pilot programmes, but results of those projects were not publicly available, the Finnish researchers said.
Spotify's current pro rata model puts all of the money and listening figures into the same pot '-- with the lion's share of the cash going to the rights-holders of the most-played songs.
For example, if a Spotify listener only streamed classical music for an entire month, the listener would unknowingly also be supporting pop stars like Finnish rapper Cheek and pop singer Sanni.
The researchers analysed 10,000 songs. But most of them were not being listened to very much. A whopping 90 percent of them had been streamed a total of nine (or less) times, they reported.
These days, most streaming service funds are distributed in thirds. Roughly 30 percent of subscriber money stays with the service. The remaining 70 percent is distributed to the owners of the works (composers, songwriters, arrangers and publishers) and to the rights-holders of the recordings (record companies and artists).
User-centric vs pro rata payoutsDigital Media Finland's Jari Muikku was head writer of the study and he explained the differences between the two models, saying that a user-centric model would help artists directly.
"If a subscriber listens to only one track once during a month, the (remaining 70 percent of subscriber funds) would go, according to the user centric model, to that track and its right holders," he wrote in the study.
"However, in the pro rata model, this money would be just added up to the overall pot, which would be divided according to the number of streams of each track, and the right holders of that one track would get only a fraction of the same one-track-once-a-month-user's money," Muikku explained.
Lottaliina Pokkinen is a lawyer at the Finnish Musicians' Union, a trade organisation for pro musicians and says a user-centric model would be fairer.
Lawyer: User-centric model more like the record store"Earlier, when consumers went to the music shop and bought a disc, the money went directly to the rights holder of that recording. Streamlining services to a consumer-based model would increase transparency and be more like physical media purchases," she said.
It's not clear whether Spotify has plans to change the way it compensates artists, Pokkinen says, saying that the union would like to see that happen.
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Image: Miki Wallenius / Yle She says the union thinks switching payouts to a user-based model would also help Spotify gain more customers.
"Then [listeners] can really know exactly which artists they're supporting," she says.
She also says that it would be a good idea to examine how the duration of pieces of music can be taken into account on streaming platforms. At the moment, services like Spotify acknowledge a song has been listened to if it has been played at least 30 seconds.
The payout is the same for any two pieces of music, regardless of whether they are 31 seconds or 31 minutes long.
Research for the study was based on Spotify's streaming data for premium subscribers during March 2016, which it provided to researchers at Aalto University. The study took into account only funds generated by subscribers, not Spotify's advertising revenue, which it uses to subsidise free subscriptions.
The study was commissioned by the Finnish Music Publishers' Association, the Finnish Musicians' Union, the Finnish Society of Composers and Lyricists and the Society of Finnish Composers.
Cartel Suspicion: Secret Price Fixing Among German Carmakers - SPIEGEL ONLINE
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:59
January 30, 2018 04:17 PM June 23, 2016, a Thursday, was an unusually hot day. In Stuttgart, Munich and Wolfsburg, temperatures climbed to 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit), and some of the men seeking access to the offices of board members and other executives at Daimler, Bosch, BMW and VW wore T-shirts. They didn't have an appointment, but they were equipped with warrants issued by the district court in Bonn - warrants that provided them with authorization to search the power centers of the German automobile industry and its most important suppliers.
The men and women from the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) and various state offices of criminal investigation were searching for evidence of the existence of a cartel. The Federal Cartel Office suspects that major carmakers and a few of their suppliers have been fixing prices for years, and possibly even decades. It's not the prices at which the companies sell their cars or car parts that is at issue, but rather a significant component of the prices they pay for steel.
"The aim of the suspected collusion," the court ruling that granted the search warrants read, was to "unify the purchasing price for steel in the automobile industry and, by doing so, create a commonality of costs." The Federal Cartel Office believes that the alleged collusion existed back in the 1990s and that "it existed again from March 2007 until February 2013." Investigators have also found indications there may have been collusion in 2016.
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Collusion of that nature is the antithesis of competition. It means that VW, Daimler and BMW were no longer competing to buy steel cheaper than their rivals and passing their savings down to customers - as is normally the case in a functioning market economy. And steel is one of the most important supplies purchased by carmakers.
The nationwide searches didn't remain secret, with the media quickly reporting on them. But until now, the background and details of the raids have remained largely unknown, the case having been overshadowed by a European Commission investigation into another case that also involves the automobile industry - a case that DER SPIEGEL exposed last summer. That case was triggered when Daimler and Volkswagen essentially admitted wrongdoing, and since then the Brussels authority has been looking into suspicions that the companies engaged in collusion for several years with BMW, Porsche and Audi, in the form of more than 60 working groups covering areas such as technological development, suppliers and how to deal with environmental protection authorities.
The companies had created working groups for almost every part of a vehicle. They existed for "gasoline engines," "diesel engines," "car body," "chassis," "total vehicle" and many more areas. With five brands involved -- Daimler, BMW, Audi, Porsche and VW -- the groups were referred to internally as "groups of five." All together, they met more than 1,000 times in past years.
Playing Down the Scandal
When the activities of the "automobile syndicate" became public following DER SPIEGEL's report, shareholders responded swiftly. Fearing steep fines, they unloaded their shares in the carmakers. Within the course of just a few days, several billion euros were shed from the market capitalizations of Daimler, VW and BMW.
The companies' CEOs tried to play down the scandal. Daimler CEO Dieter Zetsche and VW CEO Matthias M¼ller said it was unclear whether the coordination had violated competition laws. And even if it had, sources close to them said, then they could expect moderate fines at the worst, adding that the meetings of the Group of Five had only addressed technology and not prices or markets. As such, it wasn't a "hardcore cartel." At the time, M¼ller claimed: "I don't know anything about any price fixing."
But the case that the Federal Cartel Office is now investigating is precisely that. DER SPIEGEL was able to view emails from participating executives, meeting agendas, meeting notes and presentations from numerous meetings that officials in Bonn believe could be sufficient evidence of forbidden collusion. The suspicion that these agreements took place over several years, the cartel agency believes, likewise indicates that "the respective CEOs or board members of the automobile manufacturers in question were aware of the suspected collusion."
Bosch would not comment on the most recent allegations. BMW, for its part, confirmed that searches were conducted in June 2016 but declined make a statement regarding the details of an ongoing investigation.
In a statement, Daimler said the company was indeed under investigation and that it is providing its full cooperation with the authorities. The outcome of the Federal Cartel Office's investigation, the company noted, remains open and as such it is completely unclear whether a violation against cartel law occurred or whether the investigation will be closed again.
VW also claims that the company is providing its full cooperation with the authorities. In addition, the company noted that the Federal Cartel Office had itself "stressed that a search alone does not allow one to draw any conclusion about the further proceedings of an investigation and that there is an assumption of innocence until the end of the proceedings."
Sharing the Pain?
The competition authority's suspicions are based on meetings held by the Working Group of the Iron- and Metal-Processing Industry (AVI). Steel producers and processors as well the German vehicle manufacturers' association (VDA) are members of the D¼sseldorf-based organization. But the powerful VDA itself also has a role in the investigations. Within the association's raw materials committee, long led by VW board member Francisco Garcia Sanz, members agreed to a common strategy on steel purchasing, the so-called guidelines for material price compensation.
During AVI's meetings, which have regularly taken place twice a year since 2004, representatives of steel producers meet with their major customers, vehicle manufacturers and auto parts suppliers. The meetings often took place at the Frankfurt Airport in conference rooms at the Sheraton Hotel, but also at the offices of companies involved. Daimler, for example, invited participants to its factory near Stuttgart on one occasion.
The meetings weren't secret. Agendas were prepared, and minutes taken. Often, the meetings would begin with a guest addressing attendees. In March 2010, for example, then head of German energy giant RWE, J¼rgen Grossmann, told the group why nuclear power plants needed to stay on the grid despite German government plans to phase them out. Then there were presentations about the market situation. Afterward, Daimler executives chatted openly with their competitors at VW and BMW about sales figures and expectations, foreign markets and new technologies.
Some of the information was so detailed that the cartel authority believes it provides evidence of the exchange of "sensitive" business secrets in ways that violate competition law.
Gas and oil diplomacy in Eastern Mediterranean prelude to regional war - Al Arabiya English
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:58
The Middle East has undergone major vicissitudes following the ''Arab Spring'' demonstrations. The Mideast is one of the most important regions in the world and the stability of which is mandatory to peace and stability in the world. Since 2011, the Middle East has entered a state of uncertainty with many conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya and other states that are apt to witness internal wars.
Nowadays, tension is on the rise between Turkey and Egypt on energy resources in the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, relations between Ankara and Cairo after Egyptian foreign ministry's statement regarding Turkish rejection of the agreement signed between Cyprus and Egypt in 2013 rings an alarm bell. Egyptian statement reads: "Any attempt to prejudice or undermine Egypt's sovereign rights in its economic zones in the Middle East is rejected and will be countered.''
Agreement equals accessThe Egyptians believe that the agreement signed with Greek Cypriots gives Cairo access to an area in East Mediterranean that is of particular interest for hydrocarbon companies since the discovery of the huge Zohr gas fields in 2015, while Turkey's foreign minister Mevlut ‡avusoglu contested the deal, declaring that Turkish Cypriots had been unfairly prevented from claiming their ''inalienable rights to the natural resources'' around the island, and revealed Turkish plans to begin exploration in the area.
READ ALSO:Turkish foreign policy: From defensive to offensive
As long as Ankara does not recognize the demarcation of the border signed between Egypt and Cyprus in 2013, describing it as illegal, the region is once again turning towards a new approach of belligerence and rivalry. And the reason is gas politics. The same applies to the gas fields between Israel and Lebanon.
Such a sudden escalation of tension between Egypt and Turkey is a sign of a blow to the efforts to abate any militarization of the Mediterranean Sea as this would be the ignition for other regional and international wars.
Gas explorationOn February 5, 2017 the Turkish Foreign Minister announced that his country plans to start oil and gas exploration in the Eastern Mediterranean soon in the areas at the continental shelf at latitudes 32, 16 and 18 degrees. The Turkish minister issued an implicit message to both Cairo and Nicosia, saying: ''No foreign entity, company or even ship can carry out any illegal scientific research or exploration for oil and gas in the continental shelf of Turkey and the maritime region.'' On the other hand, the Egyptian side sees its full right to defend its interests according to the agreement it deems perfectly legal. The Turkish government believes that the Greek Cypriot cannot unilaterally adopt laws regarding the exploitation of natural resources on behalf of the whole Cypriots.
The Eastern Mediterranean is expected to witness wars on gas and oil between Turkey, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Cyprus and Greece in territorial waters. In July 2017, Ankara reacted strongly to the Greek Cypriots when they started to drill for gas. As a result, the Turkish army dispatched a frigate in the Eastern Mediterranean to monitor a drilling ship that is believed to have begun searching for oil and gas off in spite of Turkish government's rejection, considering it as a hostile act.
When Egyptian president Abdul Fattah Al-Sisi paid a visit last November to Cyprus, he had talks with Greek Cypriot officials on gas and oil resources in the region. Tensions since then started to amount, with both Turkey and Egypt blaming each other of interfering in the other's internal affairs.
It is expected that Ankara would resort to legal proceedings to nullify the agreement because of what it called ''violation'' of the continental shelf.
Nowadays, a drill ship is exploring for oil and gas in the region. Turkey sounds unhappy with the agreement between Italy, Greece and Israel to construct a gas pipeline from East Mediterranean to Europe at a cost of US$6 billion. This would ignite another tension, with Italy being party of it.
Why war is shimmering in the Mediterranean?
Political differences are the preponderant factor determining relations between countries and intimidating to bring about instability and chaos to the region with acts of hostilities caused by race toward gas and oil reserves. The Eastern Mediterranean basin is one of the most affluent areas with natural resources, the most important of which is natural gas. An American study conducted in 2010 shows the gas reserves in this region are estimated at 345 trillion cubic feet. The region also contains 3.4 billion barrel of oil reserves. As long as there is no mutual cooperation between the countries concerned due to demarcation issue, any war would break out any moment and the region is becoming a time bomb.
What do Ankara and Cairo want?
It is expected that Ankara would resort to legal proceedings to nullify the agreement because of what it called ''violation'' of the continental shelf. The Turkish moves are likely to disrupt the efforts of Egypt and Greece to conclude a maritime demarcation agreement.
READ ALSO:Egypt to Turkey: We will fight attempts seeking to undermine our sovereignty
With regard to the economic crisis facing Egypt since 2011, Cairo is prudent to finish the demarcation issue with Greece and Cyprus in order to avoid any rift with Turkey. Since Cyprus has also signed another agreement with Israel, the ghost of war is chasing the countries in the Middle East. In the past, former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was procrastinating to discuss the issue of gas and oil agreements with Greece and Cyprus until the dispute between Turkey and Greece over Cyprus is over as he was considering this conflict a ''political headache.''
Gas diplomacy might seem germane regarding Israel's ties with Arab neighbours. The state of suspicion between Israel and Arab neighbors would lead to skirmishes on this basin as it could be a strategic alternative to Russian Liquefied Natural Gas which is exported to Europe. This justifies why China and Russia are playing a pivotal role in Syria today which has a huge natural gas reserves in the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey are flaunting their emerging energy dexterity as a prospective weapon as each of them draws a plan to have the upper hand in the region and play a pivotal role in shaping the Middle East's political scene.
Shehab Al-Makahleh is Director of Geostrategic Media Center, senior media and political analyst in the Middle East, adviser to many international consultancies. He can be reached at: @shehabmakahleh and @Geostrat_ME
SHOW MORELast Update: Saturday, 10 February 2018 KSA 09:35 - GMT 06:35
Disclaimer: Views expressed by writers in this section are their own and do not reflect Al Arabiya English's point-of-view.
Turkey slams Greek Cypriots for unilateral hydrocarbons search, blocks Italian rig in Mediterranean - Daily Sabah
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:57
Turkey's foreign ministry criticized the Greek Cypriot Administration again Sunday for a "unilateral" offshore hydrocarbons search after Turkish warships prevented an Italian rig from reaching an area off the east Mediterranean island nation where it was to start exploratory drilling for gas.
Turkish warships on Friday stopped the Saipem 12000 rig belonging to the Italian energy firm ENI as it headed toward an area southeast of Cyprus.
Turkey, in a statement Sunday, said Greek Cypriots were disregarding the "inalienable rights on natural resources" of Turkish Cypriots and jeopardizing the region's stability.
"Within this context, we have most recently observed that there is an intention to commence activities in block number three in the Greek Cypriot Administration's so-called exclusive economic zone."
Turkey shares the justified concerns of the Turkish Cypriot people on this issue and supports the statement made on Saturday by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, it said.
"As we have repeatedly emphasized in the past, not only will we continue to protect our own rights and interests in our continental shelf, but we are also determined to take the necessary steps together with the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus within the framework of our support to the Turkish Cypriot side."
The ministry said the sole responsibility for any situation that could arise as a consequence falls on the Greek Cypriot side, which, instead of expending efforts towards a just and lasting comprehensive settlement in Cyprus, persists in acting as though it were the sole owner of the island and in continuing its unilateral hydrocarbon-related activities.
"This attitude of the Greek Cypriot side, which does not shy away from irresponsibly jeopardizing the security and stability of the Eastern Mediterranean region, is actually the fundamental reason behind the failure of the Cyprus settlement negotiations to produce an outcome for the past half-century," the ministry said.
The ministry recalled that during the Conference on Cyprus convened last year, the Greek Cypriots demonstrated once again their unwillingness to accept a partnership with the Turkish Cypriots on the basis of political equality, and that because of this, the conference closed without a settlement.
According to the statement, as long as the Greek Cypriot Administration continues its unilateral hydrocarbon-related activities, it will remain evident just how far removed the Greek Cypriot side is from perceiving the Turkish Cypriots as their equal partners.
"We also make use of this opportunity to strongly emphasize our expectation that companies centered in third countries refrain from supporting, through cooperation with the Greek Cypriot Administration in the area of hydrocarbons, this unconstructive Greek Cypriot attitude which also constitutes a major obstacle to the settlement of the Cyprus issue," the statement added.
Cyprus has been divided since 1974 when a Greek Cypriot coup was followed by violence against the island's Turks, and Ankara's intervention as a guarantor power. It has seen an on-and-off peace process in recent years, including the latest initiative in Switzerland under the auspices of guarantor countries Turkey, Greece and the U.K. collapsing in 2017.
Only Turkey recognizes the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), whereas Greek Cypriot Administration has international recognition as the Republic of Cyprus.
Turkey blames Greek Cypriot intransigence for the talks' failure, also faulting the European Union for admitting Cyprus as a divided island into the union in 2004 after Greek Cypriot voters rejected a peace deal.
An ENI spokesman told The Associated Press that the Turkish warships told the rig not to continue because there would be military activities at its destination. The spokesman said the rig would remain where it stopped until the situation is resolved.
Greek Cypriot President Nicos Anastasiades said Sunday that Cypriot authorities are taking actions that will neither lead to an escalation of tensions nor overlook the fact that Turkey was violating international law.
The Greek Cypriot government says a gas search is its sovereign right and that any potential hydrocarbon wealth generated will be equitably shared among all Cypriots after the island is reunified.
Italy's ENI, France's TOTAL and ExxonMobil of the U.S. are among the companies licensed to search for hydrocarbons off Cyprus' southern coast.
Last week, Greek Cyprus announced that ENI and partner TOTAL had discovered a potentially sizeable gas field off its southwestern coast that's close to Egypt's Zohr deposit, which is the largest ever discovered in the Mediterranean.
In earlier drilling, Texas-based Noble Energy discovered a field off Cyprus estimated to hold more than 4 trillion cubic feet of gas.
The incident is the latest twist in decades-old feuds and overlapping claims in the eastern Mediterranean, brought into sharper focus by the discovery of some of the world's largest gas finds in the past decade lurking in the watery deep.
In addition to Greek Cypriot Administration, TRNC and Turkey, Israel and Lebanon are also at odds over offshore gas exploration and marine boundaries.
The Saipem 12000 had previously been commissioned to drill the Calypso, which lies less than 100 km away from the mammoth Zohr field off Egypt. It had been heading to a maritime block, known as Block 3, where it was to start work on another prospect, dubbed Cuttlefish.
Block 3, which lies far below Cyprus's Karpasia peninsula, the pointed 'panhandle' of the island, lies closer to Syria or Lebanon than Turkey.
Turkish-Egyptian war of words in eastern Mediterranean heats up
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:57
CAIRO '-- Egyptian Foreign Ministry spokesman Ahmed Abu Zeid warned in an official statement Feb. 7 against contesting the agreement on the demarcation of the maritime border between Egypt and Cyprus. He also warned against infringing on Egypt's sovereign rights in the delimited area, asserting that any attempt to do so was unacceptable and would be rejected.
The Egyptian position came in response to statements by Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu in an interview Feb. 4 with the Greek daily Kathimerini. Cavusoglu described as ''null and void'' the agreement signed between Egypt and Cyprus in December 2013 on the joint exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves on the median line between the two countries' respective exclusive economic zones (EEZ) in the eastern Mediterranean. ''We have clearly stated that the agreement violates Turkey's continental shelf,'' he noted.
Praising the Egyptian Foreign Ministry's position, Maj. Gen. Kamal Amer, the head of the Egyptian parliament's National Defense and Security Committee, asserted in a press statement Feb. 7, ''It is a strong response that expresses Egypt's position, especially the Egyptian rejection of any infringement of its sovereign right to the EEZ.''
A number of bilateral agreements have been signed between Egypt and Cyprus on gas and oil exploration in the eastern Mediterranean. These include the 2003 maritime demarcation agreement and the cooperation agreement signed in October 2012 in the field of oil and gas exploration, especially in the deep waters adjacent to the Egyptian-Cypriot border.
In an interview with Al-Monitor, Salah El-Tahawy, a professor of international law at Helwan University, said, ''The 2013 agreement is an international convention signed in light of the Charter of the United Nations and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. After its ratification by the Egyptian and Cypriot parliaments, this international convention became an internal law in these two countries. This international agreement has been in force since its signature.''
He added, ''Egypt and Cyprus are sovereign states. Turkey's claim to natural resources in the eastern Mediterranean is unacceptable and criminalized under international law. It threatens international peace and security.'' Tahawy confirmed Egypt's right to defend itself against any Turkish aggression in the EEZ in accordance with Article 51 of Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations.
Turkey and Egypt had maintained close ties under the reign of former President Mohammed Morsi. Erdogan visited Egypt in November 2012 and several economic agreements were signed between the two countries, in addition to coordination on some common issues, especially the Palestinian cause.
However, the toppling of Morsi in July 2013 severely strained Egyptian-Turkish relations. Turkey officially rejected the ousting of Morsi, seeing his overthrow as a ''coup.'' On several occasions, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that Morsi is the ''only legitimate president of Egypt.''
Back then, this position stirred the ire of the Egyptian government. It reduced the level of its diplomatic representation in Turkey to charge d'affaires, expelled the Turkish ambassador in Egypt and summoned the Egyptian ambassador in Ankara.
Meanwhile, Egyptian-Cypriot relations further expanded since President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi took power in Egypt in 2014. Sisi visited Cyprus in 2015 as the first Egyptian president to pay an official visit to Cyprus, and then again in November 2017.
Egypt succeeded in pursuing a fruitful cooperative diplomacy to maximize its utilization of energy resources in the eastern Mediterranean. These efforts culminated in October 2016, when Egypt hosted a tripartite summit with Cyprus and Greece. The ''Cairo Declaration'' ensuing from the summit focused on enhancing cooperation among the three countries through a series of agreements on exploration and transportation of natural gas within their common maritime borders.
Tarek Fahmy, a professor of political science at Cairo University, described the statements of Turkey's foreign minister as hostile. ''They mean nothing and do not affect the nature of the existing agreement between Egypt and Cyprus,'' he told Al-Monitor.
''The timing has its implications and dimensions. The Turkish statements may be interpreted in light of the start of production by Egypt in the Zohr natural gas field in late January, which is the largest gas discovery of its kind in the eastern Mediterranean,'' he said. ''Egypt's maritime forces can protect Egypt's rights in the eastern Mediterranean. Turkey is well-aware of this. In 2017, Global Firepower classified Egypt as the sixth strongest navy in the world and the first military power in Africa and the Arab world.''
He explained that the Turkish position is not only linked to Egypt but also stems from major differences with Cyprus. ''Both Egypt and Cyprus have to coordinate positions to repel any Turkish attempts to undermine their rights,'' Fahmy added.
During his speech at the inauguration ceremony of the Zohr gas field Jan. 31, Sisi noted that the demarcation of the maritime border with Cyprus contributed significantly to the discovery of the gas field by the Italian energy company Eni in August 2015.
Egyptian Minister of Petroleum Tariq al-Mulla said at the inauguration that the natural gas production of the Zohr gas field will save Egypt gas imports equivalent to around $3 billion annually. ''By the end of the year, we will have reached self-sufficiency," Mulla said.
Any attempts of rapprochement between Egypt and Turkey during the next stage could be difficult. The eastern Mediterranean seems to be a new source of dispute between the two countries, as Turkey does not seem to want to resolve its problems with Cairo.
Ahmed Aleem is an Egyptian writer and researcher who writes for Egypt's Al-Shorouk newspaper and the Lebanese As-Safir. He has published his research with several Arab and Egyptian centers in addition to writing three scholarly books and two novels.
Flash - Israel announces 'historic' gas contract with Egypt - France 24
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:56
(C) AFP/File | Israel hopes its gas reserves will enable it to forge strategic ties within the region and become a supplier for Europe
JERUSALEM (AFP) - Israel has struck an "historic" contract for sales of billions of dollars' worth of natural gas to Egypt, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced Monday.
"This will bring billions of dollars to state coffers," he said in a statement announcing the deal with Egypt, which in 1979 became the first Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel.
The Israeli energy group Delek said the value of the contract was $15 billion.
It said agreements have been signed between Delek and its associate Noble Energy of the United States to supply 64 billion cubic metres (2.26 trillion cubic feet) of gas from Israel's Leviathan and Tamar offshore fields to the Egyptian firm Dolphinus over a 10-year period.
In September 2016, Jordan struck a deal to buy 300 million cubic feet (8.5 million cubic metres) of Israeli gas per day over a 15-year term, in a deal estimated to be worth $10 billion.
Tamar, which began production in 2013, has estimated reserves of up to 238 billion cubic metres (8.4 trillion cubic feet).
Leviathan, discovered in 2010 and set to begin production in 2019, is estimated to hold 18.9 trillion cubic feet (535 billion cubic metres) of natural gas, along with 34.1 million barrels of condensate.
Israel hopes its gas reserves will give the country energy independence and the prospect of becoming a supplier for Europe as well as forging strategic ties within the region.
(C) 2018 AFP
3 Belts No Road
Australia mulls rival to China's 'belt and road' with US, Japan, India |
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:18
The alternative 'Belt and road' proposal being pushed by the US reflects fears Chinese President Xi Jinping, right, and Russian President Vladimir Putin are using initiatives like China's 'Belt and road' wave to increase their global clout.
Australia is discussing with the United States, India and Japan the establishment of a joint regional infrastructure scheme to rival China's multibillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative in an attempt to counter Beijing's spreading influence.
Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull is expected to discuss the idea during talks in Washington DC this week, possibly during a scheduled meeting with US President Donald Trump.
A senior US Official told The Australian Financial Review the plan involving four regional partners was still "nascent" and "won't be ripe enough to be announced' during Mr Turnbull's visit, but was being seriously discussed.
He preferred to describe the plan as an "alternative" to the Belt and Road Initiative rather than a "rival".
Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and US President Donald Trump may discuss the alternative to China's 'Belt and road' when they meet in Washington this week AP"No one is saying China should not build infrastructure," the official said.
"China might build a port which, on its own is not economically viable. We could make it economically viable by building a road or rail line linking that port."
JumpyThe prospect of such an initiative will be watched closely by Beijing which is already jumpy at the same four nations for agreeing last year to restore the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD).
In November, China protested after senior foreign affairs officials from Australia, the US, Japan and India met in Manila on the sidelines ASEAN and East Asia Summits in Manila to discuss the restoration of the QSD. The dialogue was devised last decade to try to contain China but collapsed when the Rudd government withdrew due to pressure from Beijing.The US and her allies have long been suspicious of Belt and Road, a massive push by Chinese President Xi Jinping to fund a global network of major infrastructure projects throughout the region and beyond such as ports, rail networks, bridges and roads.
Shadow Treasurer Chris Bowen (left) signalled Labor would back China's Belt and road trade route proposal last year. He is pictured with former Prime Minister Paul Keating. Alex EllinhausenThe US regards it as a vehicle for Beijing to exert its influence globally.
While almost 70 countries, including New Zealand and several European nations, have signed up to Belt and Road, the Turnbull government has been cautious whereas Labor has signalled a preparedness to join the initiative as part of an increased embrace of Asia, should it win the next election. Last year, shadow treasurer Chris Bowen flagged joint infrastructure ventures in Australia's north using funds from the $5 billion loan facility, the Northern Australia Infrastructure Fund.
The US move to set up a joint regional infrastructure scheme comes after the Financial Review reported exclusively last week concerns by Admiral Harry Harris, who is set to be US ambassador to Australia, over China's growing influence and predatory economic behaviour in the Indo-Pacific.
Mr Turnbull flies to Washington on Wednesday for a three-day visit during which he will met President Donald Trump and lead a delegation of state and territory leaders and business executives. The delegation will attend the annual gathering of US state governors in Washington DC where infrastructure will be a hot topic.
$1 trillion opportunitiesAmong the delegation will be asset fund managers including executives from IFM Investors investigating opportunities to be part of Mr Trump's $US1 trillion plans to boost infrastructure spending in the US.
Australia's ambassador to Washington, Joe Hockey, has been promoting to the Trump administration and US state governors the asset recycling scheme he conceived as treasurer which involved the commonwealth contributing extra funds to state government infrastructure projects paid for by privatising a state asset.
The senior US official said there was a general aversion among the sates towards privatisation and the asset recycling model in the US would have to be different in that it could involve private, state and federal money.
Mr Turnbull's conversation with Mr Trump will be their fourth official meeting in less than 12 months but the first at the White House.
They met in New York 11 months ago and then again at the G20 in Hamburg, and then at the ASEAN summit.
China and its land grab in the South China Sea and North Korea will all be discussed. The official said both sides were happy with progress over the refugee swap deal in which Mr Trump reluctantly pledged to honour a deal made by his predecessor Barack Obama and accept up to 1250 refugees from Nauru and Manus Island.
"He doesn't like it but it's a deal and he's honouring it," the official said.
There is also a possibility that Mr Turnbull may nudge Mr Trump over rejoining the regional free-trade pact, the Trans-Pacific Partnership. The remaining 11 nations agreed last month to rekindle the pact after the US withdrew but the new TPP-11 is structured so the US can renegotiate entry.
The US official confirmed that Mr Trump was coming under pressure for the US farm lobby which fears it will be squeezed out of lucrative markets in Japan and other TPP-11 countries by Australian exports.
At the Davos economic summit last month, Mr Trump recommitted to his policy of bilateral trade deals but left open the possibility of deals with "groups", something which gave pro-trade officials in Washington some hope over the TPP.
"We'll see," said the senior official.
Amid Ethnic Conflicts, Myanmar Welcomes China's 'Belt And Road' | Here & Now
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 15:21
China's Belt And RoadThis picture taken on on June 1, 2012 shows the construction of oil tanks at a site operated by China National Petroleum Corporation at an offshore block of Madae Island near the town of Kyauk Phyu of Rakhine State, western Myanmar. (Lwin Ko Taik/AFP/Getty Images)China is investing billions of dollars in Southeast Asia as part of its "Belt and Road" initiative.
As our series on China's "Belt and Road" continues, Here & Now's Jeremy Hobson looks at the impact of that investment in Myanmar and the region with Amara Thiha (@AmaraThiha), a fellow at the Stimson Center in Yangon, Myanmar.
This segment aired on February 15, 2018.
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S. Korean official in charge of cryptocurrency crackdown found dead
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:23
A government minister involved in Seoul's regulatory crackdown on digital currencies was found dead at his home on Sunday, reportedly from a heart attack.
Jung Ki-joon, 52, was head of economic policy at the Office for Government Policy Coordination. The official coordinated measures for developing new legislation to curb cryptocurrency speculation and illicit activities, according to a South Korean government spokesman, as quoted by the Wall Street Journal. The police launched an investigation into the death.
The official had been under excessive stress since assignment to the position at the end of last year, according to his colleagues, as quoted by local news agency Yonhap, which initially reported the incident. The newspaper also reported a heart attack as the cause of death.
According to the government spokesman, ''he died from some unknown cause. He passed away while he was sleeping and his heart had already stopped beating when he was found dead.''
South Korean authorities announced tougher steps towards cryptocurrency trading in the country in December. Since then, regulators have announced such measures as taxation of cryptocurrency exchanges, banning them from issuing new trading accounts.
The steep measures in South Korea, once a global hub for bitcoin trading, triggered a plunge in the entire cryptocurrency market, which lost nearly half of its value earlier this year.
This week, cryptocurrencies recovered significantly after South Korea confirmed there would be no ban. Seoul pledged to oversee transparency in the crypto market, starting with a crackdown on anonymous trading accounts.
For more stories on economy & finance visit RT's business section
Out There
You Need To Hear These FAA Tapes From That Oregon UFO Incident That Sent F-15s Scrambling
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 15:03
New evidence offers great detail of the bizarre event and provides unprecedented insight into how such a unique incident is dealt with in real time.
Last November, The War Zone posted an exclusive story detailing a bizarre incident involving an unidentified aircraft that transited the skies of the Pacific Northwest in the early evening of October 25th, 2017. What started as a radar target moving at very high speed over Northern California turned into a series of eyewitness accounts made by nearby airline pilots traveling northward over Oregon. Even F-15 fighters were launched to intercept the mysterious intruder that quickly became invisible to radar.
Now, through the Freedom of Information Act, we present what could be one of the most insightful instances of official documentation surrounding such an encounter that had already been confirmed to have occurred by both the FAA and the USAF. These materials include fascinating audio recordings of radio transmissions and phone calls made as the incident was unfolding, as well as pilot interviews, and conversations between FAA officials made in the aftermath of the highly peculiar incident.
For proper context, make sure to first read our original post linked here detailing the event, how our report came to be in the first place, as well as the rare confirmations as to its authenticity from both the FAA and the USAF. Below is also a short explainer video that will give you a basic overview of the incident.
Read more!
Fast forward three months later, and now we have so much more evidence that adds incredible depth and color to our original report and the limited radio recordings we originally had to go off of. Via our Freedom of Information Act Request we received hours of audio, all with unique elements that add to this story. What we have done is packaged that audio, as well as the radar data provided, into four separate videos. We will highlight some of the big takeaways from each video in our piece, but we cannot stress enough how interesting and eye opening this audio is to listen to in full, so we highly recommend you do so by watching each video in its entirety.
The first video includes audio from the initial spotting of the object as it ripped its way across Northern California at high speed, before it took a turn north and merged with nearby air traffic and disappeared from radar. Once again, beyond becoming invisible to radar, this aircraft had no transponder broadcasting nor did it ever communicate verbally with air traffic controllers. The audio in the video goes on to be sync'd in real-time with radar data obtained via our FOIA request.
Oakland Center Sector 31 first detected the target around 4:30pm PST. Below is a chart showing where Oakland Center's high altitude sectors are situated around Northern California. Sector 31 spans roughly from Sacramento up towards Redding, before its northern edge, which is near the border with Oregon, terminates and Seattle Center's airspace begins. To the east, the airspace sits along the California-Nevada border. This makes sense as the craft was eventually tracked by airline pilots as it made its way up over Crater Lake and towards the Willamette Valley.
In the audio the Oakland Center controller notes that it is near his boundary, so it seems the aircraft's first appearance officially occurred near the border of Oakland Center Sector 31 and Seattle Center Sector 13 or 14. The target was moving "very fast at 37,000" feet when it was first detected.
Seattle Center high altitude sector chart. Seattle ARTCC
The "intruder" quickly dropped off radar and that's when the visual sightings made by airline crews began. They continued for roughly half an hour and over hundreds of miles. The exchanges between nearby pilots and air traffic control regarding the unidentified aircraft were constant in the audio, with the same description coming back time and again'--that of a white aircraft cruising at around 37,000 feet that is too far away to tell the type or if it has markings of any kind on it.
At roughly 27:30 into the video we get our first indication that the F-15s out of PDX are about to scramble, with the air traffic controller noting this while talking to another FAA controller, during which the controller also reiterates that there has still been no radar contact with the aircraft. The controller also repeatedly asks aircrews nearby to check their Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) for the aircraft, which all come back negative.
F-15s of the 142nd Fighter Wing taxi out for departure from their nest at PDX. Tyler Rogoway/Author
The F-15s first appear on radar as they climb out of Portland to the south at time index 33:33 as "Rock" flight'--a common callsign used for the alert F-15s stationed at PDX. Alaska 439 asks for an update on the unidentified aircraft and the controller notes they still have nothing on him, saying colloquially that it must be in a kind of "stealth mode or something." It's also interesting that the F-15s first went south when it seems as if the object would have been north of PDX by the time they finally launched.
This second video is just the radar data in its raw form. It starts before the sync'd recording begins above so we thought we would post it in full so our readers can take a closer look if they want.
Next we move into some very interesting recordings of FAA phone calls that occurred as all of this was taking place. We edited out dead space in the audio between phone calls and bleeped the names of those who named themselves. Aside from that, the audio is unedited by us, although we cannot be certain if parts were redacted by the FAA or not. There were a few strange areas where conversations went mute and it's not clear if this was edited or just an anomaly. The primary person talking in most of these calls is the Operations Manager In Charge for Seattle Center at the time that the incident took place.
The first call is to Oakland Center, and it occurs early on after the initial radar detection and as pilots began spotting the craft visually. He also mentions that "air defense" is looking for the target now too (on radar), so it shows how early the military was involved in the encounter.
You will notice that the term "DEN" is referred to repeatedly in these recordings. That is the Domestic Events Network, a sort of hotline system that is used to bridge the FAA with federal authorities, namely the military, during a number of circumstances which you can read about here. You will also hear the term "WADS" and the nickname/callsign "Bigfoot." This refers to the Western Air Defense sector of NORAD that monitors the airspace over a huge swath of territory in the United States and Canada. Based out of McChord AFB in Washington, WADS scrambles the fighters when needed and works to direct them to their targets of interest during domestic air sovereignty missions, among other responsibilities.
When the Manager In Charge is asked if he was asking for military assistance by another FAA controller, the tape goes blank. The same inquiry is heard moments later, and it goes silent again before another call begins. Although it really doesn't have much impact on the greater mystery, who asked for the F-15s to scramble and when, comes up in the next video in an exchange between the same manager and an FAA official.
In the final set of calls in the video we hear controllers talking about how the Air Force wants to set up an air patrol over Battle Ground, Washington, which is a dozen miles directly north of PDX. We know the F-15s headed south initially, so it isn't clear if this call came after they initially headed in that direction or before they were even airborne and the plan changed later on for some reason. Once again "Rock" refers to the callsign of the alert fighters.
Finally, we get to our last and most interesting of our evidence videos. It contains the calls made after the incident occurred. Seattle Center's Manager In Charge of Operations tries to figure out what happened exactly. In doing so he talks once again with Seattle Center and the trio of airline pilots that spotted the craft visually and has some very interesting conversations with the FAA's Air Traffic Organization Security office and the agency's Safety and Quality Assurance Group.
First we hear about the big question as to who "requested" the scramble, as according to the call, it has to come from FAA headquarters. The manager floats the idea, in retrospect, of having the airliners keep a visual on the craft instead of allowing them to descending into PDX, at least until the F-15s show up, but the FAA official swats that down as they didn't know what the aircraft was, "if they are equipped with anything" or its intentions. She reiterates that getting the military involved was a good idea but that it should have come from FAA headquarters over the DEN. The manager reminds her again that he doesn't know who requested military assistance and that Oakland Center told him to call WADS initially.
Next we hear from Oakland Center again, at first discussing who ordered the scramble, but then the conversation goes into talking about what actually happened. Both agree that there was "definitely something out there" with the Oakland Center controller saying the aircraft first appeared going southbound at high speed before executing an abrupt maneuver and then "took off northbound." Even figuring out how to report the encounter seems totally foreign to both higher ranking controllers, with one stating "I have a feeling someone is going to go through this with a fine-tooth comb."
An F-15C from the 142nd Fighter Wing blasts out of PDX just after sunset. Tyler Rogoway/Author
Then we get into the pilot interviews over the phone, with the manager's intention being for each crew to write up a report detailing their individual perspective of the incident. During the call with United 612 there are some odd dropped moments, but the pilot describes the encounter, stating that he was too far away to make out the type. The next call, with Alaska Airlines 525, also doesn't reveal much as the crew says they never were able to see it, but the crew of Skywest 3478 did, although he didn't have much to add.
The call with the pilot of Southwest 4712 was by far the most interesting. He immediately notes how strange the encounter was and how he has never seen an incident like it in nearly 30 years of flying jets. The pilot noted, "if it was like a Lear (private jet) type airframe I probably would not have seen it this clear. This was a white airplane and it was big. And it was moving at a clip too, because we were keeping pace with it, it was probably moving faster than we were... It was a larger aircraft yeah." He also said they watched the object from Northern California all the way to their descent into Portland.
A 737 about to land on runway 28L at Portland International. Tyler Rogoway/Author
The manager's final call, was with the FAA's Quality Assurance Group, who is taken by surprise by the details surrounding the event, and especially with the fact that nobody still knew what the aircraft was or where it ended up. "Wow that's weird" is the operative quote by the FAA official, which is insightful to say the least as these people deal with unique incidents that occur in American airspace on a daily basis. The manager agreed with the sentiment and noted that it wasn't some small aircraft and it was moving fast, outpacing a 737 cruising nearby. The official also says that the incident should be classified as "potentially significant" on reporting documents. She even said that this was "a weird enough thing that there is not a set procedure... It's not often we hear about an unknown guy up at that altitude."
Collectively these materials give us incredible insight not only into this incident, but also into how such an event is actually handled in real-time by those who are responsible for the safety of those in the air and those on ground below. What they don't offer is any sort of an explanation for what happened on that fall evening. But really, the fact that all those involved, from air traffic controllers, to Air Force radar operators, to airline pilots, and even special FAA officials tasked with responding to all types of out of the ordinary incidents that occur in the sky on a daily basis seem just as puzzled with this event as we are makes the story all that much more intriguing.
Above all else, this new evidence underscores just how rare these events actually are, especially ones that include multiple sightings, the use of multiple sensors, the involvement of various agencies including the military, and some of the most capable air-to-air fighters in the world. And after recent reports unmasking how the Pentagon remains highly interested in encounters just like this one, it holds even more weight than it did three months ago.
We will continue to investigate this bizarre incident and we will keep you updated as to what else we discover.
Contact the author:
VIDEO - John Podesta Questions On Russian Meddling | The Daily Caller
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:58
Former Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta had a brutal exchange on CBS's ''Face the Nation'' on Sunday when asked about the campaign's failure to focus on so-called ''purple states'' in 2016.
Host Nancy Cordes noted that an indictment handed down by special counsel Robert Mueller on Friday showed that Russian operatives who meddled in the election appeared to realize the importance of focusing on those battleground contests. (RELATED: Mueller Indicts 13 Russian Nationals For Election Meddling)
''How is it that these Russian operatives knew to focus on purple states like Michigan and Wisconsin and your campaign didn't?'' Nancy Cordes, the host of ''Face the Nation,'' asked Podesta.
''Of course we spent a lot of time and energy and effort in all those states,'' Podesta insisted.
''Hillary Clinton did not spend much time,'' Cordes interjected.
''We had [Vice Presidential nominee] Tim Kaine was there, Barack Obama, and she spent enormous time in Pennsylvania and Michigan,'' said Podesta.
''We spent a lot of effort, we had staff in Wisconsin that even President Obama had in 2012.''
Clinton and her campaign have been heavily criticized for failing to campaign heavily in swing states like Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania, all of which the former secretary of state lost in a surprise upset to Trump.
Clinton did not visit Wisconsin at all during the campaign. By contrast, Trump visited the state five times during the last three months of the campaign.
Clinton has attributed her loss to Russian active measures, which included purchasing social media ads and leaking hacked emails. She has also blamed former FBI Director James Comey for re-opening the investigation into her email server just days before the election.
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VIDEO - Rubio Calls On China-Backed Confucius Institutes In The U.S. To Close | Here & Now
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 14:14
In this photo taken on Tuesday, April 20, 2010, CedarLane Middle School students take a Chinese Language and Culture class in the Hacienda Heights area of Los Angeles. Communities across the United States, from Smithfield, R.I., to Medford, Ore., have welcomed with open palms the so-called Confucius Classroom grants from the Chinese government, like the one proposed here for Cedarlane Middle School. (Damian Dovarganes/AP)Republican Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida is warning of the national security risk posed by Chinese-funded Confucius Institutes housed at U.S. universities. There are now renewed calls to shut the schools down.
Here & Now's Meghna Chakrbarti speaks with Elizabeth Redden (@ElizRedden) of Inside Higher Ed.
This segment aired on February 19, 2018.
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VIDEO - Trump is open to gun restrictions after Florida shooting
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:45
President Donald Trump is open to banning all guns for certain individuals following the shooting massacre at a Florida high school last week, a White House official told CNBC.
The White House would consider barring all firearms for some individuals, like those with mental illnesses, rather than guns like assault weapons for all Americans, according to the official. Many Democratic lawmakers have called for a ban on assault-style rifles and public support for such a policy has grown. However, the Trump administration is skeptical Congress would vote to block assault weapons.
As calls mount for action to tighten gun rules and protesters gather outside the White House, the Trump administration is "listening to everything," the official said. Trump will host students, parents and teachers involved in the Florida shooting and massacres at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut and Columbine High School in Colorado for a listening session on Wednesday.
Trump and many Republicans have previously argued mental illnesses drive mass shootings, rather than the guns themselves.
This week, the president has signaled his support for at least two narrow provisions to tighten gun laws. On Tuesday, Trump signed a memorandum recommending that Attorney General Jeff Sessions propose rules banning so-called bump stocks, which can effectively turn semi-automatic weapons into machine guns. The gunman who massacred 58 people at a concert in Las Vegas last year used such a device.
Trump also backed a bipartisan Senate bill to improve the existing background check system. It aims to make federal agencies better at following rules that require them to submit criminal convictions to the FBI, which could help stop high-risk individuals from getting guns.
"Whether we are Republican or Democrat, we must now focus on strengthening Background Checks!" Trump tweeted on Tuesday.
Lawmakers who back the bill say following existing procedures better may have stopped the shooter who killed 26 people at a church in Sutherland Springs, Texas, last year from getting a gun.
While the Senate may approve the legislation, it faces a tougher road to passage in the House. The chamber voted to improve background checks last year, but in tandem with another policy to allow people with concealed carry permits in one state to have a concealed weapon in any other state.
Concealed carry reciprocity likely would not get enough Democratic support to pass the Senate, while House conservatives may resist supporting a background check bill without it.
The influential National Rifle Association said it supported a ban on bump stocks last year following the Las Vegas mass shooting, the nation's deadliest in modern times. It also backed the bill to improve background checks, but in conjunction with the changes to concealed carry laws.
Many Democrats argue that both policies supported by Trump would not go nearly far enough to restrict access to guns.
VIDEO - David Hogg Tells Anderson Cooper: "I Am Not a Crisis Actor" - YouTube
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:34
VIDEO - "Polish holocaust" - YouTube
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:06
VIDEO - This European comedy sketch explains how the world sees America's gun problem - Vox
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:04
When the rest of the world looks at America's gun problem, it's often with bafflement.
Sunday with Lubach, which is sort of like the Dutch version of Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, looked at guns '-- specifically, the US's love of firearms. And it's very telling.
For one, the satirical Dutch video describes America's love of guns as so bad that it is an illness: Nonsensical Rifle Addiction, or NRA '-- a reference to the biggest gun lobby group in the country.
''Dear fellow Europeans,'' the video's narrator begins, ''a devastating humanitarian crisis is threatening a small country on the coast of North America: the United States of America.''
The video goes on to list some of the statistics related to America's gun homicides and accidents from Gun Violence Archive: 24,000 injuries and 11,000 deaths so far this year, culminating to roughly 40 deaths a day. The video pins this on ''a terrible epidemic.''
''NRA is a constitutional disorder caused by a dysfunction of the prefrontal Second Amendment in the nonsensical cortex, causing patients to shoot people,'' the narrator explains. ''It starts with an innocent Colt, but soon patients will show signs of shotguns, sniper rifles, and M16s even. Often, patients use silencers to hide their condition.''
The video goes on like this, showing pictures that you'd expect to see in a typical humanitarian crisis PSA about a major disease halfway across the world '-- black and white images, sad people, children suffering, and so on.
There are things in the video that some Americans, particularly supporters of gun rights, will surely disagree with or even find offensive.
But that's kind of the point. To the rest of the world, this problem is straightforward: If you have a problem with guns, then you should deal with the guns directly. That's what other nations have done, from Canada to the UK to Australia to Japan '-- and they see dramatically fewer gun deaths.
The empirical research shows these are related: Where there are fewer guns, there are fewer gun deaths. And gun control measures are truly followed with a reduction in gun deaths, suggesting that they save lives.
That America as a whole doesn't seem to get this is baffling to much of the rest of the world. So Sunday with Lubach reaches far for an explanation: It must be a disease.
''We Europeans can help,'' the narrator claims, citing programs like ''the NRAA.'' ''But your help is needed urgently. We cannot turn away. So donate now.''
For more on America's gun problem, read Vox's explainer.
VIDEO - David Hogg Can't Remember His Lines When Interviewed - - Because Censorship Kills
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:52
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VIDEO - "What Has Changed?" Tucker Analyzes the Culture with KY Governor Bevin - YouTube
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:24
VIDEO - Student David Hogg during Florida school shooting: 'It's time to take a stand' on gun control
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 22:46
Student David Hogg filmed this video while his Florida high school was on lockdown because of an active shooter on campus Feb. 14. "Thousands of people have died from gun violence and it's time to take a stand," Hogg said, citing the need for stronger gun control laws. Seventeen people were killed in the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.
VIDEO - Aaron Mat(C) on Twitter: "OMG, a sober/informed Russia take on MSNBC! @AdrianChen , who profiled indicted Russian troll farm in 2015, tells @chrislhayes that what other MSNBC guests have compared to Pearl Harbor "is essentially a social media marke
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:55
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VIDEO - Deadline White House on Twitter: ""That 'whataboutism' is what's coming to dominate the political discussion ... we're still trying to figure out what happened in 2016 but this is an information war that's happening now and we are nowhere in the g
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:39
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VIDEO - FIREWORKS: Huckabee Sanders SCORCHES ABC News Over Real 'Russian Collusion' | Sean Hannity
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:16
White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders called-out ABC News' Jonathan Karl during her daily press briefing Tuesday; reminding the reporter that ''everybody wants to blame Trump'' for Russian interference but it actually occurred ''under the Obama administration.''
Sanders was responding to Karl's question surrounding the President's fiery tweets over the weekend; where he urged the FBI to refocus their efforts as the Russian-Trump collusion narrative continues to crash and burn.
''Did he 'mistweet' when he said that? Because he's pretty direct,'' asked the ABC reporter.
''He's making the point that we would like the FBI to not be focused on something that is clearly a hoax in terms of investigating the Trump campaign,'' responded the Press Secretary.
''Look, just last week the Department of Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen met with a number of relevant stakeholders,'' Sanders fired-back. ''They are discussing this process and going through and looking every single day at the best ways going forward.''
''Everybody wants to blame this on the Trump Administration. Let's not forget that this happened under the Obama Administration,'' she added.
Watch the fiery exchange below:
h/t Daily Caller
VIDEO - Shooting survivor: I'm not a crisis actor - CNN Video
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 11:48
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VIDEO - Billionaire George Soros Is Using Blockchain Technology to Help Migrants
Wed, 21 Feb 2018 01:56
George Soros, billionaire and founder of Soros Fund Management, attends an event on day three of the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, Switzerland, on Thursday, Jan. 25, 2018. Photograph by Simon Dawson'--Bloomberg via Getty Images
George Soros, the billionaire investor and philanthropist working to ease the global refugee crisis, said Thursday that he's found a new way to help migrants: blockchain technology.
Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Soros explained how the technology underpinning cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin can play important roles in immigration.
''Blockchain technology can be put to positive use. And we use it actually in helping migrants to communicate with their families and to keep their money safe and to carry it with them,'' Soros told the Davos crowd during a question-and-answer session following his speech.
Read more!
It wasn't immediately clear how the billionaire was harnessing the technology for these purposes. Soros' Open Society Foundations, a philanthropic organization dedicated to worldwide democracy, last fall awarded a $100,000 grant to the Center for Human Rights Science at Carnegie Mellon University, which is exploring using blockchain and other new technologies to record rights violations and atrocities. (A spokesperson for Soros' foundations did not initially respond to a request for more information.)
Blockchains are distributed ledgers that keep a secure record of transactions, whether financial or otherwise.
The most obvious way migrants could use blockchain technology to securely store money while traveling would be to convert cash into digital currency, but Soros dismissed the value of cryptocurrency, making clear he believed its primary appeal was ''for tax evasion'' and ''the rulers of dictatorships.''
Others, however, such as angel investor and entrepreneur Naval Ravikant, have praised cryptocurrency as a means of escaping the oppression ''from oligarchs and tyrants.''
An octogenarian immigrant from Hungary, Soros added: ''Cryptocurrency is a misnomer and it's a typical bubble which is always based on some kind of misunderstanding. Bitcoin is not a currency, because a currency is supposed to be a stable store of value, and a currency that can fluctuate 25% in a day can't be used, for instance, to pay wages, because the wages could drop by 25% in a day.''
Indeed, cryptocurrencies crashed as much as 40% in a 24-hour period last week, amid a longer selloff in which the Bitcoin price has fallen to half of its peak of $20,000.
Soros' viewpoint echoed the perspective of other influential financiers, including J.P. Morgan CEO Jamie Dimon, who has called Bitcoin a ''fraud'' but is investing in blockchain technologies that could make various banking operations more efficient.
Read more!
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Tue, 20 Feb 2018 19:54
VIDEO - Dr. Drew Pinksy warns of plague threat from LA homeless | KABC-AM
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 19:48
Will LA get the Plague from homeless people living in squalid encampments the city is unable, or unwilling, to remove?
KABC's Dr. Drew Pinsky thinks so'... and on his KABC Radio show warned LA City Councilman Mitch Englander that there's going to be an outbreak of something like the plague. ''There's going to be, Mitch'...there's going to be an outbreak of something like the plague'...some rodent-borne either rickettsial like typhus'...or plague. We've had the hepatitis A outbreak' is typhus or plague.''
Englander replied he had just come from a major cleanup and says crews now have ''to wear in hazmat suits'....You've got a group of 20 or 30 people at these encampments just to clean out the filth'....and a lot of these folks, that have serious mental health and drug and alcohol addictions'... they're street hoarders.''
He went on to say that officials also bring what they call ''wraparound services'' to offer help and service, but laws and court decisions make it difficult for authorities to place them in shelters if they are unwilling.
The homeless population has exploded in recent years, and authorities have struggled to deal with the problem in spite of voter-approved tax increases for more homeless services.
In Orange County, a judge recently halted the cleanup of a massive camp in the Santa Ana riverbed after advocates for the homeless sued.
Dr. Drew is heard Weekdays on 790 KABC from Noon to 3pm.
-Ken Jeffries, KABC News
VIDEO - NASA Confesses to Dosing Americans with Air-borne Lithium and Other Chemicals '' Awareness Act
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 16:34
If you don't know about chemtrails by now or if you are a skeptic, we have various articles on the subject that you should check out here. Recently a video has been circling around of a NASA employee admitting that lithium is being sprayed in the atmosphere.
The NASA employee ([email protected]) admits that lithium is being sprayed into the atmosphere, and in the video, he also says that It is ''harmless to the environment.''
Lithium is a pharmaceutical drug that is used to treat people with manic depression or bi-polar disorder. The medication alters how we think by changing the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine secreted by our endocrine system. Lithium strongly alters the brain system, yet the NASA employee in the above states that ''it is not dangerous'' and does not harm the population.
Doctors who regularly prescribe this medication for the mentally ill have said that it is dangerous because it is hard to figure out proper dosing. So the logical though would be that spraying copious amounts of lithium into the air via aerosol is not safe, especially for the people who do not need it.
Lithium has a lot of dangerous side effects such as:
Excessive UrinationSeizuresSuicidal ThoughtsFeverConfusion or HallucinationsSwelling of the hands and feetDiarrhea or VomitingAs well as many more. Now here is NASA's official stance on the practice:
''The project is studying neutral and charged particles in the ionosphere and how each affects the way the other moves resulting in currents in the region.
The variations matter because all of our communications and GPS satellites send signals through the ionosphere. A disturbed ionosphere translates to disturbed signals, so scientists want to know just what causes the ionosphere to behave in specific ways.'' (NASA)
To corroborate this information given to the NASA employee in the video, is the Code 8440 RMMO which states the exact purpose of using Wallops Flight Facility to launch a rocket containing lithium thermite:
''Purpose: The primary purpose of this mission was to test the loading methods for lithium canisters to be flown on the upcoming Kudeki (Kwajalein, April 2013) and Pfaff (Wallops, June 2013) missions, and verify their functionality under sounding rocket launch and space flight conditions.
Rocket Type: Two-stage Terrier MK70 Improved-Orion
Location: Wallops Range
Launcher: MRL
Date of Launch: January 29, 2013
Time: 17:50 EST
Experiment results: Thermistor data looked nominal. Good report from airborne optical platform of recorded video and lithium clouds also visible by ground observation.'
From this specific call, we also learn that lithium has been dumped into our skies since the 1970's.
Spraying lithium into our skies along with countless other chemicals is nothing more than biological warfare against the citizens of the world.
You can call them whatever you want chemtrails, contrails, aerosol injections, the effect is the same.
''The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society.
Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. '...We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of.
This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.'...
In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons'...who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses.
It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.'' ~ Edward L. Bernays, Master Propagandist
VIDEO - Trump goes after Obama on Russia; Jeh Johnson responds
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:58
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Let our news meet your inboxMorning Joe
Fmr. Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson responds to remarks from Rep. Adam Schiff as well as the president's tweets about the Obama administration and Russian meddling. Johnson also discusses making future elections more secure.Feb.19.2018
Read MorePBS examines feud between Iran, Saudi Arabia06:08
Indictment rings alarms on Facebook, so what can be done?06:05
In new tweets, Trump uses Obama's words on meddling03:15
Trump ignoring worst US attack since 9/11, says historian12:37
Over half of Americans approve of tax plan: poll13:07
Joe: WH makes smart move in Romney support08:23
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VIDEO - EXCLUSIVE: Audio Recording Brings Courier Reporter's Integrity Into Question - MC Gazette
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:39
During the 2016 election cycle, a new phrase came about which has continued to sweep the nation ever since, ''fake news.'' However, the Montgomery County Gazette has received an audio recording that proves "fake news" exists and shows a total lack of journalistic integrity within mainstream media. The Montgomery County Gazette has been able to confirm the authenticity of the recording.
In recent times, journalists have come under fire for false reporting, slander, and allegations of sexual harassment, and networks are struggling to recover and reinstate their once taken-for-granted journalistic integrity. They say in today's world, just about anyone can be a journalist, but in actuality, it takes a certain caliber of individual to be a truly good reporter.
In Montgomery County, the citizens are no stranger to the likes of ''fake news.'' From a sensationalist blogspot that regularly and ruthlessly attacks the personal integrity of our elected officials, employees, and even private citizens, to a mainstream Houston Chronicle affiliate which seems to consistently flip flop their views based on what will sell more copy, the claim of ''fake news'' can be given to both of them.
However, the content of the writing depends on the quality of the writers themselves, and as for at least one writer of The Courier, that integrity is especially lacking.
The Recording
John Marshall, a writer with The Courier, contacted Montgomery County Judge Craig Doyal regarding his opinions on a competitor in the race for County Judge, and Marshall left a voicemail. While at first it seems like a routine phone call, things get interesting once Marshall believes he has hung up the phone.
The conversation Marshall proceeds to have with himself and a female employee is disturbing to say the least, and shows a very gross lack of integrity.
Upon listening to the recording, serious questions are raised as to just how much one can trust a publication which:
Allows inappropriate workplace behavior in their journalists, andShows the amount of bias toward an elected official as shown in the voicemail.You can listen to the audio of that voicemail below, but it does contain some strong language.
The Montgomery County Gazette reached out to Judge Doyal for comment, in which he was able to confirm he did receive the voicemail, and he was 100% confident it was John Marshall, as after receiving the message, he called back to the number provided and spoke with Marshall directly.
According to Doyal, he received this voicemail about a month ago.
Doyal feels there has been a lot of bias in reporting, stating, ''I and many others have thought for a long time that information has been handled unfairly, and the tape speaks for itself.''
As stated earlier, the purpose of a reporter is to ensure the proper facts are given to the public for their knowledge, and stories are published in a manner that provides unbiased information to the reader. When a reporter takes the attitude as Marshall did, indicating he would rather not speak to Doyal and print "unavailable for comment," it unfairly portrays the circumstances and the situation.
As a journalist, I personally have had times where I had a very strong opinion on a particular issue or candidate, but as a journalist, it is my duty to put aside any reservations in favor of giving equal opportunity to the parties involved.
The purpose of a journalist is to present the facts of a situation in a format easily understood by the general public; this way, people can take the facts and make decisions based upon their own beliefs and thought processes.
VIDEO - Confrontation Between Lifeguard, Bodysurfer Caught On Camera In Redondo Beach Goes Viral - YouTube
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:26
VIDEO - Kyle Griffin on Twitter: "Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School student David Hogg to politicians who receive NRA donations: ''If you can't get elected without taking money from child murderers, why are you running?'' (via CNN)
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 14:23
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VIDEO - David Hogg Can't Remember His Lines When Interviewed for Florida school shooting - YouTube
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 14:10
VIDEO - EXPOSED: School Shooting Survivor Turned Activist David Hogg's Father in FBI, Appears To Have Been Coached On Anti-Trump Lines [VIDEO]
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 14:09
In less than a week since they survived a mass murdering gunman attack on their school, two student who quickly became media stars of the Parkland, Florida school shootings are now media obsessed to the point they say they are snubbing an invitation to meet with President Donald Trump this Wednesday in favor of appearing on a televised town hall with CNN's Jake Tapper. ['...]
One student, in particular, David Hogg has been astonishingly articulate and highly skilled at propagating a new anti-Conservative/anti-Trump narrative behind the recent school shooting. Few have seen this type of rapid media play before, and when they have it has come from well-trained political operatives and MSM commentators.
Immediately, these students-turned-activists threw up some red flags.
In what was initially as an incredibly odd move for a high school student, Hogg's vehemently defended the FBI and placed the blame squarely on the President's shoulders'.... before admitting that his father was in the FBI.
''I think it's disgusting, personally. My father's a retired FBI agent and the FBI are some of the hardest working individuals I have ever seen in my life,'' proclaimed David Hogg to CNN.
''It's wrong that the president is blaming them for this.''
Continuing, Hogg demonstrated his complete lack of American civics knowledge. A clueless Hogg appeared unaware of the fact that the President is not 'in control' of each department and branch of government, but must work and negotiate with them. Regardless, Hogg pushed the notion that Trump is in charge of the FBI.
''He can't put that off on them. He is in charge of them and these people, what they love to do is push this off on bureaucracy and say it's not them,'' he said. ''He is in charge of the FBI '... the executive branch is supposed to enforce laws and as such, President Trump is in charge of that and the FBI.''
Anyone who has been following the news could tell you that many in the FBI have been working against the president from the start, with the most notable case involving collusion between the FBI, Obama Administration, and the Clinton campaign's to push the false 'verification' of the junk Steele Dossier. It has also been widely reported that the FBI received tips well in advance of the Flordia school shooting and decided, for whatever reason, not to act.
The fault for this tragedy lies squarely on the shoulder's of the FBI, who could have prevented this back in January.
Adding to the credibility of Hogg, in a recently uncovered early cut from one of his interviews it appears he was heavily coached on lines and is merely reciting a script. Frequently seen in the footage mouthing the lines he should be reciting. Hogg becomes flustered multiple times, is seen apologizing, and asking for re-takes.
Why would the child of an FBI agent be used as a pawn for anti-Trump rhetoric and anti-gun legislation? Because the FBI is only looking to curb YOUR Constitutional rights and INCREASE their power. We've seen similar moves by them many times over. This is just another disgusting example of it.
VIDEO - MicroMeatPatty' on Twitter: "We were right, LMFAO: David Hogg, anti-gun school shooter survivor, Can't Remember His Lines When Interviewed for Florida school shooting @CNN coaching at it's finest, also his father works for the @FBI and hates @re
Tue, 20 Feb 2018 13:23
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VIDEO - Parkland student: 'Secret Service was present, changed school security policy, several weeks before shooting'
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 14:58
PARKLAND, Fla. (INTELLIHUB) '-- According to a senior at Stoneman Douglas High School who appeared on The Alex Jones Show Thursday, United States Secret Service personnel were on the ground at the school several weeks before the shooting to change security protocols.
Jalen Martin told the Texas talk show host that a teacher of his had confirmed that indeed the Secret Service was present at the school a few weeks prior.
The student's testimony dovetails with buried reports that a fire drill and an active shooter drill were, in fact, already scheduled for Valentine's Day.
Martin said there had already been one fire drill earlier Wednesday morning before the alarm went off for a second time which prompted the principal to announce over the loudspeaker for all students to evacuate.
Additionally, a teacher at the school told MSNBC's Rachal Maddow that her and other staff were told at the beginning of the semester that an active shooting drill would be taking place sometime during the semester and that the drill would be unannounced.
Why would the @SecretService have changed security protocols at the #StonemanDouglas#HighSchool, unannounced to teachers and other staff, just weeks before the shooting? #schoolshooting Please take the poll and RT!
'-- Intellihub (@intellihubnews) February 15, 2018
What role did the deep state play in the shooting?
Related: There was obviously, definitely, another shooter involved: Stoneman Douglas High School student
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