Cover for No Agenda Show 1430: Banks not Tanks
March 3rd, 2022 • 3h 26m

1430: Banks not Tanks


Every new episode of No Agenda is accompanied by a comprehensive list of shownotes curated by Adam while preparing for the show. Clips played by the hosts during the show can also be found here.

Up until now, everything has been a drill
Glenn Beck
Ron Paul tea party hate
Operation Cancel Russia
SWIFT and Sanctions
Aircraft confiscation
Airlines all over the world don't own their own planes, they lease them.
The EU has imposed sanctions on Russia and obliged European leasing companies to take back all leased aircraft from Russia by March 28th. That's a total of 520 aircraft.
Phil Seymour, President of the Association of European Leasing Companies:
1. Return of 520 aircraft! And how do you do that? The Russians said if you refuse to lease them to us, get them back yourself! How can we bring 520 crews to Russia when the airspace in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine is closed? We can't fly in!
2. Once the handover has taken place at Russian airports, the planes will no longer be Russian. But a non-Russian plane is not allowed to fly in Russian airspace - it is blocked! We won't be able to fly out!
3. In this case, the leasing companies are the initiators of the termination of these leases. In the original calculation of the cost of fines in such a case, we are all bankrupt at once. It's easier to go bankrupt than to take back the boards. It's cheaper.
4. February is over and Russia has to pay the lease payments for the month. Russia is willing to pay but cannot pay because it is excluded from the Swift process. We ourselves have to pay fines because of the terminations, but in view of the lack of incoming payments from Russia we have no money for it!
5. Even if we take back these planes - what do we do with them? We don't need them, nobody wants them and it's impossible to sell them!
6. The Boeings of American leasing companies are not affected. If Europe takes the planes away from the Russians, the US will supply Russia with its Boeing planes and become the world's No. 1 plane maker, bankrupting both the European leasing company and Airbus."
Zoltan Pozsar Warns Russian Sanctions Threaten Dollar's Reserve Status | ZeroHedge
The use of a SWIFT financial messaging system ban as a weapon for the first time against a large G20 country like Russia has very serious long-term consequences for both the world financial system and the U.S. Dollar.
With the USD serving as both the Petrodollar for world oil trading and the preferred currency for other trade, the Federal Reserve can greatly grow the domestic money supply with fewer restrictions than other countries can grow their own because there is always demand for more USD for international trade.
If Russia’s $630 billion of foreign currency and gold reserves in the West can be seized, then countries may hesitate to keep large currency reserves at all.
Afghanistan experienced this recently when the Biden Administration seized both Afghan Government Cash and Gold stored at the New York Federal Reserve to keep the funds away from the Taliban.
The prefered method for many countries in the future might be minimal foreign currency reserves and lots of Gold (with no counter-party risk) held in vaults domestically— beyond the reach of U.S. or European countries.
Energy / Food / Climate Change
Mandates Testing and Boosters
CMS Mandates are still in effect
Mandatorship: A dictatorship variant where there is no Duce, no Leader. But there is one Voice. Those making the inconvenient disappear are a followership rather than a leadership. They claim to follow science – as found in NEJM. They claim to have no option when the public good is at stake. Una Subditi, Una Voce (one people, one voice – subditi is the people or the subdued).
From Dr. David Healy, a really smart doctor who is NOT on the circuit gaining fame (and money?) from being an anti-narrative celebrity.
DeSantis tells Tampa high school students masks are 'COVID theater'
Inside the White House’s new National COVID-19 Preparedness Plan
Biden mentioned a cornerstone strategy in the plan that he called “test and treat.” That idea calls for antiviral medications to be available to people as soon as they test positive for COVID-19. The plan says:
The Administration will put forth new educational efforts for the public and providers so that Americans can rapidly access treatments. The Administration will establish “One-Stop Test to Treat” locations at pharmacy-based clinics, community health centers, Long-Term Care Facilities, and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities across the country. “One-stop” sites will be operational by March.
The plan calls for more government spending to increase production of COVID-19 tests and to make them less expensive by using the “Defense Production Act and other authorities, where warranted, to increase manufacturing capacity; and invest in innovation to make tests less expensive. These continued investments in testing will require additional funding from Congress.”
Ukraine M5M SITREP
Russian 'convoy' is a tactical error if true (vehicle distance should be 100 ft.)
Could A Small Nuclear War Reverse Global Warming?
Scientists from NASA and a number of other institutions have recently been modeling the effects of a war involving a hundred Hiroshima-level bombs, or 0.03 percent of the world's current nuclear arsenal, according to National Geographic. The research suggests five million metric tons of black carbon would be swept up into the lowest portion of the atmosphere.
The result, according to NASA climate models, could actually be global cooling.
From National Geographic:
In NASA climate models, this carbon then absorbed solar heat and, like a hot-air balloon, quickly lofted even higher, where the soot would take much longer to clear from the sky.
While the global cooling caused by superpower-on-superpower war could be catastrophic (hence the term "nuclear winter") a small scale war could have an impact on the world climate, says National Geographic. Models suggest that though the world is currently in a warming trend, small-scale war could lower global temperatures 2.25 degrees F for two-to-three years following war.
In more tropical areas temperatures could fall 5.4 to 7.2 degrees F.
But the likelihood of disaster over reversing global warming is a more imminent concern, according to TIME.
From TIME:
...even a small exchange of nuclear weapons--between 50-100 Hiroshima-sized bombs, which India and Pakistan already have their in arsenal--would produce enough soot and smoke to block out sunlight, cool the planet, and produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history.
In addition, the extreme weather caused by even a mild nuclear winter would have a tremendous effect on crops and famines, including creating a 10 percent global decrease in precipitation, according to National Geographic. The soot could also cause tremendous harm to the ozone layer, allowing more ultraviolet rays to reach Earth.
The cons seem to outweigh the pros in the event of global cooling caused by even a small nuclear war.
I'm guessing you've probably run into this site as well... I see it
mentioned everywhere.
I suspect it is part of the propaganda machine...
One of his interests on his LinkedIn profile is the US Ukraine
Foundation. Looks like they've got a handy little donation button
already up. 🤑
Biden Speech no BLM Ukraine is the new black
Biden moving towards new crime bill with criminals ratcheting up
1223 reported fatalities during a 3-month period, out of 42K reports?
Freedom Passports
Sales Force Vaccination tracking
Salesforce was 'famous' during the 2nd peak (or was it the first?) in Melbourne - where they were quoted widely at the time chastising the Government for not being chosen to help with the track n trace system. As the Govt rejected the offer from SalesForce...and got caught 'napping' with no system - and thus the virus 'escaped' unchecked and with a pen/paper manual system to cope with it.
And then Salesforce got a big order...
June 2021
Victoria launches online vaccine booking platform
The Victorian government has also implemented a new Salesforce CRM platform to lead its contact tracing efforts, with automated text messages to close contacts.
Consulting giant Boston Consulting Group was paid more than $11 million as part of the shift to this new tech giant, after Deloitte was paid $5 million to start this process. In February this year, a UK-based tech consultancy was paid a further $3.8 million for “ongoing support and development” of the Salesforce contact tracing platform.
Sep 2020:
Nicaraguan Foreign minister:
Nicaragua: The conflict in Ukraine is the product of meddling policies which resulted in the 2014 coup and attacks on the populations of Donetsk and Lugansk.
The Purge
Bob sledding BMW sponsor
EQ Machine
Alex Jones CNN documentary cancelled | The Independent
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 16:05
NewsWorldAmericasUS politicsFar-right host has been sued for false claims that the Sandy Hook shooting was staged, among myriad other incendiary statements
Alex Jones and Marjorie Taylor Greene defend comparison of Fauci to Nazi doctor
Leer en Espa±olCNN last night cancelled the broadcast of a major documentary about InfoWars host and right-wing extremist Alex Jones after being widely criticised for effectively giving him a platform.
The documentary, entitled Megaphone for Conspiracy, was heavily trailed on the network in the week leading up to its scheduled slot. However, critics of Mr Jones and the radical right in general were angry to see Mr Jones treated as a subject of interest as opposed to a dangerous agitator whose ideas have penetrated public discourse with serious consequences.
In advance of the one-hour documentary, CNN promoted it as an investigation of how Mr Jones came to prominence and why he has taken the path he has.
''Through interviews with people who knew him, worked for him, and believed him,'' the network wrote, ''Griffin explores Jones' rise from the fringes of public access television to creating a wide-reaching media empire that touched the Trump White House. The hour will also trace the roots of Jones' conspiracy theories from the 1990s to today.
''CNN obtained exclusive behind-the-scenes footage of InfoWars headquarters, including portions of a revealing interview with Jones never seen before. Griffin will detail how Jones became a multi-millionaire, and show how de-platforming and other efforts have done little to silence Jones or diminish his wealth. As Jones' empire is being challenged by lawsuits from the families of Sandy Hook shooting victims, and by scrutiny by the January 6th committee, CNN explores how Jones' message grew from the fringes into the mainstream, and why that could threaten the future of democracy in America.''
In the last two years, Mr Jones '' who as the network says has been extremely controversial since he began to reach an audience of any size '' has indeed faced legal action over his statements about the Sandy Hook elementary school massacre, which included claims that the 20 small children murdered by shooter Adam Lanza were ''crisis actors'' and that their parents were complicit in a ''giant hoax''. Last November, he lost four defamation lawsuits brought against him over his statements.
Mr Jones has also pleaded the Fifth Amendment more than 100 times when questioned by the committee investigating the 6 January riot, where he was present to address the crowd. He claims he got caught up in the event against his better judgment and that he urged the assembled Trump supporters to be peaceful.
Registration is a free and easy way to support our truly independent journalism
By registering, you will also enjoy limited access to Premium articles, exclusive newsletters, commenting, and virtual events with our leading journalists
Already have an account? sign in
1 /1 CNN cancels Alex Jones documentary after outrage from viewers CNN cancels Alex Jones documentary after outrage from viewersInfoWars host Alex Jones
Subscribe to Independent Premium to bookmark this articleWant to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? Start your Independent Premium subscription today.
Ukraine applies for European Union membership : NPR
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 16:04
European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen greets Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy at the Eastern Partnership summit in Brussels last year. Zelenskyy is appealing for Ukraine to join the EU. Stephanie Lecocq/Pool/AFP via Getty Images hide caption
toggle caption Stephanie Lecocq/Pool/AFP via Getty Images European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen greets Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy at the Eastern Partnership summit in Brussels last year. Zelenskyy is appealing for Ukraine to join the EU.
Stephanie Lecocq/Pool/AFP via Getty Images Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has officially signed an application for Ukraine's membership in the European Union, according to a post from his verified Facebook page.
"[Zelenskyy] has just signed a historical document '-- Ukraine's application for European Union membership," tweeted Andrii Sybiha, the deputy head of the president's office. Ukraine's prime minister and head of parliament also signed a joint statement, he added.
The move comes hours after Zelenskyy released a video appealing to the EU for membership and calling on Russian forces to go home. He urged the EU to allow Ukraine's immediate entry under what he described as a "new special procedure," on which he did not elaborate.
"Our goal is to be with all Europeans and, most importantly, to be equal," he said, according to a translation from The Guardian. "I am confident that it is fair. I am confident we have deserved it. I am confident that all this is possible."
Ukraine is not currently recognized as an official candidate for EU membership, though it's been part of an association agreement with the EU (in which both parties agreed to align their economies in certain areas and deepen political ties) since 2017, as Politico notes.
Zelenskyy discussed membership with European leaders Zelenskyy's plea echoes remarks he made over the weekend when he pushed publicly for Ukraine's accession into the EU and discussed the subject with European leaders.
Zelenskyy tweeted on Saturday that he had spoken with European Council President Charles Michel, writing: "It is a crucial moment to close the long-standing discussion once and for all and decide on Ukraine's membership in the #EU."
Michel responded in a tweet of his own: "#Ukraine and its people are family. Further concrete support is on its way."
European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen told Euronews on Sunday that Ukraine is "one of us and we want them in" the European Union.
But she suggested its entry wouldn't be immediate, saying the process would involve integrating Ukraine's market into that of the EU and noting that the two cooperate closely in areas such as energy.
Indeed, the EU's own website stresses that "becoming a member of the EU is a complex procedure which does not happen overnight."
The process involves time-consuming negotiationsA country can only apply once it satisfies certain conditions, including having a free-market economy and stable democracy and accepting all EU legislation as well as the euro. Then it submits its application to the European Council, which asks the European Commission to assess the country's ability to meet those criteria.
If the commission's assessment is favorable, the European Council must unanimously agree on a formal framework for negotiations, which then take place between ministers and ambassadors of EU governments and the candidate country.
"Due to the huge volume of EU rules and regulations each candidate country must adopt as national law, the negotiations take time to complete," the EU explains.
Five countries are currently in the process of integrating EU legislation into national law: Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey. Two others '-- Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina '-- are classified as "potential candidates" because they do not yet meet the criteria to apply for membership.
HUGE Cyber Attack On Major Satellite Provider Shuts Down Thousands of Wind Turbines Across Europe - The Daily Plane
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 16:04
-Dusseldorf, Berlin A massive disruption of European satellite connections is restricting the operation of thousands of wind turbines in Central Europe. The large German wind turbine manufacturer Enercon confirmed this to Handelsblatt on Monday.
Accordingly, the remote monitoring and control of 5800 plants with a total output of eleven gigawatts are affected. Whether plants of other providers are also affected, was still unclear on Monday afternoon. #CyberAttack #Germany #News
Learn More:
Your Support of Independent Media Is Appreciated:
If you want to stream, Sign Up!
Tweets by dahboo7
UWN Facebook-
The END of ATMS in Australia? Thousands of cash machines removed as banks go digital | Daily Mail Online
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 16:01
The END of ATMs in Australia? Thousands of cash machines are removed across the country as banks go digitalATM's and bank branches across Australia are continuing to close at a rapid rateSwitch by customers to digital banking seen 'Big Four' banks switch their focus A NZ head of distribution Kath Bray said changes were a clear sign of the times By Andrew Prentice For Daily Mail Australia
Published: 16:56 EST, 28 February 2022 | Updated: 19:54 EST, 28 February 2022
As Australian banks continue to focus on digital transactions for customers, ATMs and bank branches are disappearing across the country, according to new data.
The analysis revealed close to 460 bank branches have shut down across the nation in recent years, and dating back to 2020, approximately 3800 previously active ATMs have been removed.
NSW alone now has 140 fewer in-store banks, and almost 300 suburbs don't have a singular ATM to withdraw cash.
It is a similar story in Victoria, where 120 branches have permanently closed their doors to customers.
'Closures have a devastating impact on local communities,' Finance Sector Union national secretary Julia Angrisano said.
As Australian banks continue to go digital, ATM's are becoming rapidly redundant, according to new data (pictured, customers using a cash machine in Sydney)
In NSW alone, NSW now has 140 less in-store banks compared to a few years ago, and almost 300 suburbs across the state don't have a singular ATM to withdraw cash (pictured, a customer outside the Reserve Bank of Australia)
'Jobs are lost, business is impacted, and another local service disappears.'
The closures have hit hard in regional and rural areas, and for older citizens, Ms Angrisano added.
Another key factor for the branch closures and reduced ATM's is the fact that banks are bringing in a small fortune from daily digital transactions.
As Australia accelerates towards a cashless society, fees from either the customer or vender for online banking have become common place.
In a modern-day digital world, an estimated 80 per cent of Aussies prefer to bank online.
But the remaining 20 per cent, namely the disabled or those who are not digital savvy, have been left stranded.
Tellingly, CBA now has 875 bank branches nationwide - compared to 1134 in February 2020.
Their number of ATMs has reduced to just over 2000 - in 2019 there were 4118 ATM's in circulation.
Last year, ANZ head of distribution Kath Bray said bank branch closures were a sign of the times, with digital transactions now the primary focus for many.
No Agenda Marketplace
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 16:01
About Blog DirectoryDirectoryTom Starkweather PhotographyRodger RoundyRabbit Hole Trading Co.Nolechek's MeatsNo Agenda ShopNo Agenda CoffeeLavender BlossomsJ.C. Sterling Fine FurnitureHollow BooksErnest Benoit MusicAxe Head WatchmakersBlogWelcome to the No Agenda Marketplace 01 Mar 2022
Bill C-11: A Proposal to Regulate Online Streaming Platforms | Blakes
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 16:00
On February 2, 2022, the Government of Canada introduced Bill C-11, referred to as the Online Streaming Act (Bill). The Bill, which seeks to amend Canada's Broadcasting Act (Act), aims to modernize Canada's broadcasting framework, notably by empowering the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) to regulate ''online undertakings,'' a term that will encompass a range of undertakings, including video and music streaming service providers, as well as social media platforms. Underpinning the Bill are a number of broadcasting policy objectives, including supporting Canadian content creators, increasing access to Canadian content and its visibility, providing increased opportunities to produce programming in French and in Indigenous languages, and promoting diversity and inclusion in the broadcasting sector.The Bill has many similarities to Bill C-10, which was hotly debated during the previous Parliament. The Bill purports to address some of the contentious concerns that were raised in respect of Bill C-10, including the extent to which user-generated content on social media would be regulated and whether such regulations would be consistent with the right to freedom of expression enshrined in Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms.The Act, and its associated regulations and regulatory decisions, create a complex tapestry of rules that apply to the traditional broadcasting sector (such as traditional television, cable and satellite providers, radio stations and more). The Bill is extremely complex and difficult to follow at times. When parsed, its effects on the Internet and user-generated content are far-reaching and provide the regulator with strong powers, giving rise to the same type of criticism levied at its predecessor, Bill C-10.The following overview summarizes five key elements contained in the Bill that would significantly impact broadcasting and Internet use in Canada.
1. Regulation of Online UndertakingsThe Bill introduces the concept of ''online undertakings,'' which would be a new subset of ''broadcasting undertakings'' '' the latter term is already defined under the Act and encompasses traditional regulated players in the broadcasting sector. Online undertakings are broadly defined as ''an undertaking for the transmission and retransmission of programs over the internet''. This term will encompass a wide variety of companies, including online streaming service providers and social media platforms, thereby bringing them into the CRTC's regulatory ambit.
2. Approach to Social MediaAlthough social media service providers will be considered online undertakings, not all content uploaded to social media will necessarily qualify as a regulated ''program''. As currently drafted, the Bill affords the CRTC broad discretion to determine the extent to which it will regulate content uploaded to social media platforms by users. Section 4.1(1) establishes that a program uploaded to a social media service by a user of that service will not be subject to the Act, but section 4.1(2) introduces an important exception: the CRTC may make regulations prescribing programs that will be subject to the Act, despite the exclusion set out in section 4.1(1). In making regulations under section 4.2(2), the CRTC is instructed to consider the following factors:
The extent to which a program uploaded on social media directly or indirectly generates revenues;
Whether a program has been broadcast by another broadcasting undertaking (that is not a social media service); and
Whether a program has a unique identifier under an international standards system.
The Bill does not guide the CRTC in weighing these factors or describe what some of the concepts mean (for example, there is no clear guidance as to the meaning of indirect revenues). It remains unclear how far the CRTC's regulatory scope respecting content uploaded to social media will ultimately extend.
3. Extensive Rule-Making Discretion Afforded to the CRTCThe Bill grants extensive discretionary powers to the CRTC to make orders and regulations regarding a variety of other issues. In particular, the CRTC can issue orders and regulations: (i) respecting the degree to which Canadian content will be showcased to Canadians (the ''discoverability'' of Canadian content); (ii) requiring broadcasting undertakings to carry certain programming services, including Canadian content in both official languages; and (iii) expenditures that must be made by broadcasting undertakings to support Canadian content creators. The specific obligations of broadcasting undertakings will only become known once the CRTC publishes such orders and regulations.
4. Oversight and EnforcementUnder the Bill, the CRTC can demand that broadcasting undertakings provide any information that it considers necessary for the administration of the Act, including financial, commercial, programming information or audience measurement information. The CRTC may also audit or examine records, books or accounts of any person carrying on a broadcasting undertaking. The CRTC will have the power to assign administrative monetary penalties in case of non-compliance with certain provisions. Finally, the Bill formalizes a due diligence defence in respect of existing offences under the Act. For those online undertakings that remain entirely abroad but that offer services to Canadian customers, enforcement will undoubtedly pose a challenge and will create asymmetry with those online undertakings that comply with the Bill and its associated regulations.
5. Updated Broadcasting and Regulatory Policies The Bill also updates the policy objectives stated at the outset of the Act. Among other things, the Bill: (i) emphasizes the importance of programming and employment opportunities for Canadians from racialized communities and from diverse ethnocultural backgrounds; (ii) aims to secure space for Indigenous programming and media services; (iii) reinforces its commitment to the production and broadcasting of programs in French; and (iv) promotes programming that is accessible without barriers to persons with disabilities.
NEXT STEPSThe Government expects that once passed into law, the new regulatory framework will account for the popularity of online streaming services and ensure a more inclusive environment for Canadian content producers and distributors. Although the Bill is still in its early stages, if it passes into law, Parliament would be expected to issue a policy direction to the CRTC that will further guide it in carrying out its functions. It is this policy direction that will ultimately provide clarity as to the actual reach and applicability of the Act.For more information, please contact:Sunny Handa 514-982-4008John Lenz 514-982-6308or any other member of our Communications group.
Blakes and Blakes Business Class communications are intended for informational purposes only and do not constitute legal advice or an opinion on any issue. We would be pleased to provide additional details or advice about specific situations if desired.
For permission to republish this content, please contact the Blakes Client Relations & Marketing Department at (C) 2022 Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP
The Wisconsin Office of Special Counsel interim report on the election has some real zingers on issues the press, cable news, and politicians have heretofore declared to have been thoroughly debunked. Here's a summary of one of the preliminary findings
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:58
Kingmaker - Big IF! (True) : The Wisconsin Office of Special Counsel interim report on the election has some real zingers on issues the press, c'...
Wed Mar 02 21:50:55 +0000 2022
(21) Axios on Twitter: "EA Sports says it's removing the Russian National Team and all Russian club soccer teams from its FIFA video game franchise." / Twitter
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:57
Axios : EA Sports says it's removing the Russian National Team and all Russian club soccer teams from its FIFA video game f'...
Wed Mar 02 16:55:16 +0000 2022
Reserve currency - Wikipedia
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:30
Currencies held by monetary authorities as part of their foreign exchange reserves
A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a foreign currency that is held in significant quantities by central banks or other monetary authorities as part of their foreign exchange reserves. The reserve currency can be used in international transactions, international investments and all aspects of the global economy. It is often considered a hard currency or safe-haven currency.
The United Kingdom's pound sterling was the primary reserve currency of much of the world in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.[1] However, by the middle of the 20th century, the United States dollar had become the world's dominant reserve currency.[2] The world's need for dollars has allowed the United States government to borrow at lower costs, giving the United States an advantage in excess of $100 billion per year.[3][4][5]
History [ edit ] Reserve currencies have come and gone. International currencies in the past have (excluding those discussed below) included the Greek drachma, coined in the fifth century B.C., the Roman denari, the Byzantine solidus and Arab dinar of the middle-ages and the French franc.
The Venetian ducat and the Florentine florin became the gold-based currency of choice between Europe and the Arab world from the 13th to 16th centuries, since gold was easier than silver to mint in standard sizes and transport over long distances. It was the Spanish silver dollar, however, which created the first true global reserve currency recognized in Europe, Asia and the Americas from the 16th to 19th centuries due to abundant silver supplies from Spanish America.[6]
While the Dutch guilder was a reserve currency of somewhat lesser scope, used between Europe and the territories of the Dutch colonial empire from the 17th to 18th centuries, it was also a silver standard currency fed with the output of Spanish-American mines flowing through the Spanish Netherlands. The Dutch, through the Amsterdam Wisselbank (the Bank of Amsterdam), were also the first to establish a reserve currency whose monetary unit was stabilized using practices familiar to modern central banking (as opposed to the Spanish dollar stabilized through American mine output and Spanish fiat) and which can be considered as the precursor to modern-day monetary policy.[7][8]
It was therefore the Dutch which served as the model for bank money and reserve currencies stabilized by central banks, with the establishment of Bank of England in 1694 and the Bank of France in the 19th century. The British pound sterling, in particular, was poised to dislodge the Spanish dollar's hegemony as the rest of the world transitioned to the gold standard in the last quarter of the 19th century. At that point, the UK was the primary exporter of manufactured goods and services, and over 60% of world trade was invoiced in pounds sterling. British banks were also expanding overseas; London was the world centre for insurance and commodity markets and British capital was the leading source of foreign investment around the world; sterling soon became the standard currency used for international commercial transactions.[9]
Florentine florin, 1347
Spanish silver dollar of Charles IV, 1776
Sovereign (£1 coin) of Queen Victoria, 1842
Attempts were made in the interwar period to restore the gold standard. The British Gold Standard Act reintroduced the gold bullion standard in 1925,[10] followed by many other countries. This led to relative stability, followed by deflation, but because the onset of the Great Depression and other factors, global trade greatly declined and the gold standard fell. Speculative attacks on the pound forced Britain entirely off the gold standard in 1931.[11][12]
After World War II, the international financial system was governed by a formal agreement, the Bretton Woods System. Under this system, the United States dollar (USD) was placed deliberately as the anchor of the system, with the US government guaranteeing other central banks that they could sell their US dollar reserves at a fixed rate for gold.[13]
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the system suffered setbacks ostensibly due to problems pointed out by the Triffin dilemma'--the conflict of economic interests that arises between short-term domestic objectives and long-term international objectives when a national currency also serves as a world reserve currency.
Additionally, in 1971 Nixon suspended the convertibility of the USD to gold, thus creating a fully fiat global reserve currency system. However, gold has persisted as a significant reserve asset since the collapse of the classical gold standard.[14]
Following the 2020 economic recession, the IMF opined about the emergence of "A New Bretton Woods Moment" which could imply the need for a new global reserve currency system. (see below: § Calls for an alternative reserve currency)[15]
Global currency reserves [ edit ] The IMF regularly publishes the aggregated Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER).[16] The reserves of the individual reporting countries and institutions are confidential.[17] Thus the following table is a limited view about the global currency reserves that only deals with allocated reserves:
Currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves (1965''2020, fourth quarters)2020201920182017201620152014201320122011201020092008200720062005200420032002200120001995199019851980197519701965US dollar59.02%60.72%61.74%62.72%65.36%65.73%65.14%61.24%61.47%62.59%62.14%62.05%63.77%63.87%65.04%66.51%65.51%65.45%66.50%71.51%71.13%58.96%47.14%56.66%57.88%84.61%84.85%72.93% Euro (until 1999 - ECU) 21.24%20.58%20.67%20.16%19.13%19.14%21.20%24.20%24.05%24.40%25.71%27.66%26.21%26.14%24.99%23.89%24.68%25.03%23.65%19.18%18.29%8.53%11.64%14.00%17.46%Deutsche mark15.75%19.83%13.74%12.92%6.62%1.94%0.17%Japanese yen6.03%5.89%5.20%4.89%3.95%3.75%3.54%3.82%4.09%3.61%3.66%2.90%3.47%3.18%3.46%3.96%4.28%4.42%4.94%5.04%6.06%6.77%9.40%8.69%3.93%0.61%Pound sterling4.69%4.64%4.42%4.54%4.34%4.71%3.70%3.98%4.04%3.83%3.94%4.25%4.22%4.82%4.52%3.75%3.49%2.86%2.92%2.70%2.75%2.11%2.39%2.03%2.40%3.42%11.36%25.76%French franc2.35%2.71%0.58%0.97%1.16%0.73%1.11%Canadian dollar2.07%1.86%1.84%2.02%1.94%1.77%1.75%1.83%1.42%Australian dollar1.82%1.70%1.62%1.80%1.69%1.77%1.59%1.82%1.46%Swiss franc0.17%0.15%0.14%0.18%0.16%0.27%0.24%0.27%0.21%0.08%0.13%0.12%0.14%0.16%0.17%0.15%0.17%0.23%0.41%0.25%0.27%0.33%0.84%1.40%2.25%1.34%0.61%Dutch guilder0.32%1.15%0.78%0.89%0.66%0.08%Other currencies2.70%2.53%2.47%2.50%2.37%2.86%2.83%2.84%3.26%5.49%4.43%3.04%2.20%1.83%1.81%1.74%1.87%2.01%1.58%1.31%1.49%4.87%4.89%2.13%1.29%1.58%0.43%0.03%Source: World Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves International Monetary FundThe percental composition of currencies of official foreign exchange reserves from 1995 to 2020.[18][19][20]
Theory [ edit ] Economists debate whether a single reserve currency will always dominate the global economy.[21] Many have recently argued that one currency will almost always dominate due to network externalities (sometimes called "the network effect"), especially in the field of invoicing trade and denominating foreign debt securities, meaning that there are strong incentives to conform to the choice that dominates the marketplace. The argument is that, in the absence of sufficiently large shocks, a currency that dominates the marketplace will not lose much ground to challengers.
However, some economists, such as Barry Eichengreen, argue that this is not as true when it comes to the denomination of official reserves because the network externalities are not strong. As long as the currency's market is sufficiently liquid, the benefits of reserve diversification are strong, as it insures against large capital losses. The implication is that the world may well soon begin to move away from a financial system dominated uniquely by the US dollar. In the first half of the 20th century, multiple currencies did share the status as primary reserve currencies. Although the British Sterling was the largest currency, both the French franc and the German mark shared large portions of the market until the First World War, after which the mark was replaced by the dollar. Since the Second World War, the dollar has dominated official reserves, but this is likely a reflection of the unusual domination of the American economy during this period, as well as official discouragement of reserve status from the potential rivals, Germany and Japan.
The top reserve currency is generally selected by the banking community for the strength and stability of the economy in which it is used. Thus, as a currency becomes less stable, or its economy becomes less dominant, bankers may over time abandon it for a currency issued by a larger or more stable economy. This can take a relatively long time, as recognition is important in determining a reserve currency. For example, it took many years after the United States overtook the United Kingdom as the world's largest economy before the dollar overtook the pound sterling as the dominant global reserve currency.[1] In 1944, when the US dollar was chosen as the world reference currency at Bretton Woods, it was only the second currency in global reserves.[1]
The G8 also frequently issues public statements as to exchange rates. In the past due to the Plaza Accord, its predecessor bodies could directly manipulate rates to reverse large trade deficits.
Major reserve currencies [ edit ] Distribution of global reserve currencies
United States dollar [ edit ] The United States dollar is the most widely held currency in the allocated reserves, representing about 61% of international foreign currency reserves, which makes it somewhat easier for the United States to run higher trade deficits with greatly postponed economic impact or even postponing a currency crisis. Central bank US dollar reserves, however, are small compared to private holdings of such debt. If non-United States holders of dollar-denominated assets decided to shift holdings to assets denominated in other currencies, then there could be serious consequences for the US economy. Changes of this kind are rare, and typically change takes place gradually over time, and markets involved adjust accordingly.[1]
However, the US dollar remains the preferred reserve currency because of its stability along with assets such as United States Treasury security that have both scale and liquidity.[22]
The US dollar's position in global reserves is often questioned because of the growing share of unallocated reserves, and because of the doubt regarding dollar stability in the long term.[23][24][25][26][27] However, in the aftermath of the financial crisis, the dollar's share in the world's foreign-exchange trades rose slightly from 85% in 2010 to 87% in 2013.[28]
The dollar's role as the undisputed reserve currency of the world allows the United States to impose unilateral sanctions against actions performed between other countries, for example the American fine against BNP Paribas for violations of U.S. sanctions that were not laws of France or the other countries involved in the transactions.[29] In 2014 China and Russia signed a 150 billion yuan central bank liquidity swap line agreement to get around European and American sanctions on their behaviors.[30]
Euro [ edit ] The euro is currently the second most commonly held reserve currency, representing about 21% of international foreign currency reserves. After World War II and the rebuilding of the German economy, the German Deutsche Mark gained the status of the second most important reserve currency after the US dollar. When the euro was introduced on 1 January 1999, replacing the Mark, French franc and ten other European currencies, it inherited the status of a major reserve currency from the Mark. Since then, its contribution to official reserves has risen continually as banks seek to diversify their reserves, and trade in the eurozone continues to expand.[31]
After the euro's share of global official foreign exchange reserves approached 25% as of year-end 2006 (vs 65% for the U.S. dollar; see table above), some experts have predicted that the euro could replace the dollar as the world's primary reserve currency. See Alan Greenspan, 2007;[32]and Frankel, Chinn (2006) who explained how it could happen by 2020.[33][34]However, as of 2021 none of this has come to fruition due to the European debt crisis which engulfed the PIIGS countries from 2009 to 2014. Instead the euro's stability and future existence was put into doubt, and its share of global reserves was cut to 19% by year-end 2015 (vs 66% for the USD). As of year-end 2020 these figures stand at 21% for EUR and 59% for USD.
Other reserve currencies [ edit ] Dutch guilder [ edit ] The Dutch guilder was the de facto reserve currency in Europe in 17th and 18th centuries.[8][35]
Pound sterling [ edit ] The United Kingdom's pound sterling was the primary reserve currency of much of the world in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.[1] That status ended when the UK almost bankrupted itself fighting World War I[36] and World War II[37] and its place was taken by the United States dollar.
In the 1950s, 55% of global reserves were still held in sterling; but the share was 10% lower within 20 years.[1][38]
The establishment of the U.S. Federal Reserve System in 1913 and the economic vacuum following the World Wars facilitated the emergence of the United States as an economic superpower.[39]
As of 30 September 2021[update], the pound sterling represented the fifth largest proportion (by USD equivalent value) of foreign currency reserves and just 4.75% of those reserves.[40]
Japanese yen [ edit ] Japan's yen is part of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) special drawing rights (SDR) valuation. The SDR currency value is determined daily by the IMF, based on the exchange rates of the currencies making up the basket, as quoted at noon at the London market. The valuation basket is reviewed and adjusted every five years.[41]
The SDR Values and yen conversion for government procurement are used by the Japan External Trade Organization for Japan's official procurement in international trade.[42]
Swiss franc [ edit ] The Swiss franc, despite gaining ground among the world's foreign-currency reserves[43] and being often used in denominating foreign loans,[44] cannot be considered as a world reserve currency, since the share of all foreign exchange reserves held in Swiss francs has historically been well below 0.5%. The daily trading market turnover of the franc, however, ranked fifth, or about 3.4%, among all currencies in a 2007 survey by the Bank for International Settlements.[45]
Canadian dollar [ edit ] A number of central banks (and commercial banks) keep Canadian dollars as a reserve currency. In the economy of the Americas, the Canadian dollar plays a similar role to that played by the Australian dollar (AUD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The Canadian dollar (as a regional reserve currency for banking) has been an important part of the British, French and Dutch Caribbean states' economies and finance systems since the 1950s.[46] The Canadian dollar is also held by many central banks in Central America and South America. It is held in Latin America because of remittances and international trade in the region.[46]
Because Canada's primary foreign-trade relationship is with the United States, Canadian consumers, economists, and many businesses primarily define and value the Canadian dollar in terms of the United States dollar. Thus, by observing how the Canadian dollar floats in terms of the US dollar, foreign-exchange economists can indirectly observe internal behaviours and patterns in the US economy that could not be seen by direct observation. Also, because it is considered a petrodollar, the Canadian dollar has only fully evolved into a global reserve currency since the 1970s, when it was floated against all other world currencies.
The Canadian dollar, since 2013, is ranked fifth among foreign currency reserves in the world.[47]
Calls for an alternative reserve currency [ edit ] John Maynard Keynes proposed the bancor, a supranational currency to be used as unit of account in international trade, as reserve currency under the Bretton Woods Conference of 1945. The bancor was rejected in favor of the U.S. dollar.
A report released by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in 2010, called for abandoning the U.S. dollar as the single major reserve currency. The report states that the new reserve system should not be based on a single currency or even multiple national currencies but instead permit the emission of international liquidity to create a more stable global financial system.[48][49][50]
Countries such as Russia and the China, central banks, and economic analysts and groups, such as the Gulf Cooperation Council, have expressed a desire to see an independent new currency replace the dollar as the reserve currency. However, it is recognized that the US dollar remains the strongest reserve currency.[51]
On 10 July 2009, Russian President Medvedev proposed a new 'World currency' at the G8 meeting in London as an alternative reserve currency to replace the dollar.[52]
At the beginning of the 21st century, gold and crude oil were still priced in dollars, which helps export inflation and has brought complaints about OPEC's policies of managing oil quotas to maintain dollar price stability.[53]
Special drawing rights [ edit ] Some have proposed the use of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) special drawing rights (SDRs) as a reserve.
China has proposed using SDRs, calculated daily from a basket of U.S. dollar, euro, Japanese yen and British pounds, for international payments.[54]
On 3 September 2009, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) issued a report calling for a new reserve currency based on the SDR, managed by a new global reserve bank.[55] The IMF released a report in February 2011, stating that using SDRs "could help stabilize the global financial system."[56]
Chinese yuan [ edit ] Chinese yuan officially became a supplementary forex reserve asset on 1 October 2016.[57] It represents 10.92% of the IMF's SDR currency basket.[58][59] The Chinese yuan is the third reserve currency after the US dollar and Euro within the basket of currencies in the SDR.[58] The SDR itself is only a minuscule fraction of global currency reserves.[60]
Further reading [ edit ] Ethan Ilzetzki, Carmen M Reinhart, Kenneth S Rogoff. 2019. "Exchange Arrangements Entering the 21st Century: Which Anchor Will Hold?" The Quarterly Journal of Economics.See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ a b c d e f "The Retirement of Sterling as a Reserve Currency after 1945: Lessons for the US Dollar?", Catherine R. Schenk, Canadian Network for Economic History conference, October 2009. ^ "The Federal Reserve in the International Sphere", The Federal Reserve System: Purposes & Functions, a publication of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 9th Edition, June 2005 ^ Rogoff, Kenneth (October 2013). "America's Endless Budget Battle". Project Syndicate. ^ "Quantitative Easing vs. Currency Manipulation". Investopedia . Retrieved 15 January 2021 . ^ "What Is a Reserve Currency?". Investopedia. 16 September 2020 . Retrieved 15 January 2021 . ^ " 'The Silver Way' Explains How the Old Mexican Dollar Changed the World". 30 April 2017. ^ Quinn, Stephen; Roberds, William (2005). "The Big Problem of Large Bills: The Bank of Amsterdam and the Origins of Central Banking" (PDF) . United States of America: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Working Paper 2005-16. ^ a b Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Posen, Adam S. (2009). The Euro at Ten: The Next Global Currency. United States of America: Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economies & Brueggel. ISBN 9780881325584. ^ "A history of sterling" by Kit Dawnay, The Telegraph, 8 October 2001 ^ Text of the Gold Standard Bill speech Archived 2 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine by Winston Churchill, House of Commons, 4 May 1925 ^ Text of speech by Chancellor of the Exchequer Archived 2 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Philip Snowden to the House of Commons, 21 September 1931 ^ Eichengreen, Barry J. (15 September 2008). Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System. Princeton University Press. pp. 61''. ISBN 978-0-691-13937-1 . Retrieved 23 November 2010 . ^ An Historical Perspective on the Reserve Currency Status of the U.S. Dollar ^ Jabko, Nicolas; Schmidt, Sebastian (2022). "The Long Twilight of Gold: How a Pivotal Practice Persisted in the Assemblage of Money". International Organization: 1''31. doi:10.1017/S0020818321000461. ISSN 0020-8183. S2CID 245413975. ^ Georgieva, Kristalina; Washington, IMF Managing Director; DC. "A New Bretton Woods Moment". IMF . Retrieved 19 January 2021 . ^ "IMF Releases Data on the Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves Including Holdings in Renminbi". (in German) . Retrieved 10 July 2018 . ^ "IMF Data - Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserve - At a Glance". (in German) . Retrieved 10 July 2018 . ^ For 1995''99, 2006''20: "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)". Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. 22 May 2021. ^ For 1999''2005: International Relations Committee Task Force on Accumulation of Foreign Reserves (February 2006), The Accumulation of Foreign Reserves (PDF) , Occasional Paper Series, Nr. 43, Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank, ISSN 1607-1484 ISSN 1725-6534 (online). ^ Review of the International Role of the Euro (PDF) , Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank, December 2005, ISSN 1725-2210 ISSN 1725-6593 (online). ^ Eichengreen, Barry (May 2005). "Sterling's Past, Dollar's Future: Historical Perspectives on Reserve Currency Competition". National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). SSRN 723305. ^ "In a world of ugly currencies, the dollar is sitting pretty". The Economist. 6 May 2010 . Retrieved 22 August 2010 . ^ Dollar 'losing grip as world's reserve currency' ^ IMF discusses plan to replace dollar as reserve currency ^ Central Banks Dump Treasuries As Dollar's Reserve Currency Status fades ^ Why the Dollar's Reign Is Near an End ^ "U.N. sees risk of crisis of confidence in dollar", Reuters, 25 May 2011 ^ "The Dollar and Its Rivals" by Jeffrey Frankel, Project Syndicate, 21 November 2013 ^ Irwin, Neil (1 July 2014). "In BNP Paribas Case, an Example of How Mighty the Dollar Is". The New York Times Company . Retrieved 13 July 2014 . ^ Smolchenko, Anna (13 October 2014). "China, Russia seek 'international justice', agree currency swap line". AFP News . Retrieved 13 October 2014 . ^ Lim, Ewe-Ghee (June 2006). "The Euro's Challenge to the Dollar: Different Views from Economists and Evidence from COFER (Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves) and Other Data" (PDF) . IMF. ^ "Euro could replace dollar as top currency-Greenspan", Reuters, 7 September 2007 ^ Menzie, Chinn; Jeffery Frankel (January 2006). "Will the Euro Eventually Surpass The Dollar As Leading International Reserve Currency?" (PDF) . NBER. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2013 . Retrieved 11 October 2007 . ^ "Aristovnik, Aleksander & Čeč, Tanja, 2010. "Compositional Analysis Of Foreign Currency Reserves In The 1999-2007 Period. The Euro Vs. The Dollar As Leading Reserve Currency," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Vol. 13(1), pages 165-181" (PDF) . Institute for Economic Forecasting. 19 July 2010 . Retrieved 5 July 2010 . ^ The euro as a reserve currency ^ Crafts, Nicolas (27 August 2014). "Walking wounded: The British economy in the aftermath of World War I". VoxEU . Retrieved 13 April 2020 . ^ Chickering, Roger (January 2013). A World at Total War . Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139052382 . Retrieved 12 April 2020 . ^ "The United Nations Charter and Extra-State Warfare: The U.N. Grows Up". The World Financial Review. 13 November 2013 . Retrieved 15 August 2014 . ^ "Born of a Panic: Forming the Fed System - The Region - Publications & Papers - The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis". . Retrieved 6 December 2014 . ^ "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves". International Monetary Fund. 30 September 2021 . Retrieved 27 October 2021 . ^ "SDR Valuation", International Monetary Fund website: "The currency value of the SDR is determined by summing the values in U.S. dollars, based on market exchange rates, of a basket of major currencies (the U.S. dollar, Euro, Japanese yen, and pound sterling). The SDR currency value is calculated daily (except on IMF holidays or whenever the IMF is closed for business) and the valuation basket is reviewed and adjusted every five years." ^ Japanese Government Procurement, Japan External Trade Organization website (accessed: 6 January 2015) ^ "Is the Dollar Dying? Why US Currency Is in Danger" by Jeff Cox, CNBC, 14 February 2013 ^ "A new global reserve?", The Economist, 2 July 2010 ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey, Foreign exchange and derivatives market activity in 2007" (PDF) . Bank for International Settlements. December 2007. ^ a b "The Canadian Dollar as a Reserve Currency" by Lukasz Pomorski, Francisco Rivadeneyra and Eric Wolfe, Funds Management and Banking Department, The Bank of Canada Review, Spring 2014 ^ "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)". International Monetary Fund. 30 September 2014 . Retrieved 1 October 2014 . ^ "Scrap dollar as sole reserve currency: U.N. Report". 29 June 2010 . Retrieved 27 November 2011 . ^ "UN report calls for new global reserve currency to replace U.S. dollar". People's Daily, PRC. 30 June 2010 . Retrieved 27 November 2011 . ^ Conway, Edmund (7 September 2009). "UN wants new global currency to replace dollar". The Telegraph. London . Retrieved 27 November 2011 . ^ "Will the Gulf currency peg survive?". Quorum Centre for Strategic Studies. 2 June 2020 . Retrieved 12 March 2021 . ^ "Medvedev Shows Off Sample Coin of New 'World Currency' at G-8". 10 July 2009 . Retrieved 14 October 2010 . ^ Burleigh, Marc. "OPEC leaves oil quotas unchanged, seeing economic 'risks'." AFP, 11 December 2010. ^ "China backs talks on dollar as reserve -Russian source, Reuters, 19 March 2, 2009". 19 March 2009 . Retrieved 22 August 2010 . ^ "UNCTAD Trade and Development Report 2009". 6 October 2002 . Retrieved 22 August 2010 . ^ "IMF calls for dollar alternative" by Ben Rooney, CNN Money, 10 February 2011 ^ "Going global: Trends and implications in the internationalisation of China's currency". KPMG. 11 January 2017 . Retrieved 20 April 2021 . ^ a b "Special Drawing Right (SDR)". ^ "IMF Approves Reserve-Currency Status for China's Yuan". 30 November 2015 '' via ^ Kennedy, Scott. "Let China Join the Global Monetary Elite". Foreign Policy . Retrieved 20 April 2021 .
Domestic Extremists a 'Challenge' to Financial Institutions, U.S. Treasury Says - WSJ
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:07
The department for the first time analyzed the funding sources of domestic violent extremists
Domestic extremists present a ''challenge'' to financial institutions, the U.S. Treasury Department warned in a new report that analyzed their funding sources alongside those of foreign terrorists.
Because so-called domestic violent extremists typically have normal transactional activity and often use legal fundraising methods, they can be hard for authorities to detect, the Treasury said Tuesday in a survey of illicit finance threats.
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
Domestic extremists present a ''challenge'' to financial institutions, the U.S. Treasury Department warned in a new report that analyzed their funding sources alongside those of foreign terrorists.
Because so-called domestic violent extremists typically have normal transactional activity and often use legal fundraising methods, they can be hard for authorities to detect, the Treasury said Tuesday in a survey of illicit finance threats.
Tuesday's report marked the first time the Treasury had analyzed the funding methods used by domestic extremists.
A relatively new priority area for the government, domestic violent extremists, or DVEs, are U.S. extremists motivated by domestic concerns, including racial hatred and antigovernment animus. They differ under the Treasury's new classification scheme from homegrown extremists, who are defined as U.S.-based individuals but primarily inspired by global jihadism.
''The growing threat posed by DVEs has led to an increasing focus (and reporting) on financial activity associated with unlawful acts of force or violence,'' the Treasury said.
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
Though many domestic extremists fund their own activity, the Treasury said, the department also called out crowdfunding platforms as a source of income for the extremists. Amid the pandemic, those payment systems have become ''a necessity rather than a convenience,'' the department said.
The Treasury Department listed The Base, a white-supremacist group deemed a terrorist organization by Canada, the U.K. and Australia, as one example of a violent group that had drawn its focus. Several Base members have pleaded guilty to U.S. firearms and immigration-related charges, and prosecutors allege those members were hoping bloodshed could galvanize a civil war.
The Treasury, which intends to release a national strategy for combating terrorist financing in the coming weeks, said it didn't include in its risk assessment individuals engaged solely in activities protected by the First Amendment.
The prospect of governments using financial tools against domestic agitators drew increased attention after Canada last month invoked never-before-used emergency powers and ordered financial institutions to freeze accounts of anti-Covid-19-mandate demonstrators who had blockaded the country's capital and some border crossings. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
has since revoked his government's use of those powers.
Some U.S. financial service providers independently cut off some members of right-wing groups, including the Proud Boys, in the wake of violent demonstrations, in particular after the riot at the Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.
Write to Richard Vanderford at
France seizes superyacht linked to Russia's Sechin
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 14:45
Rosneft CEO Igor Sechin attends the panel at the 2017 St Petersburg International Economic Forum in St Petersburg, Russia on June 2, 2017.
Sefa Karacan | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images
LONDON '-- French authorities have seized a yacht they say is linked to Russian oligarch Igor Sechin.
"Thanks to the French customs officers who are enforcing the European Union's sanctions against those close to the Russian government," France's Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire said in a tweet Thursday, according to a Reuters translation.
According to a translation of a letter shared in the tweet, French authorities seized the Amore Velo yacht on March 2, after a check that took several hours. The 280-foot yacht was seized in the La Ciotat shipyards, on the south coast of France.
Sechin was included in a list, published Feb. 28, of Russian oligarchs that would be subject to European Union sanctions, in response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
The letter said the yacht had arrived in La Ciotat on Jan. 3, 2022, and was set to remain there until April 1 to undergo repairs. However, France's ministry of finance said that the yacht was preparing to cast off when authorities began their check.
The ministry said this departure attempt constituted an infraction of a customs code because it aimed to breach planned economic and financial restrictions.
Sechin, former deputy prime minister of Russia, has been the CEO of Russian state oil company Rosneft since 2012. According to the European Union's sanctions document, Sechin is one of Russian President Vladimir Putin's "most trusted and closest advisors, as well as his personal friend."
The document also highlighted that Rosneft Aero, which is a subsidiary of Rosneft, delivers jet fuel to the Simferopol Airport. This airport provides flight connections between the annexed territory of Crimea and Sevastopol and Russia.
"Therefore he is supporting the consolidation of the illegally annexed Crimean peninsula into the Russian Federation, which in turn further undermines the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine," the document stated.
Sechin's net worth is unclear, but in 2015 Reuters reported that he was earning up to $4.7 million a year as chief of Rosneft.
Russian billionaire business-magnate Alisher Usmanov, said to be one of Putin's "favourite oligarchs," was also listed in the European Union sanctions document.
Forbes reported on Wednesday that German authorities had seized Usmanov's 512-foot yacht Dilbar, said to be worth $600 million, in Hamburg's shipyards.
German shipbuilding company Lurssen Yachts, which designed the yacht, said it was the world's largest motor yacht by gross tonnage, at 15,917 tons. Dilbar includes a 25-meter swimming pool, which Lurssen said was the largest to ever have been installed on a yacht.
Usmanov has a net worth of $14.1 billion, according to Forbes. His largest holding is in steel and mining giant Metalloinvest.
On Wednesday, U.K. Premier League soccer club Everton suspended its sponsorship deals with three Russian companies in the wake of the conflict. This included its deal with Usmanov's private holding company USM. Usmanov sold his 30% stake in U.K. soccer club Arsenal in 2018.
Data from shipping database MarineTraffic, reviewed by CNBC, indicated on Thursday that a number of superyachts are currently anchored in Male, the capital of the Maldives.
They appear to include Titan, a superyacht owned by billionaire Alexander Abramov, the chairman of steel company Evraz.
Russian business leaders have been moving their yachts toward Montenegro and the Maldives following the announcement of sanctions by leaders from around the world, including the U.S. Treasury targeting Russia's central bank. The Maldives doesn't have an extradition treaty with the U.S., according to World Population Review.
'-- CNBC's Brian Schwartz contributed to this report.
Russia oil and gas: Analysts fear the West may soon hit energy exports
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 14:45
A Surgutneftegas worker near pumpjacks in Surgut Region of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra, in the West Siberian petroleum basin.
Alexei Andronov | TASS via Getty Images
It may only be a matter of time before the U.S. and Western allies impose full sanctions on Russia's energy exports, analysts say, warning that such a move would have seismic repercussions for oil and gas markets and the world economy.
It comes as Russia's onslaught of key Ukrainian cities enters its second week, with fighting raging in the north, east and south of the country.
Western sanctions imposed on Russia over the invasion have so far been carefully constructed to avoid directly hitting the country's energy exports, although there are already signs the measures are inadvertently prompting banks and traders to shun Russian crude.
Russia is the world's third-largest oil producer, behind the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, and the world's largest exporter of oil to global markets. It is also a major producer and exporter of natural gas.
The U.S. has said that sanctions on Russia's oil and gas flows are "certainly on the table," but that going after exports now could be counterproductive in terms of raising global energy prices.
Nonetheless, there have been calls for Western governments to ratchet up measures targeting Russia's economy and Ukraine Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba has called on foreign governments to impose a "full embargo" on Russian oil and gas.
John Kilduff, partner at Again Capital, says the market is already starting to believe that Russia's oil exports will be sanctioned.
"Oil from Russia will be foreclosed from the global market here at some point and we are already seeing commercial activity reduced, particularly as it relates to Russia exports via maritime assets and that is already hitting the market," Kilduff told CNBC's "Closing Bell" on Tuesday.
"These are barrels that we cannot make up, so that's why this market is on tenterhooks," he added.
Oil prices have surged to multi-year highs in recent weeks, with mounting supply disruptions pushing international benchmark Brent crude toward $120 a barrel.
Brent futures traded 1.6% higher at $114.72 on Thursday morning in London, while U.S. West Texas Intermediate crude futures rose 2.2% to $113.06.
Unknown territoryThe U.S. and European Union have publicly sought to ringfence Russia's energy sector, wary of the potential damage for domestic consumers and the prospect of Moscow curtailing exports as a retaliatory measure.
For months, escalating Russia-Ukraine tensions have resulted in a sense of deepening concern about the potential of a full supply disruption to the EU '-- which receives roughly 40% of its gas via Russian pipelines, several of which run through Ukraine.
The prospect of cutting off the supply of Russian gas could have profound public health and economic consequences, especially given that it is currently winter and governments are already battling the coronavirus pandemic.
Firefighters work to contain a fire at the Economy Department building of Karazin Kharkiv National University, allegedly hit during recent shelling by Russia, in Kharkiv on March 2, 2022.
Sergey Bobok | AFP | Getty Images
Brenda Shaffer, senior advisor for energy at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies think tank, told CNBC via telephone that the prospect of removing Russian energy exports from the market would likely result in "a tremendous jolt" to global oil prices and the world economy.
"We're in unknown territory if you pull 13% to 15% of global oil out of the pool. Sanctions on Iran and Venezuela, it's not even comparable to what that could do to the global oil market if you actually pulled away most of Russian production," Shaffer said.
The impact of Western oil majors pulling the plug on Russia is also likely to have "huge" economic ramifications, Shaffer said, citing a flurry of announcements from the likes of ExxonMobil, Shell and BP in recent days.
"People are really cheering this as a feel-good moment but it's actually going to be a huge, huge shock to the state of these companies and to the stock market in general," Shaffer said.
'Self-sanctioning phenomenon'To many market participants, there is a sense of confusion over the likelihood of Russian energy sanctions in the coming weeks.
"If Russia continues to wage this war with this much ferocity [and] with this many civilian casualties, it is only a matter of time before we're talking about full secondary sanctions on energy exports, like we saw with Iran. So, I think the market is just very, very concerned," Helima Croft, head of global commodities strategy at RBC, told CNBC's "Closing Bell" on Tuesday.
"If we do get full energy sanctions, we will then have to look at another SPR release. But more importantly, there's going to be a lot of pressure on the OPEC producers that are sitting on spare capacity to release more barrels onto the market," Croft said.
On Wednesday, members of the International Energy Agency agreed to release 60 million barrels of oil reserves, in an attempt to offset energy market disruptions caused by the sanctions against Russia. The U.S. has said 30 million of this total will come from its Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
On Wednesday, OPEC and non-OPEC partners '-- an influential energy alliance known as OPEC+ '-- agreed to stick to their plan of a modest output rise in April. The group defied calls for more crude even as oil prices rally on supply disruption fears.
It is thought de facto OPEC leader Saudi Arabia, alongside the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, may be among the few members of the alliance with enough spare capacity to ramp up production.
'Toxic asset'Croft said that even in the absence of sanctions targeting Russia's energy exports, there is a "self-sanctioning phenomenon" underway given that Moscow is being viewed as a "toxic asset."
A worker adjusts a Gazprom branded end cap on a section of pipework during pipeline laying operations for the Gazprom PJSC Power of Siberia gas transmission line between the Kovyktinskoye and Chayandinskoye gas fields near Irkutsk, Russia, on Tuesday, April 6, 2021.
Andrey Rudakov | Bloomberg via Getty Images
Analysts at risk consultancy Eurasia Group have noted that Russia's commodity trading is drying up as international banks and traders refuse to do deals with their Russian counterparts as they digest the impact of sanctions. This was likely to propel oil prices even higher, the analysts added.
"While the U.S. and EU governments are attempting to ringfence the energy sector from sanctions so far, absent further clarification regarding carveouts, widespread risk aversion is likely to persist," the analysts said in a note published Monday.
"There also remains a risk that energy will be targeted directly if fighting escalates, or that Russia will curtail some oil exports as a retaliatory measure," they said. "As the main supplier of fossil fuels to the EU, Russia retains leverage."
Pfizer's Documents - Public Health and Medical Professionals for Transparency
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 13:45
File NameDate ProducedFile SizeLinkBATES-92_adc19ef-ve-cov-7pd2-wo-eval-sas.txtNovember 17, 20219 KBBATES-93_tv.xptNovember 17, 202116 KB5.3.6 postmarketing experience.pdfNovember 17, 2021984 KB5.2 tabular listing.pdfNovember 17, 20212 MB5.2 listing of clinical sites and cvs pages 1-41.pdfNovember 17, 20218 MBPages 42-289-Section 5.2 '' listing-clinical-sites-cvs_Part A.pdfDecember 1, 202112 MBPages 42-289-Section 5.2 '' listing-clinical-sites-cvs_Part B.pdfDecember 1, 202114 MBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002372_adc19ef-ve-cov-7pd2-eval-sas.txtDecember 13, 20219 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002373_adc19ef-ve-sev-cov-7pd2-eval-sas.txtDecember 13, 20219 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002374_adc19ef-ve-sev-cov-7pd2-wo-eval-sas.txtDecember 13, 20219 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002375_addv-sas.txtDecember 13, 20215 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002377_supppr.xptDecember 13, 202172 KBsigned F21-5683 CBER Dec 13 2021 Response Letter.pdfDecember 13, 2021207 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002378_ta.xptDecember 13, 20218 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002379_te.xptDecember 13, 20213 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002380_ti.xptDecember 13, 202137 KBBATES-FDA-CBER-2021-5683-0002376_relrec.xptDecember 13, 2021567 KBCRFs for site 1055.pdfDecember 13, 20216 MBSTN 125742_0_0 Section 2.5 Clinical Overview.pdfDecember 13, 20214 MBSTN 125742_0_0 Section 2.7.3 Summary of Clinical Efficacy.pdfDecember 13, 20213 MBSTN 125742_0_0 Section 2.7.4 summary-clin-safety.pdfDecember 13, 20216 MBSupplemental Index 12-22-21.pdfDecember 22, 20212 MBCRFs for site 1081.pdfDecember 30, 202113 MBCRFs for site 1096.pdfJanuary 18, 202211 MBCRFs for site 1128.pdfJanuary 31, 202214 MB125742_S1_M1_priority-review-request.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M1_356h.pdfMarch 1, 2022714 KB125742_S1_M1_3674.pdfMarch 1, 20225 MB125742_S1_M1_cover.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M1_debarment.pdfMarch 1, 2022656 KB125742_S1_M1_exclusivity-claim.pdfMarch 1, 2022616 KB125742_S1_M1_fast-track-designation.pdfMarch 1, 2022649 KB125742_S1_M1_financial-cert-3454.pdfMarch 1, 20223 MB125742_S1_M1_financial-cert-bias.pdfMarch 1, 2022696 KB125742_S1_M1_ipsp-agreed-letter.pdfMarch 1, 2022658 KB125742_S1_M2_27_literature-references.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M2_27_synopses-indiv-studies.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M1_trans-of-oblig.pdfMarch 1, 2022717 KB125742_S1_M1_us-agent-authorization.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M1_userfee.pdfMarch 1, 2022628 KB125742_S1_M1_waiver-req-designated-suffix.pdfMarch 1, 20223 MB125742_S1_M2_22_introduction.pdfMarch 1, 2022670 KB125742_S1_M2_24_nonclinical-overview.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M2_26_pharmkin-tabulated-summary.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M2_26_pharmkin-written-summary.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-excluded-patients-sensitive.pdfMarch 1, 202216 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-lab-measurements.pdfMarch 1, 202212 MB125742_S1_M4_4223_185350.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M4_4223_R-20-0072.pdfMarch 1, 20225 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-ad-hoc-label-tables.pdfMarch 1, 2022889 KB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-compliance.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-compliance-sensitive.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-efficacy-response.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-errata.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-excluded-patients.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-protocol.pdfMarch 1, 202231 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-interim-mth6-oversight-committees.pdfMarch 1, 202213 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-interim-mth6-protocol.pdfMarch 1, 202237 MB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-201114-hiv-preferred-terms.pdfMarch 1, 2022602 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-adrg.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-bmi-12-15-scale.pdfMarch 1, 2022627 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-c4591001-phase-1-subjects-from-dmw.pdfMarch 1, 2022634 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-c4591001-subject-list-for-12-25-immuno-analysis-27jan2021.pdfMarch 1, 2022620 KB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-lab-measurements-sensitive.pdfMarch 1, 20225 MB125742_S1_M5_5351_c4591001-fa-interim-oversight-committees.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-cerebrovascular.pdfMarch 1, 2022632 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-chf.pdfMarch 1, 2022628 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-dementia.pdfMarch 1, 2022626 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-diabetes-with-comp.pdfMarch 1, 2022626 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-diabetes-without-comp.pdfMarch 1, 2022627 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-comorbidity-categories.pdfMarch 1, 2022637 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-first-c4591001-360-participants-enrolled-v1-13aug20-update.pdfMarch 1, 2022607 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-newlist-c4591001-6k-participants-enrolled-v3-17sep2020.pdfMarch 1, 2022846 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-aids-hiv.pdfMarch 1, 2022629 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-any-malignancy.pdfMarch 1, 2022670 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-metastatic-tumour.pdfMarch 1, 2022636 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-mi.pdfMarch 1, 2022624 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-mild-liver.pdfMarch 1, 2022628 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-mod-sev-liver.pdfMarch 1, 2022626 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-peptic-ulcer.pdfMarch 1, 2022625 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-periph-vasc.pdfMarch 1, 2022632 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-pulmonary.pdfMarch 1, 2022630 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-hemiplegia.pdfMarch 1, 2022626 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-leukemia.pdfMarch 1, 2022631 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-lymphoma.pdfMarch 1, 2022640 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-T-S-summary-differences-csr-vs-update.pdfMarch 1, 2022667 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-T-S-suppl-arg.pdfMarch 1, 2022738 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-T-S-updated-reacto-tlf.pdfMarch 1, 202217 MB125742_S1_M5_CRF_c4591001-1085-10851018.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_CRF_c4591001-1085-10851116.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MB125742_S1_M5_CRF_c4591001-1085-10851129.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-renal.pdfMarch 1, 2022629 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-rheumatic.pdfMarch 1, 2022629 KB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-T-S-final-reacto-tables-track.pdfMarch 1, 20222 MB125742_S1_M5_c4591001-T-S-roadmap.pdfMarch 1, 2022703 KB125742_S1_M5_CRF_c4591001-1085-10851246.pdfMarch 1, 20221 MBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021888 to -0021901_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adae-s091-all-pd2-p3-saf1-sas.txtMarch 1, 202214 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021902 to -0021915_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adae-s091-all-pd2-p3-saf2-sasMarch 1, 202215 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021916 to -0021929_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adae-s092-all-unb-p3-saf-sasMarch 1, 202215 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021930 to -0021943_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adae-s092-cr-cut-p3x-saf-sasMarch 1, 202215 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021944 to -0021963_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adae-sasMarch 1, 202235 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021964 to -0021980_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adae-vax-tier2-p3-saf-sasMarch 1, 202218 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0021981 to -0022027_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adc19ef-sasMarch 1, 202281 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022028 to -0022040_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adc19ef-ve-cov-7pd2-sg-eval-sasMarch 1, 202220 KB125742_S1_M5_CRF_c4591001-1085-10851216March 1, 20221 MBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022346 to -0022364_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adcm-sas.txtMarch 1, 202232 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022365 to -0022560_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adds-s002-all-p3-rand-sas.txtMarch 1, 2022156 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022561 to -0022567_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adds-sas.txtMarch 1, 202211 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022568 to -0022600_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adfacevd-sas.txtMarch 1, 202249 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022601 to -0022617_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-admh-sas.txtMarch 1, 202224 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022041 to -0022053_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adc19ef-ve-cov-7pd2-wo-sg-eval-sas.txtMarch 1, 202219 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022054 to -0022062_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adc19ef-ve-sev-cov-pd1-aai-sas.txtMarch 1, 202212 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022063 to -0022135_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adce-s010-lr-p3-saf-sas.txtMarch 1, 202272 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022136 to -0022325_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adce-s020-se-p3-saf-sas.txtMarch 1, 2022193 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022326 to -0022345_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adcevd-sas.txtMarch 1, 202227 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022692 to -0022765_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adsl-demo-7d-wwo-eval-eff-sas.txtMarch 1, 202275 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022766 to -0022792_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adsl-fu-d2-p3-saf-sas.txtMarch 1, 202229 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022793 to -0022866_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adsl-s005-demo-all-p3-saf-sas.txtMarch 1, 202275 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022867 to -0023006_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adsl-sas.txtMarch 1, 2022197 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023007 to -0023031_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adsympt-sas.txtMarch 1, 202243 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023032 to -0023065_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adva-sas.txtMarch 1, 202245 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023490 to -0023491_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-bmi-12-15-scale.xlsxMarch 1, 202213 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0022618 to -0022691_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-P-adsl-demo-7d-eval-eff-sas.txtMarch 1, 202275 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023490 to -0023491_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-bmi-12-15-scale.xlsxMarch 1, 202213 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023455 to -0023486_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-define-2-0-0.xslMarch 1, 2022183 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023928_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-diabetes-with-comp.xlsxMarch 1, 20229 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023930_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-diabetes-without-comp.xlsxMarch 1, 202210 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023932_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-hemiplegia.xlsxMarch 1, 202210 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023936 to -0023937_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-leukemia.xlsxMarch 1, 202212 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023944 to -0023950_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-lymphoma.xlsxMarch 1, 202217 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023955 to -0023958_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-metastatic-tumour.xlsxMarch 1, 202214 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023960_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-mi.xlsxMarch 1, 20229 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023963_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-mild-liver.xlsxMarch 1, 202210 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023965_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-mod-sev-liver.xlsxMarch 1, 20229 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023967_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-peptic-ulcer.xlsxMarch 1, 20229 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023971 to -0023972_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-periph-vasc.xlsxMarch 1, 202212 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023975 to -0023976_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-pulmonary.xlsxMarch 1, 202212 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023979 to -0023980_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-renal.xlsxMarch 1, 202211 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023983 to -0023984_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-rheumatic.xlsxMarch 1, 202224 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023987_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-201114-hiv-preferred-terms.xlsxMarch 1, 202221 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023500 to -0023507_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-c4591001-phase-1-subjects-from-dmw.xlsxMarch 1, 202229 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023523 to -0023538_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-c4591001-subject-list-for-12-25-immuno-analysis-27jan2021.xlsxMarch 1, 202218 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023540_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-comorbidity-categories.xlsxMarch 1, 202219 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023550 to -0023569_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-first-c4591001-360-participants-enrolled-v1-13aug20-update.xlsxMarch 1, 202222 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023711 to -0023875_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-newlist-c4591001-6k-participants-enrolled-v3-17sep2020.xlsxMarch 1, 202284 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023878_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-aids-hiv.xlsxMarch 1, 202223 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023895 to -0023915_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-any-malignancy.xlsxMarch 1, 202235 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023919 to -0023921_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-cerebrovascular.xlsxMarch 1, 202212 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023924_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-chf.xlsxMarch 1, 202210 KBFDA-CBER-2021-5683-0023926_125742_S1_M5_c4591001-A-report-cci-dementia.xlsxMarch 1, 20229 KB
Anti-vax protesters clash with police outside parliament '-- RT World News
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:58
The activists have been camped out in the parliament's grounds for nearly four weeks
Footage from outside New Zealand's parliament building showed violent clashes on Wednesday between police and anti-vax protesters, who have been demonstrating there for nearly four weeks.
Hundreds of officers in riot gear moved in on the camp where protesters had gathered, destroying tents, removing vehicles and making 38 arrests. Authorities responded using tripwires, plywood shields, pitchforks and fire extinguishers in a bid to repel police.
MORE POLICE BRUTALITY TODAY AGAINST PEACEFUL PROTESTORSPolice continue to use excessive force against peaceful protestors in Wellington.
'-- Ali Jan 🇵🇰 (@AliJan_Pk) March 2, 2022Jacinda Ardern's minions destroy freedom camp in front of Parliament House in Wellington where thousands had gathered against covid tyranny.
'-- ðŸ´ó §ó ó ¥ó ®ó §ó  PCDoc ðŸ´ó §ó ó ¥ó ®ó §ó  (@PCDoc_Bolton) March 2, 2022Addressing the situation in parliament on Wednesday, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Arden stated that ''police expected there would be hostility, resistance and violence'' but what was happening was ''another thing entirely to witness.''
She confirmed that a number of police officers had been injured in the clashes but did not specify the exact figure. ''I was both angry and also deeply saddened to see parliament, your parliament, our parliament desecrated in that way,'' the New Zealand leader said.
At one point, multiple blazes were visible in the grounds of the parliament, including one at a public playground, with smoke and explosions rising from the fire. Protesters were reportedly throwing material on the fire to keep it burning. Ardern later confirmed the blaze had been extinguished by authorities.
''In the last week, we have seen a changing mix in the makeup of the crowd, in particular we have become concerned that those with good intentions have become outnumbered by those with a willingness to use violence to affect their means,'' police commissioner Andrew Coster said ahead of the clashes.
Police moved in to clear the demonstrators as the protest entered its 23rd day on the parliamentary grounds, where activists have been objecting to the imposition of a temporary vaccine mandate by the government on some elements of the workforce.
The protest sprung up in the wake of global demonstrations against vaccine mandates, including, most notably, the 'Freedom Convoy' truckers who had blockaded areas near Canada's parliament to oppose requirements affecting workers moving back and forth between Canada and the US.
Handshake Developer Documentation
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:57
    ___      /\__\    /:/__/_  /::\/\__\ \/\::/  /   /:/  /    \/__/  IntroductionHandshake is a UTXO-based blockchain protocol which manages the registration, renewal and transfer of DNS top-level domains (TLDs). Our naming protocol differs from its predecessors in that it has no concept of namespacing or subdomains at the consensus layer. Its purpose is not to replace DNS, but to replace the root zone file and the root servers.
The full node daemon, hsd, is written in Javascript and is a fork of bcoin. By running a full node, you can participate in securing the network and serving the root zone file embedded in the blockchain.
We also have a light client, hnsd, which is written in C. It can verify blockchain data and serve provable resource records without having the resource requirements of a full node. It also acts as an authoritative name server over the Handshake root zone, and a recursive name server pointed at the authoritative name server.
By installing and/or contributing to Handshake, you are participating in a decentralized open platform owned by the commons.
Source CodeThe latest source code is available on GitHub under the MIT license.
CoinsHandshake utilizes a utility coin system for name registration. Handshake depends on the free and open source community to take ownership and decentralize the system
Developer CommunitiesIRC: #handshakeTelegram: Handshake Dev Chat.See a mistake? Open a pull request.
Citing 'thought-provoking' anti-vax sources, Ontario judge rules couple's kids should not be vaccinated | The Star
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:32
In a lengthy ruling, Justice Alex Pazaratz refers to several discredited sources of anti-vax misinformation as ''actually more informative and more thought-provoking'' than those filed by a Hamilton father who is seeking to vaccinate his children. By Betsy Powell Courts Reporter Tue., March 1, 2022 timer 4 min. read
A Hamilton family court judge has ruled in favour of a mother who does not want two of her children to be vaccinated against COVID-19, suggesting in his written decision that she presented credible evidence from the internet that the jab may have dangerous side effects.
The case involved a mother, C.G.. who is 34, and father, J.N. 35. The couple married in 2007 and separated in 2014. They have three children, a 14-year-old son, 12-year-old daughter and 10-year-old son. The youngest two reside primarily with their mother. The eldest son lives with his dad. Only their initials are used in the ruling.
Last month, the father asked the court to allow his two youngest kids to receive the COVID vaccine, against their will and that of their mom.
Earlier in the pandemic, a judge dismissed the father's attempt to compel the children to attend school in person, complaining the mother was too protective of the children when it came to COVID.
''Now he's saying she's not protective enough,'' Ontario Superior Court Justice Alex Pazaratz wrote of the father in his Feb. 22 judgment.
The COVID-19 vaccination has been approved by Health Canada as safe and effective for children aged 12-17. About 90 per cent of Ontario children between those ages have been vaccinated, including the couple's eldest son.
Pazaratz wrote that, on balance, the woman's ''cautious approach'' against the vaccine is compelling and reinforced by the children's preferences, which are legitimate and must be respected.
''Her current concerns about the vaccines are entirely understandable, given the credible warnings and commentary provided by reputable sources who are specifically acquainted with the issue,'' Pazaratz wrote, referring to the mother's submissions, which cited several discredited sources from the internet.
Among them, his ruling cited an article quoting American Dr. Robert W. Malone, whom the judge described as ''the inventor of the mRNA vaccine.''
Malone, who among other things falsely claims the COVID-19 vaccine is ineffective, has been widely denounced by medical experts as a high-profile source of anti-vax misinformation, including with appearances on Fox News and Joe Rogan's podcast.
''Whether he is right or wrong about the current use of COVID vaccines is a matter for discussion and determination. But with his credentials, he can hardly be dismissed as a crackpot or fringe author,'' Pazaratz wrote. described Malone's role in the ''the tangled history of mRNA vaccines'' last year. The article stated that while Malone, in late 1987, did perform a ''landmark experiment'' that was a ''stepping stone towards'' the development of the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine, ''in reality, the path to mRNA vaccines drew on the work of hundreds of researchers over more than 30 years.''
In an article last month, the Washington Post described Malone's views as ''discredited'' misinformation, noting how he had ''repeated falsehoods'' at an anti-vaccine rally on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
''His claims and suggestions have been discredited and denounced by medical professionals as not only wrong, but also dangerous,'' the article said. ''Twitter barred him for violating the platform's coronavirus misinformation policy,'' the paper said. Malone declined the Post's request for an interview.
Pazaratz's ruling also includes references to other medical experts who have been accused of spreading vaccine misinformation.
The parents both filed affidavits in support of their positions that included copious material they downloaded from the internet. Neither provided any evidence from a medical professional about any potential positive or negative considerations with respect to the children receiving COVID vaccines, the judge wrote.
''This is not the kind of case where the court can say that either side is necessarily correct. Nor that the same determinations should apply for every child, no matter the circumstances,'' Pazaratz wrote.
Commenting on the mother's internet submissions, Pazaratz said he is not ''for one moment suggesting that we should presume the mother's experts are right. But once we determine they're not crackpots and charlatans, how can we presume that they are wrong? Or that they couldn't possibly be right.''
Further summarizing the mother's position, the judge said pro-vaccine parents ''have consistently (and effectively) attempted to frame the issue as a contest between reputable government experts versus a lunatic fringe consisting of conspiracy theorists, and socially reprehensible extremists.
''This was absolutely the wrong case to attempt that strategy. The professional materials filed by the mother were actually more informative and more thought-provoking than the somewhat repetitive and narrow government materials filed by the father.''
Pazaratz's ruling is also replete with musings about polarization, misinformation, pandemic-fatigue and ends on a personal note.
''It's irrelevant to my decision and it's none of anyone's business. But I am fully vaccinated. My choice,'' he wrote.
The lengthy decision blasts ''intolerance, vilification and dismissive character assassination in family court,'' and takes swipes at elected officials. ''It's becoming harder for family court judges to turn enemies into friends '-- when governments are so recklessly turning friends into enemies.''
Pazaratz also has sharp criticism of the father's ''relentless campaign to dismiss the mother as some sort of lunatic.'' (At another point in his ruling, the judge praised the pair as ''excellent parents.'')
''Ridicule and stigmatize your opponent as a person, rather than dealing with the ideas they want to talk about,'' wrote Pazaratz. ''It seems to be working for politicians.''
An emailed response asking for comment from the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Justice (Ontario) said, ''the Chief Justice does not provide comment on decisions made by judges of the court.''
Anyone can read Conversations, but to contribute, you should be registered Torstar account holder. If you do not yet have a Torstar account, you can create one now (it is free)
Sign In
Conversations are opinions of our readers and are subject to the
Code of Conduct. The Star does not endorse these opinions.
Poop smear suspect cut loose in alleged hate crime attack
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:29
A sicko who allegedly smeared his own feces on a straphanger's face was freed without bail Wednesday on a fresh set of hate crime charges.
Frank Abrokwa was hauled before a judge for the second time in as many days '-- this time on charges he spat on a Jewish man and chased him down a Brooklyn street, screaming, ''Come here, you f'--king Jew, I am going to kill you,'' according to a criminal complaint.
The alleged hate crime happened Sept. 9 in Crown Heights.
The career criminal '-- who is accused of rubbing his excrement in a woman's face in the Bronx last week '-- is charged with second-degree aggravated harassment as a hate crime, disorderly conduct and two counts of menacing, including one as a hate crime.
Frank Abrokwa walked into the train station and pooped in a bag. Wayne CarringtonBut bail couldn't be set on any of those charges, including the top felony count of aggravated harassment, as per the state's new bail reform laws that nix the cash option for many charges, authorities said.
Abrokwa, 37, was sprung on supervised release, according to a spokesman for the Brooklyn District Attorney's Office.
He was freed Tuesday night in the Bronx feces attack because the charges are also not bail-eligible '-- even despite prosecutors' request that he be held on $15,000 bond or $5,000 cash.
The attack was caught on video, showing Abrowka slapping a bag of his own poop in the victim's face on Feb. 21. DCPIBut Abrowka didn't make it far. Cops promptly arrested him in connection to the hate crime case after he was released.
The sickening attack was caught on video, showing Abrowka allegedly slapping a bag filled with his own excrement in the 43-year-old victim's face on Feb. 21 after she apparently rebuffed him.
''Instead of taking the lack of engagement in stride, the defendant responded with violence,'' Bronx prosecutors said. ''He walked into a nearby idling subway car and defecated in a bag.''
Sources said Abrowka has nearly two dozen unsealed arrests dating back to 1999, including for assault in January and February.
Zoltan Pozsar Warns Russian Sanctions Threaten Dollar's Reserve Status | ZeroHedge
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:26
Over the weekend, the world gasped in shock when Western powers announced that the nuclear option would be used against Russia in retaliation for its invasion of Ukraine - sanctions against the country's central bank and targeted expulsions of key banks from SWIFT, a move which has effectively locked Russia out of the western financial system and left its vast oil export industry - a key lifeline for the Putin regime - in limbo. But the real reason for the shock is that this was the first time the global reserve currency was weaponized against a G20 economy, setting a clear precedent for how the west would and could respond to any other nation that followed in Russia's footsteps (something which China is clearly contemplating vis-a-vis Taiwan, and is carefully studying just how the west responds to Moscow),
As a result, and following this week's dramatic freeze of the Russian central bank overseas assets, has prompted some to question just why countries build foreign currency reserves at all and, more broadly, whether the unprecedented western response to Russia hasn't jeopardized the dollar's reserve status.
In what one Washington lawyer described to Reuters as the "biggest hammer in the toolshed", the G7 and European Union governments blocked certain Russian banks' access to the SWIFT international payment system and also went a step further than many expected by paralyzing about half the Russian central bank's $630 billion worth of foreign currency and gold reserves. In doing so, the west has undermined Moscow's ability to defend the ruble - which has lost up to a quarter of its value since Friday alone - and recapitalize sanctioned banks as they face nascent bank runs. In fact, as some admitted, it was the explicit intention of the west to spark bank runs and to crash the Russian financial system from within.
While a huge blow for Russia's economy, Reuters' Mike Dolan wrote that the move quickly prompted questions about whether targeting reserve holdings as an act of "economic warfare" may prompt a rethink by reserve managers across the globe - not least in countries that may be at loggerheads or face a potential conflict with U.S. or EU governments - over where to bank their national stash.
It's a potentially huge issue for world markets given that central bank foreign currency reserves totaled a record $12.83 trillion late last year - a rise of $11 trillion over the past 20 years. This money is held mostly in U.S. and European government bills and bonds - with the U.S. dollar still accounting for almost 60% of that and the euro about 20%.
To be sure, Russia has long been aware of the potential risk involved in holding dollars as reserves, and since the annexation of Crimea in 2014, Russia's central bank had steadily divested its reserves of most U.S. dollar assets. But the dollar, euro and sterling still account for more than 50% of its holdings, located in France, Germany, Japan, Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia.
With Moscow and Beijing increasingly allied on the geopolitical stage and China refusing to either condemn the Ukraine invasion or join Western sanctions, China's yuan - currently accounting for just 2.7% of world reserves - may be one clear option for anxious reserve managers in Moscow or elsewhere.
Of course China itself - for all its fraught relationship with the West - has been the biggest reserve stockpiler since it joined the global trading system 20 years ago amid tight control of its exchange rate. More than $3 trillion of its $3.22 trillion hoard was amassed since 2000 - precisely to offset foreign inflows to keep a lid on the yuan.
But is that about to change, and did western sanctions against Russia marked the beginning of the end of the dollar as the world's reserve currency?
Berkeley professor and expert on world reserve management Barry Eichengreen reckons that of the two imperatives behind reserve stockpiling - to intervene or stabilize domestic markets or as a war chest against shocks, disasters or balance of payments crises - the latter may now be in question. "The main effect may be declining demand for reserves," he said.
"If countries see reserves and foreign exchange management as less useful and available, then they will have to accept the inevitability of that their exchange rates are likely to move by more," Eichengreen added. "In which case they need harden their financial systems and economies against exchange rate related disruptions, for example by discouraging corporates from borrowing in foreign currency."
That in itself could have a profound impact on world markets and on the model for emerging markets and developing economies.
An even more alarming take comes from former Goldman economist Jim O'Neill who said the Western sanctions could ultimately lead to major reform of the global system.
"Amongst the fallout some countries may see less need to accumulate FX reserves," he said, adding that could indeed seed "peak reserves" worldwide. "It might (also) make some of the bigger emerging markets think more seriously about reform and opening up their domestic markets, liberalizing and moving away from the U.S-centric system."
But the most surprising take comes from former NY Fed staffer, current repo guru and Credit Suisse money market guru Zoltan Pozsar - who on any other day would be a stalwart advocate of the status quo - and who ominously said that the response to Russia may have set off a sequence of events in motion that eventually leads to the demise of the dollar as the reserve currency.
Speaking to Bloomberg, Pozsar - who this weekend warned that the lockout of Russia from the global financial system could prompt central banks to aggressively pump liquidity to stabilize markets - said noted that wars tend to turn into major junctures for global currencies, and with Russia losing access to its foreign currency reserves, a message has been sent to all countries that they can't count on these money stashes to actually be theirs in the event of tension.
As such, he echoes the opinions voiced above that it may make less and less sense for global reserve managers to hold dollars for safety, as they could be taken away right when they're most needed.
Of course, Russia wasn't the first country to learn the hard way that dollar reserves can be weaponized at a moment's notice. Last year, the Biden administration's move to seize Afghanistan's cash assets and confiscate the country's gold held at the NY Fed to prevent access by the Taliban, was another such signal that reserves can be frozen.
Pozsar, similar to O'Neill, argues that this recognition will encourage central banks to diversify away from the dollar, or try to re-anchor their currencies to assets that are less susceptible to influence from U.S. or European governments. As such, recent tensions could usher in a new monetary order in which countries are far less interconnected through international bank accounts and reserves.
Speaking to the Odd Lots podcast, Pozsar said that ''most FX reserves that exist in the world today are all forms of inside money, i.e. they are the liabilities of someone." As a quick reminder, and as we explained over the weekend, central bank deposits, bank deposits, and securities are all ''inside money'' - money and money-like claims that are someone else's liability, and it's situations like this when ''outside money'', or money claims like gold bullion that are no one's liability, is king, especially if stored in vaults domestically. Unlike balances at the Deutsche Bundesbank, western G-SIBs, or Euroclear, you control what you have.
Echoing what he said over the weekend, Pozsar told Bloomberg that ''whether you hold the sovereign debt of a country, or you keep a deposit at a central bank of a foreign country, or if you keep deposits at Western financial institutions, these are all forms of inside money that you don't control. Someone owes it to you. And these things can be sanctioned.''
''If a central bank is in a situation like this and the currency's under pressure, would it ever come to having to re-anchor your currency to something? Like gold? I think these are all questions that should be top of mind,'' he added, forgetting to mention bitcoin and other cryptos, which an entire generation now views as digital gold.
''I don't know if it'll come to that, but if things get worse, you could basically re-anchor the ruble to a pile of gold because you need an anchor in situations like this'', he said, echoing what we have said for years, namely that in case Russia wanted to truly extricate itself from the current "dollar reserve" world, it should unveil a gold-backed currency, one which is co-sponsored by the Chinese yuan, which would then also announce unveil it is becoming gold-backed.
Others also share this dismal view: a few days ago, former Societe Generale strategist Dylan Grice who since founded Calderwood Capital, described the recent moves as a ''weaponization'' of money. ''You only get to play the card once,'' he tweeted. ''China will make it a priority to need no USD before going for Taiwan. It's a turning point in monetary history.''
never seen weaponization of money on this scale before' only get to play the card once. china will make it a priority to need no USD before going for Taiwan. it's a turning point in monetary history: the end of USD hegemony & the acceleration towards a bipolar monetary order
'-- Dylan Grice (@dylangrice) February 27, 2022A similar warning was issued by Steven Englander, former Citi head of FX and current Managing Director at Standard Chartered Bank.
''It's a very long-term thing, so nothing immediate or even say on a two- to three-year basis, but if what we are seeing is a demonstration of the power of economic and financial force, the logical response if there is a risk that you will be on the receiving end is to see what you can do to immunize yourself,'' he said. ''Weirdly enough there may be a second response '' what essentially is your potential economic foe importing from you and what can you do to have the maximum impact on their economy and least on yours.''
Of course, none of this is a surprise to Russia, which has been feverishly rotating out of its "inside money" dollar reserves, including dumping off all of its U.S. Treasuries in 2018 according to official data, and amassing a record stockpile of gold in the process. In fact, as Pozsar noted over the weekend, "the Bank of Russia now has more gold than deposits at foreign central banks!"
Another former Citi strategist, Brent Donnelly, who now runs Spectra Markets agreed with Pozsar: ''In a cooperative game, more global trade and the accumulation of FX reserves makes sense." But ''in a competitive game, where your currency holdings are issued by an adversary and can be frozen or vaporized at that adversary's discretion'... Global trade and the accumulation of FX reserves makes '... less sense.''
But while a growing number of countries, especially those that remain ideologically aligned with Russia like China and India, may seek to quietly - and not so quietly - rotate out of the dollar, they face another problem: they'll need to convert those trillions in dollars into something, and for now the pool of potential suitable assets remains limited. Then again, if one wishes to avoid the fiat system entirely - since within the system every single asset is someone else's liability and vice versa - one would need to seek refuge outside, i.e., in a non-fiat assets.
Here gold is the most obvious candidate, although as Bloomberg notes, there's only so much of it available, which of course is a narrow view - after all, all that would need to happen is for gold to be revalued to make it worth far more. Incidentally, it was none other than a Pimco economic who back in 2016 suggested that in order to save the economy and devalue the dollar, the Fed should buy gold.
Failing that, the US government can just confiscate all the existing physical gold and devalue the dollar against it, similar to what FDR did with the infamous executive order 6102.
So will the Fed start buying gold in the open market? We doubt it... but just as attention is now turning to "regulating" (read banning) cryptos to avoid Russian oligarchs from using to to bypass sanctions, it stands to reason that the next trigger point as the fiat system continues along its relentless path to terminal disintegration, will be a confiscation of all precious metals. It's only a matter of time.
9th Circuit dismisses Twitter lawsuit against Texas over Trump ban - Washington Times
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:25
A federal appeals court has dismissed Twitter's lawsuit against Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton, which accused him of retaliating for the social media platform's ban of former President Donald Trump.
Twitter's procedural defeat on Wednesday allows Texas' investigation into Twitter to proceed, though the probe may still get slapped down in the future.
Mr. Paxton launched an investigation into Twitter after it expelled Mr. Trump last year and the Texas Republican issued a civil investigative demand for information about the company's content moderation policies.
Twitter sued in response and said the demand was government retaliation for speech protected by the First Amendment.
The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said Wednesday that Twitter's case was not ready for a judicial decision. The three-judge panel affirming a lower court's ruling to toss the case noted that Mr. Paxton had not yet made an allegation against Twitter.
''While Twitter could suffer hardship from withholding court consideration, adjudicating this case now would require determining whether Twitter has violated Texas's unfair trade practices law before [Texas' attorney general] has a chance to complete its investigation,'' wrote Judge Ryan D. Nelson in the court's opinion.
''Any hardship to Twitter from the alleged chill of its First Amendment rights was insufficient to overcome the uncertainty of the legal issue presented in the case in its current posture,'' Judge Nelson wrote.
The judges' ruling against Twitter does not spell victory for Mr. Paxton or mean that his investigation will force Twitter to restore Mr. Trump's access.
The court made clear that determining whether content moderation is protected speech or political censorship is at the heart of the case, and the court said that misrepresentations about content moderation policies are not constitutionally protected speech.
''If Twitter's statements are protected commercial speech, then [the Texas attorney general's] investigation would be unlawful if it would chill a person of ordinary firmness from speaking, and if it was caused in substantial or motivating part by Twitter's content moderation decisions,'' the judge wrote.
''But if Twitter's statements are misleading commercial speech, and thus unprotected, then Twitter's content moderation decisions would be a proper cause for the investigation, because they would be the very acts that make its speech misleading,'' he said.
Mr. Paxton's office did not comment on the lawsuit's outcome on Wednesday.
A Twitter spokesperson said the decision did not change the company's view of Mr. Paxton's actions.
''In this case, we still believe the Texas Attorney General is misusing the powers of his office to infringe on Twitter's fundamental rights in an attempt to silence free speech,'' the spokesperson said in a statement.
' Ryan Lovelace can be reached at
Copyright (C) 2022 The Washington Times, LLC. Click here for reprint permission.
Ukrainian-born oligarch Mikhail Watford found dead in Surrey mansion - LBC
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:23
3 March 2022, 00:19 | Updated: 3 March 2022, 10:33
Entrance road to Wentworth Estate, where Mikhail Watford, 66, was found dead. Picture: Alamy By Megan Hinton
A Ukranian-born oligarch who who made his fortune in oil and gas, has been found dead in his mansion in Surrey.
The body of Mikhail Watford, 66, was found by a gardener on the Wentworth Estate in Virginia Water, Surrey, on Monday.
According to The Sun, police are treating the father-of-three's death as 'unexplained', but not suspicious.
He lived in an £18million mansion on one of the most sought after estates in Britain with his Estonian wife Jane, their two children and an older son from his first marriage.
Police are treating the death as 'unexplained'. Picture: Linkedin A family friend reportedly told the newspaper: "His state of mind might have been affected by the situation in the Ukraine.
"The timing of his death and the invasion of Ukraine was surely not coincidental."
Mr Watford's wife shared a picture of her kissing him, while holding a cigar, on Facebook after his death with friend Gazolina Di Pitim writing to Mrs Watford, saying: "He had such a beautiful life because he met you. To me your story is one of the greatest love stories. This is love for ever."
Read more: First city falls to Russia as Putin's army attack civilians in 'a blatant campaign of terror'
Read more: Roman Abramovich puts Chelsea up for sale with money set to go to victims of Ukraine war
A Surrey Police spokesman said: "We were called around midday on February 28 following reports of the discovery of a man's body.
"An ambulance was called but the man, who was in his 60s, was sadly pronounced dead at the scene.
"An investigation into the circumstances of the death is under way but it is not believed there any suspicious circumstances."
Massive magnitude 5.0 earthquake shakes Alaska
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:21
The quake reportedly occurred 33 miles southwest of Shemya Island and 52 miles southeast of Attu Station, according to the Alaska Earthquake Center. USGSA massive 5.0 magnitude earthquake shook Alaska this afternoon after the state experienced the largest quake in the world in 2021.
The quake was recorded around 1:30 pm local time. No reports of the earthquake being felt have emerged.
The quake reportedly occurred 33 miles southwest of Shemya Island, and 52 miles southeast of Attu Station, according to the Alaska Earthquake Center (AEC).
The US National Tsunami Warning Center issued a statement saying there is no tsunami danger as a result of this earthquake.
There have been no reports of injuries or damage.
In 2021, Alaska recorded an 8.2 magnitude quake, which was the largest in the US in 50 years, according to the 2021 Seismicity Year in Review report from the AEC.
That quake occurred on July 28 at 10:15 p.m. local time. It originated offshore of the Alaska Peninsula.
A tsunami warning was issued after that earthquake.
Alaska Earthquake Center Seismologist Lea Gardine worked on the 2021 seismicity report and said there weren't as many aftershocks from that quake as experts were anticipating.
A 5.0 magnitude earthquake shook Alaska after the state experienced the world's largest quake in 2021. USGSHowever, aftershocks are still being felt from the 7.1 magnitude earthquake that occurred near Anchorage in 2018.
''It's still producing earthquakes that people are feeling, including magnitude 5s, which could be the new normal for this region,'' Gardine told Alaska's News Source.
Gardine says aftershocks from the 2018 quake could continue into 2023 or even 2024.
In 2022, there have already been more than 5,800 earthquakes reported in Alaska, according to the AEC.
This story originally appeared on The Sun and was reproduced here with permission.
Games payment provider Xsolla appoints new CEO six months after mass layoffs controversy | Game World Observer
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:20
Xsolla founder Aleksandr Agapitov will no longer serve as the company's CEO. He will be replaced by former CTO Konstantin Golubitsky in a reshuffle happening six months after the layoffs scandal.
VentureBeat reported the news on February 2, saying that Golubitsky's main goal will be strengthening Xsolla's position in video game commerce and improving the company's corporate culture.
The reason for Agapitov's replacement remains undisclosed. However, this might be related to his decision to fire 150 people last summer . Agaptiov's leaked letter caused controversy as the company used big data and AI analysis to track employees' activity at the workplace, marking dozens of people as ''unengaged and unproductive.''
Considering all the debate surrounding the whole story, the new CEO is now facing a huge challenge of trying to improve the company's internal processes and workplace culture.
Golubitsky told VentureBeat that Xsolla understands the importance of these issues, with the company working hard to be transparent and fair with its people. ''As upper management, our responsibility is to support teams while the company grows,'' he added. ''To ensure this level of transparency we are working on implementing internal systems to set goals and help everyone clearly understand how to succeed and be rewarded at the company.''
Agapitov will remain Xsolla's owner and chairman of the board of directors. He will also lead the development of the company's upcoming Web 3.0 products, including the X.LA engine.
Wed, 02 Mar 2022 23:12
Christine A. Courtois, PhD, ABPP, is a graduate of the Counseling Psychology program at the University of Maryland and a licensed psychologist in DC and MD. Dr. Courtois has received international recognition for her work on the effects of incest, child sexual abuse, complex traumatic stress disorders and other types of trauma and has received awards from numerous professional organizations. She is a psychotherapist (with broad experience in outpatient and inpatient treatment), workshop leader, and consultant specializing in posttraumatic and dissociative conditions and disorders. Her approach is integrative, relational, and trauma-referenced, based upon respect for the client and his/her life experience.
Dr. Courtois has recently been appointed chair of the American Psychological Association PTSD Guidelines Development Panel. This group of 11 appointed experts from various mental health professions will meet over the course of the next two years to examine relevant literature reviews and existing guidelines with the goal of producing updated treatment guideline recommendations based on these resources.
Dr. Courtois has just authored, along with Dr. Julian Ford, Treating Complex Trauma: A Sequenced, Relationship-based Approach,(2013, Guilford Press), and has a new book being published in July, 2013, Treating Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders in Children and Adolescents, Scientific Foundations and Therapeutic Models. As well she has brought out the second edition of Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy (W. W. Norton), co-edited (with Dr. Julian Ford) the book Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders: An Evidence-based Guide (2009, Guilford Press) and authored Recollections of Sexual Abuse: Treatment Principles and Guidelines (1999, W. W. Norton), Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Workshop Model (1993), Families International), and Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy (1988, W. W. Norton). She has also co-edited a special section on complex trauma with Dr. Bessel van der Kolk in the Journal of Traumatic Stress (2005). Dr. Courtois is past Associate Editor of the new journal Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, & Policy ).
Dr. Courtois is also Co-Founder and former Clinical and Training Director and Consultant to The CENTER: Posttraumatic Disorders Program, an in-patient and day hospital specialty program in Washington, DC, where she worked for 17 years. She is active in a number of professional organizations having to do with psychological practice and trauma including the American Psychological Association (where she is past-president of Division 56, Psychological Trauma ( ), the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies ( ) (where she co-chairs the Complex Trauma Task Force), The International Society for Trauma and Dissociation ( ), the Institute of Contemporary Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis, and the Maryland Psychological Association ( ) where she organized and co-directed the Post-Doctoral Institu te on Psy chologica l Trauma.
As of April 22, 2016, Dr. Courtois' clinical practice is closing and she is unable to offer referrals.
Inquiries for services should go to state psychological or social work associations, the Sidran organization help desk ( or the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation website referral listing (
Also, see articles on page 3 for information on complex trauma.
Carried Interest Definition
Wed, 02 Mar 2022 21:47
What Is Carried Interest? Carried interest is a share of any profits that the general partners of private equity and hedge funds receive as compensation regardless of whether they contribute any initial funds. Because carried interest acts as a type of performance fee, it acts to motivate the fund's overall performance. However, carried interest is often only paid if the fund's returns meet a certain threshold.
What is Carried Interest?Key TakeawaysCarried interest is a share of a private equity or fund's profits that serve as compensation for fund managers.Carried interest is not automatic, and is only issued if a fund performs at or above a designated level.If a fund does not perform as originally planned, this cuts into the carried interest and, thus, the fund manager's compensation. Because carried interest is considered a return on investment, it is taxed at a capital gains rate, and not an income rate. Advocates of carried interest argue that it incentivizes the management of companies and funds to profitability. How Carried Interest Works Carried interest serves as the primary source of income for the general partner, traditionally amounting to around a quarter of the fund's annual profit. While all funds tend to charge a small management fee, it is only meant to cover the costs of managing the fund, with the exception being the compensation of the fund manager. However, the general partner must ensure that all the initial capital contributed by the limited partners is returned, along with some previously agreed-upon rate of return.
Carried interest has long been the center of debate in the U.S., with many politicians arguing that it is a ''loophole'' that allows private equity investments to avoid being taxed at a reasonable rate.
How Do Businesses Use Carried Interest The general partner is compensated through an annual management fee, which typically amounts to two percent of the fund's assets. The carried interest portion of a general partner's compensation is vested over a number of years and, after that point, is received only as it is earned.
The private equity industry has always maintained that this is a fair compensation arrangement because general partners invest a tremendous amount of time and resources toward building the profitability of the companies in their portfolios. Much of the general partner's time is spent in developing strategy, working to improve management performance and company efficiencies, and maximizing the value of a company in preparation for its sale or initial public offering (IPO).
Special Considerations Carried interest is subject to capital gains tax. This tax rate is lower than the income tax or self-employment tax, which is the rate applied to the management fee. However, critics of carried interest want it to be reclassified as ordinary income to be taxed at the ordinary income tax rate. Private equity advocates argue that the increased tax will subdue the incentive to take the kind of risk that is necessary to invest in and manage companies to profitability.
Example of Carried Interest The typical carried interest amount is 20% for private equity and hedge funds. Notable examples of private equity funds that charge carried interest include Carlyle Group and Bain Capital. However, these funds of late have been charging higher carried interest rates, as high as 30% for what's called ''super carry.''
Carried interest is not automatic; it is only created when the fund generates profits that exceed a specified return level, often known as the hurdle rate. If the hurdle rate of return is not achieved, the general partner does not receive carry, although the limited partners receive their proportionate share. Carry can also be "clawed back" if the fund underperforms.
For example, If the limited partners are expecting a 10% annual return, and the fund only returns 7% over a period of time, a portion of the carry paid to the general partner could be returned to cover the deficiency. The clawback provision, when added to the other risks the general partner undertakes, leads private equity industry advocates to their justification that carried interest is not a salary'--instead, it is an at-risk return on investment that is only payable based on performance achievement.
Dylann Roof - Wikipedia
Wed, 02 Mar 2022 21:12
American mass murderer (born 1994)
Dylann Roof
Mugshot of Roof taken by the Charleston County Sheriff's Office, June 18, 2015
BornDylann Storm Roof
( 1994-04-03 ) April 3, 1994 (age 27) Known forPerpetrator of the Charleston church shootingCriminal statusIncarceratedMotiveWhite supremacy, Neo-Nazism, desire to start an Ethnic conflict Conviction(s) Federal:Hate crimes resulting in death (18 U.S.C. § 249) (9 counts)Hate crimes involving an intent to kill (18 U.S.C. § 249) (3 counts)Obstruction of religious exercise resulting in death (18 U.S.C. § 247) (9 counts)Obstruction of religious exercise involving an intent to kill using a weapon (18 U.S.C. § 247) (3 counts)Use of a firearm during a crime of violence (18 U.S.C. § 924) (9 counts)South Carolina:Murder (9 counts)Attempted murder (3 counts)Possession of a weapon during the commission of a violent crimeCriminal penaltyFederal:DeathSouth Carolina:
Life without paroleDateJune 17, 2015c. '‰ 9:05 p.m. '' c. '‰ 9:11 p.m. Location(s) Charleston, South Carolina, U.S. Target(s) African American churchgoersKilled9Injured1 Weapons Glock 41 .45-caliber handgunImprisoned atUSP Terre HauteDylann Storm Roof[1] (born April 3, 1994) is an American white supremacist, neo-Nazi, mass murderer, and domestic terrorist convicted for perpetrating the Charleston church shooting on June 17, 2015, in the U.S. state of South Carolina.[2][3] During a Bible study at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Roof killed nine people, all African Americans, including senior pastor and state senator Clementa C. Pinckney, and injured one other person. After several people identified Roof as the main suspect, he became the center of a manhunt that ended the morning after the shooting with his arrest in Shelby, North Carolina. He later confessed that he committed the shooting in hopes of igniting a race war.[4] Roof's actions in Charleston have been widely described as domestic terrorism.[5]
Three days after the shooting, a website titled The Last Rhodesian was discovered and later confirmed by officials to be owned by Roof. The website contained photos of Roof posing with symbols of white supremacy and neo-Nazism, along with a manifesto in which he outlined his views toward black people, among other groups.[6][7] He also claimed in the manifesto to have developed his white supremacist views after reading about the 2012 killing of Trayvon Martin and black-on-white crime.
On December 15, 2016, Roof was convicted in federal court of all 33 federal charges (including hate crimes) against him stemming from the shooting; on January 11, 2017, he was sentenced to death for those crimes.[8] On March 31, 2017, Roof agreed to plead guilty in South Carolina state court to all state charges pending against him'--nine counts of murder, three counts of attempted murder, and possession of a firearm during the commission of a felony'--to avoid a second death sentence. In return, he accepted a sentence of life in prison without parole.[9] On April 10, 2017, Roof was sentenced to nine consecutive sentences of life without parole after formally pleading guilty to state murder charges.[10][11][12][13]
Early life Roof was born in Columbia, South Carolina, to Franklin Bennett Roof (nicknamed Benn), a carpenter and a construction contractor,[14] and Amelia "Amy" Cowles, a bartender. His parents had divorced but were temporarily reconciled at the time of his birth. When Roof was five,[15] his father married Paige Mann (n(C)e Hastings) in November 1999; they divorced after ten years of marriage. Roof has two siblings, an older half sister[16] and a younger sister, Morgan Roof.[17] Bennett Roof was allegedly verbally and physically abusive toward Mann.[16][18][19][20][21] The family mostly lived in South Carolina, though from about 2005 to 2008, they temporarily moved to the Florida Keys. There is no information about Roof attending local schools there.[22]
According to a 2009 affidavit filed for Mann's divorce, Roof exhibited "obsessive compulsive behavior" as he grew up, obsessing over germs and insisting on having his hair cut in a certain style.[18] When he was in middle school, he exhibited an interest in smoking marijuana, having once been caught spending money on it.[15]
In nine years, Roof attended at least seven schools in two South Carolina counties, including White Knoll High School in Lexington, in which he repeated the ninth grade, finishing it in another school. He apparently stopped attending classes in 2010 and, according to his family, dropped out of school and spent his time alternating between playing video games and taking drugs, such as Suboxone.[15][16][18][23][24] He was on the rolls of a local Evangelical Lutheran congregation, but it was unclear if he had recently attended.[25]
Prior to the attack, Roof was living alternately in Bennett's and Cowles' homes in downtown Columbia and Hopkins, respectively,[19][26][27] but was mostly raised by his stepmother Mann.[18] For several weeks preceding the attack, Roof had also been occasionally living in the home of an old friend from middle school and the latter's mother, two brothers, and girlfriend.[20][27][28] He allegedly spent his time using drugs and getting drunk.[27] He had been working as a landscaper at the behest of his father, but quit the job prior to the shooting.[15]
His maternal uncle, Carson Cowles, said that he expressed concern about the social withdrawal of his then-nineteen-year-old nephew, because "he still didn't have a job, a driver's license or anything like that and he just stayed in his room a lot of the time."[29] Cowles said he tried to mentor Roof, but was rejected and they drifted apart.[29] According to Mann, Roof cut off all contact with her after her divorce from his father. When his sister planned to be married, he did not respond to her invitation to the event.[20][21]
A former high school classmate said that despite Roof's racist comments, some of his friends in school were black.[24]
Earlier contacts with police Roof had a prior police record consisting of two arrests, both made in the months preceding the attack. He was investigated on one occasion during this period but without arrest or charge.[30][31]
On March 2, 2015, he was questioned about a February 28 incident at the Columbiana Centre in Columbia, in which he entered the mall wearing all-black clothing and asked employees unsettling questions. During the questioning, authorities found a bottle of what was later admitted to be Suboxone, a narcotic that is used for treating either chronic pain or opiate-abuse addictions and that is abused as a recreational drug; Roof was arrested for a misdemeanor charge of drug possession. He was subsequently banned from the Columbiana Centre for a year.[32]
On March 13, 2015, Roof was investigated for loitering in his parked car near a park in downtown Columbia. He had been recognized by an off-duty police officer who investigated his March 2 questioning; the officer then called a colleague to investigate. A police officer conducted a search of his vehicle and found a forearm grip for an AR-15 semiautomatic rifle and six unloaded magazines, all capable of holding 40 rounds. When asked about it, Roof informed the officer that he wanted to purchase an AR-15, but did not have enough money to do so. He was not charged, as it was not illegal in South Carolina to possess a firearm grip.[33][34]
On April 26, 2015, Roof was arrested again for trespassing on the Columbiana Centre mall's grounds in violation of the ban. The ban was then extended for three additional years.[21][24][35]
According to James Comey, speaking in July 2015, Roof's March arrest was at first written as a felony, which would have required an inquiry into the charge during a firearms background examination. It was legally a misdemeanor charge and was incorrectly written as a felony at first due to a data entry error made by a jail clerk. Despite this, Roof would not have been able to legally purchase firearms under a law that barred "unlawful user[s] of or addicted to any controlled substance," such as the Suboxone, from owning firearms.[36][37]
Charleston church shooting On the evening of June 17, 2015, a mass shooting took place at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, United States. During a routine Bible study at the church, a white man about 21 years old, later identified as Roof, opened fire with a handgun, killing nine people.[38] Roof was unemployed[39] and living in largely African-American Eastover at the time of the attack.[40]
Motivation According to a childhood friend, Roof went on a rant about the killing of Trayvon Martin and the 2015 Baltimore protests that were sparked by the death of Freddie Gray while Gray was in police custody.[35] He also often claimed that "blacks were taking over the world".[41] Roof reportedly told friends and neighbors of his plans to kill people, including a plot to attack the College of Charleston, but his claims were not taken seriously.[23][26]
One image from his Facebook page showed him wearing a jacket decorated with two obsolete flags used as emblems among American white supremacist movements, those of Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) and apartheid-era South Africa.[42][43][44] Another online photo showed Roof sitting on the hood of his car with an ornamental license plate with a Confederate flag on it.[45] According to his roommate, Roof expressed his support of racial segregation in the United States and had wanted to start a civil war.[46]
One of the friends who briefly hid Roof's gun away from him said, "I don't think the church was his primary target because he told us he was going for the school. But I think he couldn't get into the school because of the security ... so I think he just settled for the church."[47][48] An African-American friend of his said that he never witnessed Roof expressing any racial prejudice, but also said that a week before the shooting, Roof had confided in him that he would commit a shooting at the college.[49]
On the day he was captured (June 18, 2015), Roof confessed to committing the Charleston attack with the intention of starting a race war,[50] and reportedly told investigators he almost did not go through with his mission because members of the church study group had been so nice to him.[51]
Federal prosecutors said in August 2016 that Roof was "self-radicalized" online, instead of adopting his white supremacist ideology "through his personal associations or experiences with white supremacist groups or individuals or others".[52][53]
Website and handwritten documents On June 20, 2015, a website that had been registered to a "Dylann Roof" on February 9, 2015,, was discovered.[6] Though the identity of the domain's owner was intentionally masked the day after it was registered,[6] law enforcement officials confirmed Roof as the owner.[7] The site included a cache of photos of Roof posing with a handgun and a Confederate Battle Flag, as well as with the widely recognized neo-Nazi code numbers 88 (an abbreviation for the salute "Heil Hitler!") and 1488, written in sand.[6][7] Roof was also seen spitting on and burning an American flag.[6] While some photographs seemed to show Roof at home in his room, others were taken on an apparent tour of slavery-related historical sites in North and South Carolina, including Sullivan's Island, the largest slave disembarkation port in North America, four former plantations, two cemeteries (one for white Confederate soldiers, the other for slaves), and the Museum and Library of Confederate History in Greenville.[6][54][55] Roof is believed to have taken self-portraits using a timer, and his visits were not remembered by staff members working at the sites.[55]
The website also contained an unsigned, 2,444-word manifesto apparently authored by Roof,[56][57] in which he outlined his opinions, all methodically broken into the following sections: "Blacks", "Jews", "Hispanics", "East Asians", "Patriotism", and "An Explanation":[54]
I have no choice. I am not in the position to, alone, go into the ghetto and fight. I chose Charleston because it is most historic city in my state, and at one time had the highest ratio of blacks to Whites in the country. We have no skinheads, no real KKK, no one doing anything but talking on the internet. Well someone has to have the bravery to take it to the real world, and I guess that has to be me.[6]
The manifesto states that its author was "truly awakened" by coverage of the killing of Trayvon Martin:
I read the Wikipedia article and right away I was unable to understand what the big deal was. It was obvious that Zimmerman was in the right. But more importantly this prompted me to type in the words "black on white crime" into Google, and I have never been the same since that day. The first website I came to was the Council of Conservative Citizens. There were pages upon pages of these brutal black on white murders. I was in disbelief. At this moment I realized that something was very wrong. How could the news be blowing up the Trayvon Martin case while hundreds of these black on white murders got ignored?[6][7][58][59]
The manifesto also mentioned the Northwest Front, a Seattle-based white supremacist organization.
According to web server logs, Roof's website was last modified at 4:44 p.m. on June 17, 2015, when Roof noted, "[A]t the time of writing I am in a great hurry."[6]
According to court documents filed in August 2016, Roof drafted two other manifestos, one in 2015 and the other in jail, recovered from his vehicle and jail cell respectively. He also made a list of churches and a "selection of victims", along with other writings.[61][62][63]
Weapon purchase and FBI lapse Roof personally purchased the gun used in the shooting from a retail gun store in West Columbia,[64] using money given to him on his birthday.[26] The Washington Post reported on July 10, 2015, that FBI Director James Comey said that Roof "was able to purchase the gun used in the attack only because of lapses in the FBI's background-check system".[65] On August 30, 2019, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the survivors and families of the deceased could sue the federal government,[66] after a lower court had previously claimed the federal government had immunity. On October 28, 2021, Charleston attorney Carl Pierce, whose firm represented Rev. Daniel Simmons, confirmed that the federal government would pay $88 million. Also on that day, individual settlements were being filed in the U.S. District Court in Columbia. The U.S. Justice Department approved the settlement but did not admit guilt.[67]
One week prior to the shooting, two of his friends tried to hide the gun after Roof claimed he was going to kill people. They returned it to him after the girlfriend of one of the friends, in whose trailer they hid the gun, pointed out he was on probation and needed to have the gun out of his possession.[26][47]
Prior to the shooting FBI analysis of Roof's seized cellphone and computer found that he was in online communication with other white supremacists, according to unnamed officials. Although Roof's contacts did not appear to have encouraged the massacre,[68] the investigation was said to have widened to also include other persons of interest.[69]
Although the Council of Conservative Citizens took down its website on June 20 in the immediate wake of negative publicity,[54] its president, Earl Holt, stated that the organization was "hardly responsible" for Roof's actions.[58] The organization also issued a statement saying that Roof had some "legitimate grievances" against black people and that the group's website "accurately and honestly report[s] black-on-white violent crime".[70] Harold Covington, the founder of the Northwest Front, also condemned Roof's actions, but called the attack "a preview of coming attractions".
Through analysis of his manifesto, the Southern Poverty Law Center alleged that Roof was a reader and commenter on The Daily Stormer, a white nationalist news website.[71] Its editor Andrew Anglin "repudiated Roof's crime and publicly disavowed violence, while endorsing many of Roof's views."[72] He claimed that while he would have sympathy with a white man shooting criminals, killing innocents including elderly women was "a completely insane act".[73]
A neo-Nazi group named itself the ''Bowl Patrol" after Roof's "bowl-cut" hairstyle. The group remained active as of a July 2020 expos(C) in the Huffington Post, five years after the Charleston church shooting.[74]
Manhunt and capture The attack was treated as a hate crime by police, and officials from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) were called in to assist in the investigation and manhunt.[38][75]
At 10:44 a.m., on the morning after the attack, Roof was captured in a traffic stop in Shelby, North Carolina, approximately 245 miles (394 km) from the shooting scene. A .45-caliber pistol was found in the car during the arrest, though it was not immediately clear if it was the same one used in the attack.[76][77]
Police received a tip-off from a driver, Debbie Dills, from Gastonia, North Carolina. She recognized Roof driving his car, a black Hyundai Elantra with South Carolina license plates and a three-flag "Confederate States of America" bumper decoration,[78][79] on U.S. Route 74, recalling security camera images taken at the church and distributed to the media. She later recalled, "I got closer and saw that haircut. I was nervous. I had the worst feeling. Is that him or not him?" She called her employer, who contacted local police, and then tailed the suspect's car for 35 miles (56 km) until she was certain authorities were moving in for an arrest.[80] His older half sister also reported him to the police after seeing his photo on the news.[16][81]
Roof was arrested and was interrogated by agents of the FBI. He stated that he was planning to travel to Nashville, Tennessee when he was arrested in Shelby.[82] Roof initially did not believe his interrogators when they informed him that the death toll of his attack was nine people, believing that the number of casualties was lower, saying he felt "bad" after learning the true number.[83] An unidentified source said interrogations with Roof after his arrest determined he had been planning the attack for around six months, researched Emanuel AME Church, and targeted it because of its role in African-American history.[38]
Prosecution On the evening of June 18, 2015, Roof waived his extradition rights and was flown to Sheriff Al Cannon Detention Center in North Charleston.[40][84][85][86] At the jail, his cell-block neighbor was Michael Slager, the former North Charleston officer charged with first-degree murder in the wake of his shooting of Walter Scott.[87][88]
Dylann Roof is the first person in U.S. history to have faced both a state and federal death penalty at the same time. In September 2015, it was announced Roof would face capital punishment in his state prosecution, and in May 2016, the U.S. Department of Justice announced Roof would face capital punishment in his federal prosecution as well.[89]
State prosecution On June 19, 2015, Roof was charged with nine counts of murder and one count of possession of a firearm during the commission of a violent crime.[86][90] He first appeared in Charleston County court by video conference at a bond hearing later that day. At the hearing, shooting survivors and relatives of five of the victims spoke to Roof directly, saying that they were "praying for his soul" and forgave him.[38][39][91][92] Governor Nikki Haley called for prosecutors to seek the death penalty for Roof.[93]
The judge, Charleston County chief magistrate James "Skip" Gosnell Jr., caused controversy at the bond hearing with his statement that, alongside the dead victims and their families, "there are victims on this young man's side of the family ['...] Nobody would have ever thrown them into the whirlwind of events that they are being thrown into."[94] Gosnell then set a $1 million bond for the weapons possession charge and no bail on the nine counts of murder.[95]
On July 7, 2015, Roof was indicted on three new charges of attempted murder, one for each person who survived the shooting.[96] A temporary gag order was issued by a judge on July 14 following the appearance of a letter purportedly written by Roof on an online auction site.[97] Seven groups, including news media outlets, families of the slain victims, and church officials, called for easing some restrictions placed by the gag order, particularly 9-1-1 calls.[98] Portions of the gag order were lifted on October 14, allowing for the release of 9-1-1 call transcripts and other documents, but the order remained in place for graphic crime scene photos and videos, as well as audio for the 9-1-1 calls.[99]
On July 16, 2015, Roof's trial in state court was scheduled by Circuit Court Judge J.C. Nicholson to start on July 11, 2016.[100][101] On July 20, Roof was ordered to provide handwriting samples to investigators. The order explained that following his arrest in Shelby, notes and lists were found written on his hand and at other locations; that the handwriting samples were needed to determine if the handwriting matched.[102][103]
On September 3, Ninth Circuit solicitor (district attorney) Scarlett Wilson said that she intended to seek the death penalty for Roof because more than two people were killed in the shooting and others' lives were put at risk.[104] On September 16, Roof said through his attorney that he was willing to plead guilty to the state charges to avoid being sentenced to death.[105] Roof reappeared in state court on October 23, 2015,[92] before Nicholson.[106]
The jury selection process for the state trial was initially expected to start in June 2016;[107] jury selection was postponed in November 2016.[108] In April 2016, the state trial was delayed to January 17, 2017.[109] It was delayed again in January 2017.[110][111] On April 10, 2017, Roof pleaded guilty to nine state counts of murder and was sentenced to nine consecutive sentences of life without parole.[10][11][12] In a letter to the victims' families, Wilson said that the plea deal was "an insurance policy" in the event that Roof's federal death sentence were ever overturned, as it assures that Roof will die in prison.[112]
Federal prosecution Indictment Five days after the shooting, Attorney General Loretta Lynch announced a grand jury had indicted Roof on 33 federal charges: nine counts of using a firearm to commit murder and 24 civil rights violations (12 hate crime charges under the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Hate Crimes Prevention Act and 12 counts under a second hate-crime statute that prohibits using force or threatening the use of force to obstruct a person's free exercise of religious beliefs), with 18 of the charges carrying the federal death penalty.[113]
On July 31, 2015, Roof pleaded not guilty to the federal charges against him at the behest of his lawyer David Bruck. Roof wanted to plead guilty, but Bruck stated he was not willing to advise a guilty plea until the government indicated whether it wanted to seek the death penalty, as 18 of the 33 charges could carry the death penalty.[114]
On May 24, 2016, the Justice Department announced they would seek the death penalty for Roof. As he was already facing the death penalty in South Carolina, Roof became the first person in U.S. history to face the death penalty on both federal and state charges at the same time.[115]
Trial preparations On June 9, 2016, Roof, through his lawyers, announced that he did not want to be tried by a jury. Instead, Roof wanted the judge presiding over his case to hear the case entirely by himself, determining guilt or innocence and, if Roof was convicted, whether to sentence him to death.[116] The judge denied that motion after the prosecution (whose consent is required for a bench trial under the rules that apply to federal criminal proceedings) opposed Roof's request.[117]
On August 2, 2016, Roof's lawyers filed a motion arguing that the federal capital punishment laws were unconstitutional.[118] Federal prosecutors filed a response on August 22, asking the judge to reject the motion.[52]
On August 23, 2016, federal prosecutors filed court documents announcing their intention to call thirteen expert witnesses at trial, including white supremacy experts who were expected to testify on Roof's "extremist ideology, including a belief in the need to use violence to achieve white supremacy." The documents also indicated the presence of extensive incriminating evidence against Roof. A hearing was set for September 1, 2016.[53][62]
Around August 31, 2016, District Judge Richard Gergel ordered that an in camera hearing be held on September 1. The judge was to rule on the admissibility of some "potentially explosive" evidence. Gergel wrote: "This instance is one of those rare cases where Defendant's Sixth Amendment right to a fair trial outweighs the public's and the press' First Amendment right of access. ... This is an unusually sensitive period in this proceeding where highly prejudicial publicity could taint the jury pool and make selection of a fair and impartial jury increasingly challenging." Two Charleston-area media outlets, The Charleston Post and Courier and WCBD-TV, unsuccessfully sought to keep the hearing open.[119]
On September 6, 2016, federal prosecutors filed a motion seeking to bar Roof's attorneys from asking the jurors for mercy during sentencing should he be found guilty of the charges against him. They argue that the defense will already have the opportunity to present evidence that could sway the jury's opinion for sentencing.[120][121] The next day, prosecutors asked for the use of summary charts as evidence for the trial. One of the charts was expected to be a timeline of the case as drafted by the agent responsible for investigating the shooting.[121]
Jury selection started on September 26, 2016.[122] The initial pool of three thousand candidates was narrowed down to the final jury of twelve, plus alternates.[123] The federal trial itself was expected to start late November or early December and last for about two months.[121][122][124]
On November 8, 2016, District Court judge Richard M. Gergel ordered a competency evaluation for Roof, which Gergel scheduled for November 16, 2016. Gergel also postponed the jury selection to November 21, 2016.[125][126]
On November 14, 2016, Gergel delayed the competency hearing to November 17, 2016.[127][128][129] On November 16, 2016, Gergel delayed the competency hearing to November 21, 2016. Gergel also delayed the jury selection to November 28, 2016.[130] The competency hearing ended November 22, 2016.[131][132]
On November 25, 2016, Roof was declared competent to stand trial.[133] Three days later, a federal judge granted Roof's motion for pro se representation.[134][135][136][137]
On December 4, 2016, Roof, in a handwritten request, asked Gergel to give him back his defense team for the guilt phase of his federal death penalty trial.[138][139][140][141] On December 5, 2016, Gergel allowed Roof to hire back his lawyers for the guilt phase of his trial.[142][143] On December 6, 2016, a federal judge denied a motion by Roof's defense team to delay Roof's trial.[144]
Trial and sentencing On December 7, 2016, Roof's federal trial began.[145] The jury consisted of "two black women, eight white women, one white man and one black man".[146] Two days into the trial, Roof's confession was played in court, admitting that he had killed the people at the church before chuckling.[147] On December 15, 2016, after about two hours of deliberation, the jury found Roof guilty on all 33 counts.[148]
At a court hearing on December 28, 2016, Roof reiterated that he would proceed with the sentencing phase without attorneys, although Judge Gergel repeatedly warned him that it was not in his interests to do so. At the hearing Roof said that he did not plan to call any witnesses or present any evidence at the sentencing phase in order to avoid the death penalty.[149]
On January 3, 2017, following a lengthy closed-door competency hearing, Judge Gergel denied a motion, submitted under seal by Roof's court-appointed counsel, that sought to have Roof declared incompetent.[150][151] Gergel wrote: "After fully considering all of the evidence presented, the court ruled from the bench that Defendant remains competent to stand trial and to self-represent."[150]
On January 10, 2017, the jury recommended the death penalty for Roof,[152] and on January 11, 2017, Judge Gergel formally sentenced Roof to death.[153]
Until April 19, 2017, Roof was located at the Charleston County Jail; on that day federal authorities took custody of him and took him to FTC Oklahoma City. On April 22, 2017, Roof arrived at USP Terre Haute, the location of the federal death row for men and the federal execution chamber.[154]
Post-trial proceedings and release of documents On May 10, 2017, Judge Gergel denied Roof's motion for a new trial.[155][156] On the same day, Gergel unsealed psychiatric reports from two court-ordered exams of Roof performed by Dr. James Ballenger, a forensic psychiatrist, as well as the transcripts of two competency hearings, all of which found Roof competent to stand trial.[156][157] The court first ordered a psychiatric exam after Roof wrote a letter to prosecutors referring to his defense attorneys as "the sneakiest group of people I have ever met" and adamantly rejecting their strategy to portray him as mentally ill.[156] Roof voiced his opposition to the practice of psychology, describing it as a "Jewish invention that does nothing but invent diseases and tell people they have problems when they don't."[158][159][160]
The psychiatric report showed that Roof stated of the relatives of his victims that he "did not identify with them, he didn't care."[156] Ballenger concluded that Roof had "perhaps some autistic traits" and meets the criteria for "social anxiety disorder, probably generalized anxiety disorder, possible autistic spectrum disorder, a mixed substance abuse disorder, depression by history and a schizoid personality disorder" but was competent to stand trial.[157] Ballenger wrote that Roof blocked his attorneys from introducing any evidence of autism or other disorders, as well as various delusions,[156] at trial because he did not want "any issue to take away from the rationale he had for committing his crimes" because he felt that "his reputation was ruined, ... He continues to feel that the only thing that is important to him is to protect his reputation."[157] Roof, who denies having autism,[161] told Ballenger that he "would rather die" than rely on autism defense, stating "it would ruin me" and "everybody would think I am a weirdo."[156] Ballenger concluded that: "all of his decisions in the trial are dominated and driven by his primary racial prejudice and wish to preserve that as the sole rationale for his crimes and to protect his long term image and reputation as someone who has no mental illness."[156]
Death sentence appeal In January 2020, it was reported that Roof was appealing his death sentence.[162][163] According to a 321-page brief filed by Roof's lawyers in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit, Roof's representing himself during the penalty phase of his trial deprived the jury of extenuating information about his mental illness.[164] The brief cites the Supreme Court's ruling in Indiana v. Edwards that judges can force a lawyer on defendants who lack mental capacity.[165]
On May 25, 2021, his lawyers began an appeal process before the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit claiming that Roof was "too disconnected from reality" to represent himself at the federal trial. In the 321-page motion, his attorneys argue that he had disorders ranging from schizophrenia spectrum to autism, anxiety and depression, and that he did not care about his sentence, in the belief that white nationalists would rescue him from prison after an impending race war. The defense team also argued that Roof masked his mental illness during the trial.[166]
On August 25, 2021, a panel of the Fourth Circuit unanimously rejected Roof's appeal. Upholding the death sentence, the judges wrote in their 149-page opinion that "no cold record or careful parsing of statutes and precedents can capture the full horror of what Roof did. His crimes qualify him for the harshest penalty that a just society can impose."[167] On September 10, 2021, his attorneys appealed the judges' ruling.[168]
On September 24, 2021, a federal court declined to take the appeal case against the panel's decision, arguing in a one-page file that the appeals should go before the full appeals court.[169] A day prior, attorneys for the federal government opposed appeals saying that Roof was properly convicted and sentenced saying that there is "no need to revisit" the facts for which Roof was found guilty.[170]
On March 2, 2022, attorneys for Roof announced that they had taken the case to the Supreme Court for them to resolve the dispute between Roof and his attorneys as to who has the final word in disagreements over a mental illness defense and whether client (Roof) or the attorneys have the right to appeal based on mitigating factors such as mental health, which Roof rejects.[171]
2016 assault in prison On August 4, 2016, Roof was beaten by a fellow inmate while detained at the Charleston County Detention Center. Roof, who suffered hits and bruising to the face and body, was not seriously injured, and he was allowed to return to his cell after being examined by jail medical personnel. The assailant was identified as 25-year-old Dwayne Marion Stafford, who was awaiting trial on charges of first-degree assault and strong-arm robbery. Stafford was able to exit his unlocked cell, pass through a steel cell door with a narrow vertical window, and go down the stairs into the jail's protective custody unit to reach Roof. At the time of the attack, Roof was alone after two detention officers assigned to be with him left, one being on break and the other called away to do another task.[172][173][174][175]
Roof and his attorney stated that they did not plan to press charges.[176][177] The night after the attack, eighteen months after his initial arrest, Stafford was released on over $100,000 bond.[178][179]
See also List of death row inmates in the United StatesReferences ^ "Attorney General Lynch Statement Following the Federal Grand Jury Indictment Against Dylann Storm Roof" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. July 22, 2015. ^ Dustin Waters & Mark Berman (December 15, 2016). "Dylann Roof found guilty on all counts in Charleston church massacre trial". Washington Post. {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) ^ Alan Blinder & Kevin Sack (December 15, 2016). "Dylann Roof Found Guilty in Charleston Church Massacre". New York Times. {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) ^ Sack, Kevin; Blinder, Alan (January 5, 2017). "No Regrets From Dylann Roof in Jailhouse Manifesto". The New York Times . Retrieved September 19, 2020 . ^ Groll, Elias (June 18, 2015). "Was the Charleston Massacre an Act of Terrorism?". Foreign Policy . Retrieved January 27, 2021 . Hartmann, Margaret (June 19, 2015). "Why the Charleston Shooter Should Be Called a Terrorist". New York Magazine. Dahl, Julia (June 19, 2015). "Was the South Carolina shooting a hate crime or a terrorist attack?". CBS News. Friedersdorf, Conor (June 22, 2015). "Why It Matters That the Charleston Attack Was Terrorism". The Atlantic. Norris, Jesse J. (March 30, 2017). "Why Dylann Roof Is a Terrorist under Federal Law, and Why It Matters". Harvard Journal on Legislation. 54 (1): 501''541. Ghansah, Rachel Kaadzi (August 11, 2017). "A Most American Terrorist: The Making Of Dylann Roof". GQ . Retrieved January 27, 2021 . McCord, Mary B. (August 21, 2017). "Criminal Law Should Treat Domestic Terrorism as the Moral Equivalent of International Terrorism". Lawfare. ^ a b c d e f g h i Robles, Francis (June 20, 2015). "Dylann Storm Roof Photos Found on Website". The New York Times . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ a b c d Bernstein, Lenny; Horwitz, Sari (June 20, 2015). "Charleston shooting suspect left racist manifesto on Web site, authorities say". The Washington Post . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ "Dylann Roof Gets Death Penalty For Racially Motivated Charleston Church Shooting". VannDigital . Retrieved January 10, 2017 . ^ Kinnard, Meg (March 31, 2017). "Dylann Roof to plead guilty to state murder charges, avoiding second death penalty trial". Chicago Tribune. ^ a b "Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof pleads guilty to state murder charges". The Guardian. April 10, 2017 . Retrieved April 11, 2017 . ^ a b "Dylann Roof: Charleston Church Shooter Gets Nine Life Sentences in State Case". NBC NEWS. April 10, 2017 . Retrieved April 11, 2017 . ^ a b "Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof pleads guilty, awaits execution". Chicago Tribune. April 10, 2017 . Retrieved April 11, 2017 . ^ "United States v. Roof, 252 F. Supp. 3d 469 | Casetext Search + Citator". . Retrieved March 1, 2022 . ^ "Charleston shooter Roof left little fingerprint on the Keys". flkeysnews . Retrieved May 7, 2017 . ^ a b c d Robles, Francis; Stewart, Nikita (July 16, 2015). "Dylann Roof's Past Reveals Trouble at Home and School". The New York Times . Retrieved July 18, 2015 . ^ a b c d Otis, Ginger Adams (June 20, 2015). "Accused Charleston shooter Dylann Roof was raised in home destroyed by domestic violence: reports". The New York Daily News . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ "Sister Of Charleston Shooter Dylann Roof Arrested After Menacing Social Media Post". . Retrieved March 15, 2018 . ^ a b c d Weiss, Mitch; Mone, John (June 27, 2015). "Charleston suspect's life a troubled road to radicalization". Yahoo! News . Retrieved June 28, 2015 . ^ a b Ellis, Sarah; Cahill, Harrison (June 27, 2015). "Dylann Roof: Hindsights and 'what ifs' ". The State . Retrieved June 27, 2015 . ^ a b c "Difficult family circumstances a part of Dylann Roof's history". NewsOK. June 28, 2015 . Retrieved June 28, 2015 . ^ a b c "Charleston shooting suspect led troubled life long before radicalization". Oregon Live LLC. Associated Press. June 27, 2015 . Retrieved June 28, 2015 . ^ Wadlow, Kevin (June 27, 2015). "Charleston shooter Roof left little fingerprint on the Keys". Keys Info Net . Retrieved June 28, 2015 . ^ a b Mindock, Clark (June 18, 2015). "Charleston Shooting Racial Motivation? Dylann Storm Roof Told Black Neighbor He Planned On Killing". The International Business Times . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ a b c "Dylann Roof: Racist jokes and black friends -- a man of contradictions". The Los Angeles Times. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "South Carolina Lutheran Pastor: Dylann Roof Was Church Member, His Family Prays For Victims". Huffington Post. June 19, 2015 . Retrieved June 24, 2015 . ^ a b c d "Friend of Dylann Roof says suspect planned attack on College of Charleston". FOX News. June 20, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2015 . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ a b c Wilks, Avery; Monk, John; Cahill, Harrison (September 19, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: Sharper picture emerges of suspected Charleston shooter Dylann Roof". The State . Retrieved September 20, 2015 . ^ Monk, John (November 4, 2015). "Judge grants $25,000 bond for Joey Meek". The State . Retrieved January 2, 2016 . ^ a b "South Carolina massacre suspect Dylann Roof had apparent interest in white supremacy". Sydney Morning Herald. June 19, 2015 . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ "Dylann Storm Roof arrested in North Carolina". KFOR. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ Old, Jason (June 18, 2015). "Police: Dylann Roof arrested for trespassing, drug possession at Columbiana Centre". . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "Dylann Roof, Suspect in Charleston Shooting, Flew the Flags of White Power". The New York Times. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved August 6, 2018 . ^ Monk, John (June 25, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: Was accused SC racial church killer Roof planning bigger death spree?". The State . Retrieved June 26, 2015 . ^ Robles, Frances (June 26, 2015). "Dylann Roof Had AR-15 Parts During Police Stop in March, Record Shows". The New York Times . Retrieved June 26, 2015 . ^ a b "Dylann Roof, Suspected Charleston Church Shooting Gunman Has Troubled Past". NBC News. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ Volokh, Eugene (July 11, 2015). "Dylann Roof apparently had not been arrested for a felony a month before he went through a gun purchase background check". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017 . Retrieved July 6, 2021 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) ^ Collins, Jeffrey (July 13, 2015). "Jail clerical error acknowledged in church shooting gun buy". Yahoo! News. AP. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015 . Retrieved July 6, 2021 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) ^ a b c d Alcindor, Yamiche; Stanglin, Doug (June 19, 2015). "Affidavits spell out chilling case against Dylann Roof". USA Today . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ a b Stableford, Dylan (June 19, 2015). "Families of Charleston shooting victims to Dylann Roof: We forgive you". Yahoo! News . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ a b "Church shooting suspect Dylann Roof captured amid hate crime investigation". The Washington Post. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ Silverstein, Jason (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof was obsessed with Trayvon Martin, wanted to save the 'white race': friend". The New York Daily News . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ "Charleston Church Shooting Suspect, Dylann Storm Roof, Is Captured". The New York Times. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "On Facebook, Dylann Roof, Charleston Suspect, Wears Symbols of White Supremacy". The New York Times. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "Everything Known About Charleston Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roff". The Daily Beast. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ Blidner, Rachelle; Wagner, Meg (June 18, 2015). "Dylann Storm Roof bragged about plans to 'kill a bunch of people' week before Charleston church shooting". The New York Daily News . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "Charleston Shooting: A Closer Look at Alleged Gunman Dylann Roof". Yahoo! News. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ a b Weiss, Mitch; Biesecker, Michael (June 20, 2015). "Man accused of church killings spoke of attacking college". USA Today . Retrieved April 7, 2021 . ^ Krol, Charlotte (June 20, 2015). "Dylann Roof's friend: Charleston church 'wasn't primary target' ". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on June 20, 2015 . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ "Dylann Roof's friend: 'He never said anything racist' ". BBC News. June 20, 2015 . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ Payne, Ed; Botelho, Greg (June 19, 2015). "Charleston church shooting: Suspect confesses, says he sought race war". CNN . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Borden, Jeremy; Horwitz, Sari; Markon, Jerry (June 19, 2015). "Officials: Suspect in church slayings unrepentant amid outcry over racial hatred". The Washington Post . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ a b Berman, Mark (August 23, 2016). "Prosecutors say Dylann Roof 'self-radicalized' online, wrote another manifesto in jail". The Washington Post . Retrieved August 23, 2016 . ^ a b Kinnard, Meg (August 23, 2016). "Feds: Church shooting suspect entrenched in his beliefs". Yahoo! News. Associated Press . Retrieved August 23, 2016 . ^ a b c Lewis, Paul; Holpuch, Amanda; Glenza, Jessica (June 21, 2015). "Dylann Roof: FBI probes manifesto and website linked to Charleston suspect". The Guardian . Retrieved June 21, 2015 . ^ a b Tucker, Neely; Holley, Peter (July 1, 2015). "Dylann Roof's eerie tour of American slavery at its beginning, middle and end". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 1, 2015 . ^ Roof, Dylann Storm (2015). rtf88.txt, Archived from the original, viewed July 30, 2020 ^ Buncombe, Andrew (June 29, 2015). "Dylan Roof: Experts believe Charleston shooting suspect was author of racist manifesto and 'self-radicalised' online". The Independent . Retrieved June 30, 2015 . ^ a b Alexander, Harriet (June 22, 2015). "Republican candidates accepted donations from man whose organisation inspired Dylann Roof" . The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 . ^ Yglesias, Matthew (June 20, 2015). "Charleston Shooter Dylann Roof's apparent manifesto surfaces". . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ Alsup, Dave; Ansari, Azadeh (August 23, 2016). "Dylann Roof case: New court documents reveal more details, feds say". CNN . Retrieved August 23, 2016 . ^ a b Knapp, Andrew (August 23, 2016). "Feds: 'Self-radicalized' before attack, Dylann Roof penned another manifesto in jail". The Post and Courier . Retrieved August 23, 2016 . ^ Pestano, Andrew V. (August 23, 2016). "Dylann Roof wrote racist manifesto in jail after Charleston church shooting". UPI . Retrieved August 23, 2016 . ^ "Charleston church massacre: Dylann Roof's gun bought at local store". MSNBC. June 19, 2015 . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Nakashima, Ellen (July 10, 2015). "FBI: Breakdown in background check system allowed Dylann Roof to buy gun". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 11, 2015 . ^ "No. 18''1931" (PDF) . ^ Monk, John (October 28, 2021). "Massive $88M settlement reached with families of SC's Charleston church mass shooting". The State . Retrieved October 28, 2021 . ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (July 3, 2015). "Charleston Suspect Was In Touch With Supremacists, Officials Say". The New York Times . Retrieved July 3, 2015 . ^ Monk, John (July 2, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: Charges possible against church shooter's associates". The State . Retrieved July 3, 2015 . ^ Thompson, Catherine (June 22, 2015). "Group That May Have Influenced Charleston Killer: He Had Some 'Legitimate Grievances' ". Talking Points Memo . Retrieved July 4, 2015 . ^ Lee, Kurtis (June 22, 2015). "Dylann Roof's manifesto resembles comments on neo-Nazi website, analysis finds". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved June 30, 2015 . ^ Siegel, Jacob (June 22, 2015). "Dylann Roof, 4chan, and the New Online Racism". The Daily Beast . Retrieved June 30, 2015 . ^ Pearce, Matt (June 24, 2015). "What happens when a millennial goes fascist? He starts up a neo-Nazi site". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved August 22, 2015 . ^ Murdock, Sebastian; Mathias, Christopher (July 24, 2020). "Exclusive: Leader Of Dylann Roof-Worshipping Neo-Nazi Group Exposed". HuffPost . Retrieved July 24, 2020 . ^ "Everything We Know About the Charleston Shooting". TIME. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "Charleston church shooting suspect Dylann Roof in custody in NC". WIS. WorldNow and WISTV. June 18, 2015. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "Shooting suspect in custody after Charleston church massacre". CNN. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ Safi, Michael (June 18, 2015). "Charleston shooting: florist Debbie Dills hailed a hero after tailing suspect's car". The Guardian . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Cush, Andy (June 18, 2015). "Dylann Roof's car, like S.C. Statehouse, flies a Confederate Flag". Gawker. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015 . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ "Tip from Kings Mountain florists led to Charleston shooting suspect's arrest". Shelby Star. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ Jeremy Borden (June 18, 2015). "For accused killer Dylann Roof, a life that had quietly drifted off track". The Washington Post . Retrieved June 20, 2015 . ^ Dunn, Andrew; Washburn, Mark; Gordon, Michael (June 19, 2015). "Shelby police chief describes arrest of Charleston shooting suspect". The Charlotte Observer . Retrieved June 24, 2015 . ^ "'­•Dylann Roof - Full Length Police Interrogation - Nine counts of murder". YouTube. June 18, 2015 . Retrieved June 2, 2021 . ^ Horowitz, Jason; Corasaniti, Nick; P(C)rez-Pe±a, Richard (June 18, 2015). "Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof Is Brought Back to Charleston". The New York Times . Retrieved June 18, 2015 . ^ "Charleston shooting suspect Dylann Roof due in court in Charleston Friday". WHNS. June 18, 2015. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015 . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ a b Margolin, Josh; Shapiro, Emily (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof's Father Called Cops After Seeing Suspect's Photos, Warrant Says". ABC News . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Sickles, Jason (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof and Michael Slager are cellblock neighbors in Charleston County jail". Yahoo! News . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Martinez, Michael (April 8, 2015). "South Carolina cop shoots unarmed man: A timeline". CNN . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Kozlowska, Hanna. "Dylann Roof is the first person in modern US history to face both a federal and state death penalty". Quartz. ^ Dearden, Lizzie; Guion, Payton (June 19, 2015). "Charleston shooting: From 'liking a woman who dated a black man' to a 'fan of white power music' '' insight into Dylann Roof's life emerges". The Independent . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Arkin, Daniel (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof 'Almost Didn't Go Through' With Charleston Church Shooting". NBC News . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ a b Berman, Mark (June 19, 2015). " 'I forgive you.' Relatives of Charleston church shooting victims address Dylann Roof". The Washington Post . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ "S.C. governor calls for death penalty in church shooting". The Boston Globe. June 19, 2015 . Retrieved June 19, 2015 . ^ Paddock, Barry; Shapiro, Rich (June 19, 2015). "S.C. judge urges support for accused murderer Dylann Roof's family in bizarre court speech". The New York Daily News . Retrieved June 21, 2015 . ^ Neuman, Scott (June 19, 2015). "$1 Million Bond For Charleston Church Shooting Suspect". NPR. ^ Kinnard, Meg (July 7, 2015). "New charges in Charleston church shooting: Attempted murder". Yahoo! News . Retrieved July 7, 2015 . ^ Chan, Melissa (July 14, 2015). "Dylann Roof in alleged jail letter to fan of serial killers: 'My health and spirit are doing fine' ". The New York Daily News . Retrieved July 14, 2015 . ^ "Seven groups expected to pose arguments on gag order in Dylann Roof case". The Post and Courier. July 30, 2015 . Retrieved July 30, 2015 . ^ "Portions of gag order in Dylann Roof case lifted". The Post and Courier. October 14, 2015 . Retrieved October 14, 2015 . ^ Smith, Bruce (July 16, 2015). "Judge Sets Trial for Suspect in Charleston Church Shooting". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015 . Retrieved July 16, 2015 . ^ Phillip, Abby (July 16, 2015). "Dylann Roof trial date set for Charleston church shooting". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 22, 2015 . ^ "Charleston shooting suspect ordered to provide handwriting samples". CBS News. July 20, 2015 . Retrieved July 20, 2015 . ^ Smith, Bruce (July 20, 2015). "Dylann Roof to Provide Handwriting Samples". WLTX . Retrieved July 20, 2015 . ^ Kinnard, Meg; Collins, Jeffrey (September 3, 2015). "Prosecutor: Church shooting suspect to face death penalty". Yahoo! News . Retrieved September 3, 2015 . ^ McLeod, Harriet (September 16, 2015). "Accused gunman in Charleston church shooting proposes guilty plea". Yahoo! News . Retrieved September 16, 2015 . ^ Chuck, Elizabeth (June 20, 2015). "Judge Who Presided Over Dylann Roof Bond Hearing Was Reprimanded for Racial Slur". NBC News . Retrieved June 21, 2015 . ^ Stevens, Matthew (January 27, 2016). "In South Carolina, Jury Selection To Begin In Church Shooting Trial". WACH . Retrieved January 27, 2016 . ^ Andrew V. Pestano, South Carolina jury selection for Dylann Roof trial postponed, UPI (November 7, 2016). ^ "Judge Delays Trial Against Charleston Church Shooter Dylann Roof Until January". NBC News. Associated Press. April 13, 2016 . Retrieved May 12, 2016 . ^ "The Latest: Roof mused about adoption, Hitler's canonization". The Washington Post. January 5, 2017. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017 . Retrieved January 5, 2017 . ^ "Dylann Roof's state trial delayed indefinitely as federal trial continues". ABC News 4. January 5, 2017 . Retrieved January 5, 2017 . ^ Jennifer Berry Hawes; Glenn Smith (March 30, 2017). "Dylann Roof to plead guilty to state murder charges, avoid second death penalty trial". The Post and Courier. ^ Abdullah, Halimah (July 22, 2015). "AG Lynch: Dylann Roof Indicted on 33 Counts, Hate Crime Charges". NBC News . Retrieved December 17, 2016 . Jarvie, Jennie (December 15, 2016). "Jurors find Dylann Roof guilty of all 33 counts in hate-crime shootings at South Carolina church". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved December 17, 2016 . "Indictment: United States of America v. Dylann Storm Roof". United States Department of Justice. July 20, 2015 . Retrieved October 2, 2016 . Apuzzo, Matt (July 22, 2015). "Dylann Roof, Charleston Shooting Suspect, Is Indicted on Federal Hate Crime Charges". The New York Times . Retrieved July 22, 2015 . "Attorney General Lynch Statement Following the Federal Grand Jury Indictment Against Dylann Storm Roof" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. July 22, 2015. ^ Kinnard, Meg; Smith, Bruce (July 31, 2015). "Not guilty plea in federal court for church shooting suspect". Yahoo! News . Retrieved July 31, 2015 . Cohen, Andrew (July 31, 2015). "Meet Dylan Roof's Defender". The Marshall Project . Retrieved July 31, 2015 . Jones, Ashby (August 2, 2015). "Charleston Suspect's Not-Guilty Plea Is Tactical Move". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved August 3, 2015 . ^ Blinder, Alan (May 24, 2016). "Death Penalty Is Sought for Dylann Roof in Charleston Church Killings". The New York Times . Retrieved December 17, 2016 . "Dylann Roof is the first person in modern US history to face both a federal and state death penalty". Jarvie, Jennie (December 15, 2016). "Jurors find Dylann Roof guilty of all 33 counts in hate-crime shootings at South Carolina church". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved December 17, 2016 . ^ Monk, John (June 9, 2016). "Accused Charleston killer Dylann Roof gambles, wants lone judge". Miami Herald . Retrieved June 10, 2016 . ^ "Judge denies bench trial for Charleston shooting suspect Dylann Roof". Fox News. Associated Press. June 13, 2016. ^ McBride, Brian (August 2, 2016). "Dylann Roof's Lawyers File Challenge to Death Penalty, Say It's Unconstitutional". Yahoo! GMA . Retrieved August 2, 2016 . ^ Monk, John (August 31, 2016). "US Judge Gergel orders rare secret hearing on potentially explosive evidence in Dylann Roof case". The State . Retrieved October 1, 2016 . ^ Ortiz, Erik (September 6, 2016). "Dylann Roof, Accused Church Shooter, Should Not Ask Jury for Mercy: Feds". NBC News . Retrieved September 7, 2016 . ^ a b c "Prosecutors want to use timeline exhibit in guilt phase of Dylann Roof's federal trial". WACH. September 7, 2016 . Retrieved September 7, 2016 . ^ a b Monk, John (September 26, 2016). "Roof jury selection under way in federal death penalty trial". The State . Retrieved October 1, 2016 . ^ Johnson, Alex (September 26, 2016). "Charleston Church Shooting: Jury Selection Begins in Dylann Roof Federal Trial". NBC News . Retrieved October 1, 2016 . ^ Knapp, Andrew (September 6, 2016). "3 federal courtrooms dedicated to Dylann Roof trial in Charleston". The Post and Courier . Retrieved September 7, 2016 . ^ Sack, Kevin (November 8, 2016). "Charleston Judge Orders Competency Evaluation of Dylann Roof". The New York Times . Retrieved November 9, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof case: Jury selection postponed over competency issue". CNN. November 8, 2016 . Retrieved November 9, 2016 . ^ Tyson, Sam (November 15, 2016). "Competency hearing for Dylann Roof delayed until Nov. 17". abcnews4 . Retrieved November 15, 2016 . ^ "Judge Delays Dylann Roof Competency Hearing for a Day". The New York Times. November 14, 2016 . Retrieved November 15, 2016 . ^ "Judge delays Dylann Roof competency hearing for a day". YAHOO! NEWS. November 15, 2016 . Retrieved November 15, 2016 . ^ Hawes, Jennifer (November 16, 2021). "Judge rules Dylann Roof competency hearing closed to the public". The Post and Courier. Archived from the original on April 4, 2021 . Retrieved April 4, 2021 . ^ "Church suspect competency hearing wraps up with no decision". The Washington Post. November 22, 2016. Archived from the original on November 23, 2016 . Retrieved November 23, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof Competency Hearing Wraps Up". ABC Columbia. November 22, 2016 . Retrieved November 23, 2016 . ^ "Charleston shooter, Dylann Roof, declared competent to stand trial". WCNC. November 25, 2016 . Retrieved November 25, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof represents self in Charleston murder trial". CNN. November 28, 2016 . Retrieved November 28, 2016 . ^ "Judge grants Dylann Roof's 'unwise' request to represent himself in church shooting trial". Chicago Tribune. November 28, 2016 . Retrieved November 28, 2016 . ^ "Charleston massacre accused Dylann Roof to defend himself". BBC News. November 28, 2016 . Retrieved November 28, 2016 . ^ Sack, Kevin (November 28, 2016). "Dylann Roof to Represent Himself at Trial in Charleston Church Shootings". The New York Times . Retrieved November 28, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof Wants His Lawyers Back to Begin Trial". The New York Times. December 4, 2016 . Retrieved December 5, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof: accused Charleston church gunman asks for defense team back". The Guardian. December 4, 2016 . Retrieved December 5, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof to judge: Let lawyers back on death penalty case". Los Angeles Times. December 4, 2016 . Retrieved December 5, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof to judge: Let lawyers back on S.C. church death penalty case". Chicago Tribune. December 4, 2016 . Retrieved December 5, 2016 . ^ "Judge Allows Dylann Roof to Hire Back His Lawyers for Guilt Phase of Trial". NBC News. December 5, 2016 . Retrieved December 5, 2016 . ^ "Accused Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof allowed to hire lawyers back, for now". Los Angeles Times. December 5, 2016 . Retrieved December 5, 2016 . ^ Johnson, Alex (December 6, 2016). "Judge Denies Motion to Delay Charleston Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof's Trial Over Slager Outrage". NBC News . Retrieved December 7, 2016 . ^ Sack, Kevin; Blinder, Alan (December 7, 2016). "Heart-Rending Testimony as Dylann Roof Trial Opens". The New York Times . Retrieved December 7, 2016 . ^ Lydia O'Neal (December 7, 2016). "Dylann Roof Trial Update: 6 Things To Know, Plus Jury Breakdown Ahead Of Hate Crime Case". International Business Times . Retrieved January 11, 2017 . Upon the selection Tuesday of a jury consisting of two black women, eight white women, one white man and one black man, the federal trial has begun for Charleston shooter Dylann Roof. ^ "Dylann Roof's confession shown to jury at Charleston church shooting trial". CBS News. Associated Press. December 9, 2016 . Retrieved December 9, 2016 . ^ "Dylann Roof Found Guilty in Charleston Church Massacre". The New York Times. December 15, 2016 . Retrieved December 17, 2016 . Jarvie, Jennie (December 15, 2016). "Jurors find Dylann Roof guilty of all 33 counts in hate-crime shootings at South Carolina church". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved December 17, 2016 . ^ "Church shooter Dylann Roof says he won't call witnesses, give evidence to spare life". Fox News. December 28, 2016 . Retrieved December 28, 2016 . ^ a b Alan Blinder, Dylann Roof, Charleston Church Killer, Is Deemed Competent for Sentencing, New York Times (January 3, 2017). ^ Tonya Maxwell, New competency hearing slated for Charleston church shooter, Asheville Citizen-Times (December 30, 2016). ^ Shah, Khushbu (January 10, 2017). "Dylann Roof jury: Death penalty for Charleston church shooter" . Retrieved January 10, 2017 . ^ Sack, Kevin; Blinder, Alan (January 11, 2017). "Anguish, Rage and Mercy as Dylann Roof Is Sentenced to Death". The New York Times. p. A version of this article appears in print on January 12, 2017, on Page A14 of the New York edition with the headline: Anguish, Mercy and Defiance at Roof's Sentencing . Retrieved January 26, 2017 . At the close of the nearly five-hour hearing, Judge Richard M. Gergel of Federal District Court formally sentenced Mr. Roof, 22, to death, in accordance with the verdict that a jury quickly delivered on Tuesday. Although they were not required to do so, most of the jurors who heard the case attended Wednesday's proceedings. ^ Byrd, Caitlin (April 22, 2017). "Dylann Roof is now on federal death row in Indiana". The Post and Courier . Retrieved April 23, 2017 . ^ United States v. Roof, 2:15-472-RMG (D.S.C. May 10, 2017), Docket Number 961 '' Ruling denying bid for new Roof trial. ^ a b c d e f g Jennifer Berry Hawes & Glenn Smith, Newly released documents say Dylann Roof saw his reputation '-- not his crimes '-- as 'the most important issue', Post & Courier (May 10, 2017). ^ a b c John Monk & Cynthia Roldn, Dylann Roof's attorneys suspected he had autism, said he had 'blushing attacks', The State (May 10, 2017). ^ Carolina, Associated Press in Charleston, South (December 17, 2016). "Dylann Roof says mental health should not be factor in death penalty decision". the Guardian . Retrieved January 11, 2022 . ^ "Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof asks to fire Jewish, Indian attorneys". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. September 19, 2017 . Retrieved January 11, 2022 . ^ Images, Getty. "Charleston Church Killer Vows Not To Use 'Jewish' Psychology in Defense". The Forward . Retrieved January 11, 2022 . ^ Drew Tripp, Dylann Roof likely has autism, but preferred death over that label, court records show, WCIV (May 10, 2017). ^ Coleman, Justine (January 29, 2020). "Dylann Roof appeals conviction, death sentence in South Carolina church shooting". The Hill. Washington, D.C . Retrieved February 2, 2020 . ^ Lavoie, Denise (January 29, 2020). "White supremacist Dylann Roof appeals death penalty in church massacre". Fox News. Associated Press . Retrieved February 2, 2020 . ^ Hecker, Caroline (January 29, 2020). "Appeal: Dylann Roof hid mental illness from court during capital trial". WIS-TV . Retrieved February 13, 2020 . ^ Trotta, Daniel (January 29, 2020). "Dylann Roof appeals death sentence for massacre at South Carolina black church". Reuters . Retrieved February 13, 2020 . ^ McLaughlin, Eliott C. (May 25, 2021). "Dylann Roof's appeal in his 2015 church massacre conviction focuses on killer's competency to stand trial". CNN . Retrieved May 29, 2021 . ^ Neidig, Harper (August 25, 2021). "Appeals court upholds death sentence in Charleston church shooting". The Hill . Retrieved August 25, 2021 . ^ Kucher, Tom (September 11, 2021). "Dylann Roof Challenges Death Sentence Being Upheld, Appeals Panel's Decision | The Hill". The Hill via District Chronicles . Retrieved September 11, 2021 . ^ Castronuovo, Celine (September 24, 2021). "Appeals court declines to take up Dylann Roof's death sentence challenge | The Hill". The Hill . Retrieved September 27, 2021 . ^ Kinnard, Meg (AP) (September 26, 2021). "Government: Dylann Roof's death sentence should stand | Associated Press". Kentucky Today . Retrieved September 27, 2021 . ^ Kinnard, Meg (March 2, 2022). "Dylann Roof takes church shooting appeal to US Supreme Court | Associated Press". ABC News . Retrieved March 2, 2022 . ^ Visser, Steve (August 4, 2016). "Accused Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof beaten in jail". CNN . Retrieved August 4, 2016 . ^ Jackson, Angie; Boughton, Melissa (August 4, 2016). "Sheriff's Office cites officer complacency". Charleston Post Courier . Retrieved August 4, 2016 . ^ Smith, Bruce (August 4, 2016). "Sheriff: Jail inmate slugs man charged in church massacre". Yahoo! News. Associated Press . Retrieved August 4, 2016 . ^ Stanglin, Doug (August 4, 2016). "Dylann Roof attacked next to jail shower". USA Today . Retrieved August 4, 2016 . ^ Waters, Dustin (August 4, 2016). "Dylann Roof assaulted by fellow inmate". Charleston City Paper . Retrieved August 9, 2016 . ^ Scruggs, Danielle (August 7, 2016). "Man who allegedly assaulted Dylann Roof released on $100,000 bond". FOX 2 Now . Retrieved August 9, 2016 . ^ "Man accused of attacking alleged Charleston church shooter out on bond". CBS News. Associated Press. August 6, 2016 . Retrieved August 8, 2016 . ^ Ray Rivera (August 6, 2016). "Report: Inmate who assaulted Dylann Roof out on bond". Live 5 News. External links Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator for Dylan Storm Roof Inmate 28509-171"Attorney General Lynch's Statement Following the Federal Grand Jury Indictment Against Dylann Storm Roof" (Direct video link) - Remarks in text format (Archive)The Massacre at Emanuel AME Church at
Strom Thurmond - Wikipedia
Wed, 02 Mar 2022 20:52
Governor of South Carolina and U.S. Senator (1902''2003)
"Senator Thurmond" redirects here. For the South Carolina state senate member, see
Paul Thurmond.
Strom Thurmond
Thurmond in 1961
In office January 20, 2001 '' June 6, 2001 Preceded by Robert Byrd Succeeded by Robert Byrd In office January 3, 1995 '' January 3, 2001 Preceded by Robert Byrd Succeeded by Robert Byrd In office January 3, 1981 '' January 3, 1987 Preceded by Warren Magnuson Succeeded by John C. Stennis In office November 7, 1956 '' January 3, 2003 Preceded by Thomas A. Wofford Succeeded by Lindsey Graham In office December 24, 1954 '' April 4, 1956 Preceded by Charles E. Daniel Succeeded by Thomas A. Wofford In office June 6, 2001 '' January 3, 2003 Preceded by Office established Succeeded by Robert Byrd In office January 3, 1995 '' January 3, 1999 Preceded by Sam Nunn Succeeded by John Warner In office January 3, 1981 '' January 3, 1987 Preceded by Ted Kennedy Succeeded by Joe Biden In office January 21, 1947 '' January 16, 1951LieutenantGeorge Bell Timmerman Jr. Preceded by Ransome Judson Williams Succeeded by James F. Byrnes In office January 10, 1933 '' January 14, 1938 Preceded by Thomas Greneker Succeeded by William YonceBornJames Strom Thurmond
( 1902-12-05 ) December 5, 1902Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.DiedJune 26, 2003 (2003-06-26) (aged 100)Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.Political partyDemocratic (until 1964)Republican (1964''2003)Other politicalaffiliationsDixiecratSpouse(s)Jean Crouch
m. 1947; died 1960)
Nancy Moore
m. 1968;
sep. 1991)
Children5, including Essie, Strom Jr., and PaulEducationClemson University (BS)SignatureAllegiance United StatesBranch/service United States ArmyYears of service1924''1964[1]Rank Major GeneralUnitUnited States Army ReserveBattles/warsAwardsLegion of Merit (2)Bronze Star (with valor)Purple HeartWorld War II Victory MedalEuropean''African''Middle Eastern Campaign MedalOrder of the Crown (Belgium)Croix de Guerre (France)
James Strom Thurmond Sr. (December 5, 1902 '' June 26, 2003) was an American politician, military officer, and attorney who represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to 2003. Prior to his 48 years as a senator, he served as the 103rd governor of South Carolina from 1947 to 1951. Thurmond was a member of the Democratic Party until 1964 when he joined the Republican Party for the remainder of his legislative career. He also ran for president in 1948 as the Dixiecrat candidate, receiving over a million votes and winning four states.
A staunch opponent of Civil Rights legislation in the 1950s and 1960s, Thurmond conducted the longest speaking filibuster ever by a lone senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length, in opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957.[2] In the 1960s, he voted against the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Despite his support for racial segregation, Thurmond always denied the accusation that he was a racist by insisting he was a supporter of states' rights and an opponent of excessive federal authority.[3] Thurmond switched parties ahead of the 1964 United States presidential election, saying that the Democratic Party no longer represented people like him, and endorsed Republican nominee Barry Goldwater, who also opposed the Civil Rights Act.[4][5] By the 1970s, Thurmond had started to moderate his stance on race, but he continued to defend his prior support for segregation on the basis of states' rights and Southern society at the time.[6]
Thurmond served three times as President pro tempore of the United States Senate, and chaired the Senate Judiciary Committee from 1981 to 1987 and the Senate Armed Services Committee from 1995 to 1999. He retired in 2003 as the only member of either chamber of Congress to reach the age of 100 while still in office and the oldest-serving senator. His 48 years as a senator, a record at the time, is the third-longest in U.S. history behind Robert Byrd and Daniel Inouye.[7] Thurmond holds the record as the longest-serving member of Congress to solely serve in the Senate. At 14 years, he was also the longest-serving Dean of the United States Senate in political history.
Early life and education (1902''1933) [ edit ] James Strom Thurmond was born on December 5, 1902, in Edgefield, South Carolina. He was second oldest of the six children born to John William Thurmond (1862''1934) and Eleanor Gertrude (1870''1958).[9] His father served as a county supervisor, representative to South Carolina General Assembly, and a Solicitor. In 1902, he unsuccessfully contested the election for United States Congress.[9] Strom's mother came from a well-known Edgefield family. She was a deeply religious woman, known for delivering prayers. Thurmond had the ability to ride ponies, horses, and bulls from an early age. When Thurmond was four, his family moved into a larger home, where they owned about six acres of land. His home was frequently visited by politicians and lawyers. At six years old, he had an encounter with Benjamin Tillman, a senator from South Carolina. Thurmond remembered the handshake with Tillman as his first political skill.
He attended Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina (now Clemson University), graduating in 1923 with a degree in horticulture.[17] At Clemson, he served as the president of Calhoun Literary Society, where he debated and learned parliamentary procedure. He was deeply influenced by his English professor'--David Wistar Daniel, namesake of D. W. Daniel High School. In 1925, he had an affair with Carrie Butler, his family's teenage African-American housekeeper. In 2003, the Thurmond family confirmed that Thurmond fathered a mixed-race daughter named Essie Mae Washington with Butler.[20][21] After his graduation, Thurmond worked as a farmer, teacher and athletic coach. In 1929, he was appointed as Edgefield County 's superintendent of education. While serving as the superintendent, he began studying law under his father's guidance.
Early career (1933''1947) [ edit ] South Carolina Senate (1933''1938) [ edit ] In 1930, Thurmond was admitted to the South Carolina bar.[17] He was appointed as the Edgefield Town and County attorney, serving from 1930 to 1938. Thurmond supported Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election. Thurmond favored Roosevelt's argument that the federal government could be used to assist citizens in the daily plights brought on by the Great Depression. Thurmond raised money for Roosevelt and following his victory, traveled to Washington to attend Roosevelt's inauguration. In 1933, Thurmond was elected to the South Carolina Senate, serving there until 1938, when he was elected to be a state circuit judge.
Thurmond increased in notability after becoming involved in the middle of a dispute between the Timmermans and Logues. In November 1941, officers arrived at the Logue family home to arrest Sue Logue and her brother-in-law for their hiring of the hit man who murdered Davis Timmerman. George Logue and Fred Dorn ambushed the officers after they were allowed entry into the home, the sheriff and deputy both being fatally wounded by the duo. Thurmond, who learned of the shooting while attending a morning church service, became concerned of further violence and drove to the home. On arriving, he removed his jacket and vest while turning his pockets inside out to show that he was without a weapon, then walked inside the home and confronted a Logue family friend who had aimed a shotgun at him. Sue Logue was convinced to surrender after Thurmond promised he would personally see her safely past the angry mob that had assembled outside following the murders. His act was widely reported across the state in the following days. Cohodas wrote that the incident increased public perception of Thurmond as a determined and gritty individual and contributed to his becoming a political celebrity within the state.
World War II [ edit ] In 1942, at 39, after the U.S. formally entered World War II, Judge Thurmond resigned from the bench to serve in the U.S. Army, rising to lieutenant colonel. In the Battle of Normandy (June 6 '' August 25, 1944), he landed in a glider attached to the 82nd Airborne Division. For his military service, Thurmond received 18 decorations, medals and awards, including the Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster, Bronze Star with Valor device, Purple Heart, World War II Victory Medal, European''African''Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, Belgium's Order of the Crown and France's Croix de Guerre.[citation needed ]
During 1954''55, Thurmond was president of the Reserve Officers Association. He retired from the U.S. Army Reserve with the rank of major general.
Governor of South Carolina (1947''1951) [ edit ] Strom Thurmond as Governor
Running as a Democrat in a virtually one-party state, Thurmond was elected Governor of South Carolina in 1946, largely on the promise of making state government more transparent and accountable by weakening the power of a group of politicians from Barnwell,[28] which Thurmond dubbed the Barnwell Ring, led by House Speaker Solomon Blatt.
Many voters considered Thurmond a progressive for much of his term, in large part due to his influence in gaining the arrest of the perpetrators of the lynching of Willie Earle. Though none of the men were found guilty by an all-white jury in a case where the defense called no witnesses,[29] Thurmond was congratulated by the NAACP and the ACLU for his efforts to bring the murderers to justice.[30]
In, 1949, Thurmond oversaw the opening of Camp Croft State Park,[31]and in November he was unanimously elected Chairman of the Southern Governors Conference.[32]
1948 presidential campaign [ edit ] In the 1948 presidential election, Thurmond ran for president as a third party candidate for States' Rights Democratic Party, which was formed by White southern Democrats who split from the national party over the threat of federal intervention in state affairs regarding segregation and Jim Crow. Thurmond's supporters took control of the Democratic Party in the Deep South. President Truman was not included on the presidential ballot in Alabama because that state's Supreme Court ruled void any requirement for party electors to vote for the national nominee.[33] Thurmond stated that Truman, Thomas Dewey and Henry A. Wallace would lead the U.S. to totalitarianism.[34] Thurmond called civil rights initiatives dangerous to the American constitution and making the country susceptible to communism in the event of their enactment,[35] challenging Truman to a debate on the issue.[36] Thurmond carried four states and received 39 electoral votes, but was unable to stop Truman's re-election.
During the campaign, Thurmond said the following in a speech met with loud cheers by his assembled supporters: listen ( help · info )
I wanna tell you, ladies and gentlemen, that there's not enough troops in the army to force the Southern people to break down segregation and admit the Nigra race into our theaters, into our swimming pools, into our homes, and into our churches.[a][6]
Thurmond quietly distanced himself from the States' Rights Party in the aftermath of the 1948 campaign, despite saying shortly before its conclusion that the party would continue as opposition to the national Democratic Party. After Thurmond missed a party meeting in December of that year in which the States' Rights Democratic Party created a state's rights institute in Washington, columnist John Temple Graves, disappointed in Thurmond's absence, opined that his campaign had been the best argument that the States' Rights Party was a national movement centered around the future of liberty and restrained government. Thurmond concurrently received counsel from Walter Brown and Robert Figgs to break from the party and seek reclaiming credentials that would validate him in the minds of others as a liberal. Biographer Joseph Crespino observed that Thurmond was aware that he could neither completely abandon the Democratic Party as it embraced the civil rights initiative of the Truman administration nor let go of his supporters within the States' Rights Party, whom he courted in his 1950 campaign for the Senate.
Concurrently with Thurmond's discontent, former senator and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes began speaking out against the Truman administration's domestic policies. Walter Brown sought to link the 1950 gubernatorial campaign of Byrnes with the Thurmond Senate campaign as part of a collective effort against President Truman, this effort appeared to have been a success. Byrnes indirectly criticized Thurmond when asked by a reporter in 1950 about his governing if elected South Carolina Governor, saying he would not waste time "appointing colonels and crowning queens"; the remark geared toward the image of Thurmond as not serious and conniving. Brown wrote to Thurmond that the comment was a death to any potential alliance between the two politicians. Thurmond and his wife are described as looking "like they had been shot" when reading the Byrnes quotation in the newspaper.
1950 U.S. Senate campaign in South Carolina [ edit ] According to the state constitution, Thurmond was barred from seeking a second consecutive term as governor in 1950, so he mounted a Democratic primary challenge against first-term U.S. senator Olin Johnston.[39] On May 1, Thurmond's Senate campaign headquarters opened in Columbia, South Carolina with Ernest Craig serving as campaign leader and George McNabb in charge of public relations, both were on leave from their state positions in the governor's office.[40] In the one-party state of the time, the Democratic primary was the only competitive contest. Both candidates denounced President Truman during the campaign. Johnston defeated Thurmond 186,180 votes to 158,904 votes (54% to 46%) in what would be Thurmond's first and only state electoral defeat.
In 1952, Thurmond endorsed Republican Dwight Eisenhower for the presidency, rather than the Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson, but Stevenson still narrowly carried South Carolina in the general election.
U.S. Senate (1954''2003) [ edit ] Though he was defeated in his first Senate race in 1950, this would be the last electoral defeat of Thurmond's political career. He ran again in 1954 and was elected to represent South Carolina in the United States Senate. Thurmond proceeded to win eight consecutive re-election contests and would go on to serve in the Senate for 48 years.[41]
First term (1954''1956, 1956''1961) [ edit ] The incumbent U.S. senator from South Carolina, Burnet R. Maybank, was unopposed for re-election in 1954, but he died two months before the Election day. Various leaders requested a primary election for choosing the new nominee; however, the Democratic Party selected Edgar A. Brown, a state senator as the party 's nominee to replace Maybank without conducting a primary election. Thurmond organised a write-in campaign for the vacant senate seat. He pledged that if he won, he would resign in 1956 to force a primary election. He won the 1954 election easily, receiving almost 63% of the vote. His victory made him the first person to be elected to the U.S. Senate as a write-in candidate.[b] In January 1955, he stated that federal encroachment on states' rights was among the biggest threats to American life and violated the Constitution. He spoke of the importance of education, saying "it should be a primary duty of the states just as national defense is a primary obligation of the federal government."[42] In July 1955, Thurmond supported the Eisenhower Administration 's bill for an expanded military reserve law, including peacetime officers receiving compulsory training. He argued the bill would strengthen Eisenhower during the Geneva Summit. He opposed the alternate plan proposed by Senator Richard Russell, which argued to abolish compulsory training in addition to adding a bonus of $400 (equivalent to $3,864 in 2020) to males forgoing active duty. Thurmond asserted that patriotism could not be purchased.[43]
Thurmond co-wrote the first version of the Southern Manifesto, stating disagreement with the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, that desegregated public schools.[44] He was part of the group of Southern senators who shared a commonality of being dispirited with Brown v. Board of Education.[45] In early 1956, he resigned from the Senate, keeping the promise he made two years earlier.[46] He won the primary as well as the general election unopposed. Thereafter, he returned to the Senate in November, 1956. In 1957, the Eisenhower administration introduced an amended version the Civil Rights Bill, imposing expansion of federal supervision of integration in Southern states.[47] In an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the bill 's passage,[48] Thurmond filibustered the bill, speaking for a total of 24 hours and 18 minutes, the longest filibuster ever conducted by a single senator.[49] Other Southern senators, who had agreed as part of a compromise not to filibuster this bill, were upset with Thurmond because they thought his defiance made them look incompetent to their constituents.[50][page needed ] Despite his efforts, the Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 on August 29.[51] In January 1959, the Senate held a debate over changing the rules to curb filibusters, Thurmond expressed the view that the Senate return to the rule prior to 1917, when there were no regulations on the time for debate.[52]
Further attempts at obstruction [ edit ] In February 1960, Thurmond requested a quorum call that would produce at least half the membership of the Senate, the call being seen as one of the delay tactics employed by Southerners during the meeting. 51 senators assembled, allowing for the Senate to adjourn in spite of Thurmond's calls for another quorum call. Thurmond afterward denied his responsibility in convening the Saturday session, attributing it to Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson and opining that those insistent on passing a civil rights bill should be around during discussions on the matter.[53] During his filibuster, Thurmond relied on the book The Case for the South, written by W. D. Workman Jr. Thurmond had known the author for fifteen years as Workman had covered both Thurmond's tenure as South Carolina governor and his presidential campaign, in addition to having served in the military unit Thurmond had organized in Columbia, and having turned down an offer by Thurmond to serve as his Washington office press secretary. The Case for the South, described in 2013 by Loyola history professor and author Elizabeth Shermer as "a compendium of segregationist arguments that hit all the high points of regional apologia", was sent by Thurmond to each of his Senate colleagues and then-vice president Richard Nixon.[54]
Second term (1961''1967) [ edit ] 1960 presidential election [ edit ] On account of Kennedy 's known support for Civil Rights, Thurmond refused to support the Democratic Party's nominee in the 1960 United States presidential election. Thurmond himself was up for re-election that year and despite his party disloyalty, he won the South Carolina Democratic Primary with nearly 90% of the vote. Like much of the South during this time period, South Carolina was still effectively a one-party state where winning the Democratic primary was tantamount to victory. In the 1960 South Carolina Senate race, Thurmond ran unopposed in the General Election, a Republican candidate did not even appear on the ballot. As of 2021, 1960 remains the last time a Democrat won South Carolina's Class 2 Senate Seat. In the presidential election, he received 14 electoral votes for the vice president (as Harry Byrd Sr.'s running mate). Though Both Byrd and Thurmond had long since moved on from the States Rights' Democratic Party, they were the decided protest ticket of several southern delegates and unpledged electors, who refused to give their support to Kennedy.[56] Though their actual level of electoral support is difficult to determine, "the Byrd''Thurmond ticket" or "Unpledged candidate", won a plurality of the vote of the vote in Mississippi, finished second (ahead of Nixon) in Alabama and third in Louisiana with 20% of the vote.[57]
Following Kennedy's victory, Thurmond loudly voiced the view that he would be expelled from the Senate Democratic Caucus in retaliation.[58] Though not a position ever endorsed by either Kennedy or the DNC, some Democrats were angered by Thurmond's determined opposition and felt he should be kicked out of the party for his disloyalty.[58]
Kennedy administration [ edit ] The 87th Congress began without a move to remove Thurmond from the Senate Democratic Caucus, in spite of Thurmond's predictions to the contrary.[59] An aide for Senator Joseph S. Clark Jr. said there was never an intention to pursue recourse against Thurmond, though in his opinion Thurmond should no longer be a member of the party.[58] In February 1961, Thurmond stated his support for imposing quotas per country and category on textile imports; noting that the same practice was being imposed by other countries. He added that American industry would be destroyed by government subsidies that would convert the textile industry to other fields.[60] He later opposed legislation that "would give the president unprecedented authority to lower or wipe out tariff wall [and] would provide for the first time broad government relief to industries and workers", the only Democrat to do so.[61] In December 1961, he addressed the Arkansas American Legion conference in Little Rock. He claimed he had been told that the State Department was preparing "a paper for the turning over of our nuclear weapons to the United Nations."[62] In September 1962, Thurmond called for an invasion of Cuba.[63] In a February Thurmond stated that "the brush curtain around Cuba is a formidable Soviet strategic military base" and estimated between 30,000 and 40,000 Cuban troops were under the leadership of a Soviet general. Hours after the statement was made public, a Pentagon official disputed his claims as being "at wide variance with carefully evaluated data collected by U.S. intelligence" and called for Thurmond to release his proof to the Defense Department.[64] During Paul Nitze's nomination hearing for Secretary of the Navy, Thurmond was noted for asking "rapid fire questions" on military action and focusing on Nitze's participation as a moderator in the 1958 National Council of Churches conference.[65] Along with Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater, Thurmond delayed the Nitze nomination.[66] In spite of Thurmond voting against him, the nomination was approved.[67]
When the Senate debated Kennedy's public school aid bill, Thurmond proposed an amendment prohibiting the government from barring segregated schools from receiving loans or grants.[68] After Kennedy sent Congress his civil rights bill, Thurmond's opposition was clear and immediate.[69] Later that month, Thurmond accused radio and television networks of supporting the views espoused by the NAACP, sparking a dispute with Rhode Island Senator John Pastore.[70] In the weeks leading up to the March on Washington, Thurmond delivered a Senate floor speech,[71] accusing the march's organizer Bayard Rustin of "being a communist, a draft dodger and a homosexual." Rustin biographer John D'Emilio said these remarks unintentionally gave Rustin further credit in the Civil Rights Movement: "Because no one could appear to be on the side of Strom Thurmond, he created, unwittingly, an opportunity for Rustin's sexuality to stop being an issue."[72] Rustin denied Thurmond's charges on August 15.[73]
Investigation into political censorship by the military [ edit ] In August, Thurmond formally requested the Senate Armed Services Committee to vote on whether to vote for "a conspiracy to muzzle military anti-Communist drives." The appearance prompted the cancellation of another public appearance in Fort Jackson, as Thurmond favored marking his proposal with his presence, and his request for a $75,000 committee study was slated for consideration.[74] In November, Thurmond went on a five-day tour of California. At a news conference, he stated that President Kennedy had lost support in the South due to the formation of the National Relations Boards, what he called Kennedy's softness on communism, and an increase in military men being muzzled for speaking out against communism.[75] Thurmond held resentment toward NBC for its lack of coverage of his military muzzling claims.[76] In January 1962, Thurmond charged the military speeches' censorship with having proven State Department officials sold U.S. leadership on the country not wanting to win the Cold War.[77] That month, Senate investigators into the military censoring disclosed having obtained documents not given to them by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. Thurmond stated the evidence was obtained through checking with the individuals censoring, describing them as just taking orders. He added that the issue of censoring had predated the Kennedy administration, though charged the incumbent executive branch with having increased its practice.[78] The committee was ended on June 8.[79] In May, Thurmond was part of a group of Senate orators headed by John C. Stennis who expressed opposition to the Kennedy administration's literacy test bill, arguing that the measure was in violation of states' rights as defined by the Constitution.[80] After the Supreme Court ruled state composed prayer in public schools was unconstitutional, Thurmond urged Congress to take steps to prevent the Court from making similar decisions.[81]
Johnson administration [ edit ] The day after the Nitze vote, President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.[82] Thurmond expressed the view that a conspiracy would be found by investigators to have been responsible for JFK's death.[83] Lyndon B. Johnson, the vice president ascended to the presidency.[84] He began campaigning to secure passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which angered white segregationists. These laws ended segregation and committed the federal government to enforce voting rights of citizens by the supervision of elections in states in which the pattern of voting showed black people had been disenfranchised. Many Democrats strongly opposed these laws, including Senator Robert Byrd, who filibustered the Civil Rights Act for 14 hours and 13 minutes on June 9 and 10, 1964.
During the signing ceremony for the Civil Rights Act, President Johnson nominated LeRoy Collins as the first Director of the Community Relations Service.[85] Subsequently, Thurmond reminded Collins of his past support for segregation and implied that he was a traitor to the South, Thurmond having particular disdain for an address by Collins the previous winter in which he charged southern leaders with being harsh and intemperate.[86] Thurmond also suggested that Collins had sought to fault southern leaders for President Kennedy's assassination. Thurmond was the only senator to vote against Collins' nomination being sent to the Senate, and later one of eight senators to vote against his nomination in the chamber.
1964 presidential election and party switch [ edit ] On September 16, 1964, Thurmond confirmed he was leaving the Democratic Party to work on the presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater, charging the Democrats with having "abandoned the people" and having repudiated the U.S. Constitution as well as providing leadership for the eventual takeover of the U.S. by socialistic dictatorship. He called on other Southern politicians to join him in bettering the Republican Party.[89] Thurmond joined Goldwater in campaigning through Louisiana later that month, telling reporters that he believed Goldwater could carry South Carolina in the general election along with other southern states.[90] Though Goldwater lost in a landslide, he won South Carolina with 59% of the vote compared to President Lyndon Johnson 41%.[91]
Senate Republicans had a lukewarm reaction to Thurmond joining their caucus. The 1964 United States elections had been an all around disaster for the Republicans, who not only lost the race for the presidency by the largest margin in history but were reduced to a "super minority" of only 32 seats in the Senate prior to Thurmond's switch.[92] On January 15, 1965, Senate Republicans voted for committee assignments granting Thurmond the ability "to keep at least some of the seniority power he had gained as a Democrat."[93]
Following the election, Johnson continued to push through Civil Rights legislation, most notably the Voting Rights Act in 1965, which committed the federal government to enforce voting rights of citizens by the supervision of elections in states with noted record of voter suppression and disenfranchisement.[94] Thurmond stated that his opposition to the Voting Rights Act was due to not favoring its authorization of the federal government to determine the processes behind how statewide elections are conducted and insisted he was not opposed to black voter turnout.[95] During floor debate on the bill, Republican Senate Leader Everett Dirksen spoke in favor of the VRA, calling it a means to ensure that the rights granted by the Constitution could be afforded to every American, Thurmond retorted that the VRA would lead to "despotism and tyranny."[96]
The Voting Rights Act passed into law by a slightly larger margin than the Civil Rights Act had. Thurmond's opposition to Civil Rights legislation proved no more successful as a Republican than it did as a Democrat. In the Senate, Thurmond had gone from being one of twenty-one Democrats to vote against the Civil Rights Act to being one of only two Republicans to vote in opposition to the VRA.[97]
In 1965, L. Mendel Rivers became chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Commentator Wayne King credited Thurmond's involvement with Rivers as giving Rivers' district "an even dozen military installations that are said to account for one'third to one'half of the jobs in the area."[98]
In 1966, former governor Ernest "Fritz" Hollings won South Carolina's other Senate seat in a special election. He and Thurmond served together for just over 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate duo in American history. Thurmond and Hollings had a very good relationship, despite their often stark philosophical differences. Their long tenure meant their seniority in the Senate gave South Carolina clout in national politics well beyond its modest population.
Third and fourth term (1967''1973, 1973''1979) [ edit ] Thurmond faced no opposition in the Republican primary and was renominated in March 1966.[99] Thurmond competed against Bradley Morrah Jr. in the general election campaign.[100] Morrah avoided direct charges against Thurmond's record and generally spoke of his own ambitions in the event he was elected.[101] He referred to Thurmond's time in the Senate as being ineffective.[102] Thurmond won election with 62.2 percent of the vote (271,297 votes) to Morrah's 37.8 percent (164,955 votes).
On January 17, 1967, Thurmond was appointed to the Senate Judiciary subcommittee on Constitutional Rights.[103] In March, as the Senate passed an endorsement of the United States antiballistic missile system, Thurmond engaged in a back and forth with Joseph Clark after Clark mentioned that Charleston, South Carolina would be included in the Pentagon's list of twenty-five American cities that would get priority in their antimissile protection and attributed this to the influence of Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee L. Mendel Rivers. Thurmond then demanded a rule that would bar senators from being able to disparage members of the House of Representatives in addition to preventing them from speaking and having to remain seated. Clark argued that the rule did not apply to him since he had finished speaking, Thurmond rebutting, "If the senator is not going to be man enough to take his medicine, then let him go." Thurmond then won unanimous approval to have Clark's remarks removed from the record.[104] In July, after the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, Thurmond wrote of his conviction that the outbreak had been precipitated by communists.[105] In September, Thurmond warned against enacting any of the three proposed Panama Canal treaties, which he said could lead to Communist control of the waterway if enacted.[106]
In 1969, Time ran a story accusing Thurmond of receiving "an extraordinarily high payment for land". Thurmond responded to the claim on September 15, saying the tale was a liberal smear intended to damage his political influence,[107] later calling the magazine "anti-South".[108] At a news conference on September 19, Thurmond named executive director of the South Carolina Democratic Party Donald L. Fowler as the individual who had spread the story, a charge that Fowler denied.[109]
Supreme Court nomination [ edit ] In June 1967, Johnson nominated Thurgood Marshall to be the first African-American Justice on the Supreme Court.[110] Along with Sam Ervin, Spessard Holland, and James Eastland, Thurmond was one of four senators noted for calling Marshall a "Constitutional iconoclast" in Senate debate.[111] Thurmond questioned Marshall for an hour "on fine points of constitutional law and history", the move being seen as critics of the nomination turning their inquiry to the subject of Marshall's legal experience.[112] Thurmond stated that Marshall had evaded questions on his legal principles during committee hearings and in spite of his extensive experience, had displayed an ignorance of basic constitutional principles.[113] Marshall was still confirmed by the Senate at the end of that month.[114]
In 1968, Chief Justice Earl Warren decided to retire, and Johnson subsequently nominated Abe Fortas to succeed him.[115] On the third day of hearings, Thurmond questioned Fortas over Mallory v. United States (1957), a case taking place before Fortas's tenure, but for which he was nonetheless held responsible by Thurmond.[116] Thurmond asked Fortas if the Supreme Court decision in the Mallory v. United States case was an encouragement of individuals to commit serious crimes such as rape and if he believed in "that kind of justice", an inquiry that shocked even the usually stoic Fortas.[116] Thurmond displayed sex magazines, which he called "obscene, foul, putrid, filthy and repulsive", to validate his charges that Supreme Court rulings overturning obscenity convictions had led to a large wave of hardcore pornography material. Thurmond stated that Fortas had backed overturning 23 of the 26 lower court obscenity decisions.[117] Thurmond also arranged for the screening of explicit films that Fortas had purportedly legalized, to be played before reporters and his own Senate colleagues.[118] In September, Vice President Hubert Humphrey spoke of a deal made between Thurmond and Nixon over Thurmond's opposition to the Fortas nomination.[119] Both Nixon[120] and Thurmond denied Humphrey's claims, Thurmond saying that he had never discussed the nomination with Nixon while conceding the latter had unsuccessfully tried to sway him from opposing Fortas.[121]
In December 1968, Thurmond stated that President Johnson had considered calling for a special session of Congress to nominate Arthur J. Goldberg as Chief Justice before becoming convinced there would be problems during the process.[122]
Thurmond decried the Supreme Court opinion in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969), which ordered the immediate desegregation of schools in the American South.[123] This had followed continued Southern resistance for more than a decade to desegregation following the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. Thurmond praised President Nixon and his "Southern Strategy" of delaying desegregation, saying Nixon "stood with the South in this case".[123]
In an April 25, 1969 Senate floor speech, Thurmond stated that The New York Times "had a conflict of interest in its attacks on Otto F. Otepka's appointment to the Subversive Activities Control Board."[124] On May 29, Thurmond called for Associate Justice William O. Douglas to resign over what he considered political activities.[125] Douglas remained in office for another six years.[126] In the latter part of the year, President Nixon nominated Clement Haynsworth for Associate Justice.[127][128] This came after the White House consulted with Thurmond throughout all of July, as Thurmond had become impressed with Haynsworth following their close collaboration. Thurmond wrote to Haynsworth that he had worked harder on his nomination than any other that had occurred since his Senate career began.[129] The Haynsworth nomination was rejected in the Senate.[130] Years later, at a March 1977 hearing, Thurmond told Haynsworth, "It's a pity you are not on the Supreme Court today. Several senators who voted against you have told me they would vote for you if they had it to do again."[131]
1968 presidential election [ edit ] On October 23, 1966, Thurmond stated that President Johnson could be defeated in a re-election bid by a Republican challenger since the candidate was likely to be less obnoxious than the president.[132]
Thurmond was an early supporter of a second presidential campaign by Nixon, his backing coming from the latter's position on the Vietnam War.[133] Thurmond met with Nixon during the Republican primary and promised he would not give in to the "depredations of the Reagan forces."[134] At the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, Thurmond, along with Mississippi state chairman Clarke Reed, former U.S. Representative and gubernatorial nominee Howard Callaway of Georgia, and Charlton Lyons of Louisiana held the Deep South states solidly for Richard M. Nixon despite the sudden last-minute entry of Governor Ronald Reagan of California into the race. Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York was also in the race but having little effect. In the fall 1968 general election, Nixon won South Carolina with 38 percent of the popular vote and gained South Carolina's electoral votes. With the segregationist Democrat George Wallace on the ballot, the South Carolina Democratic voters split almost evenly between the Democratic Party nominee, Hubert Humphrey, who received 29.6 percent of the total vote, and Wallace, who received 32.3 percent. Other Deep South states swung to Wallace and posted weak totals for Nixon.
Thurmond had quieted conservative fears over rumors that Nixon planned to ask either liberal Republicans Charles Percy or Mark Hatfield to be his running mate. He informed Nixon that both men were unacceptable to the South for the vice-presidency. Nixon ultimately asked Governor Spiro Agnew from Maryland'--an acceptable choice to Thurmond'--to join the ticket.
During the general election campaign, Agnew stated that he did not believe Thurmond was a racist when asked his opinion on the matter. Clayton Fritchey of the Lewiston Evening Journal cited Agnew's answer over the Thurmond question as an example of the vice presidential candidate not being ready for the same "big league pitching" Nixon had shown during the 1952 election cycle.[135] Thurmond participated in a two-day tour of Georgia during October, saying that a vote for American Independent Party candidate George Wallace was a waste, adding that Wallace could not win nationally and would only swing the election in favor of Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey by having the Democratic-majority House of Representatives select him in the event none of the candidates received enough electoral votes to win the presidency outright. Thurmond also stated that Nixon and Wallace had similar views and predicted Nixon would carry Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Texas and Tennessee.[136] Nixon carried each of these states with the exception of Texas.[137]
Nixon administration [ edit ] Thanks to his close relationship with the Nixon administration, Thurmond was able to deliver a great deal of federal money, appointments and projects to his state. With a like-minded president in the White House, Thurmond became a very effective power broker in Washington. His staffers said his goal was to be South Carolina's "indispensable man" in Washington, D.C.
In the 1970 gubernatorial election, Thurmond's preferred candidate, U.S. Representative Albert W. Watson, was defeated by his more moderate opponent, Democrat John C. West, the outgoing lieutenant governor, who had opposed Thurmond's initial write-in election to the Senate. Watson had defected to the Republicans in 1965, the year after Thurmond's own bolt, and had been politically close to the senator. Watson lost mainly after several Republican officials in South Carolina shied away from him because of his continuing opposition to civil rights legislation. Watson's loss caused Thurmond slowly to moderate his own image in regard to changing race relations.
In February 1971, Senate Republicans voted unanimously to bestow Thurmond full seniority, the vote being seen as "little more than a gesture since committee assignments are the major item settled by seniority and Senator Thurmond has his."[138] Later that month, when Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy visited South Carolina to deliver an address in Charleston, Thurmond gave remarks to the Charleston Chapter of the Air Force Association several hours earlier, mocking Kennedy for the Chappaquiddick incident. Thurmond noted that Brigadier General Thomas Kennedy's wife was named Joan, the same first name as Joan Bennett Kennedy, the senator's wife. He added that the Joan married to the Brigadier General had a husband who was a better driver.[139]
In the 1976 Republican primary, President Ford faced a challenge from former California Governor Ronald Reagan, who selected Richard Schweiker as his running mate.[140] Though Thurmond backed Reagan's candidacy, he, along with North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms, led efforts to oust Schweiker from the ticket.[141] During the subsequent general election, Thurmond appeared in a campaign commercial for incumbent U.S. President Gerald Ford in his race against Thurmond's fellow Southerner, former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. In the commercial, Thurmond said Ford (who was born in Nebraska and spent most of his life in Michigan) "sound[ed] more like a Southerner than Jimmy Carter".[142]
A short time after Mississippian Thad Cochran entered the Senate in late 1978, Thurmond gave him advice on how to vote against bills intended to aid African-Americans but not lose their voting support: "Your black friends will be with you, if you be sure to help them with their projects."[143]
Domestic policies [ edit ] In April 1970, Thurmond was among a group of senators who voted against replacing the electoral college with the popular vote as the determining factor in presidential elections.[144]
In April 1979, during a congressional hearing attended by Coretta Scott King and other witnesses in favor of establishing the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. as a national holiday, Thurmond stated that the Civil Service Commission had estimated that enacting the holiday would cost the government $22 million to cover pay for federal employees. Thurmond furthered that taxpayers would be forced to pay $195 million to accommodate the employees. Ted Kennedy responded to Thurmond by saying that the estimates were not factoring in the revenue that could be generated from sales on the proposed holiday.[145]
Urban unrest and political activism [ edit ] In September 1970, Thurmond attended the 10th anniversary meeting of the Young Americans for Freedom at the University of Hartford, delivering a speech on the rise of guerilla warfare in the United States through urban and campus riots and how it could eventually lead to the dissolution of the country. Thurmond stated the riots would have been less likely to occur had more force been used on the part of authorities and the same belief system should have been adapted in American policy toward Vietnam, which he elaborated on by advocating for American forces receiving more resources needed to secure victories.[146]
On February 22, 1970, Thurmond delivered an address at Drew University defending Julius Hoffman,[147] a judge who had drawn controversy for his role in the Chicago Seven trial.[148][149] Protestors threw marshmallows at Thurmond in response to the speech, Thurmond telling the hecklers that they were cowards for not hearing what he had to say.[150]
On February 4, 1972, Thurmond sent a secret memo to William Timmons (in his capacity as an aide to Richard Nixon) and United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell, with an attached file from the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, urging that British musician John Lennon (then living in New York City) be deported from the United States as an undesirable alien, due to Lennon's political views and activism.[151] The document claimed Lennon's influence on young people could affect Nixon's chances of re-election, and suggested that terminating Lennon's visa might be "a strategy counter-measure".[152] Thurmond's memo and attachment, received by the White House on February 7, 1972, initiated the Nixon administration's persecution of John Lennon that threatened the former Beatle with deportation for nearly five years from 1972 to 1976. The documents were discovered in the FBI files after a Freedom of Information Act search by Professor Jon Wiener, and published in Weiner's book Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files (2000).[152] They are discussed in the documentary film, The U.S. vs. John Lennon (2006).
Labor and commerce [ edit ] In November, along with fellow southerners James Eastland and Sam J. Ervin Jr., Thurmond was one of three senators to vote against an occupational safety bill that would establish a federal supervision to oversee working conditions.[153] In December, Thurmond was one of thirty senators to sign a letter to the Interstate Commerce Commission charging the agency with imperiling rail transportation in the United States through ceasing to be a regulatory entity.[154]
In March 1971, Thurmond introduced a bill that if enacted would authorize individuals who chose to continue working after the age of 65 to have the option of no longer paying Social Security taxes. Thurmond said, "A worker 65 or over who wishes to continue paying Social Security taxes in order to qualify for greater benefits in the future remains free to do so."[155] In December, Thurmond delivered a Senate address predicting that Defense Secretary Melvin Laird would "propose one of the biggest defense budgets in history" during the following year.[156]
In August 1977, Thurmond cosponsored legislation providing free prescription drugs to senior citizens with Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy. The bill would cover 24 million Americans over the age of 65 and was meant to augment the Medicare program with prescription drugs being paid for and given to individuals not hospitalized.[157]
Senate sources reported in October 1979 that Ted Kennedy had asked Majority Leader Robert Byrd to bring the Illinois Brick bill to the floor, the controversial antitrust measure attracting the opposition of Thurmond, who joined Orrin Hatch in threatening a filibuster of the bill.[158] In their stance against the bill, Thurmond and Hatch argued the bill's enactment would result in businesses being exposed to endless litigation as well as the possibility of duplicative awards of damages to direct and indirect purchasers.[159]
Olympic Games [ edit ] In September 1972, Thurmond and Democrat Mike Gravel introduced legislation intended to increase American fortune in future Olympic Games through the formation of a National Amateur Sports Foundation that would fund both sports facilities and training programs while developing greater cooperation among existing sports organizations. Thurmond stated that the proposed National Amateur Sports Foundation would "work with the present amateur athletic organizations but is in no way an attempt to supplant or assume control over these organizations" while granting "necessary coordination between the various existing organizations who so often in the past have worked at cross purposes."[160]
In June 1973, the Senate Commerce Committee approved the Amateur Athletic Act of 1973, legislation that would form the United States Sports Board while ending the power struggle between the Amateur Athletic Union and the National Collegiate Athletic Association by having the board assume powers of both organizations and function as an independent federal agency that would be assigned with protecting the rights of athletes to participate. Thurmond staffers had joined with staffers of Senators James B. Pearson, Mike Gravel, and Marlow Cook in primarily writing the legislation.[161]
Defense [ edit ] In April 1972, when the Senate Armed Services Committee voted to end the Cheyenne helicopter project with a reduction of $450 million from the Pentagon's weapons programs, Thurmond was the sole Republican senator on the committee to oppose the move to terminate the project.[162]
On June 2, 1973, Thurmond attended the launch of the USS L. Mendel Rivers (SSN-686), during which he stated that the Soviet Union was building three submarines for every one built by the U.S. and called for American submarine construction to be accelerated.[163][164] At a July 1973 hearing, Thurmond suggested that the decision made by former Air Force Major Hal M. Knight to testify had to do with Knight's lack of advancement. Knight responded that he did not take an oath to support the military but instead the constitution.[165]
In August 1974, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved a cut of nearly $5 billion in the Defense Department's budget for the current fiscal year, conflicting with President Ford. Thurmond expressed doubt on any major efforts to restore funds being undertaken by Ford administration supporters during the Senate floor debate.[166]
In January 1977, Thurmond introduced a bill prohibiting American uniformed military forces having unionization, the measure earning the support of thirty-three senators. Thurmond wrote, "If military unions have proved irresponsible in other countries we can hardly permit them to be organized in the United States on the flimsy hypothesis that they may possibly be more responsible here."[167]
Intelligence reform [ edit ] During this period, the NSA reportedly had been eavesdropping on Thurmond's conversations, using the British part of the ECHELON project.[168]
In January 1975, Thurmond was one of four senators to vote against the creation of a special committee to investigate the Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and other government agencies intended to either gather intelligence or enforce the law.[169]
After President-elect Carter nominated Theodore C. Sorensen as his choice to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Thurmond expressed reservations[170] and fellow Senator Jake Garn said he believed Thurmond would not vote for the nomination.[171] Sorensen withdrew from consideration days later, before a vote could be had.[172][173]
In May, Thurmond made a joint appearance with President Carter in the Rose Garden in a show of bipartisan support for proposed foreign intelligence surveillance legislation. Thurmond stated he had become convinced the legislation was needed from his service on the Armed Services Committee, the Judiciary Committee and the Intelligence Committee the previous year and lauded the bill for concurrently protecting the rights of Americans, as a warrant would have to be obtained from a judge in order to fulfill any inquiries.[174]
Energy and the environment [ edit ] In July 1977 the Senate voted against terminating the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project. Arguing in favor of the plant, Thurmond stated that Gulf Oil, Shell Oil, and Allied Chemical gathered "the best brains" in the U.S. to head the plant in anticipation of Gerald Ford's election, and questioned whether it was honorable to discontinue the plant simply because Ford had left office.[175]
In March 1973, Thurmond was one of nine Republican senators to vote with the Democratic majority in favor of a measure demanding President Nixon to release the $120 million the Agriculture Department had not used toward water and rural area sewer systems.[176]
In April 1973, Thurmond announced a $3 million grant and $700,000 loan from federal agencies for South Carolina with the Farmers Home Administration granting the loan to the Edgefield County Water and Sewer Authority to complete a rural system serving 2,906 residences in addition to businesses in surrounding areas.[177]
In January 1976, the Senate voted in favor of expanding American fishing jurisdiction by 200 miles, a bill that Thurmond opposed. Thurmond was successful in implementing an amendment, which passed 93 to 2, postponing the date of its effect by a year. In consulting with President Ford by telephone, the latter confirmed to Thurmond that the added period brought about by his amendment would see him sign the bill in the interim.[178]
In October 1976, Thurmond was informed of President Ford's intent to sign the Congaree National Park bill, authorizing the purchase of 15,200 acres of Beidler Tract. Thurmond said it would be "a great day for all those who have worked so long and hard to see that the Congaree forest will be saved."[179]
Foreign policy [ edit ] Throughout his entire political career, Thurmond's stance on foreign policy was characterized by his staunch opposition to communism.
Vietnam and the Far East [ edit ] In a 1970 speech, Thurmond called on Japan to increase defense spending and take a larger role in resisting communism in Asia. Thurmond requested that Japan exercise restraints in textile exports to the U.S. and stated that he was in favor of trade between the US and Japan with the exception of instances of it closing American textile mills or when it caused textile workers to lose their jobs. He furthered that America intended to hold on to its prior commitments and that an address by President Nixon the previous year in which Nixon called for allies of Asia to play a larger role in their defense demonstrated American trust "in the capacities and growth of our allies." Thurmond also defended the Vietnam policy of the Nixon administration, saying that the president was making the best of the situation that he had inherited from Kennedy and Johnson while admitting he personally favored a total victory in the war.[180]
On April 11, 1971, Thurmond called for the exoneration of William Calley following his conviction of participating in the My Lai Massacre, stating that the "victims at Mylai were casualties to the brutality of war" and Calley had acted off of order.[181] Calley's petition for habeas corpus was granted three years later, in addition to his immediate release from house arrest.[182]
In January 1975, Thurmond and William Scott toured South Vietnam, Thurmond receiving a medal from President of South Vietnam Nguyá>>…n Văn Thiá>>‡u. The award was seen as part of an attempt by South Vietnam to court American congressional votes in its favor.[183]
In 1971, Thurmond advocated against lifting the trade embargo on the People's Republic of China, stating that its communist regime had engaged in a propaganda effort to weaken support for the embargo.[184] Nevertheless, days later, President Nixon ordered an end to the embargo.[185][186]
The Panama Canal Zone [ edit ] In 1974,[187] Thurmond and Democrat John L. McClellan wrote a resolution to continue American sovereignty by the Panama Canal and zone. Thurmond stated that the rhetoric delivered by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger suggested that the "Canal Zone is already Panamanian territory and the only question involved is the transfer of jurisdiction."[188] In the late 1970s, Thurmond advocated for forging a new relationship with Panama but against the U.S. giving up sovereignty to the Canal Zone. Thurmond doubted Panama's ability to govern alone: "There is no way that a Panarnaniain government could be objective about the administration of an enterprise so large in comparison to the rest of the national enterprise, public and private."[189] In late August 1977, the New York Times wrote "President Carter can be grateful that the opposition to his compromise Panama treaty is now being led by Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina and Senator Jesse Helms of North Carolina."[190] Speaking on the Panama Canal neutrality treaty, Thurmond said it was "the big giveaway of the century."[191][192] The treaty was ratified by the Senate on March 16, 1978.[193]
Soviet Union [ edit ] In June 1974, Senator Henry M. Jackson informed Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee that he had arranged for Thurmond to cosponsor an amendment revising the present export control system and restricting trade with the Soviet Union while granting the Defense Secretary power to veto any export that might "significantly increase the military capability" of either the Soviet Union or other Communist countries. Jackson introduced the amendment after Howard M. Metzenbaum yielded the Senate floor before Majority Leader Mike Mansfield caught on to the proposal and succeeded in preventing an immediate vote.[194]
In June 1975, as the Senate weighed a reduction in a $25 billion weapons procurement measure and to delete research funds to improve the accuracy and power of intercontinental ballistic missiles and warheads, Thurmond and Harry F. Byrd Jr. warned that the Soviet Union was attempting an increase on its missile accuracy and advocated for the United States to follow suit with its own missiles.[195] Later that month, Thurmond and Jesse Helms wrote to President Ford requesting he meet with Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn ahead of a speech on June 30 during an AFL''CIO dinner. The White House responded that Ford was too busy to meet with Solzhenitsyn, while later sources indicate Ford declined the meeting at the counsel of his advisors.[196]
In December 1979, Thurmond was one of ten senators on the Senate Armed Services Committee to sign a report urging President Carter Is to delay the vote on proposed treaty with between the US and Soviet Union to limit nuclear arms.[197]
Judiciary [ edit ] In January 1970, Thurmond asserted that he would work "to reverse the unreasonable and impractical decisions of the Supreme Court", as well as assist with the appointment of "sound judges" and uphold the Nixon administration's position for resumption of tax'exempt status among all private schools.[198] Thurmond urged Nixon to nominate another South Carolina Republican convert, Joseph O. Rogers Jr., to a federal judgeship; he had been the party's unsuccessful 1966 gubernatorial nominee against the Democrat Robert Evander McNair. At the time Rogers was the U.S. Attorney in South Carolina. When his judicial nomination dragged on, Rogers resigned as U.S. attorney and withdrew from consideration. He blamed the Nixon administration, which he and Thurmond had helped to bring to power, for failure to advance his nomination in the Senate because of opposition to the appointment from the NAACP.[199]
In May 1971, a Thurmond spokesman confirmed that Thurmond had asked President Nixon to appoint Albert Watson to the United States Court of Military Appeals.[200]
In October 1974, Thurmond was one of five senators to sponsor legislation authored by Jesse Helms permitting prayer in public schools and taking the issue away from the Supreme Court which had previously ruled in 1963 that school prayer violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution through the establishment of a religion.[201]
In January 1979, Ted Kennedy, in his new position as Senate Judiciary Committee chairman, terminated the blue slip system, which had previously allowed senators to veto prospective federal judgeship nominees from their own state. Nevada Senator Paul Laxalt read a statement from Thurmond in which the latter presumed "that the committee will honor the blue slip system that has worked so well in the past".[202] In March 1979, the Carter administration made an appeal to Congress for new powers to aid with the enforcement of federal laws as it pertains to housing discrimination. Thurmond refused to back the administration as he charged it with "injecting itself in every facet of people's lives" and said housing disputes should be settled in court.[203]
In July 1979, as the Senate weighed voting on the nomination of Assistant Attorney General Patricia M. Wald to the United States Court of Appeals in Washington, Thurmond joined Paul Laxalt and Alan Simpson recorded their opposition.[204] Later that month, Thurmond asked Attorney General nominee Benjamin R. Civiletti if President Carter had made him give a pledge of loyalty or an assurance of complete independence.[205] In September, the Senate Judiciary Committee approved 30 of President Carter's nominees, the closest vote being waged against Abner J. Mikva, who the president had nominated for the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. Thurmond was one of the five Republicans to vote against Mikva.[206] In November, President Carter nominated Jos(C) A. Cabranes to fill a vacancy on the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut. Thurmond submitted a series of written questions to Cabranes, whose answers were credited with clarifying his views on issues.[207] Cabranes was confirmed for the position.
In July 1979, after the Carter administration unveiled a proposed governing charter for the FBI, Thurmond stated his support for its enactment, his backing being seen by the New York Times as an indication that the governing charter would face little conservative opposition.[208]
In September 1979, the Senate approved Bailey Brown as Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The nomination was one of the few votes in which Thurmond and Ted Kennedy joined forces in confirming and Thurmond supported an opinion by Kennedy on what the latter hoped would be the precedent for judicial nominees: "It is inadvisable for a nominee for a Federal judgeship to belong to a social club that engages in invidious discrimination." During the hearing, Kennedy had stated that he believed it would have been better for Brown to resign from the all-white club. Thurmond stated afterward that he understood the judge's feeling that a resignation would have been verification of his thirty-three years with the club being improper.[209]
On October 10, President Carter signed the Federal Magistrate Act of 1979, an expansion of the jurisdiction of American magistrates in regards to civil and criminal cases. Carter noted Thurmond as one of the members of Congress who had shown leadership on the measure, without whose efforts it would have never passed.[210] Senate sources reported in October that Ted Kennedy had asked Majority Leader Robert Byrd to bring the Illinois Brick bill to the floor, the controversial antitrust measure attracting the opposition of Thurmond, who joined Orrin Hatch in threatening a filibuster of the bill.[158] In their stance against the bill, Thurmond and Hatch argued the bill's enactment would result in businesses being exposed to endless litigation as well as the possibility of duplicative awards of damages to direct and indirect purchasers.[159]
Nixon's resignation [ edit ] In July 1973, Thurmond was one of ten Republican senators in a group headed by Carl T. Curtis invited to the White House to reaffirm their support for President Nixon in light of recent scandals and criticism of the president within his own party.[211] In October, President Nixon ordered the firing of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox in an event that saw the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus before Robert Bork fulfilled the president's order. The day after the firing, Democrat Birch Bayh charged Thurmond with "browbeating" Cox during Senate Judiciary Committee hearings on the firing. Thurmond replied that Bayh was "below a snake" in the event that he had intended to impugn his motives. Thurmond was noted for joining Edward J. Gurney in questioning Cox "at length in an attempt to show that he was biased against" Nixon and his administration. Thurmond asked Cox if eleven members of his staff had worked for Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and was interrupted multiple times by James Eastland to allow for Cox to fully answer questions.[212]
In May 1974, the House Judiciary Committee opened impeachment hearings against President Nixon after the release of 1,200 pages of transcripts of White House conversations between him and his aides and the administration became engulfed in the scandal that would come to be known as Watergate. Thurmond, along with William L. Scott and James B. Allen agreed with Senator Carl T. Curtis on the equation of resignation with mob rule and the group declined defending Nixon's conduct. Thurmond opined that Nixon was "the only President we have" and questioned why Congress would want to weaken his hand in negotiating with other countries.[213] In August, Newsweek published a list by the White House including Thurmond as one of thirty-six senators that the administration believed would support President Nixon in the event of his impeachment and being brought to trial by the Senate. The article stated that some supporters were not fully convinced and this would further peril the administration as 34 needed to prevent conviction.[214] Nixon resigned on August 9 in light of near-certain impeachment.[215]
Fifth term (1979''1985) [ edit ] In his general election campaign, Thurmond faced Charles Ravenel, a local banker and former gubernatorial candidate.[216] Ravenel charged Thurmond with not standing up for South Carolina's educational needs and having been behind the lack of funding. Thurmond responded to the charges by stating that he thought the state had made advancements in its education system.[217] Thurmond and Ravenel made a joint appearance in April, where Thurmond discussed his position on a variety of issues.[218]
The higher amount of African-Americans voting in elections was taken into account by the Ravenel campaign, which sought to gain this group of voters by reviving interest in older statements by Thurmond. In his courting of black voters, Thurmond was noted to have not undergone "any ideological transformation" but instead devoted himself to making personal contact with members of the minority group. Thurmond's influence in national politics allowed him to have correspondence with staffers from the Nixon administration which gave him "a unique advantage in announcing federal grants and bird-dogging federal projects of particular interest to black voters."[219]
By May 1978, Thurmond held a 30-point lead over Ravenel among double digits of undecided voters.[220] Thurmond won a fifth term with 351,733 votes to Ravenel's 281,119. The race would later be assessed as the last serious challenge to Thurmond during his career.[221]
1980 presidential election [ edit ] Thurmond endorsed the presidential candidacy of John Connally,[222] on December 27, 1979.[223] The Republican election cycle that year also featured Reagan,[224] Thurmond explaining that he had chosen to back Connally this time around because of the latter's wide government experience which he believed would benefit the U.S. in both domestic and foreign matters.[225] Thurmond stated that the Iran hostage crisis would have never happened were Connally the sitting president as Iranians were familiar with his strength. The Washington Post noted Thurmond seeming "to cast himself for a role of regional leadership in the Connally campaign similar to the one he played in 1968" for the Nixon campaign.[226] Connally subsequently was defeated in the South Carolina primary by Reagan, thanking Thurmond and his wife for doing more to support his campaign in the state than anyone else.[227] In August 1980, Thurmond gave a "tense cross examination" of Billy Carter, the brother of President Carter who had come under scrutiny for his relationship with Libya and receiving funds from the country. The Billy Carter controversy also was favored by Democrats wishing to replace Carter as the party's nominee in the general election.[228] Thurmond questioned Carter over his prior refusal to disclose the amount of funds he had received from public appearances following the 1976 election of his brother as president,[229] and stated his skepticism with some of the points made.[230]
During a November 6, 1980 press conference, days after the 1980 Senate election, in which the Republicans unexpectedly won a majority,[231] Thurmond pledged that he would seek a death penalty law.[232] During an interview the following year, Thurmond said, "I am convinced the death penalty is a deterrent to crime. I had to sentence four people to the electric chair. I did not make the decision; the jury made it. It was my duty to pass sentence, because the jury had found them guilty and did not recommend mercy. But if I had been on the jury, I would have arrived at the same decision; in all four of those cases."[233] After the presidential election, Thurmond and Helms sponsored a Senate amendment to a Department of Justice appropriations bill denying the department the power to participate in busing, due to objections over federal involvement, but, although passed by Congress, was vetoed by a lame duck Carter.[234][235] In December 1980, Thurmond met with President-elect Reagan and recommended former South Carolina governor James B. Edwards for United States Secretary of Energy in the incoming administration.[236] Reagan later named Edwards Energy Secretary, and the latter served in that position for over a year.[237][238] In early January 1981, the Justice Department revealed it was carrying out a suit against Charleston County for school officials declining to propose a desegregation method for its public schools. Thurmond responded by noting that South Carolina did not support President Carter in the general election and stating that this may have contributed to the Justice Department's decision.[239] On January 11, Thurmond stated that he would ask the incoming Reagan administration to look into the facts of the case before proceeding.[240]
Reagan administration [ edit ] In 1970, African-Americans constituted about 30 percent of South Carolina's population.[241] After the Voting Rights Act of 1965, African Americans were legally protected in exercising their constitutional rights to register and vote in South Carolina.
Thurmond appointed Thomas Moss, an African American, to his Senate staff in 1971. It has been described as the first such appointment by a member of the South Carolina congressional delegation (it was incorrectly reported by many sources as the first senatorial appointment of an African American, but Mississippi Senator Pat Harrison had hired clerk-librarian Jesse Nichols in 1937). In 1983, Thurmond supported legislation to make the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. a federal holiday.[6] In South Carolina, the honor was diluted; until 2000 the state offered employees the option to celebrate this holiday or substitute one of three Confederate holidays instead. Despite this, Thurmond never explicitly renounced his earlier views on racial segregation.[242][243][244][245]
Thurmond became President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate in 1981, and was part of the U.S. delegation to the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, Thurmond being accompanied by Sadat's pen pal Sam Brown.[246]
In January 1982, Thurmond and Vice President George H. W. Bush were met with protestors while Thurmond was being inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame, the protestors holding signs charging Thurmond with racism and attacking the Voting Rights Act.[247]
In the 1984 presidential election, Thurmond was cited along with Carroll Campbell and South Carolina Republican Party Director Warren Tompkins by Republicans as the forces binding the Reagan-Bush ticket to South Carolina's electoral votes.[248] Thurmond attended President Reagan's October 15 re-election campaign speech in the Allied Health Building on the Greenville Technical College campus in Greenville, South Carolina.[249]
In June 1986, Thurmond sent a letter to Attorney General Edwin Meese requesting "an inquiry into the activities of former Commerce Department official Walter Lenahan, and expressed concern about an alleged leak of U.S. trade information to textile-exporting nations."[250]
In January 1987, Thurmond swore in Carroll A. Campbell Jr. as the 112th Governor of South Carolina.[251]
On February 23, 1988, Thurmond endorsed fellow senator Bob Dole in the Republican presidential primary, acknowledging his previous intent to remain neutral during the nominating process.[252] The Thurmond endorsement served to change the Dole campaign's initial plans of skipping the South Carolina primary, where Vice President Bush defeated Dole. The Bush campaign subsequently won other Southern states and the nomination, leading Michael Oreskes to reflect that Dole "was hurt by an endorsement that led him astray."[253]
In August 1988, as the Senate voted on the nomination of Dick Thornburgh as U.S. Attorney General, Thurmond stated that Thornburgh had the qualities necessary for an Attorney General to possess, citing his "integrity, honesty, professionalism and independence." Thornburgh was confirmed, and served for the remainder of the Reagan administration as well as the Bush administration.[254]
Following the 1988 Presidential election, George H. W. Bush nominated John Tower for United States Secretary of Defense. After Tower's nomination was rejected by the Senate, Thurmond asked, "What does it say when the leader of the free world can't get a Cabinet member confirmed?"[255]
In August 1989, the Senate Judiciary Committee voted evenly on the nomination of William C. Lucas for Assist Attorney General for Civil Rights, terminating the nomination that required a majority to proceed to the entirety of the chamber. Among his support, Thurmond noted that Lucas was a minority, and reflected on their lack of opportunities in years prior, adding, "I know down South they didn't and up North either. We had de jure segregation and up North you had de facto segregation. There was segregation in both places, and black people didn't have the chance in either place that they should have had. Now's the chance to give them a chance." Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee Joe Biden refuted Thurmond's argument by mentioning that Senate critics of Lucas were civil rights supporters who had a problem with his lack of qualifications.[256]
In September 1989, Hurricane Hugo hit the Southeast United States, causing twenty-seven deaths in South Carolina. In response, Congress approved a $1.1 billion emergency aid package for victims of the hurricane in what was the largest disaster relief package in American history. Before the vote, Thurmond said of the hurricane, "I have never seen so much damage in my life. It looked like there had been a war there. We need all the help we can get."[257] Thurmond accompanied President Bush aboard Air Force One when he visited the state at the end of the month, and revealed that Bush had written a check of $1,000 to South Carolina Red Cross as a showing of personal support for those affected.[258]
Domestic policy [ edit ] In 1980, Thurmond and Democratic Representative John Conyers jointly sponsored a constitutional amendment to change the tenure of the President to a single six-year term.[259][260]
At the beginning of 1981, Thurmond as the new chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee and President Reagan were seen as obstacles to any gun laws passing in the Senate. Thurmond publicly stated his belief that any measures introduced would be defeated in his committee.[261] After the March assassination attempt on President Reagan,[262][263] which ushered in bipartisan support for "legislation that would ban the importing of unassembled gun parts involved in the manufacture of cheap pistols often used by criminals", Thurmond stated his support for legislation imposing a ban on the gun components on a seven-point anti-crime program.[264] He indicated his backing would only be in favor of passing measures to restrict criminals accessing guns, telling reporters, "I still think criminals are going to get guns. But if you take guns away from people who need them to protect their homes, that is unreasonable."[265] Thurmond's announcement indicating his support for gun control legislation in the wake of the assassination attempt was seen as possibly indicating a change in the debate of regulations relating to firearms in the U.S.[266] He announced plans to hold hearings on the seven-point proposal intended to address the questions surrounding the Reagan assassination attempt.[267] In July 1989, when the Senate Judiciary Committee approved a bill by Democrat Dennis DeConcini that imposed a ban of three years on sales of several domestic assault rifles, it rejected an amendment by Thurmond that would have substituted the DeConcini bill with the Bush administration's anti-crime package, which did not include a ban on rifles produced in the United States. Failure to implement the Thurmond amendment was seen as "a preliminary test of Senate support for extending President Bush's ban on foreign-made assault weapons to domestic makes" and a loss for the National Rifle Association which had previously protested banning domestic assault rifles. Following the vote, Thurmond and NRA officials pledged to bring the same issue up before the full chamber.[268]
In early 1981, Thurmond stated his support for a balanced budget amendment as he believed Reagan's successor would unbalance the budget in spite of what Reagan did while in office. He added that there was not a timetable for getting it passed and that Congress was ahead of the newly formed Reagan administration.[269] Thurmond attended the July 12, 1982 Rose Garden speech by President Reagan on the balanced budget amendment. President Reagan stated the administration was "asking Majority Leader Baker, Senators Thurmond, Hatch, DeConcini, and Helms, as leaders of the 61 cosponsors, to help us secure its passage as rapidly as possible."[270] On August 4, 1982, the Senate approved adopting a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget in the following years.[271] Following the vote, Thurmond said, "This is a great day for America. We feel this is a step that will turn this country around, once it is ratified by the states."[272] On January 26, 1983, a constitutional amendment mandating a balanced budget was introduced to the Senate, Thurmond and Utah Senator Orrin Hatch serving as its main cosponsors. Thurmond's remarks included calling for a haste to its enactment: "Congress has shown it is unable to control federal spending and, in doing so, has conceded it must be forced to do so. That is why this amendment is so urgently needed."[273] In October 1985, Thurmond supported a plan to require a balanced budget by 1991.[274]
Throughout early 1981, Thurmond and Helms urged President Reagan to curb textile imports, with Thurmond saying later that year that the first four months of 1981 had seen a 16 percent increase in textile imports "over a similar period in 1980."[275] That year, President Reagan pledged in a letter to Thurmond to help South Carolina textile mills against their foreign competitors. The letter was pulled out by Chief of Staff James Baker during a December 1983 White House Cabinet Council on Commerce and Trade meeting, and was credited by two White House aides with ending "the council debate cold."[276] President Reagan stated his support for tightening control of textile imports in December 1983.[277] In December 1984, President Reagan vetoed H.R. 1562,[278] Thurmond responded to the decision by stating that Reagan had heeded bad advice and predicted the veto would produce "more layoffs, more plant shutdowns and more long-term economic damage to an industry that is crucial to this nation."[279]
In June 1981, Thurmond stated that MX missiles could potentially disrupt southwest lifestyles and called for a "reassessment of the country's commitment to a joint land, sea and air-based ballistic missile deterrent." Thurmond believed billions of dollars could potentially be saved in the event that military experts look into the sea-based missiles and the missiles would be less likely to attack if not based on land.[280]In 1983, Thurmond supported legislation for the MX missile, voting for its development being funded by $625 million in May,[281] and against the Gary Hart amendment that if enacted would have removed production for the missile from the military authorization bill of 1984 two months later.[282]
In July 1981, Thurmond sent Attorney General William French Smith a twelve-person list of candidates to be considered for federal district judgeship.[283]
The year of 1981 also saw the Voting Rights Act come up for another extension. Thurmond was one of the leaders in opposition to portions of the act,[284] and said parts of the law were discriminatory toward states' rights as well as too strict toward communities that had adhered to it in the past.[285]
On March 11, 1982, Thurmond voted in favor of a measure sponsored by Senator Orrin Hatch that sought to reverse Roe v. Wade and allow Congress and individual states to adopt laws banning abortions. Its passage was the first time a congressional committee supported an anti-abortion amendment.[286][287]
In July 1982, the House and Senate overrode President Reagan's veto of copyright legislation intended to retain employment in the American printing and publishing industries. Thurmond stated he could not understand President Reagan's authorization of recommendation on the part of what he called "middle-level bureaucrats" and how he could take advice from members of the aforementioned group amid a Labor Department report on the thousands of jobs that would be lost without the bill. Thurmond added that the legislation would retain "jobs for Americans", a rebuff of claims to the contrary on the part of Reagan.[288]
In 1983, the National Taxpayers Union, a conservative group that bestowed points to politicians who voted for measures to reduce federal spending, gave Thurmond a 58 percent spending score, three points down from his rating two years prior.[289]
In 1984, the Senate voted on a bill granting federal prosecution to weapon-carrying career robbers and giving 15 years of incarceration to those convicted. Along with Senator Ted Kennedy, Thurmond sponsored an amendment limiting the bill to third-time federal offenders. The amendment passed 77 to 12, and was sent to the House.[290]
In June 1985, Thurmond introduced legislation providing stiffer federal penalties for individuals and financial institutions engaged in laundering money earned from activities of illegality. The bill, supported by the Reagan administration as it sought to expose the financial activities of criminals, was hailed by Thurmond as "an important step in our continuing war on organized crime and those financial institutions and individuals which hide the ill-gotten assets of law-breakers, especially drug traffickers." American Bar Association, American Bankers Association and American Civil Liberties Union officials charged the proposal with largely removing privacy laws imposed by the federal government and state governments that were established to prevent unchecked examinations of the bank records of individuals from authorities.[291]
In 1988, Thurmond introduced an amendment to a bill by Chris Dodd calling for granting unpaid leaves for workers with either a newborn, newly adopted, or seriously ill child. The amendment called for severe penalties to individuals involved in the selling, transferring of control or buying of a child so he or she can be used in pornography. Thurmond forced a vote and the amendment passed 97 to 0.[292]
In October 1989, as the Senate approved a bill that made burning of the American flag a federal crime in an attempt to counter a Supreme Court ruling asserting that flag-burning was protected by the First Amendment, Thurmond opined that securing flag burning as a federal crime through a constitutional amendment was "the only sure and foolproof way to protect the integrity of the American flag".[293]
Anti-crime and drug policies [ edit ] In May 1982, Thurmond introduced anti-crime legislation that included provisions altering the bail system to allow a judge to deny bond to defendants the judge considered a danger to society along a "presumption" that defendants charged with drug trafficking or the use of a weapon in a violent crime are a danger to the community in addition to imposing fines and penalties for individuals convicted of dealing "large amounts of the most dangerous drugs." Under the legislation, the acts of killing, kidnapping or assaulting certain White House officials, Cabinet members of Supreme Court justices would be made federal crimes and witnesses and victims would be granted protection during and following a federal trial. The measure was considered a last-ditch effort to push a crime bill through Congress by the end of the year and the White House responded with praise of the legislation as containing "several statutory reforms that are long overdue" within hours of Thurmond unveiling it. Thurmond referred to the measure as a "big step toward controlling the number one threat to organized society '' crime."[294]
In 1983, Thurmond served as a sponsor of an anti-crime bill that included a measure that would form a Cabinet-level post to oversee drug investigations. President Reagan pocket vetoed the bill on the grounds that it would have created "another layer of bureaucracy" in attempts to combat narcotics. Though saying he was not angered by the president's opposition, Thurmond admitted Reagan's approval would have been a better alternative and called on the newly commenced 98th United States Congress to compose anti-crime legislation that the administration would support.[295]
In September 1986, Thurmond sponsored a drug law package that included a provision imposing the death penalty for some drug offenses and federal crimes of "treason, espionage and killing American hostages in a terrorist attack"; it followed another measure passed in the House authorizing introduction of certain evidence in drug-related cases that was seized illegally, and increased the difficulty for criminal defendants to use writs of habeas corpus. The legislation omitted a provision of the House bill that granted American military personnel the authority to arrest individuals in drug-trafficking cases, and the legislation's other sponsors conceded that it would provoke a filibuster and possibly need revising in light of opposition to its more controversial proposals.[296] A week later, the Senate opened debate on proposals aimed at ending both the supply of dangerous drugs as well as their demand. Thurmond offered changes to criminal law in the form of amendments that would include imposing the death penalty for drug traffickers guilty of murder and an expansion of the proposal that would add the death penalty for other federal crimes, such as espionage and hostage taking. Thurmond additionally favored altering rules of evidence so that evidence gathered illegally would not be removed from criminal proceedings if it was obtained in "good faith".[297] President Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 on October 27, 1986, noting Thurmond as one of the "real champions in the battle to get this legislation through Congress".[298]
In November 1987, Thurmond introduced legislation that if enacted would require "alcoholic beverages to carry health warning labels similar to those on cigarettes", saying the legislation would be effective if it prevented anyone from drinking while being in a compromising position of health.[299] The following year, Thurmond sponsored legislation designed to impose "five rotating warning labels on alcoholic beverages cautioning pregnant women not to drink, warning that alcohol is addictive and can increase the risks of hypertension, liver disease and cancer, that it impairs a person's ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and that alcohol consumption can be hazardous in combination with some drugs."[300]
In September 1989, Thurmond was one of nine Republican senators appointed by Senate Republican leader Robert Dole to negotiate a dispute with Democrats over financing of President Bush's anti-drug plan that called for spending $7.8 billion by the following year as part of the president's efforts to address narcotics nationwide and abroad.[301]
Judicial nominees [ edit ] In late 1981, Thurmond presided over the hearings of Sandra Day O'Connor, who President Reagan had nominated for Associate Justice.[302][303] Thurmond granted Alabama Senator Jeremiah Denton an hour of questioning of O'Connor, twice the time allotted for other members of the chamber.[304]Thurmond stated that O'Connor was "one of the choice nominees" for the Supreme Court that he had seen in all of his Senate career, furthering that she had all the qualities he believed "a judge needs."[305] O'Connor was confirmed by the Senate.[306]
In November 1982, President Reagan selected Harry N. Walters as his choice for Administrator of Veterans Affairs;[307][308] Thurmond and Wyoming senator Alan Simpson were both critical of the president's lack of consultation with them prior to the announcement. Thurmond shortly afterward stated publicly his support for Walters, citing him as having "the education and experience to fill the position".[309] Walters was confirmed for the position.[310]
In January 1984, President Reagan nominated of Edwin Meese for U.S. Attorney General to replace the resigning William French Smith.[311] Meese agreed for a second round of questioning from the Senate Judiciary Committee, which Thurmond felt "would be productive all the way around" to have another appearance by the nominee.[312] At a news conference that month, Thurmond stated a lack of evident wrongdoing and his confidence in Meese stemming from Reagan having selected him: "Up to now, there's been nothing I've come across that would damage Mr. Meese. If President Reagan nominated the man, then he must be qualified."[313] Meese was later confirmed by the Senate in February 1985.[314] In May 1988, after Meese dismissed spokesman Terry Eastland,[315] Thurmond stated that Eastland's reputation was fine and that he had concern toward the latest developments, adding "his voice to those of Republican lawmakers who have said they were increasingly concerned over the operations of the Justice Department under" Meese.[316]
In November 1985, after President Reagan nominated Alex Kozinski to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit,[317] Thurmond assailed a day-long questioning of Kozinski by Democratic members of the Senate as "the puniest, most nit-picking charges" he had heard from members of that ideology in all of his time in Congress and called Kozinski "a man of integrity and dedication, with a magnificent record".[318]
In March 1986, Daniel Anthony Manion, President Reagan's choice for the U.S. Court of Appeals in Chicago, answered a question by Thurmond at the beginning of a session before a Senate panel.[319] Three months later, Thurmond called for a bipartisan vote for cloture, citing Manion as "entitled to have a vote by the Senate",[320] and predicted there were enough votes to confirm him.[321]
In August 1986, after President Reagan nominated Associate Justice William Rehnquist for Chief Justice of the United States,[322][323] Thurmond said the questions poised toward Rehnquist during his confirmation hearings were disgraceful as well as part of an attempt to smear him.[324] As a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Thurmond voted in favor of recommending Rehnquist's confirmation.[325] Thurmond defended Rehnquist against charges of discrimination, saying the nomination would never have been approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee if its members felt any credibility to the claims.[326]
In July 1987, President Reagan nominated Robert Bork as Associate Justice on the Supreme Court.[327] The Los Angeles Times noted Thurmond as "one of Bork's key supporters on the Judiciary Committee."[328] In October, after the Senate rejected Bork's nomination,[329] Thurmond stated during a news conference that President Reagan's next nominee should be a person not "as controversial" and concurrently praised Bork as "a great judge who would have adorned the Supreme Court with honor." Thurmond also expressed his view that the next Supreme Court nominee should be someone from the South.[330]
Foreign policy [ edit ] In April 1981, Thurmond stated that the U.S. could move some of its West Germany soldiers to the East German and Czechoslovak borders in an attempt to improve both morale and combat readiness.[331]
In October 1983, Thurmond stated his support for the United States invasion of Grenada, saying American efforts with other countries were "providing an opportunity for Grenadan citizens to regain control over their lives" and the U.S. would be forced to watch centuries of progress crumble if the country was unwilling to make sacrifices.[332] Thurmond voted against the Senate resolution declaring that American troops in Grenada would be "withdrawn no more than 60 days later unless Congress authorized their continued presence there".[333] President Reagan sent Thurmond a letter containing a report in line with the War Powers Resolution.[334] Thurmond said the "ruling junta in Grenada" was directly threatening American lives.[335]
In December 1984, as the United States and Israel moved to negotiate a free-trade pact where tariffs between the two countries would eventually be wiped out following the Reagan administration receiving congressional approval to negotiate such an agreement, Thurmond wrote a letter to United States trade representative Bill Brock calling on Brock to "reformulate" the negotiating position of the US as the senator had been informed by his aides that the American position in the negotiation was "more generous" than the one specified to Congress. Brock replied to Thurmond weeks later, asserting that he had "every intention" of fulfilling his commitment to Congress "to take account of the import sensitivity of specific products" in the agreement and that Israel had acknowledged the irregularity of export subsidy programs "with the concept of a free-trade area."[336]
In September 1985, Thurmond was one of eight members of a delegation that met with General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev. The delegation agreed on viewing Gorbachev as an impressive leader and that he had refused any discussion of human rights issues and repeated Soviet formulas in a response to Afghanistan questions.[337]
In March 1986, after American warplanes took action against Libyan land, Thurmond stated the U.S. "has the right and the duty to protect and defend itself when attacked, as it was today, without provocation." He opposed statements by the Libyan government that the attacks on U.S. ships occurred in international waters and named Muammar Gaddafi as the individual who had orchestrated the acts of aggression toward the U.S.[338]
Thurmond was a supporter of the Nicaragua rebels, saying that support for the group on the part of the United States was central to furthering America's view "in freedom and in protecting ourselves against Soviet totalitarianism."[339] In August 1988, Senator Robert Byrd presented the White House with a modified version of the Democratic proposal on Contra aid. Thurmond responded to the plan by calling it unsatisfactory.[340]
In 1988, some members of the Senate gave support to a law that would impose American participation in an international treaty outlawing genocide. Thurmond stated his intent to add a death penalty amendment in the event the bill reached the Senate floor, the maximum punishment of the bill in the United States being incarceration and Thurmond's measure conflicting with the anti-death penalty views of the bill's leading advocates. Democrats charged Thurmond with using parliamentary devices and Senate traditions to prevent a vote.[341] Thurmond dropped the death penalty amendment when Democrats agreed to proceed with the confirmation of Republican judges. Several Democrats espoused the view that Thurmond had only been adamant in including the death penalty amendment to get something out of the Senate Democrats during the debate over the treaty.[342]
Sixth term (1985''1991) [ edit ] In September 1983, President Reagan attended a fundraising dinner for Thurmond's re-election campaign in the Cantey Building at the South Carolina State Fairgrounds in Columbia, South Carolina. Reagan delivered an address both praising Thurmond and noting the similarities in his views and that of the administration.[343][344]
Running for a sixth full term in 1984,[345] Thurmond faced his first primary challenge in 20 years, from retired CIA agent Robert Cunningham, and won the Republican nomination on June 12, 1984.[346][347] Cunningham charged Thurmond with being a follower who no one could validate the seriousness of as a candidate since he had not been challenged in eighteen years, furthering that the South Carolina Republican Party had been involved with the decline in his opposition. Cunningham said that Thurmond had a "bad track record" and noted his past comments on race, saying that he would not be crushed like Thurmond's past opponents and was getting much encouragement in his bid to unseat him.[348]
Thurmond addressed the issue of age during the primary, the 81-year-old senator stating that he exercised each day for an hour and a half and that he was in the same shape as a person in their 30s or 40s.[349] Cunningham received less than 6% of the primary vote. Thurmond then defeated Melvin Purvis III in the general election, the latter receiving half of the votes cast for Thurmond.[350] Purvis, noted to have few differences in ideology with Thurmond, cited the latter's age as reason to retire him from the Senate.[351]
In 1986, President Reagan nominated Antonin Scalia for Associate Justice to replace William Rehnquist as the latter ascended to Chief Justice of the United States following the retirement of Warren E. Burger.[352] During the hearings held in July, Thurmond questioned Scalia on his view of the Supreme Court's ruling in Miranda v. Arizona, that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody would be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination before police questioning, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them. Scalia told Thurmond, "As a policy matter, I think '' as far as I know everybody thinks '' it's a good idea to warn a suspect what his rights are as soon as practicable."[353]
In early 1990, Thurmond sponsored a crime bill concurrent with another measure of the same intent, his version receiving the support of President Bush.[354] Thurmond charged the Democratic proposal with aiding criminals and furthering the loss of rights on the part of victims.[355] In June, the bill was nearly doomed following a procedural vote that forced Senate leaders to work toward modifying its provisions. Thurmond proposed that his fellow senators accept portions of the bill that the Senate had already passed including provisions expanding the number of federal crimes for which the death penalty could apply from 23 to 30 and restrictions on the number of appeals a condemned inmate may file in Federal courts, and the ban on the sale and manufacture of nine types of semiautomatic weapons. Thurmond additionally called for the Senate to oversee a limited number of amendments on outstanding issues in the crime package like the proposal to allow evidence gathered with an improper warrant to be used in trials and the Department of Justice being reorganized.[356] In 1992, the Senate voted on an anti-crime bill, Thurmond predicting that it would not pass due to what he considered its lack of strength: "This weak bill expands the rights of criminals. It is a fraud. It is a sham." He stated that President Bush had told him in advance of his intent to veto the bill if it passed.[357]
In March 1990, Thurmond endorsed reducing the number of ways applicants to jobs needed to submit to verify they were legal citizens, as various forms were required to be submitted by all applicants under the Immigration Reform and Control Act.[358]
Thurmond joined the minority of Republicans who voted for the Brady Bill for gun control in 1993. He voted against the Federal Assault Weapons Ban in 1994.
Thurmond stumped for President Bush during the 1992 South Carolina Republican primary.[359]In early 1992, Thurmond stated his intent to become the top Republican on the Senate Armed Services Committee, replacing John Warner. He traced his ambitions for the post to an interest in maintaining a strong defense as well as welfare for "the men and women who serve our nation so well."[360] In October 1992, Hollings stated that Thurmond would learn, in the event of his retirement, that he did not have "a home, a hometown, and would quickly discover he doesn't have any real friends." The comment caused Representative Tommy Hartnett to rebuke Hollings, demanding that he apologize for insulting Thurmond.[361]
In June 1993, after the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission voted to close the Navy base and naval shipyard in Charleston, South Carolina, Thurmond said the decision was "probably the worst disaster that's happened to Charleston in my lifetime", citing that the people of Charleston had stood by the Navy more than any others in the world, and called the decision worse than Hurricane Hugo.[362]
In June 1993, President Clinton nominated Ruth Bader Ginsburg for Associate Justice to replace the retiring Byron White. Thurmond had been the only member of the Senate Judiciary Committee to vote against Ginsburg in 1980, prior to her confirmation as Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Thurmond listed concerns about Ginsburg as it pertained to her views on abortion and the death penalty, though he voted to support her, calling Ginsburg "a person of integrity".[363]
Seventh term (1991''1997) [ edit ] Thurmond launched his campaign for a seventh term on February 12, 1990, citing that he had never before felt "a stronger obligation to continue my work for the future of our state and our nation."[364] Thurmond, then age 87, billed himself as having the health of a man in his fifties. The South Carolina Democratic Party faced difficulty recruiting a candidate which they believed had a chance of defeating Thurmond.[365]
In the general election, Thurmond defeated retired intelligence officer Bob Cunningham, who had been his Republican primary opponent in 1984. (Cunningham had switched parties in 1990.)[366]
Clarence Thomas nomination [ edit ] President George H. W. Bush nominated Clarence Thomas for Associate Justice on the Supreme Court to replace the retiring Thurgood Marshall. In a visit with Thurmond, Thomas stated that he had been fortunate as a result of the Civil Rights Movement assisting him in getting out of poverty, a departure from his previous position of African-Americans achieving success through hard work and individual initiative. The New York Times observed, "Judge Thomas's remarks in Mr. Thurmond's office were not in response to reporters' specific questions and were clearly intended to rebut critics, including some by members of civil rights organizations, who say he should not be confirmed because of his vociferous opposition to affirmative action and racial quotas in hiring."[367] In September, as Thomas appeared before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Thurmond interrupted a line of questioning by Howard Metzenbaum to defend Thomas against a complaint that Thomas had answered questions about cases except for abortion, with the assumption that it would harm his nomination's appeal to supporters of Roe v. Wade.[368] Thurmond voted for Thomas's confirmation, and the latter was confirmed by the Senate in October 1991.
Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee [ edit ] Following the 1994 Republican Revolution, in which the Republican Party gained eight seats in the Senate and gained a majority in both chambers, Senator Bob Dole stated that Thurmond would head the Armed Services Committee.[369] In December, after President Clinton's announcement that he would seek a 25 billion increase in defense spending over the following six years, Thurmond called it a correct move but one which validated claims that the president had hastily cut the Pentagon budget.[370]
In February 1995, during an interview, Thurmond stated that he had survived "a little power play" orchestrated by fellow Republicans, enabling him to continue serving as Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman.[371] At the end of June, when the Senate Armed Services Committee unveiled a bill that would eliminate funding proposed by the House in its version of the 1996 National Defense Authorization Act while purchasing parts and continuing production of B-2 bombers, Thurmond called it an effort to "achieve the appropriate balance of readiness, modernization and quality of life program."[372] In late 1995, Thurmond joined a bipartisan coalition of politicians in supporting a petition intending "to loosen the rules governing the prescription drug methlyphenidate".[373] Thurmond attended the December 1995 funeral of South Carolina state senator Marshall Williams.[374]
On December 5, 1996, Thurmond became the oldest serving member of the U.S. Senate, and on May 25, 1997, the longest-serving member (41 years and 10 months), casting his 15,000th vote in September 1998.[375] In the following month, when astronaut and fellow Senator John Glenn was to embark on the Discovery at age 77, Thurmond, who was his senior by 19 years, reportedly sent him a message saying; "I want to go too."[376]
On October 17, 1998, President Bill Clinton signed the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 into law, an authorization of "appropriations for military activities of the Department of Defense, military construction, and defense activities of the Department of Energy." Clinton stated that the bill being named after Thurmond was a "well-deserved and appropriate tribute" due to his thirty-six years in the U.S. Army Reserve and his primary focus in the Senate being on U.S. national defense.[377]
Toward the end of Thurmond's Senate career, critics suggested his mental abilities had declined. His supporters argued that, while he lacked physical stamina due to his age, mentally he remained aware and attentive, and maintained a very active work schedule, showing up for every floor vote. He stepped down as Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee at the beginning of 1999, as he had pledged to do in late 1997.[378]
Eighth term (1997''2003) [ edit ] Thurmond during his later career
Thurmond received primary opposition from Harold G. Worley and Charlie Thompson. Throughout his 1996 campaign, the question of age appeared again, given that he was 93 years old at the time, with Thurmond even remarking that the issue was the only one expressed by members of the press.[379] Kevin Sack observed, "As Mr. Thurmond campaigns for history, polls show that the vast majority of South Carolinians believe it is far past time for him to retire."[380] Worley stated that the issue of age should be dealt with in the primary as opposed to the general election, encouraging Thurmond to be dropped as the seat's continuous nominee.[381]
In the general election, Thurmond received 53.4 percent of the vote to the 44 percent of Democrat Elliott Springs Close.
In February 1999, Thurmond introduced legislation barring health messages on wine bottles, the measure intended to reverse what he called "erroneous and irresponsible" action of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. The legislation transferred authority over labeling to the Department of Health and Human Services from the Treasury Department and increased taxes on wine. Thurmond admitted that he did not usually "favor increased taxes" but maintained that "the only way in which we will be able to finance adequate, impartial and trustworthy research into alcohol-induced diseases such as hypertension, breast cancer and birth defects is to generate a new revenue flow that will be used specifically for investigating such killers."[382] On May 26, 1999, the Senate voted on an amendment to a spending bill exonerating Husband E. Kimmel and Walter C. Short of charges of failing to anticipate the attack on Pearl Harbor that led to American involvement in World War II. Thurmond was noted as one of five Senate members to have been a World War II veteran and back the measure and called Kimmel and Short "the last victims" of Pearl Harbor.[383] In August, Thurmond underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate. In September, Thurmond was admitted to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center for tests, his press secretary John DeCrosta saying in a statement that doctors were interested in the source of Thurmond's fatigue and giving him evaluations.[384]
In October 2000, Thurmond collapsed while lunching with a staff member and an acquaintance at a restaurant in Alexandria, Virginia and was admitted to Walter Reed; his spokeswoman Genevieve Erny stated that the collapse was found to have been unrelated to previous illnesses.[385]
In January 2001, Thurmond endorsed his son Strom Thurmond Jr. for federal prosecutor in South Carolina in a recommendation to the Senate.[386]In March, Thurmond voted for an amendment to the campaign finance reform bill of John McCain and Russ Feingold. Thurmond had initially opposed the measure and changed his vote at the last minute.[387] On the morning of October 3, Thurmond was admitted to Walter Reed after fainting at his Senate desk. He was accompanied in the ambulance by fellow Republican and retired heart transplant surgeon Bill Frist.[388] Declining to seek re-election in 2002, he was succeeded by then-Representative and fellow Republican Lindsey Graham.
Thurmond left the Senate in January 2003 as the United States' longest-serving senator, a record later surpassed by Senator Byrd. In his November farewell speech in the Senate, Thurmond told his colleagues "I love all of you, especially your wives," the latter being a reference to his flirtatious nature with younger women. At his 100th birthday and retirement celebration in December, Thurmond said, "I don't know how to thank you. You're wonderful people, I appreciate you, appreciate what you've done for me, and may God allow you to live a long time."[389]
Thurmond's 100th birthday was celebrated on December 5, 2002. Some remarks made by Mississippi Senator Trent Lott during the event were considered racially insensitive: "When Strom Thurmond ran for president, Mississippi voted for him. We're proud of it. And if the rest of the country had followed our lead, we wouldn't have had all these problems over the years, either." Fifteen days later, on December 20, Lott resigned as the Senate Republican leader effective on January 3, 2003, the beginning of the next congressional session.[390]
Personal life [ edit ] Thurmond was married twice and fathered five children.
First daughter with Carrie Butler [ edit ] Six months after Thurmond's death in 2003, Essie Mae Washington-Williams (1925''2013) publicly revealed she was his daughter. She was born on October 12, 1925, to Carrie "Tunch" Butler (1909 or 1910 '' 1948), who had worked for Thurmond's parents and was 15 or 16 years old when she gave birth.[391]
Essie Mae Washington was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle, and was not told that Thurmond was her father until she was in high school, when she met him for the first time. She later married, took on the last name Washington-Williams, had a family, and retired as a Los Angeles Unified School District elementary school teacher with a master's degree. Though the Thurmond family never publicly acknowledged Washington-Williams as his daughter while he was alive, he helped pay her way through a historically black college in South Carolina and continued to give her financial support well into her adult life.[392] Washington-Williams said she did not reveal she was Thurmond's daughter during his lifetime because it "wasn't to the advantage of either one of us".[392] She kept silent out of respect for her father[393] and denied the two had agreed she would not reveal her connection to him.[392]
After Washington-Williams came forward, the Thurmond family attorney acknowledged her parentage. Her name has been added to those of his other children on a monument to Thurmond installed at the statehouse grounds.[394] Many close friends, staff members, and South Carolina residents had long suspected that Washington-Williams was Thurmond's daughter,[395] as they had noted his interest in her. The young woman had been granted a degree of access to Thurmond more typical of a family member than to a member of the public.[396]
Washington-Williams later said she intended to join the Daughters of the American Revolution, and did apply to join the United Daughters of the Confederacy, as she was eligible through her Thurmond ancestry. Thurmond was a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, a similar group for men.[397] Her UDC application was not approved while she was alive.[398]
Washington-Williams died on February 4, 2013, in Columbia, South Carolina, at age 87.[399]
First marriage [ edit ] Thurmond was 44 when he married his first wife, Jean Crouch (1926''1960),[400] in the South Carolina Governor's mansion[401] on November 7, 1947.[402] In April 1947, when Crouch was a senior at Winthrop College, Thurmond was a judge in a beauty contest in which she was selected as Miss South Carolina. In June, upon her graduation, Thurmond hired her as his personal secretary. On September 13, 1947, Thurmond proposed marriage by calling Crouch to his office to take a dictated letter. The letter was to her, and contained his proposal of marriage.[403] Thirteen years later in 1960, Crouch died of a brain tumor at age 33; they had no children.
Second marriage [ edit ] Thurmond married his second wife, Nancy Janice Moore, on December 22, 1968. He was 66 years old and she was 22. She had won Miss South Carolina in 1965. Two years later, he hired her to work in his Senate office. Although Nancy did not particularly enjoy politics, she nevertheless became a popular figure on Capitol Hill. At age 68 in 1971, Thurmond fathered the first of four children with Nancy, who was then 25. Thurmond and Nancy's children are: Nancy Moore Thurmond (1971''1993), a beauty pageant contestant who was killed by a drunk driver; James Strom Thurmond Jr. (born 1972), a former U.S. Attorney for the District of South Carolina and Solicitor for the 2nd Judicial District of South Carolina.[404][405] Juliana Whitmer (born 1974),[406] and Paul Reynolds Thurmond (born 1976), a South Carolina State Senator.
Thurmond's children remained in South Carolina with relatives, and Nancy commuted back and forth. Nancy and Strom separated in March 1991, after Nancy claimed that they no longer had a real marriage, stating "At this point in my life I would like to be able to pursue several career options and some measure of independence."[407] She returned to South Carolina, where her children were living. Although Nancy casually dated other men during the early stages of the separation, neither she nor her husband considered divorce, and they reportedly remained close. It was alleged that she spoke with her husband several times each day, and he stayed at her house several times each month, whenever he returned to South Carolina. Thurmond and his wife continued attending events together.[408] However, they were also reported as estranged in 1996 when Nancy was facing trial for drunk driving.[409] In 2001, they were still reported to be estranged when Nancy refused an offer to succeed Strom in the U.S. Senate.[410]
Sexual misconduct allegations [ edit ] According to NBC News in 2017, it was widely acknowledged around Congress that Thurmond inappropriately touched women throughout his career.[411] Thurmond's colleague, Senator Patty Murray, stated that in early 1994, Thurmond, then 91, tried to fondle her breast in an elevator.[412] According to The New York Times, Thurmond had been known for fondling women in Senate elevators, and did not realize Murray was a fellow senator.[3] The alleged incident prompted a statement from Thurmond's office, saying that he had not engaged in any inappropriate behavior, and that he was showing gentlemanly courtesy by assisting Murray into the elevator.[412] Female Senate staffers from the late 1980s and early 1990s recalled that Thurmond was on an informal list of male senators who were known for harassing women regularly, such as while alone in elevators.[413]
Political reporter Cokie Roberts said in 2017 that Thurmond kissed her on the mouth, while she was live on the air at a political convention. Roberts stated that Thurmond "was in the category of his own" when it came to politicians and sexual harassment.[414]
Death [ edit ] Thurmond died of heart failure in his sleep at 9:45 p.m. on June 26, 2003, at a hospital in his hometown of Edgefield, South Carolina. He was 100 years old. After lying in state in the rotunda of the State House in Columbia, his body was carried on a caisson to the First Baptist Church for services, at which then-Senator Joe Biden of Delaware delivered a eulogy,[415] and later to the family burial plot in Willowbrook Cemetery in Edgefield, where he was interred.[416][417] At the time of his death, he was the earliest-serving living former governor in the country.
Electoral history [ edit ] Legacy [ edit ] Former Slate senior writer Timothy Noah wrote that Thurmond's most significant political contribution was his backing of segregation and myths had been construed on the part of his contemporaries to explain his continued wielding of national influence.[418] South Carolina Representative Joe Wilson referred to Thurmond as South Carolina's greatest statesman in the 20th century.[419]
Thurmond's racially charged language during the earlier part of his career left him with a mixed reputation among African Americans, receiving only 20% of their vote in his last election in 1996.[420] In 2003, political scientist Willie Leggett stated, "As black people make assessments of friends and enemies '' of those who supported racial equality and those who didn't '' Thurmond falls on the side of those who did not. Thurmond is not going to be a hero for black people because he never became a proponent of black rights."[420]
The Strom Thurmond Foundation, Inc., provides financial aid support to South Carolina residents in financial need. The Foundation was established in 1974 by Thurmond with honoraria received from speeches and donations from friends and family.A reservoir on the Georgia''South Carolina border is named after him: Lake Strom Thurmond.The University of South Carolina is home to the Strom Thurmond Fitness Center, one of the largest fitness complexes on a college campus. The new complex has largely replaced the Blatt Fitness center, named for Solomon Blatt, a political rival of Thurmond. In July 2021, the university's Presidential Commission on University History recommended removing Thurmond's name from the building.[421]Thurmond receives the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President
George H. W. Bush, 1993
Charleston Southern University has a Strom Thurmond Building, which houses the school's business offices, bookstore, and post office.Thurmond Building at Winthrop University is named for him. He served on Winthrop's Board of Trustees from 1936 to 1938 and again from 1947 to 1951 when he was governor of South Carolina.A statue of Strom Thurmond is located on the southern grounds of the South Carolina State Capitol as a memorial to his service to the state.The Strom Thurmond Federal Building and United States Courthouse is named after him.[422]Strom Thurmond High School is located in his hometown of Edgefield, South Carolina.Al Sharpton was reported on February 24, 2007, to be a descendant of slaves owned by the Thurmond family. Sharpton has not asked for a DNA test.[423][424][425]The U.S. Air Force has a C-17 Globemaster named the Spirit of Strom Thurmond.[426]The mobilization complex at Fort Bragg, North Carolina (commonly known as 'Green Ramp') is named in his honor.[427]In 1989, he was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Ronald Reagan.[428]Strom Thurmond Boulevard, located in Fort Jackson, South Carolina, is named in his honor.In 1993, he was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George H. W. Bush.[429][430]The Strom Thurmond Institute is located on the campus of Clemson University.See also [ edit ] List of American politicians who switched parties in officeList of United States senators who switched partiesList of federal political sex scandals in the United StatesNotes and references [ edit ] Notes [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ Congress. Congressional Record, V. 148, Pt. 14, October 2, 2002 to October 9, 2002. Government Printing Office. p. 19478. GGKEY:U014S5SKZWX. ^ In contrast to so-called "silent" filibusters, see Fisk, Catherine; Chemerinsky, Erwin (1997). "The Filibuster". Duke Law Journal. Stanford Law Review. pp. 181''254 . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ a b Clymer, Adam (June 27, 2003). "Strom Thurmond, Foe of Integration, Dies at 100". The New York Times . Retrieved May 27, 2020 . ^ "Thurmond to Bolt Democrats Today; South Carolinian Will Join G.O.P. and Aid Goldwater" (PDF) . The New York Times. September 16, 1964. p. 12 . Retrieved December 27, 2010 . Both senators have opposed the Administration on such matters as civil rights... ^ Benen, Steve (May 21, 2010). "The Party of Civil Rights". Washington Monthly . Retrieved June 18, 2012 . ^ a b c Noah, Timothy (December 16, 2002). "The Legend of Strom's Remorse: a Washington Lie is Laid to Rest". Slate . Retrieved February 28, 2012 . ^ "Robert Byrd to Become Longest-Serving Senator in History". Fox News. Associated Press. June 11, 2006. Archived from the original on October 19, 2006 . Retrieved December 24, 2006 . ^ a b "John William Thurmond Series Description and Container List" (PDF) . Clemson University . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ a b "The Maverick From South Carolina; James Strom Thurmond" . The New York Times. September 20, 1969 . Retrieved March 24, 2020 . ^ Koch, Wendy (January 27, 2005). "Strom Thurmond's biracial daughter sheds life of secrecy". USA Today . Retrieved November 1, 2020 . ^ Mattingly, David (December 17, 2003). "Strom Thurmond's family confirms paternity claim". CNN. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010 . Retrieved November 4, 2018 . ^ "Reforms Won Thurmond His Governorship". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 18, 1948. ^ Moredock, Will (February 26, 2007). "The Good Fight, the Last Lynching". The Charleston City Paper . Retrieved February 26, 2018 . ^ "The legend of Willie Earle". Archives. June 23, 2007 . Retrieved March 27, 2012 . ^ [ State Accepts Camp Croft In Park System (June 1, 1949)] ^ "THURMOND HEADS SOUTH'S GOVERNORS; Choice of 1948 States' Rights Nominee Held Political Move of National Bearing". The New York Times. November 23, 1949. ^ Key, V.O. Jr.; Southern Politics in State and Nation; p. 340 ISBN 087049435X ^ "Thurmond Hits Truman, Dewey, Wallace As Leading U.S. to 'Rocks of Totalitarianism' ". The New York Times. August 12, 1948. ^ "THURMOND SAYS FOES YIELD TO 'THE PINKS". The New York Times. October 14, 1948. ^ "TRUMAN CHALLENGED TO THURMOND DEBATE". The New York Times. October 6, 1948. ^ "Thurmond Not Candidate?". Herald-Journal. February 13, 1950. ^ "Thurmond Opens Campaign Center". Herald-Journal. May 2, 1950. ^ "Former U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond Dies",, Retrieved February 11, 2021. ^ "Solon Says States' Rights Great". The Times. Monroe Morning World. January 9, 1955 . Retrieved August 9, 2021 '' via ^ "Sen. Thurmond Backs Fight For Military Reserve Law". The Tuscaloosa News. July 11, 1955 . Retrieved August 9, 2021 . ^ Crespino, Joseph (April 29, 2010). "The Scarred Stone: The Strom Thurmond Monument". Southern Spaces. doi:10.18737/M7P315 . Retrieved August 9, 2021 . ^ Woods, Randall Bennett (2006). LBJ: Architect of American Ambition . New York: Free Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0684834580. LCCN 2006041259. OL 7721570M . Retrieved August 9, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Resigns His Senate Seat to Keep Promise He Made". The Springfield News-Leader. March 4, 1956 . Retrieved August 9, 2021 '' via ^ Newton, Jim (2011). Eisenhower: The White House Years . Doubleday. p. 242. ISBN 978-0385523530. LCCN 2011010759. OL 25045949M . Retrieved August 9, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond's Filibuster Angers Dixie Senators". The Herald Journal. August 31, 1957 . Retrieved August 9, 2021 . ^ Memmott, Mark (March 7, 2013). "How Did Strom Thurmond Last Through His 24-Hour Filibuster?". NPR . Retrieved August 9, 2021 . ^ Caro, Robert (2002). Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-52836-0 ^ "Congress passes Civil Rights Act Aug. 29, 1957". Politico. August 29, 2007. ^ "Liberals Claim South Won Filibuster Battle". Gadsden Times. January 13, 1959. ^ "Senator Russell Ties Rights Bakers To Race Riots". Toledo Blade. February 28, 1960 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ Shermer, Elizabeth Tandy (2013). Barry Goldwater and the Remaking of the American Political Landscape. University of Arizona Press. pp. 152''153. ISBN 978-0816521098. LCCN 2012029636. OL 25404808M. ^ Middleton, Russell (1962). "The Civil Rights Issue And Presidential Voting Among Southern Negroes And Whites". Social Forces. Oxford University Press. 40 (3): 209''215. doi:10.2307/2573630. JSTOR 2573630. ^ "1960 Electoral College Results". National Archives and Records Administration. November 5, 2019 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ a b c "Thurmond Not Purge Target". The Item. January 4, 1961 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Invites Fight To Oust Him" . The New York Times. January 3, 1961 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "U.S. Must Impose Textile Quotas, Thurmond Says". The Herald Journal. February 13, 1961 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Unprecedented Authority Voted: Senate Passes Trade Bill 78-8". The Herald Bulletin. September 20, 1962 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Remark Goes Unanswered". The Times Recorder. December 4, 1961 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 '' via ^ Marlow, James (September 5, 1962). "Cuba, Soviet Warned". Springfield News-Leader . Retrieved August 13, 2021 '' via ^ "Soviet Has Around 40,000 Military Personnel In Cuba". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. February 2, 1963. ^ "Thurmond Fires Queries Senate Group Grills Nitze, Navy Secretary Nominee". The San Bernardino Sun. November 7, 1963 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ Raymond, Jack (November 16, 1963). "Senators Delay Approving Nitze '' Questions Are Raised About Parley and Land Sale Asked About Views". The New York Times . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Senate Group Backs Nitze As Navy Head". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. November 22, 1963 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 '' via ^ Jenks, George (May 17, 1961). "Strategy Shifts On School Aid". Toledo Blade . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Right Plan Hit by Southern Block '' Thurmond Says Proposals Recall Reconstruction". The New York Times. June 20, 1963 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Accuses Radio-TV Networks". The New York Times. June 29, 1963 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ Younge, Gary (August 23, 2013). "Bayard Rustin: The Gay Black Pacifist at the Heart of the March on Washington". The Guardian . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ Corley, Cheryl (August 15, 2013). "Bayard Rustin: The Man Who Organized The March On Washington". NPR . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ Handler, M. S. (August 16, 1963). "Negro Rally Aide Rebuts Senator; Denies Thurmond's Charge of Communist Membership Cites Common Fallacy Refused Military Service March of Young People Statement on Character". The New York Times . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Military Gag Probe Asked". Daily Herald. August 31, 1961 . Retrieved August 18, 2021 '' via ^ "Thurmond Defends Military Leaders". Madera Tribune. November 28, 1961 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Peeved at NBC But Likes TV Spotlight". The Janesville Daily Gazette. February 19, 1962 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 '' via ^ "Senator Thurmond Blasts Censorship of Military". The Holland Sentinel. January 29, 1962 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 '' via ^ Kelly, G. Milton (January 23, 1962). "Senate Probes Censorship By Pentagon". Blytheville Courier News . Retrieved August 13, 2021 '' via ^ "Senate Unit Ends Censor Hearings; Thurmond Arouses Defense Aide With Accusations". The New York Times. June 9, 1962 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Justice Dept. Move Sparks New Debate". Times-News. May 1, 1962 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Blasts Court's Decision". Madera Tribune. July 26, 1962 . Retrieved August 13, 2021 . ^ "November 22, 1963 '' Death of the President". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum . Retrieved August 23, 2021 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ "Thurmond Says a Red Plot Led to Death of Kennedy". The New York Times. February 14, 1967 . Retrieved August 23, 2021 . ^ "Johnson Takes Over Presidency; Nation, World Mourn Kennedy". Carroll Daily Times Herald. November 23, 2021 . Retrieved August 23, 2021 '' via ^ Johnson, Lyndon B. (July 2, 1964). "446 '' Radio and Television Remarks Upon Signing the Civil Rights Bill". The American Presidency Project . Retrieved August 23, 2021 . First, I will send to the Senate my nomination of LeRoy Collins to be Director of the Community Relations Service. Governor Collins will bring the experience of a long career of distinguished public service to the task of helping communities solve problems of human relations through reason and commonsense. {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ Cohodas, Nadine (1995). Strom Thurmond & the Politics of Southern Change. Mercer University Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-0865544468. ^ "Thurmond Break Is Made Official '' He Will Work as Republican for Goldwater Election" . The New York Times. September 17, 1964 . Retrieved August 23, 2021 . ^ "Thurmond Joins Goldwater Drive" . The New York Times. September 18, 1964 . Retrieved August 23, 2021 . ^ Sabato, Larry J. (October 27, 2014). "How Goldwater Changed Campaigns Forever". Politico (magazine) . Retrieved August 23, 2021 . ^ General Election Results '' U.S. Senator '' 1914''2014" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved February 10, 2021. ^ "G.O.P. Senators Approve Assignments to Thurmond". The New York Times. January 16, 1965. ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work in the public domain: "Introduction to Federal Voting Rights Laws: The Effect of the Voting Rights Act". U.S. Department of Justice. June 19, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2021. ^ Cohodas, p. 13. ^ May, Gary (April 9, 2013). Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy (Kindle ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01846-8. ^ "Senate Vote #78 in 1965: To Pass S. 1564, the Voting Rights Act of 1965". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved February 10, 2021. ^ "Federal Funds Pour Into Sunbelt States". The New York Times. February 9, 1976. ^ "Major Democrats Go To Line In Primaries". The Santa Fe New Mexican. June 12, 1966. ^ "P. Bradley Morrah Jr". Orlando Sentinel. February 19, 1992. ^ "Democratic Hopefuls Seek U.S. Senate Votes". The Greenville News. May 7, 1966. ^ "S. C. Voters Face Extra-Long Ballot In Today's Election". Aiken Standard and Review. November 8, 1966. ^ "Thurmond Replaces Javits On a Rights Subcommittee". The New York Times. January 18, 1967. ^ "Senate Endorses Defenses, Then Argues About Locale". Lawrence Journal-World. March 22, 1967. ^ "Thurmond Charges Red-Inspired". Panama City News-Herald. July 31, 1967. ^ "Thurmond Warns of Peril To Panama Canal in Pacts". The New York Times. September 3, 1967. ^ "THURMOND SCORES AN ARTICLE IN LIFE; Terms Contention on Land Deal a 'Liberal Smear' ". The New York Times. September 16, 1969. ^ "THURMOND REBUTS THE LIFE ARTICLE; Says Magazine Is Trying to 'Destroy' Him Politically". September 20, 1969. ^ "Thurmond Says Fowler Aided Magazine Team; Latter Denies It". Aiken Standard. September 22, 1969. ^ Haygood, Wil (September 28, 2015). "Supreme Court nomination that changed the nation". Archived from the original on June 14, 2018 . Retrieved January 26, 2019 . ^ "Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as Supreme Court Justice in 1967". The New York Daily News. August 29, 2015. ^ "Marshall Is Questioned on Fine Points of the Law; Thurmond Presses Nominee to Court With More Than 60 Complicated Queries". The New York Times. July 20, 1967. ^ "In Hearing Strom Raps Marshall For Ducking Issue". The Greenville News. August 11, 1967. ^ Graham, Fred P. (August 31, 1967), "Senate Confirms Marshall As the First Negro Justice; 10 Southerners Oppose High Court Nominee in 69-to-11 Vote", New York Times. ^ Michaelson, Jay (February 15, 2016). "GOP Cynicism on the Supreme Court Reaches a New Low". The Daily Beast. ^ a b Kalman, Laura (1992). Abe Fortas: A Biography. Yale University Press. pp. 340''341. ISBN 978-0300052589. ^ "Senate Committee Asks Fortas to Testify Again: Thurmond Brandishes Nude Magazines, Assails Justice for Rulings on Obscenity". Los Angeles Times. July 24, 1968. ^ "The Republicans' Filibuster Lie". Los Angeles Times. May 3, 2005. ^ "HUMPHREY SCORES 'THE SAME NIXON'; Sees a Deal With Thurmond on Fortas -- Also Chides Opponent on Atom Pact Humphrey Criticizes 'The Same Nixon' ". The New York Times. September 14, 1968. ^ "Nixon Rejects Charge". The New York Times. September 14, 1968. ^ "Thurmond Promotes Nixon's Cause Deep in Wallace Country". The New York Times. September 14, 1968. ^ "THURMOND REPORTS A JOHNSON RETREAT". The New York Times. December 10, 1968. ^ a b Woodward, Bob; Scott Armstrong (September 1979). The Brethren, Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-24110-9. Page 56. ^ "THURMOND SCORES TIMES ON OTEPKA; Charges Newspaper Has a Conflict of Interest". The New York Times. April 25, 1969. ^ "THURMOND URGES DOUGLAS TO QUIT; In Newsletter, He Denounces 'Political Activity' ". The New York Times. May 30, 1969. ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". Supreme Court of the United States . Retrieved April 21, 2010 . ^ "Nixon Submits Nomination Of Haynsworth to Senate". The New York Times. ^ "Haynsworth Gains Votes Of 2 More". The New York Times. November 18, 1969. ^ Kalk, Bruce H. (2001). The Origins of the Southern Strategy. Lexington Books. p. 94. ISBN 978-0739102428. ^ Nixon, Richard (December 4, 1969). "472 '' Remarks on the Decision of Judge Clement F. Haynsworth Jr., To Continue as Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit". ^ "Senate Views on Haynsworth Changed". Washington Post. March 15, 1977. ^ "Sen. Thurmond Sees Defeat Of Johnson". Aiken Standard And Review. October 24, 1966. ^ Black, p. 474. ^ Black, Conrad (2007). Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full. PublicAffairs. p. 526. ISBN 978-1586485191. ^ Fritchey, Clayton (September 21, 1968). "Agnew's Worries Are Over". Lewiston Evening Journal. ^ "THURMOND WOOS WALLACE VOTERS". The Bridgepost Post. October 24, 1968. ^ "1968 Presidential General Election Results '' Texas" . Retrieved April 16, 2018 . ^ "Senate Republicans Give Thurmond Full Seniority". The New York Times. February 10, 1971. ^ "Kennedy, in Visit to Carolina, Cites Calhoun But Not'Sherman". The New York Times. March 1, 1971. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (August 4, 2015). "Richard S. Schweiker, Former Senator and Reagan Confidant, Dies at 89". The New York Times. ^ Shirley, Craig (2005). Reagan's Revolution: The Untold Story of the Campaign That Started It All. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 302. ISBN 978-0785260493. ^ "The Living Room Candidate '' Commercials '' 1976 '' Strom Thurmond". ^ Strom Thurmond & the Politics of Southern Change. Mercer University Press. 1995. pp. 16''17. ISBN 978-0865544468. ^ Weaver, Warren Jr. (April 24, 1970). "SENATE UNIT ASKS POPULAR ELECTION OF THE PRESIDENT". The New York Times. ^ "Nat'l day for Dr. King snagged in fiscal argument". Indianapolis Recorder. April 7, 1979. ^ "Thurmond Tells Youths Nation Is Entering Guerrilla Warfare". The New York Times. September 12, 1970. ^ "A Rain of Marshmallows Pelts Thurmond at Drew U." The New York Times. February 23, 1970. ^ "HOFFMAN, JUDGE FOR TRIAL OF CHICAGO 7, INCHES UNGENTLY TOWARD RETIREMENT". The New York Times. June 24, 1982. ^ "JUDGE JULIUS J. HOFFMAN, 87, DIES; PRESIDENT AT TRIAL OF THE CHICAGO 7". The New York Times. July 2, 1983. ^ "Thurmond pelted by protestors". Arizona Republic. February 23, 1970. ^ "Deportation of Lennon Barred by Court of Appeals". The New York Times. October 8, 1975. ^ a b Wiener, Jon (2000). Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files . University of California. ISBN 978-0-520-22246-5. ^ Finney, John W. (November 18, 1970). "SENATE APPROVES COMPROMISE BILL ON SAFETY IN JOBS". The New York Times. ^ "30 Senators Say I.C.C. Rail Moves Will Bring Crisis". The New York Times. December 8, 1970. ^ "Option on Social Security Is "Proposed by Thurmond". The New York Times. March 14, 1971. ^ "Strom Thurmond: Still A Strong Conservative Voice". The Call-Leader. January 13, 1972. ^ "Drugs For Senior Citizens Bill Pushed". The Gaffney Ledger. August 3, 1977. ^ a b "Price'Fixing Bill Viewed As a Test for Kennedy". The New York Times. October 22, 1979. ^ a b "Bill Backing Antitrust Suits Gains". The New York Times. May 9, 1979. ^ "Olympic Bill Introduced in Senate". The New York Times. September 27, 1972. ^ "Senate Committee Votes For a U.S. Sports Board". The New York Times. June 29, 1973. ^ "SENATE UNIT CUTS MILITARY OUTLAYS". The New York Times. April 27, 1972. ^ "Build More Subs: Thurmond". The Indianapolis Star. June 3, 1973. ^ "Thurmond Says Soviet Naval Strength Threatens U.S. Control Of Seas". The Greenville News. June 3, 1973. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. (July 17, 1973). "U.S. CONFIRMS PRE'1970 RAIDS ON CAMBODIA". The New York Times. ^ "Senate Votes Appropriations Of 21'Billion, Most of It for V.A." The New York Times. August 17, 1974. ^ "Unionization of Armed Forces". The New York Times. March 4, 1977. ^ Total Surveillance, page 176 ^ "C.I.A.'F.B.I. INQUIRY VOTED BY SENATE". The New York Times. January 28, 1975. ^ "CARTER STANDS FIRM, SUPPORTS SORENSEN AS DIRECTOR OF C.I.A." The New York Times. January 17, 1977. ^ "Sorensen Nomination In Trouble". Washington Post. January 16, 1977. ^ "Sorensen Withdraws As Nominee for CIA". Washington Post. January 18, 1977. ^ "Ted Sorensen, JFK's speechwriter and confidant, dies at 82". The Guardian. November 1, 2010. ^ Carter, Jimmy (May 18, 1977). "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Remarks of the President, Attorney General Bell, and Several Members of Congress on Proposed Legislation". American Presidency Project. ^ "Senate, in blow to Carter, backs Clinch River project". Star-News. July 12, 1977. p. 7. ^ "Senate Sends White House a Bill for Rural Water and Sewer Aid That Nixon Opposes". The New York Times. March 23, 1973. ^ "Grant, Loan Are Announced". The Sumter Daily Item. April 4, 1973. ^ Binder, David (January 29, 1976). "SENATE APPROVES A 200'MILE LIE ON FISHING RIGHTS". The New York Times. ^ "Ford Signing Swamp Bill". The Sumter Daily Item. October 16, 1976. ^ "Thurmond Urges Japan to Step Up Defense Effort". The New York Times. September 21, 1970. ^ "CALLEY EXONERATION URGED BY THURMOND". The New York Times. April 12, 1971. ^ Linder, Douglas. "JURIST '' The My Lai Massacre Trial", JURIST '' The My Lai Massacre Trial. March 2000. ^ "A Gain in Battle Is Reported by Saigon". The New York Times. January 4, 1975. ^ "Strom, Nixon rift". The Delta Democrat-Times. June 14, 1971. ^ Kilpatrick, Carroll. "U.S. Ends Ban on China Trade; Items Are Listed". Washington Post. ^ Semple, Robert B. Jr. "PRESIDENT ENDS 21'YEAR EMBARGO ON PEKING TRADE". The New York Times. ^ Hudson, Richard (May 16, 1976). "STORM OVER THE CANAL". The New York Times. ^ "32 Senators Back Resolution Opposing Panama Canal Pact". The New York Times. March 30, 1974. ^ "Keep Sovereignty, Maintains Thurmond". Florence Morning News. August 9, 1977. ^ Reston, James (August 24, 1977). "Carter, Panama And China". The New York Times. ^ "SENATE, 68'32, APPROVES FIRST OF 2 PANAMA PACTS; CARTER HAILS 'COURAGE' ". The New York Times. March 17, 1978. ^ Johnson, Haynes (March 17, 1978). "Senate Votes 1st Canal Treaty, 68-32". Washington Post. ^ "Senate Votes 1st Canal Treaty, 68-32". Washington Post. March 17, 1978. ^ "Mansfield Stalls a Jackson Trade Plan". The New York Times. June 8, 1974. ^ "SENATE REJECTS $1.2''81 WON CUT IN ARMS BUDGET". The New York Times. June 5, 1975. ^ "Kissinger Sees Perils in Solzhenitsyn's Views". The New York Times. July 17, 1975. ^ "SENATE PANEL VOTES ANTITREATY REPORT". The New York Times. December 21, 1979. ^ Illson, Murray (January 16, 1970). "Southern White Leaders Voice Anger and Dismay Over Integration Ruling". ^ "Joseph O. Rogers Jr., Papers" (PDF) . . Retrieved May 3, 2014 . ^ "Notes on People". The New York Times. May 26, 1971. ^ "School Prayers Bill's Objective". Jewish Post. October 18, 1974. ^ "Kennedy Says He Will End Veto Of U.S. Judges by Their Senators". The New York Times. January 26, 1979. ^ "Congress Is Asked for Power to Fight Housing Bias". The New York Times. March 22, 1979. ^ "Senate Panel Approves 13 Judges". The New York Times. July 18, 1979. ^ Taubman, Philip (July 26, 1979). "CIVILETTI IS PRAISED AT SENATE HEARING". The New York Times. ^ "Senate Unit Approves 30 Nominees for Judgeships". The New York Times. September 12, 1979. ^ "A Puerto Rican for the Federal Court". The New York Times. December 12, 1979. ^ Taubman, Philip (August 1, 1979). "Carter Administration Unveils Proposed F.B.I. Charter". The New York Times. ^ Thomas, Jo (September 26, 1979). "Javits and Kennedy Clash in Vote On Judge Tied to All'White Club". ^ Carter, Jimmy (October 10, 1979). "Federal Magistrate Act of 1979 Statement on Signing S. 237 Into Law". American Presidency Project. ^ Apple, R. W. Jr. (July 12, 1973). "10 AT WHITE HOUSE". ^ "Senate Panel's Hearings on Dismissal of Cox Fall Into Partisan Bickering". The New York Times. November 1, 1973. ^ "LEADING SENATORS REFUSE TO PRESS NIXON ON QUITTING". The New York Times. May 15, 1974. ^ "36 SENATORS SEEN AS NIXON BACKERS". The New York Times. August 5, 1974. ^ "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. The Watergate Story . Retrieved July 16, 2011 . ^ Kropfc, Schuyler (March 26, 2017). "Former Charleston political figure Charles 'Pug' Ravenel passed away Saturday". ^ "Thurmond Defends Education". Herald=Journal. ^ Wicker, Toni (April 7, 1978). "Thurmond's Years". The New York Times. ^ "Thurmond's Black Hope". Washington Post. March 17, 1978. ^ "Polls Shows Thurmond Is Landsliding Ravenel". The Atlanta Constitution. May 23, 1978. ^ "Campaign '96 / THE SENATE : Thurmond Thinking of an Eighth Term; Voters Aren't So Sure : Though popular, the 93-year-old Republican risks handing his seat to a Democrat if he runs again, observers say". Los Angeles Times. February 14, 1996. ^ "S.C. Ex-Gov. Edwards, Thurmond Back Connally". Washington Post. December 27, 1979. ^ "Thurmond and Ex'Gov. Edwards Turn to Connally". The New York Times. December 28, 1979. ^ "Intent to Run for President". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library. November 13, 1979. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009 . Retrieved February 2, 2009 . ^ "Reagan heavily favored in South Carolina". Clarion-Ledger. March 9, 1980. ^ "Connally Criticizes President For 'Inaction Policy' on Iran". Washington Post. December 28, 1979. ^ "Reagan Crushes Connally, Bush in S.C." Washington Post. March 9, 1980. ^ "No 'Impropriety' in Billy Affair, Carter Says, No 'Impropriety' Committed In Billy Affair, President Says". Washington Post. August 5, 1980. ^ "Billy Claims $20,000 Not Gift From Libyans". Altoona Mirror. August 22, 1980. ^ "Billy: $20,000 was not Libyan gift". Ukiah Daily Journal. August 22, 1980. ^ Ashford, Nicolas (February 10, 1984). "Democrats aim to regain lost ground". The Times. p. 10. ^ "Thurmond returning to power as 'friend' of minority groups". Florida Today. November 7, 1980. ^ Bruck, David I. "The Four Men Strom Thurmond Sent to the Chair". Washington Post. ^ Ayres, B. Drummond Jr. (December 21, 1980). "Civil Rights Groups Fear a Slowdown In Busing for Desegregation of Schools". The New York Times. p. 28. ^ Wicker, Tom (November 16, 1980). "Why Not The Best?". The New York Times. p. E21. ^ "Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Tuesday that former South..." UPI. December 16, 1980. ^ James B. Edwards, a Long-Shot as Governor of South Carolina, Dies at 87 ^ Click, Carolyn (December 26, 2014). "Former Gov. James Edwards dies". The State . Retrieved December 26, 2014 . ^ "U.S. TO SUE A SCHOOL DISTRICT IN CAROLINA OVER RACIAL BIAS". The New York Times. January 9, 1981. ^ "AROUND THE NATION; Thurmond to Ask Review On School Segregation Suit". The New York Times. January 11, 1981. ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States" Archived December 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Bureau of the Census '' Population Division. ^ Stroud, Joseph (July 12, 1998). "Dixiecrat Legacy: An end, a beginning". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1Y . Retrieved September 17, 2007 . ^ "What About Byrd?". Slate. December 18, 2002 . Retrieved September 17, 2007 . ^ "Strom Thurmond's Evolution". The Ledger. Lakeland, FL. November 23, 1977. p. 6A . Retrieved November 29, 2011 . ^ "Jesse R. Nichols" (PDF) . Retrieved April 22, 2010 . ^ "President Reagan invited three former presidents to the White..." UPI. October 8, 1981. ^ "Vice President George Bush and Sen. Strom Thurmond were..." UPI. January 7, 1982. ^ "Both sides in presidential battle agree turnout is key". The Index-Journal. October 28, 1984. ^ Reagan, Ronald (October 15, 1984). "Remarks at a Reagan-Bush Rally in Greenville, South Carolina". And Dr. Thomas Barton, a Clemson Tiger; Mayor Bill Workman, and Senator Strom Thurmond. ^ Bannon, Timothy (June 4, 1986). "Thurmond requests probe of former trade official". UPI. ^ "South Carolina Inducts Republican Governor". The New York Times. January 15, 1987. ^ "Dole Endorsed by Thurmond". The New York Times. February 23, 1988. ^ "THE NATION; Dukakis and Bush; WHY THE CANDIDATES LOVE TO BE ENDORSED". The New York Times. March 27, 1988. ^ "Thornburgh Confirmed as Attorney General". The New York Times. ^ "An Attempt To Recover; Bush Seeks to End Rancor Over Tower". The New York Times. March 11, 1989. ^ "Senate Committee Bars Bush's Choice From Rights Post". The New York Times. August 2, 1989. ^ "$1 Billion in Hurricane Aid OKd; Bush to Sign It". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. September 29, 1989 . Retrieved October 14, 2018 . ^ Gerstenzang, James (September 30, 1989). "Bush Tours S. Carolina Storm Wreckage, Defends Federal Emergency Aid Efforts". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved October 14, 2018 . ^ "No Sense Changing Something That Works". The Burlington Free Press. December 16, 1980. ^ "Thurmond, Conyers Unite". The Tuscaloosa News. December 4, 1980. ^ "Sen. Thurmond predicts gun control bill's defeat". Poughkeepsie Journal. February 1, 1981. ^ "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001 . Retrieved December 19, 2007 . ^ Hunt, Terence (March 31, 1981). "Reagan is shot". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Washington DC. Associated Press. p. 1 . Retrieved April 23, 2011 . ^ "A BAN ON GUN PARTS IS URGED IN CONGRESS". The New York Times. April 1, 1981. ^ "Administration unlikely to drop opposition to handgun". Stevens Point Journal. April 1, 1981. ^ "KENNEDY SET TO COMPROMISE TO OBTAIN GUN CONTROL BILL". The New York Times. April 2, 1981. ^ "Senate Judiciary Committee chairman Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Tuesday..." UPI. April 1, 1981. ^ "Senate Panel OKs U.S.-Made Assault Rifle Ban". Los Angeles Times. July 21, 1989. ^ Rogers, Ed. "Thurmond presses for balanced-budget amendment". UPI. ^ "Remarks to Reporters on the Proposed Constitutional Amendment for a Balanced Federal Budget". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. July 12, 1982. ^ "News Summary; WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 4, 1982". The New York Times. ^ Mackay, Robert (August 4, 1962). "Senate approves balanced budget amendment". UPI. ^ "A constitutional amendment to require a balanced budget was..." UPI. January 26, 1983. ^ "HOW SENATE VOTED ON BUDGET PLAN". The New York Times. October 10, 1985. ^ "Republican Sens. Jesse Helms of North Carolina and Strom..." UPI. June 4, 1981. ^ "Reagan is the Real King Of Special Interest Groups". Washington Post. April 1, 1984. ^ "REAGAN DECIDES TO TIGHTEN CONTROLS ON TEXTILE IMPORTS". The New York Times. December 17, 1983. ^ Reagan, Ronald (December 17, 1985). "Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without Approval the Textile and Apparel Industries Bill". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on April 10, 2018 . Retrieved April 9, 2018 . ^ "President Reagan, in a blow to the import-battered textile,..." UPI. December 18, 1985. ^ "Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Saturday that the MX..." UPI. June 27, 1981. ^ "ROLL CALL IN SENATE ON MONEY FOR M". The New York Times. May 26, 1983. ^ "ROLL-CALL IN SENATE ON PRODUCING MX". The New York Times. July 27, 1984. ^ "2 From Area On Judgeship List". The Sumter Daily Item. July 28, 1981. ^ "CONGRESS BEGINS FIGHT OVER EXTENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS ACT". The New York Times. April 8, 1981. ^ "ONCE AGAIN, A CLASH OVER VOTING RIGHTS". The New York Times. September 27, 1981. ^ "ABORTION CURBS ENDORSED, 10-7, BY SENATE PANEL". The New York Times. March 11, 1982. ^ "HOWARD BAKER TRYING TO TAME AN UNRULY SENATE". The New York Times. March 28, 1982. ^ "FIRST OVERRIDE OF REAGAN VETO COMES ON EXTENSION OF PRINTING COPYRIGHTS". The New York Times. July 14, 1982. ^ "Group Says Hollings Best of Big Spenders". The Sumter Daily Item. Associated Press. April 2, 1983. ^ "BILL TO PERMIT FEDERAL PROSECUTION OF CAREER CRIMINALS PASSES SENATE". The New York Times. February 24, 1984. ^ "MONEY-LAUNDERING BILL SEEN AS PRIVACY THREAT". The New York Times. June 23, 1985. ^ "Pornography Measure Passes". The New York Times. September 29, 1988. ^ "Senate Passes Ban on Burning U.S. Flag, 91 to 9 : Measure Provides for Up to a Year in Jail; Some Still Pressing for Amendment". Los Angeles Times. October 10, 1989. ^ "Chairman Strom Thurmond of the Senate Judiciary Committee introduced..." UPI. May 26, 1982. ^ "Congress to press anti-crime bill". UPI. January 15, 1983. ^ "SENATE G.O.P. ADDS ITS OWN DRUG BILL". The New York Times. September 20, 1986. ^ "SENATE TAKES UP DRUG BILL WITH SESSION WANING". The New York Times. September 27, 1986. ^ Reagan, Ronald (October 27, 1986). "Remarks on Signing the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986". American Presidency Project. ^ Scrivo, Karen Lee. "Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., continued his attack on alcohol..." UPI. ^ Franklin, Mary Beth (August 10, 1988). "Health warning on liquor bottles urged". UPI. ^ Gerstel, Steve (September 14, 1989). "Senate drug funding dispute threatens money bills". UPI. ^ U.S. National Archives. "Reagan's Nomination of O'Connor" . Retrieved August 19, 2014 . ^ "1981 Year in Review: Reagan Foreign Policy Speech/O'Connor Appointed to Supreme Court". ^ "ABORTION FOES ASSAIL JUDGE O'CONNOR". The New York Times. September 12, 1981. ^ "PANEL APPROVES JUDGE O'CONNOR". The New York Times. September 16, 1981. ^ "Reagan's Nomination of O'Connor". . Retrieved November 7, 2015 . ^ "REAGAN PICKS PENTAGON AIDE AS HEAD OF VETERANS AGENCY". The New York Times. November 23, 1982. ^ "President Reagan Monday tapped Assistant Army Secretary Harry Walters..." UPI. November 22, 1982. ^ "President Reagan announced Monday he has nominated Harry Walters,..." UPI. November 22, 1982. ^ "DIRECTOR OF VETERANS ADMINISTRATION STEPS DOWN". The New York Times. January 24, 1986. ^ "Nomination of Edwin Meese III To Be Attorney General of the United States". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. January 23, 1984. ^ Rosewicz, Barbara (March 13, 1984). "White House counselor Edwin Meese, under pressure from Democrats,..." UPI. ^ "Though Meese 'in trouble,' Reagan stands by him". UPI. March 20, 1984. ^ "SENATE APPROVES MEESE TO BECOME ATTORNEY GENERAL". The New York Times. February 24, 1985. ^ "Some Meese Aides Dispute His Reasoning on Assistant's Dismissal". The New York Times. May 19, 1988. ^ "As Concern Rises, President Restates Confidence in Meese". The New York Times. May 18, 1988. ^ Jackson, Robert L.; Hager, Philip (November 8, 1985). "Senate Narrowly Confirms Kozinski as Appeals Judge". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved August 11, 2014 . ^ "ANGRY DEMOCRATS EXAMINE NOMINEE 6 HOURS". The New York Times. November 3, 1985. ^ Elsasser, Glen (March 13, 1986). "Nominee Questioned On Creationist Bill". Chicago Tribune. ^ "Senate GOP Leaders Attempting to Limit Debate on Manion". Washington Post. June 25, 1986. ^ "Judge Nominee's Verdict Near". Chicago Tribune. June 24, 1986. ^ "BURGER RETIRING, REHNQUIST NAMED CHIEF; SCALIA, APPEALS JUDGE, CHOSEN FOR COURT". The New York Times. June 18, 1986. ^ "PRESIDENT ASSERTS HE WILL WITHHOLD REHNQUIST MEMOS". The New York Times. August 1, 1986. ^ "Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Tuesday the questioning of..." UPI. August 5, 1986. ^ "SENATE UNIT BACKS REHNQUIST, 13 TO 5". The New York Times. August 15, 1986. ^ "REHNQUIST OPPONENTS WARN THAT CONFIRMATION WOULD BE DIVISIVE". The New York Times. September 13, 1986. ^ "Nomination of Robert H. Bork To Be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. July 1, 1987. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018 . Retrieved December 6, 2018 . ^ "Packwood Opposes Bork, 1st Gop Senator to Defect : Willing to Join Senate Filibuster". Los Angeles Times. September 21, 1987. ^ "Senate's Roll-Call On the Bork Vote". The New York Times. Associated Press. October 24, 1987. ^ "BORK'S NOMINATION IS REJECTED, 58-42; REAGAN 'SADDENED' ". The New York Times. October 24, 1987. ^ "U.S. May Shift G.I.'s in Germany". The New York Times. April 19, 1981. ^ "REQUIRED READING; SAMPLING OF OPINIONS ON INVASION OF GRENADA". The New York Times. October 29, 1983. ^ "O'NEILL CRITICIZES PRESIDENT; WAR POWERS ACT IS INVOKED". The New York Times. October 29, 1983. ^ Allen, Ira A. (October 25, 1983). "Reagan gives Congress war powers notice". UPI. ^ Barton, John F. (October 25, 1983). "Congress gave cautious support to the invasion of Grenada..." UPI. ^ "ISRAEL AND U.S. FACING HURDLES ON TRADE PACT". The New York Times. January 10, 1985. ^ "GORBACHEV HINTS HE'LL BE FLEXIBLE". The New York Times. September 4, 1985. ^ "LAWMAKERS BACK ACTIONS ON LIBYA". The New York Times. March 25, 1986. ^ "Senate Votes, 52-48 Not to Block Aid to Contras". The New York Times. March 19, 1987. ^ "Republicans Object to New Contra Deal". The New York Times. August 9, 1988. ^ "Bill Banning Genocide Still Snagged in Senate". The New York Times. September 27, 1988. ^ "Senate Votes to Carry Out Treaty Banning Genocide". The New York Times. October 15, 1988. ^ "Remarks at a Fundraising Dinner for Senator Strom Thurmond in Columbia, South Carolina". American Presidency Project. September 20, 1983. ^ "President Reagan praised Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., Tuesday as..." UPI. September 20, 1983. ^ "CAMPAIGN NOTES; Thurmond Will Seek6th Full Term in Senate". The New York Times. March 20, 1984. ^ "THURMOND GAINS BID FOR 6TH TERM". The New York Times. June 13, 1984. ^ "Strom Thurmond wins nomination as five states hold primaries". UPI. June 13, 1984. ^ Bedingfield, Sidney (April 17, 1984). "Ex-CIA agent battles Thurmond". UPI. ^ "Strom Thurmond wins nomination to sixth Senate term". UPI. June 12, 1984. ^ "Melvin Purvis Iii, Minister, Candidate". Sun Sentinel. October 21, 1986. ^ "MELVIN H. PURVIS 3D". The New York Times. October 21, 1986. ^ Tumulty, Karen; Secter, Bob (June 18, 1986). "The Supreme Court: Change at the Top: Opposition Tempered by Sense of Little Change: Senate Republicans Praise Choices". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved October 2, 2018 . ^ Taylor, Stuart Jr. (August 6, 1986). "Scalia Returns Soft Answers to Senators". The New York Times . Retrieved October 2, 2018 . ^ "SENATE BACKS CURB ON ASSAULT RIFLES BY A VOTE OF 50-49". The New York Times. May 24, 1990. ^ "Senate Begins Debate on Anti-Crime Bill". The New York Times. May 22, 1990. ^ "Senate's Leaders Move to Salvage Crime Measure". The New York Times. June 8, 1990. ^ Gerstel, Steve (March 19, 1992). "Senate refuses to kill anti-crime bill filibuster". UPI. ^ "Simpler Plan Sought in Congress To Identify All Eligible for Work". The New York Times. March 31, 1990. ^ "South Carolina momentum propels Bush, Clinton". UPI. March 7, 1992. ^ "South Carolina delegation seeks military influence". UPI. May 3, 1992. ^ "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Senate Race; A BITTER RIVALRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA". The New York Times. October 30, 1992. ^ Bornemeier, James (June 26, 1993). "Long Beach Navy Shipyard Spared : Military: Base closing panel saves Sacramento's McClellan, but cuts three Bay Area facilities. Local workers cheer, but 4-3 vote may mean bad news in two years". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved October 14, 2018 . ^ Kirkland, Michael (July 29, 1993). "Ginsburg unanimously approved by Senate panel". UPI. ^ "Thurmond announces bid for seventh term". UPI. February 12, 1990. ^ "Fiddle-fit Thurmond going after another term". UPI. ^ "The 1990 Elections: State By State; South". The New York Times. November 7, 1990. ^ "Court Nominee Gives Credit To Civil Rights Movement". The New York Times. July 10, 1991. ^ "THOMAS UNDERGOES TOUGH QUESTIONING ON PAST REMARKS". The New York Times. September 11, 1991. ^ "THE 1994 ELECTIONS: CONGRESS THE OVERVIEW; G.O.P. CELEBRATES ITS SWEEP TO POWER; CLINTON VOWS TO FIND COMMON GROUND". The New York Times. November 10, 1994. ^ "Thurmond praises, criticizes Clinton". UPI. December 1, 1994. ^ " 'Power Play' Failed, Thurmond Says". The New York Times. February 8, 1995. ^ "Senate panel unveils defense bill". UPI. June 30, 1995. ^ Merrow, John (October 21, 1995). "Reading, Writing and Ritalin". The New York Times. ^ "Thurmond leads senator's funeral". Star-News. December 31, 1995. ^ "Senate Honors Thurmond, 95, for Casting His 15,000th Vote". Los Angeles Times. September 3, 1998. ^ National Geographic, June 1999 edition, p.80 ^ Clinton, Bill (October 17, 1998). "Statement on Signing the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999". American Presidency Project. ^ "Sen. Thurmond to Quit Armed Services Post". Los Angeles Times. December 5, 1997. ^ Grove, Lloyd (April 8, 1996). "THE 100-YEAR-OLD SENATOR?". Washington Post. ^ "Thurmond's Robust Legend Shields Him at 93". The New York Times. October 24, 1996. ^ Morton, Bruce. "South Carolina's Thurmond Still Running At 93". CNN. ^ Stout, David (February 23, 1999). "Bill Would Bar Health Referral On Wine Label". The New York Times. ^ Shenon, Philip (May 26, 1999). "Senate Clears 2 Pearl Harbor 'Scapegoats' ". The New York Times . Retrieved May 1, 2018 . ^ "National News Briefs; Thurmond Hospitalized For More Tests". The New York Times. September 13, 1999. ^ "Strom Thurmond in Hospital After Collapse". The New York Times. October 1, 2000. ^ "National News Briefs; Thurmond Recommends Son for U.S. Attorney". The New York Times. January 24, 2001. ^ Mitchell, Alison (March 27, 2001). "Senate Extends Restrictions on Advertising". The New York Times. ^ "Thurmond Taken to Hospital After Fainting". The New York Times. October 3, 2001. ^ "Thurmond marks 100th birthday". CNN. December 5, 2002. ^ Bartlett, Bruce (2008). Wrong on Race: The Democratic Party's Buried Past. St. Martin's Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0230600621. ^ Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw (March 15, 2004). "Was Strom a Rapist?". ...Butler was born in 1909 or 1910. The only way the conclusion of statutory rape could be avoided is if Butler was born no later than early January 1909, and conception occurred just after her sixteenth birthday. ^ a b c Washington-Williams, Essie Mae (February 11, 2009). "Essie Mae On Strom Thurmond". 60 Minutes (Transcript). Interviewed by Dan Rather. CBS . Retrieved November 28, 2011 . ^ "Thurmond's Family 'Acknowledges' Black Woman's Claim as Daughter". Fox News. Associated Press. December 17, 2003. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012 . Retrieved December 9, 2018 . ^ "Daughter of late Sen. Strom Thurmond to join Confederacy group", Jet, July 19, 2004, retrieved March 26, 2009 ^ Janofsky, Michael (December 16, 2003). "Thurmond Kin Acknowledge Black Daughter". The New York Times. ^ "Essie Mae Washington-Williams" Archived July 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ^ Dewan, Shaila K.; Hart, Ariel (July 2, 2004). "Thurmond's Biracial Daughter Seeks to Join Confederacy Group". The New York Times. Evidently she is eligible: Senator Thurmond, once a fierce segregationist, was a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, a similar group for men. ^ "The Secret Fight to Save Confederate Monuments". Glamour. August 16, 2018 . Retrieved June 25, 2021 . ^ Santaella, Tony (February 4, 2013). "Strom Thurmond's Daughter, Essie Mae Washington Williams, Dies". WLTX-TV. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013 . Retrieved February 5, 2013 . ^ Bass, Jack; Thompson, Marilyn W. (2003). Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond. Univ of South Carolina Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-57003-514-2 . Retrieved January 20, 2012 . ^ Cohodas, Nadine (1994). Strom Thurmond and the politics of southern change. Mercer University Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-86554-446-8 . Retrieved January 20, 2012 . ^ Short, Robert J. Duke (2006). The centennial senator: true stories of Strom Thurmond from the people who knew him best. University of South Carolina Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-9778870-0-2 . Retrieved January 20, 2012 . ^ "Governor wins secretary's hand". Life. No. November 17, 1947. 1947. pp. 44''46 . Retrieved January 20, 2012 . ^ "National Association of Former United States Attorneys". ^ "Strom Thurmond Jr. begins new career as solicitor" WRDW-TV, January 22, 2009, retrieved November 17, 2013 ^ See A Archived March 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Juliana was the mother of Strom Thurmond's first grandchild B. Archived September 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine See also C and D ^ Knight-Ridder Newspapers (March 29, 1991). "Strom Thurmond, Wife Announce Separation". The Orlando Sentinel . Retrieved April 26, 2020 . ^ Bass, Jack; Thompson, Marilyn W. (2002). Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781570035142. ^ "Thurmond's Wife Reveals Alcoholism". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. October 6, 1996 . Retrieved April 26, 2020 . ^ Bennett, James (April 29, 2001). "Strom In the Balance". The New York Times Magazine . Retrieved April 26, 2020 . ^ Caldwell, Leigh Ann; Hunt, Kasie (November 14, 2017). "Sexual Harassment Spotlight Shines on Capitol Hill". NBC News . Retrieved May 27, 2020 . ^ a b "Book recounts sexual harassment allegation against Sen. Thurmond by Sen. Patty Murray". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. November 8, 1996 . Retrieved May 27, 2020 . ^ Desjardins, Lisa; Bush, Daniel (May 15, 2020). "What 74 former Biden staffers think about Tara Reade's allegations". PBS Newshour. {{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ "Cokie Roberts On Politicians And Sexual Harassment". National Public Radio. November 15, 2017 . Retrieved May 27, 2020 . ^ Gomez, Henry J.; Sands, Darren (February 17, 2019). "Joe Biden Once Spoke At Strom Thurmond's Memorial Service. How Do People Feel About That Now?" . Retrieved March 27, 2021 . ^ "THURMOND, James Strom". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress . Retrieved March 27, 2021 . ^ "Funeral of Senator James Strom Thurmond" (PDF) . March 23, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 23, 2012 . Retrieved January 29, 2019 . ^ Noah, Timothy (December 16, 2002). "The Legend of Strom's Remorse". Slate. ^ "Strom Thurmond Praised by Friends and Foes Alike". CNS News. ^ a b "Blacks Recall Thurmond as Enemy and Friend". Los Angeles Times. June 28, 2003. ^ "Appendix 11: Research Reports on Building Names: Strom Thurmond Wellness and Fitness Center". Presidential Commission on University History. University of South Carolina. July 16, 2021 . Retrieved October 25, 2021 . ^ " 'Don't Laugh -- It's Your Money' ". Washington Post. October 28, 1979. ^ Interview with Al Sharpton, David Shankbone, Wikinews, December 3, 2007. ^ Fenner, Austin (February 25, 2007). "Slavery links families". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on February 27, 2007. ^ Santos, Fernanda (February 26, 2007). "Sharpton Learns His Forebears Were Thurmonds' Slaves". The New York Times . Retrieved November 26, 2007 . ^ Elliott, Scott. " 'Spirit of Strom Thurmond' honors senator's 100 years". Air Force Print News . Retrieved December 12, 2019 . ^ "Congressional Record, Volume 148 Issue 131 (Tuesday, October 8, 2002)". . Retrieved June 17, 2020 . ^ Reagan, Ronald (January 18, 1989). "Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Citizens Medal". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on April 5, 2018 . Retrieved April 4, 2018 . ^ Reed, John Shelton (June 1, 1993). "Strom Thurmond and the Politics of Southern Change". Reason . Retrieved October 31, 2009 . ^ "Bush presents Thurmond with Medal of Freedom". UPI. January 12, 1993. Works cited [ edit ] Bass, Jack; Thompson, Marilyn W. (2005). Strom : The Complicated Personal and Political Life of Strom Thurmond . New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781586482978. LCCN 2005047581. OL 3424613M . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . Bass, Jack; Thompson, Marilyn W. (1998). Ol' Strom . Longstreet. ISBN 9781563525230. LCCN 98066360. OL 392148M . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . Crespino, Joseph (2012). Strom Thurmond's America . New York: Hill & Wang. ISBN 9780809094806. LCCN 2011048025. OL 25132128M . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . Cohodas, Nadine (1993). Strom Thurmond and The Politics of Southern Change . Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780671689353. LCCN 92032417. OL 1728173M . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . Lachicotte, Alberta Morel (1966). Rebel Senator: Strom Thurmond of South Carolina . New York: Devin-Adair Publishing Company. LCCN 66026024. OL 5994477M . Retrieved August 8, 2021 . Further reading [ edit ] The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932''1968 by Kari Frederickson: University of North Carolina Press (March 26, 2001). ISBN 0-8078-4910-3.Pietrusza, David 1948: Harry Truman's Improbable Victory and the Year that Changed America, Union Square Press, 2011.Primary sources [ edit ] "The Faith We Have Not Kept", by Strom Thurmond: Viewpoint Books, 1968.Dear Senator: A Memoir by the Daughter of Strom Thurmond by Essie Mae Washington-Williams, William Stadiem: Regan Books (February 1, 2005). ISBN 0-06-076095-8.External links [ edit ] Appearances on C-SPANStrom Thurmond Collection at Clemson UniversityU.S. Senate historical page on Strom ThurmondSCIway Biography of Strom ThurmondNational Governors Association biography of Strom ThurmondOral History Interview with Strom Thurmond from Oral Histories of the American SouthStrom Thurmond Foundation, Inc.Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Citizens Medal '' January 18, 1989Complete transcript and audio and video of Sen. Joe Biden's Eulogy for Strom ThurmondStrom Thurmond at Find a GraveArticles [ edit ] Strom Thurmond's family confirms paternity claim, by David Mattingly,, December 15, 2003Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States CongressThe Scarred Stone: The Strom Thurmond Monument by Joseph Crespino, Emory University, April 29, 2010Obituaries [ edit ] Tribute to Strom Thurmond from The State '-- June 26, 2003Strom Thurmond dead at 100 at the Wayback Machine (archived June 29, 2003), CNN, June 26, 2003Strom Thurmond Dead at 100, by James Di Liberto Jr., Fox News, June 26, 2003"Strom Thurmond". Find a Grave . Retrieved August 4, 2008 . South Carolina SenatePreceded byThomas Greneker
Member of the South Carolina Senatefrom the Edgefield County district 1933''1938Succeeded byWilliam Yonce
Party political officesPreceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of South Carolina 1946Succeeded byNew political party Dixiecrat nominee for President of the United States 1948Party dissolvedPreceded by Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from South Carolina(Class 2) 1956, 1960Succeeded byVacantTitle last held by
Bates Gerald1948 Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from South Carolina(Class 2) 1966, 1972, 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996Succeeded byPolitical officesPreceded by Governor of South Carolina 1947''1951Succeeded byPreceded by President pro tempore of the United States Senate 1981''1987Succeeded byPreceded by President pro tempore of the United States Senate 1995''2001Succeeded byPreceded by President pro tempore of the United States Senate January 20, 2001 '' June 6, 2001Succeeded byU.S. SenatePreceded by U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina 1954''1956 Served alongside: Olin JohnstonSucceeded byPreceded by U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina 1956''2003 Served alongside: Olin Johnston, Donald S. Russell, Fritz HollingsSucceeded byPreceded by Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee 1981''1987Succeeded byPreceded by Chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee 1995''1999Succeeded byHonorary titlesPreceded by Most Senior Republican United States Senator 1981''2003Succeeded byPreceded by Dean of the United States Senate 1989''2003Succeeded byPreceded by Oldest living U.S. Senator 1998''2003Succeeded byPreceded by Oldest living U.S. governor 2000''2003Succeeded byNew title President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate 2001''2003Succeeded byPreceded by Earliest serving U.S. governor still living 2002''2003Succeeded by
NBA Youngboy Merch || Official Website || Limited Stock
Wed, 02 Mar 2022 20:49
Nba Youngboy Nba Youngboy Whose real name is Kentrell DeSean Gaulden, but in the Music World, he got popularity with the name Nba Youngboy. He is one of the most famous American rappers. Youngboy is just 22 years old and he is one of the most followed rappers in the World. He has a huge fan following from different parts of the world. Nba Youngboy recently launched his online clothing store. ''Nba Youngboy Merch'' is an online clothing store that is a treat for all young boy fans. This e-commerce store is a one-stop shop for all casual clothing lovers.
Nba Youngboy clothing is all about street style. This online shop has a huge collection of casual clothing items including hoodies, sweatshirts, and T-shirts. These clothing items give confidence and a different charm to all Youngboy lovers.
What is included in the Youngboy Clothing line? The Youngboy clothing line has a variety of items. You can find a huge range of super comfortable, unique, and stylish clothes. The clothing collection is especially for men. These clothing items are simple but unique. They are made after following all the latest fashion trends and you can style them up in different ways.
Nba youngboy hoodies. Nba youngboy shirts. Nba Youngboy Sweatshirts. These casual clothing items are not only stylish but super comfortable too. These hoodies and sweatshirts are made up of pure fabrics, they are light in weight and a perfect clothing item for people of all skin types.
Nba Youngboy x Vlone Collection: Vlone is a Prominent name in the world of casual clothing. Vlone means ''Live alone and Die Alone''. This street fashion brand was made by a famous Designer ''Jabari Shelton'' he is also known as ''Asap Bari and Young lord''
Vlone is one of the most favorite clothing brands for youngsters. This brand has a huge collection of casual clothing. If you are a vlone and Nba fan then there is great news for you. Recently Nba young boy has collaborated with vlone clothing. This collection is all about street fashion. You can find a huge variety of:
Nba Youngboy x Vlone Hoodies. Nba Youngboy x Vlone Shirts. Nba Youngboy x Vlone sweatshirts. Nba Youngboy x Vlone Collaboration offers tons of clothing items that are stylish, durable, and highly affordable. So if you are a Vlone and Nba fan then it's the right time to grab your favorite items.
Nba Youngboy Hoodies: Hoodies are the most Prominent clothing item of Nba Youngboy Merch. We have a huge collection of ''Never Broke Again'' hoodies. These hoodies are made up of 80% cotton and 20% polyester, hence they are super comfortable and easy to wear. Never broke Again hoodies are so stylish and best for daily casual outfits.
These hoodies are Lightweight. They are unique and stylish. Nba young boy hoodies are super comfortable. Highly durable hoodies. Highly affordable, even for an average man. Easy to clean. Can be styled up easily with many other clothing items. Nba Youngboy Shirts: No one can ignore the importance of T-shirts. Tee is a humble, versatile, and most commonly used clothing item. Just like all other big brands Nba Youngboy Merch also has an excellent collection of T-shirts. Nba Youngboy T-shirts are the best shirts for youngsters and even for adults. Get your favorite Never Broke Again shirts at the most affordable Prices and impress your friends with your style statement.
Nba Youngboy shirts are:
Extremely Comfortable. Highly durable. Simple yet elegant. They are 100% made up of cotton. Skin Friendly. Easy to Carry. Easy to wash. Available in different sizes and colors. Nba Youngboy sweatshirts: Sweatshirts are a blessing for all those who want to stay comfortable and look cool both at the same time. Our Merchandise has a great collection of super cozy, warm, and stylish Sweatshirts. These sweatshirts have unique Designs and are the best gift for young boy fans. Nba young boy sweatshirts are perfect casual wear for winters. Style them up with your favorite clothing items to create winter casual outfits.
Nba Sweatshirts are:
Made up of Cotton and Polyester. They are lightweight and warm. Gives you comfort and style at once. Highly durable. Affordable for the average man. Why choose Our NBA Youngboy Merch is one of the best places to get the most authentic and original Nba Youngboy clothing items. We assure you about the quality and durability of all our Products. We are one of the best and authentic online stores that Provide dream hoodie collections at reasonable prices.
Our customer service team assures that clients are getting the same products as shown in the pictures. Also, provides the fastest delivery in many parts of the world. So add your favorite items to the cart right now and shop till you drop.
Full Transcript of Biden's State of the Union Address - The New York Times
Wed, 02 Mar 2022 20:24
The president spoke about the war in Ukraine, the coronavirus pandemic, the economy and more in his State of the Union speech.
President Biden addressing lawmakers at the Capitol on Tuesday. Credit... Sarahbeth Maney/The New York Times Published March 1, 2022 Updated March 2, 2022, 1:27 a.m. ET
President Biden delivered his annual State of the Union address on Tuesday to a joint session of Congress. The following is a transcript of his remarks, as recorded by The New York Times.
PRESIDENT BIDEN: Madam Speaker, Madam Vice President and our first lady and second gentleman. Members of Congress and the cabinet. Justices of the Supreme Court. My fellow Americans.
Last year, Covid-19 kept us apart. This year, we are finally together again.
Tonight, we meet as Democrats, Republicans and Independents. But most importantly, as Americans.
With a duty to one another, to America, to the American people, to the Constitution.
And an unwavering resolve that freedom will always triumph over tyranny.
Six days ago, Russia's Vladimir Putin sought to shake the very foundations of the free world, thinking he could make it bend to his menacing ways. But he badly miscalculated.
He thought he could roll into Ukraine, and the world would roll over. Instead, he met with a wall of strength he never anticipated or imagined.
He met the Ukrainian people.
From President Zelensky to every Ukrainian, their fearlessness, their courage, their determination, literally inspires the world.
Groups of citizens blocking tanks with their bodies. Everyone from students to retirees to teachers turned soldiers defending their homeland.
In this struggle, as President Zelensky said in his speech to the European Parliament, ''light will win over darkness.'' The Ukrainian ambassador to the United States is here tonight, sitting with the first lady.
Let each of us here, if you're able to stand, stand and send an unmistakable signal to the world and Ukraine.
Yes, we, the United States of America, stand with the Ukrainian people.
Throughout our history we've learned this lesson: When dictators do not pay a price for their aggression, they cause more chaos.
They keep moving.
And the costs, the threats to America, and America to the world, keeps rising.
That's why the NATO alliance was created: to secure peace and stability in Europe after World War II.
The United States is a member, along with 29 other nations.
It matters. American diplomacy matters. American resolve matters.
Putin's latest attack on Ukraine was premeditated and totally unprovoked.
He rejected repeated, repeated efforts at diplomacy.
He thought the West and NATO wouldn't respond. He thought he could divide us at home, in this chamber and in this nation. He thought he could divide us in Europe as well. But Putin was wrong. We are ready. We are united, and that's what we did. We stayed united.
We prepared extensively and carefully.
We spent months building a coalition of other freedom-loving nations in Europe and the Americas to the Asian and African continents to confront Putin.
Like many of you, I spent countless hours unifying our European allies. We shared with the world in advance what we knew Putin was planning, and precisely how he would try to falsify and justify his aggression.
We countered Russia's lies with the truth.
And now that he has acted, the free world is holding him accountable.
Along with 27 members of the European Union, including France, Germany, Italy, as well as countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Korea, Australia, New Zealand and many others '-- even Switzerland '-- are inflicting pain on Russia and supporting the people of Ukraine. Putin is now isolated from the world more than he has ever been.
Together, along with our allies, we are right now enforcing powerful economic sanctions.
We are cutting off Russia's largest banks from the international financial system, preventing Russia's central bank from defending the Russian ruble, making Putin's $630 billion war fund worthless.
We are choking Russia's access to technology that will sap its economic strength and weaken its military for years to come.
Tonight, I say to the Russian oligarchs and the corrupt leaders who bilked billions of dollars off this violent regime: no more.
The United States Department of Justice is assembling a dedicated task force to go after the crimes of the Russian oligarchs.
We're joining with European allies to find and seize their yachts, their luxury apartments, their private jets. We are coming for your ill-begotten gains.
And tonight, I am announcing that we will join our allies in closing off American airspace to all Russian flights, further isolating Russia and adding an additional squeeze on their economy. He has no idea what's coming.
The ruble has already lost 30 percent of its value.
The Russian stock market has lost 40 percent of its value, and trading remains suspended. The Russian economy is reeling, and Putin alone is the one to blame.
Together with our allies, we are providing support to the Ukrainians in their fight for freedom. Military assistance. Economic assistance. Humanitarian assistance.
We are giving more than $1 billion in direct assistance to Ukraine, and will continue to aid the Ukrainian people as they defend their country and help ease their suffering.
But let me be clear: Our forces are not engaged and will not engage in the conflict with Russian forces in Ukraine.
Our forces are not going to Europe to fight in Ukraine, but to defend our NATO allies in the event that Putin decides to keep moving west.
For that purpose, we've mobilized American ground forces, air squadrons, ship deployments to protect NATO countries, including Poland, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
And as I have made crystal clear: The United States and our allies will defend every inch of territory that is NATO territory with the full force of our collective power. Every single inch.
And we're cleareyed. The Ukrainians are fighting back with pure courage. But the next few days, weeks and months will be hard on them.
Putin has unleashed violence and chaos. But while he may make gains on the battlefield, he will pay a continuing high price over the long run.
And a proud, proud people, pound-for-pound ready to fight with every inch of energy they have '-- they have known 30 years of independence, have repeatedly shown that they will not tolerate anyone who tries to take their country backwards.
To all Americans, I will be honest with you, as I always promised I would be. A Russian dictator, invading a foreign country, has costs around the world.
And I'm taking robust action to make sure the pain of our sanctions is targeted at Russian economy. And I will use every tool at our disposal to protect American businesses and consumers.
Tonight, I can announce that the United States has worked with 30 other countries to release 60 million barrels of oil from reserves around the world.
America will lead that effort, releasing 30 million barrels from our own Strategic Petroleum Reserve. And we stand ready to do more if necessary, unified with our allies.
These steps will help blunt gas prices here at home. But I know the news about what's happening can seem alarming to all Americans.
But I want you to know that we are going to be OK. We are going to be OK.
When the history of this era is written, Putin's war on Ukraine will have left Russia weaker and the rest of the world stronger.
While it shouldn't have taken something so terrible for people around the world to see what's at stake, now everyone sees it clearly.
We see the unity among leaders of nations, a more unified Europe, a more unified West. We see unity among the people who are gathering in cities, in large crowds around the world '-- even in Russia '-- to demonstrate their support for the people of Ukraine.
In the battle between democracy and autocracies, democracies are rising to the moment, and the world is clearly choosing the side of peace and security.
This is the real test. It's going to take time. So let us continue to draw inspiration from the iron will of the Ukrainian people.
To our fellow Ukrainian Americans, who forged a deep bond that connects our two nations. we stand with you. We stand with you.
Putin may circle Kyiv with tanks, but he'll never gain the hearts and souls of the Iranian people.
He'll never extinguish their love of freedom. And he will never, never weaken the resolve of the free world.
We meet tonight in an America that has lived through two of the hardest years this nation has ever faced.
The pandemic has been punishing.
And so many families are living paycheck to paycheck, struggling to keep up with the rising cost of food, gas, housing and so much more.
I understand like many of you did.
My dad had to leave his home in Scranton, Pa., to find work. So like many of you, I grew up in a family when the price of food went up, it was felt throughout the family. It had an impact.
That's why one of the first things I did as president was fight to pass the American Rescue Plan.
Because people were hurting. We needed to act, and we did.
Few pieces of legislation have done more at a critical moment in our history to lift us out of crisis.
It fueled our efforts to vaccinate the nation and combat Covid-19. It delivered immediate economic relief to tens of millions of Americans.
It helped put food on the table '-- remember those long lines of cars waiting for hours just to get a box of food put in their trunk. It cut the cost of health insurance.
And as my dad used to say, it gave the people just a little breathing room.
Unlike the $2 trillion tax cut passed in the previous administration that benefited the top 1 percent of Americans, the American Rescue Plan helped working people '-- and left no one behind.
And it worked. It created jobs '-- lots of jobs.
In fact, our economy created over 6.5 million new jobs just last year, more jobs created in one year than ever before in the history of the United States of America.
The economy grew at a rate of 5.7 last year, the strongest growth rate in nearly 40 years, the first step in bringing fundamental change to our economy that hasn't worked for the working people of this nation for too long.
For the past 40 years, we were told that tax breaks for those at the top and benefits would trickle down, and everyone would benefit.
But that trickle-down theory led to a weaker economic growth, lower wages, bigger deficits and a widening gap between those at the top and everyone else in nearly a century.
Look, Vice President Harris and I ran for office '-- and I realized we had fundamental disagreements on this '-- but ran for office with a new economic vision for America.
Invest in America. Educate Americans. Grow the work force. Build the economy from the bottom up and the middle out, not from the top down.
Because we know that when the middle class grows, the poor have a ladder up, and the wealthy do very well.
America used to have the best roads, bridges and airports on earth.
Now our infrastructure is ranked 13th in the world.
We won't be able to compete for the jobs of the 21st century if we don't fix it.
That's why it was so important to pass the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law '-- and I thank my Republican colleagues who joined to invest and rebuild America, the single biggest investment in history.
This was a bipartisan effort, and I want to thank the members of both parties who worked to make it happen.
We're done talking about infrastructure weeks.
We're now talking about an infrastructure decade.
It is going to transform America, to put us on a path to win the economic competition of the 21st century that we face with the rest of the world '-- particularly China.
I've told Xi Jinping, it is never a good bet to bet against the American people.
We'll create good jobs for millions of Americans, modernizing roads, airports, ports, waterways all across America.
And we'll do it all to withstand the devastating effects of climate change and promote environmental justice.
We'll build a national network of 500,000 electric vehicle charging stations, begin to replace the poisonous lead pipes, so every child '-- every American '-- has clean water to drink at home and at school. We're going to provide affordable high-speed internet for every American '-- rural, urban, suburban and tribal communities.
Four thousand projects have already been announced. Many of you have announced them in your districts.
And tonight, I'm announcing that this year we will start fixing over 65,000 miles of highway and 1,500 bridges in disrepair.
When we use taxpayers' dollars to rebuild America, we are going to do it by buying American: buy American products, support American jobs.
The federal government spends about $600 billion a year to keep this country safe and secure.
There's been a law on the books for almost a century to make sure taxpayers' dollars support American jobs and businesses.
Every administration, Democrat and Republican, says they'll do it, but we are actually doing it.
We will buy American to make sure everything from the deck of an aircraft carrier to the steel on highway guardrails is made in America from beginning to end. All of it. All of it.
But folks, to compete for the jobs of the future, we also need to level the playing field with China and other competitors.
That's why it is so important to pass the Bipartisan Innovation Act sitting in Congress that will make record investments in emerging technologies and American manufacturing. We used to invest 2 percent of our G.D.P. in research and development. We don't now. China is.
Let me give you one example of why it's so important to pass it.
If you travel 20 miles east of Columbus, Ohio, you'll find 1,000 empty acres of land.
It won't look like much, but if you stop and look closely, you'll see a field of dreams, the ground on which America's future will be built.
That's where Intel, the American company that helped build Silicon Valley, is going to build its $20 billion semiconductor mega site.
Up to eight state-of-the-art factories in one place. Ten thousand new jobs. In those factories, the average job: about $135,000 a year.
Some of the most sophisticated manufacturing in the world to make computer chips the size of a fingertip that power the world and everyday lives.
From smartphones. The internet. Technology we have yet to invent.
But that's just the beginning.
Intel's C.E.O., Pat Gelsinger, who is here tonight '-- Pat told me they are ready to increase their investment from $20 billion to $100 billion.
That would be the biggest investment in manufacturing in American history.
And all they're waiting for is for you to pass this bill.
So let's not wait any longer. Send it to my desk. I'll sign it.
And we will really take off in a big way.
And folks, Intel is not alone.
There's something happening in America.
Just look around, and you'll see an amazing story.
The rebirth of pride that comes from stamping products ''Made in America.'' The revitalization of American manufacturing.
Companies are choosing to build new factories here, when just a few years ago, they would have gone overseas.
That's what is happening. Ford is investing $11 billion in electric vehicles, creating 11,000 jobs across the country.
G.M. is making the largest investment in its history: $7 billion to build electric vehicles, creating 4,000 jobs in Michigan.
All told, 369,000 new manufacturing jobs in America last year alone.
Powered by people I've met like JoJo Burgess, from generations of union steelworkers from Pittsburgh, who's here with us tonight.
As Ohio Senator Sherrod Brown says, ''It's time to bury the label 'Rust Belt.'''
It's time to see what used to be called the Rust Belt become the home of significant resurgence of manufacturing.
But with all the bright spots in our economy, record job growth, higher wages, too many families are struggling to keep up with the bills.
Inflation is robbing them of the gains they thought otherwise they would be able to feel.
I get it. That's why my top priority is getting prices under control.
Look, our economy roared back faster than almost anyone predicted, but the pandemic meant that businesses had a hard time hiring enough workers to keep up production in their factories.
So you didn't have people making those beams that went into buildings because they were out, the factory was closed. The panic also disrupted the global supply chain.
Factories close. When that happens, it takes longer to make goods and get them to the warehouses, to the stores, and prices go up.
Look at cars last year.
One-third of all of the inflation was because of automobile sales. There weren't enough semiconductors to make all the cars that people wanted to buy.
And guess what, prices of automobiles went way up. Especially used vehicles as well.
So, we have a choice.
One way to fight inflation is to drive down wages and make Americans poorer.
I think I have a better idea to fight inflation.
Lower your cost, not your wages.
That means make more cars and semiconductors in America.
More infrastructure and innovation in America.
More goods moving faster and cheaper in America.
More jobs where you can earn a good living in America.
Instead of relying on foreign supply chains, let's make it in America.
Economists call it ''increasing the productive capacity of our economy.''
I call it building a better America.
My plan to fight inflation will lower your costs and lower the deficit.
Seventeen Nobel laureates in economics said my plan will ease long-term inflationary pressures. Top business leaders and I believe most Americans support my plan. And here's the plan:
First, cut the cost of prescription drugs. We pay more for the same drug produced by the same company in America than any other country in the world. Just look at insulin. One in 10 Americans has diabetes. In Virginia, I met a 13-year-old boy, the handsome young man up there, Joshua Davis.
He and his dad both have Type 1 diabetes, which means they need insulin every single day. Insulin costs about $10 a vial to make. That's what it costs the pharmaceutical company.
But drug companies charge families like Joshua and his dad up to 30 times that amount. I spoke with Joshua's mom.
Imagine what it's like to look at your child who needs insulin to stay healthy and have no idea how in God's name you're going to be able to pay for it.
What it does to your family, but what it does to your dignity, your ability to look your child in the eye, to be the parent you expect yourself to be. I really mean that, think about that. That's what I think about.
You know, yesterday, Joshua is here tonight, but yesterday was his birthday. Happy birthday, buddy, by the way.
For Joshua, and for the 200,000 other young people with Type 1 diabetes, let's cap the cost of insulin at $35 a month so everyone can afford it.
And drug companies will do very, very well '-- their profit margins. And while we're at it, let's let Medicare negotiate the price of prescription drugs. They already set the price for V.A. drugs.
Look, the American Rescue Plan is helping millions of families on Affordable Care Act plans to save them $2,400 a year on their health care premiums. Let's close the coverage gap and make these savings permanent.
Second, cut energy costs for families an average of $500 a year by combating climate change.
Let's provide investment tax credits to weatherize your home and your business to be energy efficient and get a tax credit for it; double America's clean energy production in solar, wind and so much more; lower the price of electric vehicles, saving you another $80 a month that you'll never have to pay at the pump.
The third thing we can do to change the standard of living for hard-working folks is cut the cost of child care. Cut the cost of child care. Folks, if you live in a major city in America, you pay up to $14,000 a year for child care per child.
I was a single dad for five years raising two kids. I had a lot of help, though. I had a mom, a dad, a brother and a sister that really helped.
Middle-class and working folks shouldn't have to pay more than 7 percent of their income to care for their young children.
My plan would cut the cost in half for most families and help parents, including millions of women, who left the work force during the pandemic because they couldn't afford child care, to be able to get back to work. Generating economic growth.
But my plan doesn't stop there. It also includes home and long-term care. More affordable housing. Pre-K for 3- and 4-year-olds.
All of these will lower costs for families.
And under my plan, nobody '-- let me say this again: nobody '-- earning less than $400,000 a year will pay an additional penny in new taxes. Not a single penny.
I may be wrong, but my guess is if we took a secret ballot in this floor that we'd agree that the present tax system ain't fair. We have to fix it.
I'm not looking to punish anybody. But let's make corporations and wealthy Americans start paying their fair share.
Look, last year '-- like Chris Coons and Tom Carper and my distinguished congresswoman, we come from the land of corporate America. There are more corporations in incorporated America than every other state in America combined. And I still won 36 years in a row.
The point is even they understand they should pay just the fair share. Last year, 55 of the Fortune 500 companies earned $40 billion in profit and paid zero in federal taxes. Look, it's not fair. That's why I proposed a 15 percent minimum tax rate for corporations.
And that's why in the G7 and other meetings overseas we're able to put together, I was able to be somewhat helpful, 130 countries to agree on a global minimum tax rate so companies can't get out of paying their taxes at home by shipping jobs and factories overseas. It'll raise billions of dollars.
That's why I've proposed closing loopholes so the very wealthy don't pay a lower tax rate than a teacher or a firefighter.
So that's my plan, but we'll go into more detail later. We will grow the economy and lower the costs for families.
So what are we waiting for? Let's get this done. We all know we got to make changes. And while you're at it, confirm my nominees for the Federal Reserve, which plays a critical role in fighting inflation.
My plan will not only lower costs and give families a fair shot; it will lower the deficit
The previous administration not only ballooned the deficit with those tax cuts for the very wealthy and corporations, it undermined the watchdogs whose job was to keep pandemic relief funds from being wasted.
Remember we had those debates about whether or not those watchdogs should be able to see every day how much money was being spent, whether it was going to the right place?
But in my administration, the watchdogs are back.
And we're going to go after the criminals who stole billions in relief money meant for small businesses and millions of Americans.
And tonight, I'm announcing that the Justice Department will soon name a chief prosecutor for pandemic fraud.
By the end of this year, the deficit will be down to less than half of what it was before I took office.
The only president ever to cut the deficit by more than $1 trillion in a single year.
Lowering your costs also meant demanding more competition.
I'm a capitalist, but capitalism without competition isn't capitalism.
Capitalism without competition is exploitation '-- it drives up profits.
And corporations have to compete, their profits go up and your prices go up when they don't have to compete.
Small businesses and family farmers and ranchers I need not tell some of my Republican friends from those states, guess what, you got four basic meat packing facilities. That's it. You play with them or you don't get to play at all. And you pay a hell of a lot more. A hell of a lot more because there's only four.
See what's happening with ocean carriers moving goods in and out of America.
During the pandemic, about half a dozen or less foreign-owned companies raised prices by as much as 1,000 percent and made record profits.
Tonight, I'm announcing a crackdown on those companies overcharging American businesses and consumers.
And as Wall Street firms take over more nursing homes, quality in those homes has gone down and costs have gone up.
That ends on my watch.
Medicare is going to set higher standards for nursing homes and make sure your loved ones get the care they deserve and that they expect.
We're also going to cut costs to keep the economy going strong and give workers a fair shot, provide more training and apprenticeships, hire them based on their skills not just their degrees.
Let's pass the Paycheck Fairness Act and paid leave.
Raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour and extend the Child Tax Credit, so no one has to raise a family in poverty.
Let's increase Pell grants and increase our historic support for H.B.C.U.s, and invest in what Jill '-- our first lady who teaches full-time '-- calls America's best-kept secret: community colleges.
Let's pass the PRO Act when a majority of workers want to form a union '-- they shouldn't be able to be stopped.
When we invest in our workers, when we build the economy from the bottom up and the middle out together, we can do something we haven't done in a long time: build a better America.
For more than two years, Covid has impacted every decision in our lives and the life of this nation.
And I know you're tired, frustrated and exhausted. That doesn't even count the close to a million people who sit at a dining room table or a kitchen table looking at an empty chair because they lost somebody.
But I also know this.
Because of the progress we've made, because of your resilience and the tools that we have been provided by this Congress, tonight I can say we are moving forward safely, back to more normal routines.
We've reached a new moment in the fight against COVID-19, where severe cases down to a level not seen since last July.
Just a few days ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued new mask guidelines.
Under these new guidelines, most Americans in most of the country can now go mask free.
And based on projections, more of the country will reach across that point across the next couple of weeks.
Thanks to the progress we have made in the past year, Covid-19 no longer need control our lives.
I know some are talking about living with Covid-19. But tonight I say that we will never just accept living with Covid-19.
We'll continue to combat the virus as we do other diseases. And because this virus mutates and spreads, we have to stay on guard.
And here are four common sense steps as we move forward safely, in my view.
First, stay protected with vaccines and treatments. We know how incredibly effective vaccines are. If you're vaccinated and boosted, you have the highest degree of protection.
We will never give up on vaccinating more Americans. Now, I know parents with kids under 5 are eager to see their vaccines authorized for their children.
The scientists are working hard to get that done, and we'll be ready with plenty of vaccines if and when they do.
We're also ready with anti-viral treatments. If you get Covid-19, the Pfizer pill reduces your chances of ending up in the hospital by 90 percent.
I've ordered more of these pills than anyone in the world has. Pfizer is working overtime to get us one million pills this month and more than double that next month.
And we're launching the ''test to treat'' initiative so people can get tested at a pharmacy, and if they prove positive, receive antiviral pills on the spot at no cost.
If you're immunocompromised or have some other vulnerability, we have treatments and free high-quality masks.
We're leaving no one behind or ignoring anyone's needs as we move forward.
On testing, we have made hundreds of millions of tests available, and you can order them for free to your doorstep.
And if you already ordered free tests tonight, I'm announcing you can order another group of tests. Go to starting next week and you can get more tests.
Second, we must prepare for new variants. Over the past, we've gotten much better at detecting new variants.
If necessary, we'll be able to develop new vaccines within 100 days instead of maybe months or years.
And, if Congress provides the funds we need, we'll have new stockpiles of tests, masks, pills ready if needed.
I cannot promise a new variant won't come. But I can promise you we'll do everything within our power to be ready if it does.
Third, we can end the shutdown of schools and businesses. We have the tools we need.
It's time for America to get back to work and fill our great downtowns again with people. People working from home can feel safe and begin to return to their offices.
We're doing that here in the federal government. The vast majority of federal workers will once again work in person.
Our schools are open. Let's keep it that way. Our kids need to be in school.
And with 75 percent of adult Americans fully vaccinated and hospitalizations down by 77 percent, most Americans can remove their masks and stay in the classroom, and move forward safely.
We achieved this because we provided free vaccines, treatments, tests and masks.
Of course, continuing this costs money. So I'll not surprise you, I'll be back to see you all.
And I'm going to soon send Congress a request.
The vast majority of Americans have used these tools and may want again, we may need them again, so I expect Congress and I hope you'll pass that quickly.
Fourth, we'll continue vaccinating the world.
We've sent 475 million vaccine doses to 112 countries, more than any nation on earth.
We won't stop. Because you can't build a wall high enough to keep out a vaccine '-- the vaccine can stop the spread of these diseases.
You know, we've lost so much to Covid-19. Time with one another. And worst of all, much loss of life.
Let's use this moment to reset. So stop looking at Covid as a partisan dividing line. See it for what it is: a God-awful disease.
Let's stop seeing each other as enemies, and start seeing each other for who we are: fellow Americans.
We can't change how divided we've been. It was a long time in coming. But we can change how to move forward '-- on Covid-19 and other issues that we must face together.
I recently visited the New York City Police Department days after the funerals of Officer Wilbert Mora and his partner, Officer Jason Rivera.
They were responding to a 911 call when a man shot and killed them with a stolen gun.
Officer Mora was 27 years old.
Officer Rivera was 22 years old.
Both Dominican Americans who grew up on the same streets they later chose to patrol as police officers.
I spoke with their families and I told them that we are forever in debt for their sacrifices, and we'll carry on their mission to restore the trust and safety of every community deserves.
Like some of you that have been around for a while, I've worked with you for on these issues a long time.
I know what works: Investigating crime prevention and community policing. Cops who'll walk the beat, who know the neighborhood and who can restore trust and safety.
Let's not abandon our streets, or choose between safety and equal justice.
Let's come together and protect our communities, restore trust and hold law enforcement accountable.
That's why the Justice Department has required body cameras, banned chokeholds and restricted no-knock warrants for its officers.
That's why the American Rescue Plan that you all provided $350 billion that cities, states and counties can use to hire more police, invest in proven strategies. Proven strategies like community violence interruption '-- trusted messengers breaking the cycle of violence and trauma and giving young people some hope.
We should all agree: The answer is not to defund the police. It's to fund the police. Fund them. Fund them. Fund them with resources and training. Resources and training they need to protect their communities.
I ask Democrats and Republicans alike to pass my budget and keep our neighborhoods safe.
And we'll do everything in my power to crack down on gun trafficking, of ghost guns that you can buy online, assemble at home '-- no serial numbers, can't be traced.
I ask Congress to pass proven measures to reduce gun violence. Pass universal background checks. Why should anyone on the terrorist list be able to purchase a weapon? Why? Why?
And folks, ban assault weapons with high-capacity magazines that hold up to a hundred rounds. You think the deer are wearing Kevlar vests?
Look, repeal the liability shield that makes gun manufacturers the only industry in America that can't be sued. The only one.
Imagine had we done that with the tobacco manufacturers.
These laws don't infringe on the Second Amendment. They save lives.
The most fundamental right in America is the right to vote '-- and have it counted. And look, it's under assault.
In state after state, new laws have been passed, not only to suppress the vote '-- we've been there before '-- but to subvert the entire election.
We can't let this happen.
Tonight, I call on the Senate to pass the Freedom to Vote Act. Pass the John Lewis Voting Rights Act. And while you're at it, pass the Disclose Act so Americans know who is funding our elections.
Look, tonight, I'd like to honor someone who has dedicated his life to serve this country: Justice Breyer '-- an Army veteran, constitutional scholar, retiring justice of the United States Supreme Court. Justice Breyer, thank you for your service.
Thank you, thank you, thank you. I mean it. Get up. Stand up so they can see you. Thank you.
We all know '-- no matter what your ideology '-- we all know, one of the most serious constitutional responsibility a president has is nominating someone to serve on the United States Supreme Court.
As I did four days ago, I've nominated the Circuit Court of Appeals Ketanji Brown Jackson. One of our nation's top legal minds, who will continue in Justice Breyer's legacy of excellence.
A former top litigator in private practice. A former federal public defender. From a family of public school educators and police officers. She's a consensus builder. Since she's been nominated, she's received a broad range of support '-- including the Fraternal Order of Police and former judges appointed by Democrats and Republicans.
Folks, if we are to advance liberty and justice, we need to secure our border and fix the immigration system.
And as you might guess, I think we can do both. At our border, we've installed new technology like cutting-edge scanners to better detect drug smuggling.
We've set up joint patrols with Mexico and Guatemala to catch more human traffickers.
We're putting in place dedicated immigration judges in significant larger number so families fleeing persecution and violence can have their cases heard faster and those who don't legitimately here can be sent back.
We're screening, we're securing commitments and supporting partners in South and Central America to host more refugees and secure their own borders.
We can do all this while keeping lit the torch of liberty that has led the generation of immigrants to this land '-- my forebears and many of yours.
Provide a pathway to citizenship for Dreamers, those on temporary status, farm workers, essential workers.
Revise our laws so businesses have workers they need and families don't wait decades to reunite.
It's not only the right thing to do '-- it's economically smart thing to do.
That's why immigration reform is supported by everyone from labor unions to religious leaders to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.
Let's get it done once and for all.
Folks, advancing liberty and justice also requires protecting the rights of women.
The constitutional right affirmed by Roe v. Wade '-- standing precedent for half a century '-- is under attack as never before.
If you want to go forward '-- not backwards '-- we must protect access to health care. Preserve a woman's right to choose. And continue to advance maternal health care for all Americans.
And folks, for our L.G.B.T.Q.+ Americans, let's finally get the bipartisan Equality Act to my desk. The onslaught of state laws targeting transgender Americans and their families is simply wrong.
I've said last year, especially to our younger transgender Americans, I'll always have your back as your president, so you can be yourself and reach your God-given potential.
Folks, as I've just demonstrated, while it often appears that we do not agree, and that '-- we do agree on a lot more things than we acknowledge. I signed 80 bipartisan bills into law last year. From preventing government shutdowns to protecting Asian Americans from still-too-common hate crimes to reforming military justice.
And we'll soon be strengthening the Violence Against Women Act that I first wrote three decades ago. It's important, it's important for us to show the nation that we can come together and do big things.
So tonight I'm offering a unity agenda for the nation. Four big things we can do together, in my view.
First, beat the opioid epidemic.
There is so much we can do. Increase funding for prevention, treatment, harm reduction and recovery.
Get rid of outdated rules that stop doctors from prescribing treatments. Stop the flow of illicit drugs by working with state and local law enforcement to go after the trafficker.
And if you're suffering from addiction, you know, you know you're not alone. I believe in recovery, and I celebrate the 23 million, 23 million Americans in recovery.
Second, let's take on mental health. Especially among our children, whose lives and education have been turned upside down.
The American Rescue Plan gave schools money to hire teachers and help students make up for lost learning.
I urge every parent to make sure your school, your school does just that. They have the money. We can all play a part '-- sign up to be a tutor or a mentor.
Children were also struggling before the pandemic. Bullying, violence, trauma and the harms of social media.
As Frances Haugen, who is here with us tonight, has shown, we must hold social media platforms accountable for the national experiment they're conducting on our children for profit.
Folks '-- thank you, thank you for the courage you showed. Thank you. Thank you for the courage you showed.
It's time to strengthen privacy protections, ban targeted advertising to children, demand tech companies stop collecting personal data on our children.
And let's get all Americans the mental health services they need. More people they can turn to for help, and full parity between physical and mental health care if we treat it that way in our insurance.
Look, the third piece of that agenda is support our veterans.
Veterans are the backbone and the spine of this country. They're the best of us.
I've always believed that we have a sacred obligation to equip those we send to war and care for those and their family when they come home.
My administration is providing assistance in job training and housing, and now helping lower-income veterans get V.A. care debt-free.
And our troops in Iraq and Afghanistan have faced many dangers.
One being stationed at bases, breathing in toxic smoke from burn pits. Many of you have been there. I've been in and out of Iraq and Afghanistan over 40 times. These burn pits that incinerate waste, the waste of war '-- medical and hazardous material, jet fuel and so much more.
And they came home, many of the world's fittest and best trained warriors in the world, never the same.
Headaches. Numbness. Dizziness.
A cancer that would put them in a flag-draped coffin.
I know.
One of those soldiers was my son Maj. Beau Biden.
I don't know for sure if the burn pit that he lived near, that his hooch was near, in Iraq and earlier than that in Kosovo is the cause of his brain cancer, or the diseases of so many of our troops.
But I'm committed to find out everything we can.
Committed to military families like Danielle Robinson from Ohio.
The widow of Sgt. First Class Heath Robinson.
He was born a soldier. Army National Guard. Combat medic in Kosovo and Iraq.
Stationed near Baghdad, just yards from burn pits the size of football fields.
Danielle is here with us tonight. They loved going to Ohio State football games. And he loved building Legos with their daughter.
But cancer from prolonged exposure to burn pits ravaged Heath's lungs and body.
Danielle says Heath was a fighter to the very end.
He didn't know how to stop fighting, and neither did she.
Through her pain, she found purpose to demand that we do better.
Tonight, Danielle, we are going to do better.
The V.A. is pioneering new ways of linking toxic exposures to disease, already helping more veterans get benefits.
And tonight, I'm announcing we're expanding eligibility to veterans suffering from nine respiratory cancers.
I'm also calling on Congress to pass a law to make sure veterans devastated by toxic exposures in Iraq and Afghanistan finally get the benefits and the comprehensive health care that they deserve.
And fourth and last, let's end cancer as we know it.
This is personal '-- to me and to Jill and to Kamala, and so many of you. So many of you have lost someone you loved: husband, wife, son, daughter, mom, dad.
Cancer is the No. 2 cause of death in America, second only to heart disease.
Last month, I announced a plan to supercharge the ''cancer moonshot'' that President Obama asked me to lead six years ago.
Our goal is to cut cancer death rates by at least 50 percent over the next 25 years. I think we can do better than that. Turn cancers from death sentences into treatable diseases.
More support for patients and their families.
To get there, I call on Congress to fund what I call ARPA-H, the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health.
Patterned after DARPA and the Defense Department, projects that led in DARPA to the internet, GPS and so much more to make our forces more safer and be able to wage war with more clarity
ARPA will have a singular purpose '-- to drive breakthroughs in cancer, Alzheimer's, and diabetes and more.
A unity agenda for the nation.
We can do these things. It's within our power, and I don't see a partisan edge to any one of those four things.
My fellow Americans, tonight, we have gathered in this sacred space '-- the citadel of democracy.
In this Capitol, generation after generation, Americans have debated great questions amid great strife, and have done great things.
We fought for freedom, expanded liberty, debated totalitarianism and terror.
We built the strongest, freest and most prosperous nation the world has ever known.
Now is the hour.
Our moment of responsibility.
Our test of resolve and conscience, of history itself.
It is in this moment that our character of this generation is formed. Our purpose is found. Our future is forged.
Well, I know this nation.
We'll meet the test.
Protect freedom and liberty, expand fairness and opportunity.
And we will save democracy.
As hard as those times have been, I am more optimistic about America today than I've been my whole life.
Because I see the future that's within our grasp.
Because I know there is simply nothing beyond our capacity.
We are the only nation on earth that has always turned every crisis we faced into an opportunity.
The only nation that can be defined by a single word: possibilities.
So on this night, on our 245th year as a nation, I have come to report on the state of the nation '-- the state of the union.
And my report is this: the state of the union is strong because you, the American people, are strong.
We are stronger today than we were a year ago.
And we'll be stronger a year from now than we are today.
This is our moment to meet and overcome the challenges of our time.
And we will, as one people.
One America.
The United States of America.
God bless you all, and may God protect our troops. Thank you. Go get 'em.
The Impact Of A SWIFT Ban On Russia And The World | ZeroHedge
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 19:51
Authored by Daniel Lacalle,
SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) is the global financial system that allows immediate and secure transfers of money across borders. It is the web that verifies all financial transactions. It links 11,000 banks and institutions in more than 200 countries, with 40 million messages a day. Using SWIFT ensures that transactions happen in seconds in a secure way. Around 1% of those messages involve Russian payments, according to the BBC.
As part of the West sanctions against Russia, its banks have been banned from the SWIFT system. Additionally, the United States and the European Union have announced restrictions on the Russian central bank that block access to more than $600 billion in reserves. The Bank of Russia reports that only 22% of its international reserves are US Dollars, while gold accounts for 23%.
What does this mean? On the one hand, the move aims to block all options of the central bank to defend its currency from plummeting even more against the US dollar or the euro. In recent years, the Russian central bank has been reducing its exposure to US treasuries and shifting from US dollar reserves to euro and yuan, as well as gold. Access to those reserves is more difficult now, and in the case of euro and yen, probably close to impossible.
For Russian banks, the ban from the SWIFT system increases the risk of a bank run as citizens fear for the loss of their deposits and a collapse in daily operations, even if they start to use other alternatives.
However, we cannot forget there is an important impact on European banks as well. According to JP Morgan, European banks have up to $80 billion in claims with Russian banks. Being banned from SWIFT does not make these claims disappear, but if Russian banks fall into a de-capitalization process, the risks of defaults multiply.
Only three countries have been banned from SWIFT. Iran, since 2012, North Korea and now Russia, albeit partially. Oil and gas exports as well as other key commodities remain in the system.
Without SWIFT, Russian banks and the central bank are effectively blocked from operating on a global scale which means an added risk of a domino of defaults from issuers and the impossibility to conduct the most basic international operations.
However, Russian banks may bypass the SWIFT system and use other alternatives, mainly though a parallel system in China, called CIPS (Cross-Border Interbank Payments System), which facilitates transactions in yuan. According to CIPS, at least 25 Russian banks conduct yuan transactions through their system.
Using CIPS and other direct or indirect tools to bypass SWIFT has been an alternative for Iran and North Korea but does not solve the problem of access to reserves of the central bank nor does it truly mitigate the impossibility of conducting global transactions. The yuan is only used in 4% of global currency transactions according to the BIS (Bank Of International Settlements).
Russian banks and the central bank may moderate the financial blow using alternative systems, but the negative impact cannot be underestimated.
There may be a backlash for the United States as well. If other countries find that there is a valid alternative to SWIFT, they might feel compelled to strengthen ties with China.
Banning Russian banks from SWIFT may cripple many Latin American and Middle East economies that have deep financial connections with Russia, but there is a risk for the United States that the CIPS alternative, which is marginal at best today, grows rapidly.
The United States and Europe cannot fully ban SWIFT due to the importance of Russian oil, gas, metals, and wheat exports, and this may create numerous challenges that significantly limit the so-called ''nuclear option''. The Russian central bank's large gold reserves are also a differentiating factor compared to other economies.
No matter how we look at these sanctions, there is no doubt that there are unintended cross-border impacts and there may be unexpected negative consequences for everyone involved.
There is no doubt that the SWIFT ban is probably the most severe of financial sanctions possible and that there are no easy alternatives, but as time passes it is also clear that the widespread negative consequences of the Ukraine war will likely last for many years.
Will this measure accelerate a global financial shift toward China? Probably not in the short term, given the relatively modest use of the yuan compared to the importance of China in the global economy, but the ramifications of this measure in the global financial world are yet to be fully understood. A global financial transaction system remains as the undisputed leader only if it is truly global and far-reaching. The negative impact for Russia is unquestionable, but the long-term implications of this measure must be seen.
Netflix Wins Big Again, Scoring $60 Million in California Tax Credits - Variety
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 19:35
The California Film Commission announced the latest round of tax credits for film productions on Monday, and once again Netflix emerged as the big winner.
The streaming giant was awarded $60.3 million in state credits, far outpacing Disney ($27.2 million), Warner Bros. ($16.2 million) and Amazon ($16 million). Netflix also led the way in the last round of credits in August 2021, taking $43.3 million.
This time, Netflix was granted credits for four projects: ''Atlas,'' ''Beverly Hills Cop 4,'' ''Family Leave'' and ''Unfrosted.''
The latter project stars Jerry Seinfeld in an origin story about the Pop Tart, and was awarded $14.2 million in credits.
''We are so happy to get the California tax credit which enables us to make our whole movie there,'' said Seinfeld, who is also writing, directing and producing the film for Netflix. ''Having made all of the 'Seinfeld' series in L.A., I very much wanted to come back and shoot there again. On behalf of everyone working on the movie, we really appreciate the great welcome.''
In all, the commission awarded a record-setting $149.2 million in credits for 30 films. The credits allow the companies to offset their state tax liability, and are used as a tool to keep production from fleeing to other states, which also offer tax incentives.
California awards $330 million in credits per year, though that figure was increased by $90 million for each of two years due to the state's pandemic-related budget surplus '-- with that increase earmarked for TV shows. The commission has also built up a sizable store of unused credits during the pandemic, as projects that were awarded in prior rounds were either delayed, canceled or relocated to other states.
In a typical year, the state would allocate $132 million to film projects '-- both independent and studio films '-- with the remainder going to series TV. So far this fiscal year, however, the state has already awarded $288 million to film projects.
''Beverly Hills Cop 4'' '-- which has been delayed several times over the years '-- was awarded a tax credit in the round last August, but was unable to make use of it. Netflix applied again and was awarded again this round, winning $16.1 million. Five other projects were also awarded credits for the second time '-- ''Anemone,'' ''Scandalous,'' ''The Long Walk,'' ''Thirsty,'' and ''Verona Spies'' '-- after delays made it impossible to use the credits the first time around.
''Atlas'' is the biggest single project this round, winning $20.5 million. The film is a sci-fi thriller starring Jennifer Lopez. Also of note are ''Family Leave,'' a body-switch comedy starring Jennifer Garner, and ''Training Day: Day of the Riot,'' a Warner Bros. prequel to the 2001 Denzel Washington-Ethan Hawke film.
''As an actor, producer and mother, it's impossible to overstate what shooting locally means to me and other families in this industry,'' Garner said in a statement. ''I've been lucky to work with some of the greatest crew members of my career here in California, and I'm looking forward to reconnecting with some of my home team friends on this project.''
The full list of 30 recipients:
Studio Films
The Three Joaquins, ABC Signature (Disney), $10.2 millionAtlas, Netflix, $20.5 millionBeverly Hills Cop 4, Netflix, $16.1 millionDust, Disney, $3.6 millionFamily Leave, Netflix, $9.4 millionGreatest Hits, Disney, $4.1 millionThe Long Walk, New Line Productions (Warner Bros.), $7.1 millionTraining Day: Day of the Riot, Warner Bros., $9.1 millionUnfrosted, Netflix, $14.2 millionUntitled Amazon Studios Movie, Amazon, $16 millionUntitled Original Disney Musical, Disney, $9.3 million
Independent Films
80 for Brady, 80 for Brady Productions (Paramount), $2.5 millionAnemone, AFI Media Holdings, $369,000Dope Little Creatures, Carbin Pictures, $1.4 millionEarth Mama, Net-Net Worldwide, $850,000Home, JB CA Film 2 LLC (Jason Blum), $2.5 millionIf I Had Legs I'd Kick You, Net-Net Worldwide, $1.5 millionIncoming, Artists Road, $1.8 millionLush Life, Strato Films, $1.1 millionMina Harker, JB CA Film 1 LLC (Jason Blum), $2.5 millionPhotos of You, MRC II Holdings, $2.5 millionRaised Eyebrows, Cold Iron Pictures, $1.1 millionSalinas, Hunting Lane, $843,000Scandalous, MRC II Holdings, $2.5 millionThirsty, Cold Iron Pictures, $596,000Transplant, Significant Productions, $744,000Unintended Accidental Get Away Driver, K Period Media, $683,000Untitled CG Project, New Regency, $2.5 millionVerona Spies, ARCI, $1 millionUntitled Vernon Chatman Project, Park County (Paramount), $2.5 million
optional screen readerRead More About:
BP to sell stake in Russian national oil company
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 19:05
Summary The UK major holds a 19.75% stake in Rosneft. [image credit: BP]
by: NGWBP announced on February 27 it had sold its 19.75% stake in Russia's national oil company Rosneft in light of Moscow's invasion of Ukraine.The UK major will remove Ro...
Posted in: NGW News Alert, Natural Gas & LNG News, Europe, Top Stories, Corporate, Exploration & Production, News By Country, Russia
To continue reading, please sign in or subscribe Sign InPlease sign in to access the full article.
Forgot your password?
SubscribeSubscribe to Natural Gas World Premium for less than 55 per day. Daily news coverage, LNG Condensed (complimentary), NGW Magazine, Gas Transitions and more. Choose the best option for you.
Subscribe Related Articles Feb 28, 2022 6:50:pm Shell next IOC to announce Russian withdrawal Feb 28, 2022 12:00:pm Chariot expands offshore Moroccan footprint Feb 28, 2022 11:35:am Shell faces call to follow BP in exiting Russia
FBI Raids Another Chicago COVID Testing Company '-- Which Has Gotten $77 Million From The Feds
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 16:18
NORWOOD PARK '-- The FBI and other federal agencies raided another Chicago-based COVID-19 testing company Wednesday.
Officers for the FBI, federal Department of Health and Human Services and Chicago Police Department could be seen searching the headquarters of testing company LabElite at 5824 N. Northwest Highway. Officials would not say what spurred the search, though spokespeople for the FBI and U.S. Attorney's Office said there was ''court-authorized law enforcement activity'' at the location. The investigation is ongoing, so officials cannot comment on it, according to the U.S. Attorney's Office.
A spokeswoman for the Illinois Attorney General's Office said that agency is ''committed to protecting residents from those who attempt to profit off of the deadly COVID-19 pandemic'' and is contact with Illinoisans who file complaints about COVID-19 testing locations.
''As a result, today investigators from the Attorney General's Office and other law enforcement partners are taking action,'' spokeswoman Annie Thompson said. ''We will not comment on active investigations as we work to hold accountable individuals who engage in unlawful conduct.''
LabElite spokeswoman Lissa Druss said the lab is ''fully cooperating with the U.S. Attorney's Office.''
LabElite '-- which has received more than $77 million from the federal government for COVID-19 testing '-- has been the subject of more than a dozen complaints to the Illinois' Attorney General's Office.
Multiple LabElite customers also told Block Club they experienced various issues: They said results were badly delayed or never delivered, they got results that didn't make sense, the company didn't respond to their concerns and some were told to not enter their insurance information when testing, among other things.
LabElite partners with testing sites that collect rapid and PCR samples, with the PCR samples then processed by the lab. Druss declined to say how many sites LabElite has partnered with, though she said the pop-ups must go through a ''stringent'' process that includes training for staff and spot checks for quality control. The lab has processed tests from various states, including Illinois, Pennsylvania and Florida.
Druss said many of the issues reported by customers were a result of the Omicron surge, which saw testing spike. LabElite processed ''hundreds of thousands'' of tests during the surge, Druss said.
''This was during the unprecedented spike in COVID that crushed hospitals and everyone else, especially in the December and January timeframe,'' Druss said. ''Every complaint that we have had has been personally handled and remedied.''
The FBI's search comes as other Chicago-area testing companies face various investigations: The Center for COVID Control's Rolling Meadows headquarters were raided by the FBI, and the company and its lab have been sued by two states' attorney generals after Block Club reports about numerous issues with the companies. O'Hare Clinical Lab and Northshore Clinical Lab have been cited at the highest level by federal authorities.
Together, these four Chicago-area testing companies have processed millions of tests for hundreds of sites across the United States. They have received more than $582 million from the federal government.
Credit: Mina Bloom/Block Club Chicago Federal agents and police at LabElite at 5824 N. Northwest Highway on Feb. 23, 2022.ComplaintsLabElite was registered with the state of Illinois in October 2020 under Nikola Nozinic. A person with the same name had a now-closed bar called The Whiskey Thief in suburban Evanston, and he's run construction and plumbing companies.
Nozinic did not respond to a request for comment Wednesday.
The Illinois Attorney General's Office has received at least 16 complaints from consumers about LabElite, a spokeswoman previously said. The office could not immediately be reached Wednesday.
The Better Business Bureau, a nonprofit that monitors businesses, has received two complaints about the lab and has given the company a B- rating, a spokesperson said.
COVID-19 testing labs must be accredited by the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services or by one of that agency's accreditation organizations. A spokeswoman for that agency said LabElite is accredited by an organization called COLA.
HELP US REPORT: Have you been tested at a COVID-19 pop-up? Click here to tell Block Club about your experience.
COLA representatives have not responded to multiple requests for information about LabElite, if complaints have been filed against it or if inspections have been done at its lab.
Block Club spoke to multiple people who said they experienced a litany of issues '-- from not getting rapid results to workers not wearing masks '-- at pop-ups that partner with LabElite.
The pop-ups that collect samples have faced little oversight from government agencies. Officials have said the onus is on the labs that partner with those testing sites to ensure they act appropriately.
LabElite only partners with pop-up companies after they've created a ''strong, stringent business agreement,'' and the pop-up companies must go through training and acquire a waiver for testing, Druss said.
LabElite spot checks pop-up testing sites, as well, Druss said, but she refused to provide details about what those checks entailed, how often they occur or how a site is selected for review. LabElite has cut off its relationship with at least one of the pop-ups where customers experienced issues, Druss said.
Druss declined to say what companies LabElite has partnered with, saying that information is ''confidential.''
LabElite has experienced issues before Wednesday's search: Pop-ups in Philadelphia that were collecting test samples to send to LabElite were falsely claiming to be affiliated with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and were allegedly asking for customers' social security numbers, according to the Philadelphia Inquirer.
The testing sites were shut down, and Nozinic apologized for the confusion and said LabElite had ended its partnership with the sites, according to the Inquirer.
''These guys were kind of running a wild s'--show, so they were ordered to shut them down,'' Nozinic told the Inquirer.
A box of samples that was supposed to be delivered to LabElite's Chicago lab was also mistakenly delivered by FedEx to a family in Hawaii, according to the Boston Globe.
'I Know It Was Wrong'Customers have reported various issues with LabElite, especially during the Omicron surge in late December and early January.
Druss said many of those issues were due to problems with FedEx, as LabElite was ''on the phone constantly'' with the shipping company during the surge, trying to find out where packages of tests were. LabElite also saw some employees get sick with COVID-19, Druss said.
''All of that wrapped into one, it was like a perfect storm,'' Druss said.
Renee Fonseca, of Hyde Park, said she went to a testing facility partnered with LabElite on Dec. 16 because she was feeling under the weather and had a flight coming up. Workers there told her she'd get rapid results in 24 hours and PCR test results in six to seven days, she said. They used one swab to get Fonseca's sample for the separate rapid and PCR tests, she said.
No test results arrived within 24 hours, so Fonseca called the testing facility '-- but its calls went straight to a full voicemail, she said. She called LabElite's main office, where a worker told Fonseca they couldn't give her results and she should keep trying to call the facility she'd tested at, she said. She called multiple times after that but didn't get her rapid test results until Dec. 21 '-- about a week after she'd tested, she said.
''Which is just really bad for any sort of contact tracing,'' Fonseca said. She ''basically gave up ever seeing my PCR results.''
The PCR results did come in, but not until Jan. 3, Fonseca said.
'''... Their timeline is so shifted, and that's a major issue for any sort of preventative testing prior to going to events, contact tracing,'' Fonseca said. ''Most folks can't just stay home for four weeks, waiting for a PCR when they need to go to work or do things. '... It's not a system that would work given reality. There's no reason for me to waste my time and energy with them again.''
Sheila Quirke, of Rogers Park, said her family used a pop-up partnered with LabElite about six times in 2021, typically not experiencing issues. But when they stopped by Dec. 19, the facility was ''very crowded'' and ''there was a lot of confusion,'' Quirke said.
The worker who took the family's tests didn't wear a mask, Quirke said. Their rapid results didn't arrive promptly, so Quirke drove by about three hours later and the testing site was even more crowded, she said. She went back a third time that evening, worried the workers wouldn't send her family's test results before closing for the night.
The site was less crowded at that point, Quirke said, and a worker opened the door of a shed and showed her ''a bunch of tests'' they hadn't processed because the site had been so busy. The worker told Quirke he'd stay late that night, process the rapid tests and sent results. Quirke got her family's results about three hours later.
The family's PCR test results didn't come for weeks. Quirke has questioned if the results were accurate since so much time elapsed between when her family tested and when they got results. The site has since shut down, she said.
''I think I lost faith on the 19th,'' Quirke said. ''It didn't feel as trustworthy.''
Debby Donovan, of suburban Berwyn, said she went to a city-organized mass testing event run by LabElite where she struggled to fill out a registration form on her phone. A worker there gave Donovan a paper form to fill out and told her to not put down her insurance, though she wrote her insurance information anyway, she said. The worker told Donovan it'd be quicker if she didn't provide her insurance, she said.
A worker doing a PCR test for Donvan put a swab up her nose, immediately removed it and was done, Donovan said. The worker did not swirl the swab or keep it Donovan's nose for several seconds, she said.
A rapid test at the site showed Donovan was positive, and she took an at-home test that also came back positive, she said. But LabElite later sent Donovan a PCR test result from the same event that said she was negative, she said.
Credit: Mina Bloom/Block Club Chicago An FBI raid of LabElite at 5824 N. Northwest Hwy on Feb. 23, 2022.Heather O'Leary, of the Gold Coast, said she tested at a LabElite-partnered site Dec. 22 where a worker told her to not enter insurance information.
''Oh, don't worry about it,'' the worker said, according to O'Leary. ''Just leave it blank.''
The workers wore masks but not gloves, and there was no social distancing in the ''very small'' space, O'Leary said. O'Leary was given swabs with ''minimal directions,'' she said. That night, she got a rapid test result that said she was negative.
O'Leary's PCR test result still hasn't arrived, she said Wednesday.
A Mount Greenwood man who asked to be anonymous said he tested multiple times at a facility that partnered with LabElite. A worker at the site told him to not put down his insurance, he said, and the site advertised PCR results in three to four days. He went multiple times, sometimes getting PCR results '-- but other times not getting a result at all or having to wait weeks for one, he said.
''They weren't on time, so who knows how good they are after '-- there's gotta be an expiration date, right?'' the Mount Greenwood man said. ''If it's two weeks, I don't think that test is any good.''
Druss denied LabElite hasn't collected insurance information properly, saying it would be ''wrong, untruthful and uncalled for.'' The lab is paid more for testing when it bills insurance than when it seeks reimbursement through the federal government, Druss said.
''Now, if there was a rogue employee somewhere along the way, I can't speak for that,'' Druss said.
Ellen Bedore, of Mount Greenwood, was tested Jan. 7 at a pop-up as she prepared to fly to India so she could meet her newborn twin grandsons. LabElite did send her rapid test results ''right away,'' she said, but she needed a PCR result for the flight. Workers had told her that result would take 48-72 hours to arrive; when it didn't come on time, Bedore tried to call and email LabElite, but she didn't hear back, she said.
Bedore canceled her flight, a ''heartbreaking'' decision that made her exhausted and physically sick for weeks, she said. She finally got PCR results on Jan. 26 '-- but she said they came from O'Hare Clinical Lab, another Chicago-based testing lab that's faced scrutiny.
The result was negative, but it was weeks too late for the flight. Bedore still hasn't been able to meet her grandsons.
''If they say I'm getting my PCR results in 24-48 hours, and I get them three weeks later '-- I couldn't go back to a place like that,'' Bedore said.
That negative test, which they did send me, I could have gone out and infected other people because I felt great. But I had the virus in my nose.''
Lisa Pugliese said she was tested Dec. 16 at a site partnered with LabElite, and a worker told her she'd get PCR results in two days. The next morning, when she still hadn't gotten a rapid result, she called LabElite but wasn't provided her rapid result, she said. Her rapid result was sent to her later that day.
But Pugliese still hadn't gotten her PCR result by Dec. 20, so she called again. A worker told Pugliese she should test again because her result was still ''pending'' and her test had likely been ''lost in the system,'' Pugliese said. She called again later that day and asked for her result again, but the worker said they didn't have her result.
About midnight, LabElite sent Pugliese a negative result, she said. Pugliese said she does ''not necessarily'' trust the accuracy of the results.
''Their reports look a little bit official,'' Pugliese said. ''But at this point, I'm not trusting of any of these sites because of everything that's been reported.''
Demetra Soter, a doctor, said she, her husband and their daughter went to a testing site partnered with LabElite Dec. 29 and had samples taken for rapid and PCR tests. They didn't get their rapid results that day, and no one picked up when Soter called LabElite multiple times, she said. She called again Dec. 30 and a worker told her she had to re-register, Soter said. She called again multiple times after that, but the workers couldn't provide the Soters' results, she said.
On Dec. 31, Soter's family did at-home tests and all of them were positive for COVID-19. She called LabElite again Jan. 1 but still wasn't provided with the family's rapid or PCR results, she said.
The Soters went and got tested again, but the worker ''barely moved [the swab] around one time,'' only put it in one nostril and ''never went very high,'' Soter said.
Hours later, Soter got a call that her rapid test result was negative '-- which she didn't trust since her at-home test was positive. She never got her PCR test result from the second testing experience.
Soter went to Northwestern Hospital on Jan. 4 and rapid and PCR test results from there showed she had COVID-19, she said.
''The accuracy of my second [LabElite] result is terrible,'' Soter said. ''I mean, it was wrong; and I know it was wrong. He didn't swab it properly.
'''... That negative test, which they did send me, I could have gone out and infected other people because I felt great. But I had the virus in my nose. And their sloppiness could have resulted in a gazillion people, or a lot of people, coming down with this. '... How many other people did they send out with false negative tests?''
Reporter Mina Bloom contributed to this story.
' Troubled Center For COVID Control Must Prove It Followed State Rules, California Official Says
' Could New Laws Fix The Problems With COVID-19 Testing Pop-Ups? Legislator Proposes Bills To Rein In Sites, Labs
' Center For COVID Control's 'Sham' Testing Sites Put People At Risk With False Results, Tests In Garbage Bags, New Suit Alleges
' Center For COVID Control Shutting Down Amid Federal, State Investigations, Employees Told
' Yet Another COVID-19 Testing Company That Got Millions From The Feds Being Investigated After Patients Say Their Results Were Flawed
' Another Major COVID Testing Company '-- Which Got $186 Million From The Feds '-- Is Under Investigation As Complaints Pile Up
' Center For COVID Control's Headquarters Raided By FBI
' Center For COVID Control Closed For 'Foreseeable Future' In Illinois Amid Federal, State Investigations
' Center For COVID Control Got $124 Million From Feds While Telling Workers To Lie About Results, Throw Tests In The Trash, Ex-Employees Say
' Center For COVID Control Faked Test Results, Minnesota Attorney General Says In New Lawsuit
' COVID Tests Seemed To Vanish Just When Chicagoans Needed Them Most '-- And Despite Officials Predicting Surges For Months
' COVID-19 Testing Chain Opened Pop-Ups Across The US. Now, It's Temporarily Closing Amid Federal Investigation And Mounting Complaints
' Be Cautious Around COVID-19 Testing Pop-Ups, Illinois Attorney General Warns
' Pritzker Vows To Shut Down 'Fly-By-Night' Pop-Up COVID Testing Sites, Calling Them An 'Enormous Problem'
' COVID Test Shortage Forces Chicagoans To 'Hell-Hole' Pop-Up Sites With Unmasked Workers, Missing Results
Block Club Chicago's coronavirus coverage is free for all readers.
Subscribe to Block Club Chicago, an independent, 501(c)(3), journalist-run newsroom. Every dime we make funds reporting from Chicago's neighborhoods.
Click here to support Block Club with a tax-deductible donation.
Thanks for subscribing to Block Club Chicago, an independent, 501(c)(3), journalist-run newsroom. Every dime we make funds reporting from Chicago's neighborhoods. Click here to support Block Club with a tax-deductible donation.
Listen to ''It's All Good: A Block Club Chicago Podcast'' here:
SWIFT alternative: China can provide reprieve from financial 'nuclear option' | Asia Markets
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 15:33
The United States and its allies have committed to expelling Russia from the SWIFT network.
Swift is an acronym for Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. It is a critical network that connects global financial institutions and facilitates the settlement of trillions of dollars moved across the world every day.
In short, without SWIFT, banks and their customers, including the world's biggest companies, would not be able to operate on a global scale.
On Saturday, a joint statement released by the White House on behalf of the United States, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada announced Russia's access to SWIFT would be cut within days.
''As Russian forces unleash their assault on Kyiv and other Ukrainian cities, we are resolved to continue imposing costs on Russia that will further isolate Russia from the international financial system and our economies. We will implement these measures within the coming days,'' the statement reads.
''First, we commit to ensuring that selected Russian banks are removed from the SWIFT messaging system. This will ensure that these banks are disconnected from the international financial system and harm their ability to operate globally.''
Earlier in the week, French finance minister Bruno Le Maire, said cutting off Russia from SWIFT would be a ''financial nuclear weapon''.
''The fact remains that when you have a nuclear weapon in your hands, you think before you use it. Some member countries have expressed reservations, we take them into account,'' said Le Maire.
Related: Russian stocks for the ultimate contrarian
But Russia has a SWIFT alternativeChina is Russia's biggest export and important partner, and also operates a legitimate SWIFT alternative.
China's international payments system is called CIPS '' an acronym for Cross-Border Interbank Payments System.
CIPS was first revealed in 2015 and facilitates the transfer and settlements of international payments in yuan.
It's known that at least 23 Russia banks are currently connected to CIPS, and Russia will have no trouble doing business in the Chinese currency over CIPS.
It has been aggressively slashing USD held in reserve prior to the invasion of Ukraine and increasing its yuan reserves. The current USD held by the Russian Central bank is only around 16% of total reserves. Down from 40% in 2017.
Further, major Russian private and state-owned institutions have only been accepting yuan payments in recent years. For example, in September last year Russian oil and gas giant Gazprom (MCX: GAZP) switched from accepting USD payments to yuan payments for aviation fuel.
''We start from September and may switch to all the settlements on jet fuel to yuan,'' Gazprom Neft's CEO, Alexander Dyukov, told Reuters at the time.
The question is will Russia be able to interact with any countries other than China, through CIPS?
According to the latest update on the CIPS website, the platform is used by 1189 financial institutions in over 100 countries, with 47 as direct participants and 1142 as indirect participants.
Among indirect participants, 881 participants are from Asia (including 528 from Chinese Mainland), 153 from Europe, 42 from Africa, 26 from North America, 23 from Oceania, and 17 from South America.
A more recent update on the CIPS Linkedin page shows a further increase in CIPS users.
''As of November 2021, CIPS has 1253 participants, with 75 as direct participants and 1178 as indirect participants,'' the post says.
A Bloomberg article in September 2021 touted CIPS as a possible alternative to SWIFT.
''We hope to provide services all around the globe one day, and especially to facilitate services to overseas participants,'' chief executive officer of CIPS, Xu Zaiyue, told Bloomberg.
The Chinese yuan has performed strongly against the USD in recent years, rising around 10% since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. So CIPS, as a SWIFT alternative. has become even more attractive for Russia and its biggest banks to do business.
Related: Why Russia sanctions could hurt the U.S. more than Russia
Russian gas system hacked. Configurations/profiles and file system deleted : r/CrazyFuckingVideos
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 02:15
I write code, and work with GUI's like this every day, for the same type of control. This is more modern than some stuff we use in the US.
Not only am I configuring new devices to communicate at 38,400kbs, I'm using a serial to RJ-12 connector to plug into them. There is newer software laid over for a GUI, but the backbone looks like its from Windows 3.1.
The controllers I use have less than 100MB of storage.
I work for a multi billion dollar company.
12ft | Dallas Appeals Court strips ERCOT of sovereign immunity defense
Sun, 27 Feb 2022 16:40
Removing Paywall
VIDEO - JPMorgan CEO Dimon on Stimulus, M&A, War for Talent - YouTube
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:51
VIDEO - China asked Russia to delay invasion until after Olympics, Western intel shows - CNN
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:44
(CNN)A Western intelligence report indicated that Chinese officials in early February requested that senior Russian officials wait until after the Beijing Olympics had finished before beginning an invasion into Ukraine, US officials said Wednesday.
US officials broadly view the report as credible, but its particulars are open to interpretation, according to one source familiar with the intelligence. Although the request was made around the time that Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Beijing for the opening ceremony of the Olympics -- where he met with Chinese President Xi Jinping -- it is not clear from the report whether Putin addressed the matter with Xi directly, the source said.
The New York Times
first reported the existence of the report.
Western intelligence officials warily watching Putin's buildup on the Ukrainian border at the time and had anticipated that Putin might delay any military action until after the Olympics to avoid angering China. After Putin and Xi's
meeting on the sidelines of the games, Moscow and Beijing issued a joint statement declaring that their partnership had "no limits" and condemning NATO expansion -- a key pillar of Putin's justification for attacking Ukraine. That statement has elevated Western concerns about a burgeoning alliance between China and Russia.
Liu Pengyu, a spokesman for the Chinese embassy in Washington, said, "The claims mentioned in the relevant reports are speculations without any basis, and are intended to blame-shift and smear China."
CNN has reached out to the Russian embassy in Washington for comment.
This story has been updated with additional details.
VIDEO - Former Illinois House Speaker Michael Madigan Charged With Racketeering '' NBC Chicago
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:41
Michael Madigan, the former speaker of the Illinois House and for decades one of the nation's most powerful legislators, was charged with a nearly $3 million racketeering and bribery scheme Wednesday, becoming the most prominent politician swept up in a federal investigation of entrenched government corruption in the state.
Madigan, 79, is charged with 22 counts, according to the indictment obtained by NBC 5. It "accuses Madigan of leading for nearly a decade a criminal enterprise whose purpose was to enhance Madigan's political power and financial well-being while also generating income for his political allies and associates," according to a release from the U.S. Attorney's office for the Northern District of Illinois
Read the full indictment here
Former NBC 5 political editor Carol Marin called it the "most sweeping federal investigation we have ever seen come out of the Dirksen."
''Corruption by an elected official and his associates undermines the public's confidence in our government,'' U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois John Lausch said in a statement. ''The indictment alleges a long-term, multifaceted scheme to use public positions for unlawful private gain. Rooting out and prosecuting the kind of corruption alleged in the indictment will always be a top priority for this office.''
Following the announcement of charges Tuesday evening, Madigan released the following statement:
I was never involved in any criminal activity. The government is attempting to criminalize a routine constituent service: job recommendations. That is not illegal, and these other charges are equally unfounded. Throughout my 50 years as a public servant, I worked to address the needs of my constituents, always keeping in mind the high standards required and the trust the public placed in me. I adamantly deny these accusations and look back proudly on my time as an elected official, serving the people of Illinois.
Madigan was implicated in the bribery scheme in July 2020 when a deferred prosecution agreement with ComEd came to light. The utility giant admitted it secured jobs, often requiring little or no work, and contracts for associates of the then-Speaker, at the time referred to only as "Public Official A," from 2011 to 2019 for favorable treatment in regulations. ComEd was slated to pay $200 million in restitution as part of the agreement.
Madigan had previously not been charged in the probe, and described himself as ''the target of vicious attacks by people who sought to diminish my many achievements.''
Previously, two former ComEd executives and two consultants, one a longtime Madigan associate and confidant, were indicted on multiple federal charges related to the alleged scheme to influence Madigan - at the time identified only as "Public Official A" - in exchange for legislation favorable to the utility giant, prosecutors say.
The charges against Madigan come nearly one year after his resignation from the state legislature after nearly three decades in power.
Madigan was the longest-serving state House speaker in modern U.S. history and was nicknamed the ''Velvet Hammer'' for his insistence on strict party discipline. A procession of top state politicians, including three governors, has been charged during his tenure, but politicians long believed the savvy Madigan would never be among them.
As speaker, the ever-confident Madigan tended to shrug off the political scandal of the day. A spokeswoman for Madigan last year denied the ComEd-related allegations and said Madigan would cooperate with the investigation "which he believes will clearly demonstrate that he has done nothing criminal or improper.''
That wasn't good enough for members of his House Democratic caucus, many of whom weren't born when Madigan was first inaugurated in 1971. Despite his determination to win a 19th term as speaker in January, support peeled away and he was unable to garner the 60 votes needed to retain the gavel. Relegated to the rank and file of the 118-member House, he resigned his seat effective Feb. 28, 2021. He resigned as chairman of the Democratic Party of Illinois on Feb. 22.
Madigan's former chief of staff, Timothy Mapes, was indicted in May for lying under oath to a federal grand jury investigating ComEd. The indictment said Mapes was granted immunity to testify and that his words or evidence can't be used against him in a criminal case unless he committed perjury.
Four people, including an associate of Madigan's, were indicted in November on charges accusing them of orchestrating a bribery scheme with ComEd.
Among them was Michael McClain, who served with Madigan in the House in the 1970s and early 1980s before becoming a lobbyist. One of his clients was ComEd.
The others charged included former ComEd CEO Anne Pramaggirore; lobbyist and former ComEd executive John Hooker; and Jay Doherty, a consultant and former head of the nonprofit City Club of Chicago.
All pleaded not guilty.
In addition to jobs and contracts, the defendants were accused of conspiring to have ComEd hire a law firm favored by Madigan and to accept into ComEd's internship program students who resided in Madigan's 13th Ward, even though some didn't meet its requirements, according to the indictment.
Former ComEd executive Fidel Marquez pleaded guilty to bribery in September, agreeing to cooperate with federal prosecutors.
Madigan held the gavel in the House for all but two years from 1983 to 2021, driving the political agenda regardless of which party controlled the governor's office or the other legislative body. He served through the terms of seven governors. One, Republican Gov. Bruce Rauner, complained that Madigan, not he, was in charge of the state.
His power base was a middle-class district near Midway International Airport on Chicago's Southwest Side, where his loyalists, many on government payrolls, reliably turned out to canvass neighborhoods and register voters. With an eight-figure campaign fund, he could pick and choose Democratic candidates across Illinois to run for office and finance their races. The Chicago Tribune in 2014 found more than 400 current and retired state and local government workers with campaign ties to Madigan. Madigan's daughter, Lisa, served as Illinois attorney general from 2003 to 2019.
Pay-to-play allegations were raised against Madigan, but he denied them and none resulted in criminal charges. In 2013, the head of Chicago's Metra Rail transit system claimed after being forced out that Madigan pressured him to give jobs and raises to political favorites.
In September 2019, FBI agents raided the state Capitol office of a Madigan ally, then-state Sen. Martin Sandoval. Sandoval's Senate district encompassed Madigan's, and one federal subpoena sought communications between Madigan and Sandoval.
The former Senate Transportation Committee chairman pleaded guilty earlier in 2020 to taking thousands of dollars in campaign contributions from a red-light camera company in exchange for blocking legislation that would hurt it. Sandoval had agreed to cooperate with federal prosecutors in their ongoing corruption probe as part of his plea agreement, but he died in December from COVID-19 complications.
Court papers mistakenly unsealed in another case revealed that the FBI had placed a recording device on a businessman to secretly record a conversation with Madigan in 2014.
Prosecutors have brought charges against another veteran Chicago Democrat, City Council member Ed Burke, accusing him of taking official actions for private gain. He has pleaded not guilty.
In October 2019, former Democratic state Rep. Luis Arroyo, a Madigan lieutenant, was charged with bribing a legislative colleague with an offer of $2,500 a month in exchange for the state senator's support of sweepstakes-related legislation. He pleaded guilty and resigned.
Madigan has a reputation for spurning the media and rarely speaking in public. But when reporters asked in 2019 if he was an investigative target, Madigan was emphatic.
''No, I'm not a target of anything,'' he said.
As scrutiny of Madigan intensified, he also wrote a letter to House colleagues, denying wrongdoing or personal knowledge of any bribery scheme. He has said he never expected someone to be hired for a job in exchange for an action he took. ''Helping people find jobs," he said, "is not a crime.''
VIDEO - (21) Greg Price on Twitter: "BIDEN: "You can't build a wall high enough to keep out a vaccine, the vaccine can stop the spread of these diseases."" / Twitter
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:23
Greg Price : BIDEN: "You can't build a wall high enough to keep out a vaccine, the vaccine can stop the spread of these diseases'...
Wed Mar 02 02:53:23 +0000 2022
VIDEO - (21) @ on Twitter: "@liz_churchill_ Can someone explain?" / Twitter
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 14:57
@ : @liz_churchill_ Can someone explain?
Mon Feb 28 07:18:03 +0000 2022
VIDEO - Chernobyl is Back Online? - YouTube
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 13:36
VIDEO - Reporter Asks Biden: "As A Catholic, Why Do You Support Abortion?" Jill Biden Has To Drag Him Away From The Confrontation 🬠| Not the Bee
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 13:27
Joe Biden, who we have been informed many times is a "devout Catholic" (he even has ashes on his forehead for Ash Wednesday) was asked why he supports abortion and Roe v. Wade.
His answer left a lot to be desired.
Reporter: How do you support abortion as a Catholic.
Biden: I tell you what, I don't wanna get into a debate with you on theology but you know, well anyway, I'm not gonna make a judgment for other people.
"I'm not gonna make a judgment for other people"?
So much for being a "devout Catholic."
You notice how the very second the question about abortion comes out of the reporter's mouth, Jill springs into action to rescue Joe from the situation?
It's most certainly a teaching of the Catholic Church (and the Bible itself) that abortion is murder. And it's most certainly not a teaching of the Catholic Church that people should be allowed to choose for themselves without judgment.
But that's Biden's political answer. He has no actual answer to the question. There's no way he can actually reconcile his supposed faith with his political position.
The Bible speaks often with dire warnings for men like him!
VIDEO - Kim Iversen: ''Ukraine Will Be Wrecked." OMINOUS Warnings Of NATO-Provoked War Given For DECADES - YouTube
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 13:25
VIDEO - Fed Chief Powell Says It's Possible to Have More than One Reserve Currency in the World '' Diminishing the US's Dominance in the World
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:48
Fed Chief Jerome Powell says it’s possible to have more than one reserve currency in the world.  How does this make America great again?Jerome Powell is planning on raising interest rates this month from the zero percent that Democrats have benefitted from in the White House this century.  Rates have been kept at zero percent for almost all the time that Democrats are in the White House since 2000.
He spoke in front of Congress this morning.  PBS reports:
Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell made clear Wednesday that the Fed will begin raising interest rates this month in a high-stakes effort to restrain surging inflation.
Fed Chief Jerome Powell also shared the potential to have more than one reserve currency in the world.  This is a shocking statement coming from the head of the Fed.
The US has benefitted from having the reserve currency of the world.  We’ve reported on this for months and how under Biden the US has reached the lowest point in decades.
As the Biden gang continues to spend the dollar continues to get weaker.  Now the US is pushing Russia away from using the US dollar as its reserve currency and this may not be so smart.
In addition, the US has benefitted from having the USD the currency used for oil transactions worldwide.  This ‘petrol dollar’ arrangement may go by the wayside as some fear Russia and the Saudis have already made an arrangement to trade oil outside of the dollar.
Back in 2014 under Obama/Biden people were worried about the petrodollar as well.  Maybe this was reasonable as Biden/Obama helps Iran gain a nuclear weapon.  Iran and Iraq are enemies.  When Obama and Biden help Iran, they push the Saudis away.  No wonder the Saudis aligned with Russia after Biden stole the election.  Also, no wonder they cheered when President Trump joined them early in his Administration.  See video below from the Obama era.
This is not just about Ukraine. That's just part of it. It's about the Petrodollar. Bitcoin and Ethereum are a distraction/prototypes/toys. I'm buying XRP , XLM & Gold. WATCH TO THE END. 👀👀👀👀
— Digital Asset Investor (@digitalassetbuy) February 28, 2022Powell may be saying that it’s alright to have more than one world reserve currency because there is little he and the Biden Administration can do to stop it.  This could have long-lasting negative impacts on the US and make the US weaker than Biden has already has made the country. 
VIDEO - Fed Chief Powell Says It's Possible to Have More than One Reserve Currency in the World - Diminishing America's Financial Dominance
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:45
Fed Chief Jerome Powell says it's possible to have more than one reserve currency in the world. How does this make America great again?Jerome Powell is planning on raising interest rates this month from the zero percent that Democrats have benefitted from in the White House this century. Rates have been kept at zero percent for almost all the time that Democrats are in the White House since 2000.
He spoke in front of Congress this morning. PBS reports:
Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell made clear Wednesday that the Fed will begin raising interest rates this month in a high-stakes effort to restrain surging inflation.
TRENDING: EXCLUSIVE - TGP Interview with Rep. Majorie Taylor Greene: The Federal Government Is Weaponized Against Its Own Citizens, GOP Must Take Control Of House To Save America
Fed Chief Jerome Powell also shared the potential to have more than one reserve currency in the world. This is a shocking statement coming from the head of the Fed.
The US has benefitted from having the reserve currency of the world. We've reported on this for months and how under Biden the US has reached the lowest point in decades.
THE BIDEN EFFECT: US Producer Price Inflation Soars to 7.8% Annually in July '' Highest Jump On Record
As the Biden gang continues to spend the dollar continues to get weaker. Now the US is pushing Russia away from using the US dollar as its reserve currency and this may not be so smart.
Will the Economic Sanctions on Russia Backfire?
In addition, the US has benefitted from having the USD the currency used for oil transactions worldwide. This 'petrol dollar' arrangement may go by the wayside as some fear Russia and the Saudis have already made an arrangement to trade oil outside of the dollar.
Back in 2014 under Obama/Biden people were worried about the petrodollar as well. Maybe this was reasonable as Biden/Obama helps Iran gain a nuclear weapon. Iran and Iraq are enemies. When Obama and Biden help Iran, they push the Saudis away. No wonder the Saudis aligned with Russia after Biden stole the election. Also, no wonder they cheered when President Trump joined them early in his Administration. See video below from the Obama era.
This is not just about Ukraine. That's just part of it. It's about the Petrodollar. Bitcoin and Ethereum are a distraction/prototypes/toys. I'm buying XRP , XLM & Gold. WATCH TO THE END. ðŸ‘ðŸ‘ðŸ‘👠
'-- Digital Asset Investor (@digitalassetbuy) February 28, 2022
Powell may be saying that it's alright to have more than one world reserve currency because there is little he and the Biden Administration can do to stop it. This could have long-lasting negative impacts on the US and make the US weaker than Biden has already has made the country.
VIDEO - Vice President Kamala Harris Says There Must Be Severe Consequences For Russia's Actions - YouTube
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:44
VIDEO - Podcast Set - SNL - YouTube
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:40
VIDEO - How to convince the unvaccinated '' Channel 4 News
Thu, 03 Mar 2022 12:16
16 Feb 2022
How should scientists and the government talk to those who are hesitant to get the coronavirus jab? Johnson has announced that all Covid rules could be scrapped next week in England, but with daily Covid cases still high and millions of people still unvaccinated, how should scientists and the government talk to those who are hesitant to get the coronavirus jab?
On today's episode we speak to Professor David Halpern, the chief executive of the Behavioural Insights Team, about why some people have not yet had the Covid vaccine.
We also ask him what more the government could do to ensure as many people as possible get the jab, and why people in some countries have adhered to Covid rules better than in others.
LISTEN AND SUBSCRIBEYou can listen to, download and subscribe to the podcast on Apple Podcasts here.
Also available on Google Podcasts, Spotify, Acast, CastBox and other good podcast apps.
The RSS feed is here.

Clips & Documents

Audio Clips
ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - weapons arrive -russia escalates (1min20sec).mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Britt Clennett - gas prices surge -russia crypto sanction (35sec).mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Mona Abdi - [headline] weapons arrive -children in jail (41sec).mp3
ABC WNT - anchor David Muir - omicron sub-variant -pfizer 5-11 vaccine (36sec).mp3
ABC WNT - anchor James Longman - sanctions having affect on russian people (1min22sec).mp3
ABC WNT - anchor Stefanie Ramos - pfizer 5-11 vaccine 1 month of protection (24sec).mp3
bbc mayor of karkiv vacuum bomb.mp3
Biden - can't build a wall high enough to keep out vaccines gaffe.mp3
biden bromides one.mp3
biden bromides two yikes.mp3
Biden Iranian gaffe.mp3
Bidens bipartisan agenda NPR.mp3
Bill C-11 and pre-crime from Paul the book guy Alves.mp3
cal health insurance kqed.mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Catherine Herridge - russian money pushed out to sea (54sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Cecilia Vega - before the SOTU address (1min42sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Gayle King - Melinda Gates split wont prevent the work (1min16sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Mola Lange - W.H. new covid plan (41sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Nancy Cordes - new task force klepto capture (59sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - Mitt Romney (1) anything US can do to stop putin (24sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - Mitt Romney (2) concerned about nuclear attack (40sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - Mitt Romney (3) putins mental state (30sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - Mitt Romney (4) no fly zone (29sec).mp3
CNN - China asked Russia to delay Ukraine invasion until after Olympics, Western intel shows.mp3
CPAC Trump - only president in 21st century kept russia from invading (30sec).mp3
Douglas MacGregor 2.mp3
Douglas MacGregor One.mp3
Dr Scott Young explains NESARA.mp3
Eating bugs 1962.mp3
EU Report on Ukraine 2.mp3
EU Report on Ukraine one RT.mp3
Fed Chief Powell Says It’s Possible to Have More than One Reserve Currency in the World.mp3
FOMO Ads NPR.mp3
FOMO Nft.mp3
Former Illinois House Speaker Michael Madigan Charged With Racketeering.mp3
Fox with Ukrainian mom holding ak47 - we fight for this new world order.mp3
gassification canuck.mp3
gassification details.mp3
gassification intro.mp3
Harris explaining Ukraine to the Morning Hussle radio show.mp3
Hemp cakes.mp3
ISO do more.mp3
ISO what why.mp3
Jamie Diamon on SWIFT ban - not for 'doing business'.mp3
KAMALA Breakfast club joy.mp3
KAMALA long time ago.mp3
Kamala on school.mp3
KB Jackson nominated.mp3
Media matters Kamala Full clip.mp3
meet the press 4 of you.mp3
NATO Article 5 and cyber.mp3
NPR clip - new study points to raccoon dogs as animals COVID originated from.mp3
NYU Galloway NPR.mp3
Professor Stephen Cohen on NATO expansion into Russia.mp3
RUKRAINE EU welcoming.mp3
RUKRAINE house resolution.mp3
RUKRAINE Risch and the 2.mp3
RUKRAINE Risch and the republicans 1.mp3
Russian General on death toll.mp3
Sharpton Asstick short.mp3
Ukrainian journalist Daria Kaleniuk, a WEF Young Global Leader 'confronts Boris JOhnson'.mp3
US vlogger in Kyev give gangs guns.mp3
0:00 0:00