Cover for No Agenda Show 1431: Red Austin
March 6th, 2022 • 3h 19m

1431: Red Austin


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Sodium azide - Wikipedia
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 19:36
Chemical compound
"NaN3" redirects here. Not to be confused with
Sodium azideNamesOther namesSodium trinitrideSmiteAzium
IdentifiersChEBIChEMBLChemSpiderECHA InfoCard 100.043.487 EC Number RTECS numberUNIIUN number1687InChI=1S/N3.Na/c1-3-2;/q-1;+1
Y InChI=1/N3.Na/c1-3-2;/q-1;+1
Properties NaN3 Molar mass65.0099 g/mol Appearancecolorless to white solidOdorodorlessDensity1.846 g/cm3 (20 °C)Melting point 275 °C (527 °F; 548 K) violent decomposition38.9 g/100 mL (0 °C) 40.8 g/100 mL (20 °C) 55.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)Solubilityvery soluble in ammonia slightly soluble in benzene insoluble in ether, acetone, hexane, chloroformSolubility in methanol2.48 g/100 mL (25 °C)Solubility in ethanol0.22 g/100 mL (0 °C)Acidity (pKa)4.8StructureHexagonal, hR12[1]R-3m, No. 166Thermochemistry76.6 J/(mol·K)70.5 J/(mol·K)21.3 kJ/mol99.4 kJ/molHazardsGHS labelling: DangerH300, H310, H410P260, P280, P301+P310, P501 [2]NFPA 704 (fire diamond)Flash point 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):27 mg/kg (oral, rats/mice)[1]NIOSH (US health exposure limits):none[3]C 0.1 ppm (as HN3 ) [skin] C 0.3 mg/m3 (as NaN3 ) [skin][3]N.D.[3]Safety data sheet (SDS)ICSC 0950Related compoundsSodium cyanidePotassium azideAmmonium azideExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their
standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is Y N ?)Infobox referencesChemical compound
Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3 . This colorless salt is the gas-forming component in legacy[citation needed ] car airbag systems. It is used for the preparation of other azide compounds. It is an ionic substance, is highly soluble in water and is very acutely poisonous.[5]
Structure [ edit ] Sodium azide is an ionic solid. Two crystalline forms are known, rhombohedral and hexagonal.[1][6] Both adopt layered structures. The azide anion is very similar in each form, being centrosymmetric with N''N distances of 1.18 …. The Na+ ion has an octahedral geometry. Each azide is linked to six Na+ centers, with three Na-N bonds to each terminal nitrogen center.[7]
Preparation [ edit ] The common synthesis method is the "Wislicenus process", which proceeds in two steps in liquid ammonia. In the first step, ammonia is converted to sodium amide by metallic sodium:
2Na + 2NH3 '†' 2NaNH2 + H2It is a redox reaction in which metallic sodium gives an electron to a proton of ammonia which is reduced in hydrogen gas. Sodium easily dissolves in liquid ammonia to produce hydrated electrons responsible of the blue color of the resulting liquid. The Na+ and NH '' 2 ions are produced by this reaction.
The sodium amide is subsequently combined with nitrous oxide:
2NaNH2 + N2O '†' NaN3 + NaOH + NH3These reactions are the basis of the industrial route, which produced about 250 tons per year in 2004, with production increasing owing to the popularization of airbags.[5]
Laboratory methods [ edit ] Curtius and Thiele developed another production process, where a nitrite ester is converted to sodium azide using hydrazine. This method is suited for laboratory preparation of sodium azide:
2NaNO2 + 2C2H5OH + H2SO4 '†' 2C2H5ONO + Na2SO4 + 2H2O C2H5ONO + N2H4·H2O + NaOH '†' NaN3 + C2H5OH + 3H2OAlternatively the salt can be obtained by the reaction of sodium nitrate with sodium amide.[8]
[ edit ] Treatment of sodium azide with strong acids gives hydrazoic acid, which is also extremely toxic:
H+ + N '' 3 '†' HN3Aqueous solutions contain minute amounts of hydrogen azide, the formation of which is described by the following equilibrium:
N '' 3 + H2O '‡Œ HN3 + OH'' (K = 10''4.6)Sodium azide can be destroyed by treatment with nitrous acid solution:[9]
2NaN3 + 2HNO2 '†' 3N2 + 2NO + 2NaOH Applications [ edit ] Automobile airbags and aircraft evacuation slides [ edit ] Older airbag formulations contained mixtures of oxidizers and sodium azide and other agents including ignitors and accelerants. An electronic controller detonates this mixture during an automobile crash:
2NaN3 '†' 2Na + 3N2The same reaction occurs upon heating the salt to approximately 300 °C. The sodium that is formed is a potential hazard alone and, in automobile airbags, it is converted by reaction with other ingredients, such as potassium nitrate and silica. In the latter case, innocuous sodium silicates are generated.[10] While sodium azide is still used in evacuation slides on modern aircraft, newer-generation automotive air bags contain less sensitive explosives such as nitroguanidine or guanidine nitrate.
Organic and inorganic synthesis [ edit ] Due to its explosion hazard, sodium azide is of only limited value in industrial-scale organic chemistry. In the laboratory, it is used in organic synthesis to introduce the azide functional group by displacement of halides. The azide functional group can thereafter be converted to an amine by reduction with either SnCl2 in ethanol or lithium aluminium hydride or a tertiary phosphine, such as triphenylphosphine in the Staudinger reaction, with Raney nickel or with hydrogen sulfide in pyridine.
Sodium azide is a versatile precursor to other inorganic azide compounds, e.g., lead azide and silver azide, which are used in explosives.
Biochemistry and biomedical uses [ edit ] Sodium azide is a useful probe reagent and a preservative.
In hospitals and laboratories, it is a biocide; it is especially important in bulk reagents and stock solutions which may otherwise support bacterial growth where the sodium azide acts as a bacteriostatic by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase in gram-negative bacteria; however, some gram-positive bacteria (streptococci, pneumococci, lactobacilli) are intrinsically resistant.[11]
Agricultural uses [ edit ] It is used in agriculture for pest control of soil-borne pathogens such as Meloidogyne incognita or Helicotylenchus dihystera.[12]
It is also used as a mutagen for crop selection of plants such as rice,[13] barley[14] or oats.[15]
Safety considerations [ edit ] Sodium azide has caused deaths for decades,[16] and even minute amounts can cause symptoms. The toxicity of this compound is comparable to that of soluble alkali cyanides,[17] although no toxicity has been reported from spent airbags.[18]
It produces extrapyramidal symptoms with necrosis of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Toxicity may also include hypotension,[19] blindness and hepatic necrosis. Sodium azide increases cyclic GMP levels in the brain and liver by activation of guanylate cyclase.[20]
Sodium azide solutions react with metallic ions to precipitate metal azides, which can be shock sensitive and explosive. This should be considered for choosing a non-metallic transport container for sodium azide solutions in the laboratory. This can also create potentially dangerous situations if azide solutions should be directly disposed down the drain into a sanitary sewer system. Metal in the plumbing system could react, forming highly sensitive metal azide crystals which could accumulate over years. Adequate precautions are necessary for the safe and environmentally responsible disposal of azide solution residues.[21]
References [ edit ] ^ a b c Stevens E. D.; Hope H. (1977). "A Study of the Electron-Density Distribution in Sodium Azide, NaN 3 ". Acta Crystallographica A. 33 (5): 723''729. doi:10.1107/S0567739477001855. ^ "Sodium azide". ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0560". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). ^ "Material Safety Data Sheet" (PDF) . November 6, 2008 . Retrieved October 26, 2015 . ^ a b Jobelius, Horst H.; Scharff, Hans-Dieter (2000). "Hydrazoic Acid and Azides". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_193. ISBN 9783527306732. ^ Wells, A. F. (1984), Structural Inorganic Chemistry (5th ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-855370-6 ^ Pringle, G. E.; Noakes, D. E. (1968-02-15). "The crystal structures of lithium, sodium and strontium azides". Acta Crystallographica Section B. 24 (2): 262''269. doi:10.1107/s0567740868002062 . ^ Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 . ^ Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council (1995). "Disposal of Waste". Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-309-05229-0. {{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Betterton, E. A. (2003). "Environmental Fate of Sodium Azide Derived from Automobile Airbags". Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 33 (4): 423''458. doi:10.1080/10643380390245002. S2CID 96404307. ^ Lichstein, H. C.; Soule, M. H. (1943). "Studies of the Effect of Sodium Azide on Microbic Growth and Respiration: I. The Action of Sodium Azide on Microbic Growth". Journal of Bacteriology. 47 (3): 221''230. doi:10.1128/JB.47.3.221-230.1944. PMC 373901 . PMID 16560767. ^ Applications of sodium azide for control of soilborne pathogens in potatoes. Rodriguez-Kabana, R., Backman, P. A. and King, P.S., Plant Disease Reporter, 1975, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 528-532 (link) ^ Awan, M. Afsar; Konzak, C. F.; Rutger, J. N.; Nilan, R. A. (2000-01-01). "Mutagenic Effects of Sodium Azide in Rice1". Crop Science. 20 (5): 663''668. doi:10.2135/cropsci1980.0011183x002000050030x. ^ Cheng, Xiongying; Gao, Mingwei (1988). "Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS in barley". Environmental and Experimental Botany. 28 (4): 281''288. doi:10.1016/0098-8472(88)90051-2. ^ Rines, H. W. (1985-02-01). "Sodium azide mutagenesis in diploid and hexaploid oats and comparison with ethyl methanesulfonate treatments". Environmental and Experimental Botany. 25 (1): 7''16. doi:10.1016/0098-8472(85)90043-7. ^ Chang, Soju; Lamm, Steven H. (2003-05-01). "Human Health Effects of Sodium Azide Exposure: A Literature Review and Analysis". International Journal of Toxicology. 22 (3): 175''186. doi:10.1080/10915810305109. ISSN 1091-5818. PMID 12851150. S2CID 38664824. ^ "MSDS: sodium azide". Mallinckrodt Baker. 2008-11-21. MSDS S2906. ^ Olson, Kent; Anderson, Ilene B. (18 September 2006). Poisoning & Drug Overdose, 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies,Incorporated. pp. 123''. ISBN 978-0-07-144333-3. ^ Gordon, Steven M.; Drachman, Jonathan; Bland, Lee A.; Reid, Marie H.; Favero, Martin; Jarvis, William R. (1990-01-01). "Kidney International - Abstract of article: Epidemic hypotension in a dialysis center caused by sodium azide". Kidney Int. 37 (1): 110''115. doi:10.1038/ki.1990.15 . ISSN 0085-2538. PMID 2299796. ^ Kimura, Hiroshi; Mittal, Chandra K.; Murad, Ferid (1975-10-23). "Increases in cyclic GMP levels in brain and liver with sodium azide an activator of guanylate cyclase". Nature. 257 (5528): 700''702. Bibcode:1975Natur.257..700K. doi:10.1038/257700a0. PMID 241939. S2CID 115294. ^ "Sodium Azide | Environmental Health & Safety | Northeastern University". External links [ edit ] International Chemical Safety Card 0950.NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.Straight Dope on Sodium AzideSalts and covalent derivatives of the
azide ion
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany - Wikipedia
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 18:00
1990 treaty returning full sovereignty to Germany
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (German: Vertrag ¼ber die abschlieŸende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland[a]), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (German: Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag;[b] short: German Treaty), is an international agreement that allowed the reunification of Germany in the early 1990s. It was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which had occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In the treaty, the Four Powers renounced all rights they held in Germany, allowing a reunited Germany to become fully sovereign the following year.[1][2][3] At the same time, the two German states agreed to confirm their acceptance of the existing border with Poland, and accepted that the borders of Germany after unification would correspond only to the territories then administered by West and East Germany, with the exclusion and renunciation of any other territorial claims (e.g., to the Kaliningrad Oblast).
Background [ edit ] Participants in the first round of talks conducted in March 1990 to negotiate the treaty
On 2 August 1945, the Potsdam Agreement, promulgated at the end of the Potsdam Conference, among other things agreed on the initial terms under which the Allies of World War II would govern Germany. A provisional German''Polish border known as the Oder''Neisse line awarded, in theory within the context of that "provisional border", most of Germany's former eastern provinces to Poland and the Soviet Union. The German populations of these areas either fled or were expelled. Those agreements reached were provisional and the agreement stipulated that the situation would be finalised by "a peace settlement for Germany to be accepted by the Government of Germany when a government adequate for the purpose is established" (Potsdam Agreement 1.3.1). Parts of those above-mentioned agreements were burdened with controversy from several sources e.g., Churchill's comment about "stuffing the Polish goose too full" (of German lands). The overall "German Question" became one of the salient and crucial issues of the long-running Cold War, and until it ended in the late 1980s, little progress had been made in the establishment of a single government of Germany adequate for the purpose of agreeing to a final settlement. This meant that in some respects (largely, but not only, technical), Germany did not have full national sovereignty.[4]:'Š42''43'Š
Several developments in 1989 and 1990, collectively termed Die Wende and the Peaceful Revolution, led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the SED in the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany). In the 18 March 1990 national election in the GDR an electoral alliance of parties that favored German reunification via article 23 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany won a plurality.[4]:'Š229''232'Š [5]:'Š211''214'Š To achieve unity and full sovereignty, both German states were willing to accept the terms of the Potsdam Agreement that affected Germany.[4] On 31 August 1990, the FRG and GDR signed the Unification Treaty, which describes the manner and specifics of the GDR's accession to the Federal Republic. It was then possible for all international parties to negotiate a final settlement.[4]
Treaty [ edit ] The signatures of the representatives of the four powers on the final treaty
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany was signed in Moscow, Soviet Union, on 12 September 1990,[4]:'Š363'Š and paved the way for German reunification on 3 October 1990.[6] Under the terms of the treaty, the Four Powers renounced all rights they formerly held in Germany, including those regarding the city of Berlin.[4] Upon deposit of the last instrument of ratification, united Germany became fully sovereign on 15 March 1991.
The treaty allows Germany to make and belong to alliances, without any foreign influence in its politics. All Soviet forces in Germany were to leave the country by the end of 1994. Before the Soviets withdrew, Germany would only deploy territorial defense units not integrated into the alliance structures. German forces in the rest of Germany were assigned to areas where Soviet troops were stationed. After the Soviets withdrew, the Germans could freely deploy troops in those areas, with the exception of nuclear weapons. For the duration of the Soviet presence, Allied troops would remain stationed in Berlin upon Germany's request.[4]
Germany undertook to reduce its armed forces to no more than 370,000 personnel, no more than 345,000 of whom were to be in the Army and the Air Force. These limits would commence at the time that the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe would enter into force, and the treaty also took note that it was expected that the other participants in the negotiations would "render their contribution to enhancing security and stability in Europe, including measures to limit personnel strengths".[7] Germany also reaffirmed its renunciation of the manufacture, possession of, and control over nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, and in particular, that the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty would continue to apply in full to the unified Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany). No foreign armed forces, nuclear weapons, or the carriers for nuclear weapons would be stationed or deployed in six states (the area of Berlin and the former East Germany), making them a permanent Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The German Army could deploy conventional weapons systems with nonconventional capabilities, provided that they were equipped and designed for a purely conventional role. Germany also agreed to use military force only in accordance with the United Nations Charter.[4]
Another of the treaty's important provisions was Germany's confirmation of the by now internationally recognised border with Poland, and other territorial changes in Germany that had taken place since 1945, preventing any future claims to lost territory east of the Oder''Neisse line (see also Former eastern territories of Germany). The treaty defined the territory of a 'united Germany' as being the territory of East Germany, West Germany and Berlin, prohibiting Germany from making any future territorial claims. Germany also agreed to sign a separate treaty with Poland reaffirming the present common border, binding under international law, effectively relinquishing these territories to Poland. This was done on 14 November 1990 with the signing of the German''Polish Border Treaty.[4] Furthermore, the Federal Republic was required by the treaty to amend its Basic Law so as to be constitutionally prohibited from accepting any application for incorporation into Germany[citation needed ] from territories outside the territories of East Germany, West Germany and Berlin (although Germany is permitted to maintain research stations in Antarctica; at present it has ten).
Although the treaty was signed by West and East Germany as separate sovereign states, it was subsequently ratified by united Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany).
Implementation [ edit ] After the Soviet Union dissolved itself in December 1991, the command unit of the Soviet Group of Soviet Forces in Germany devolved to the Russian Federation. The German government subsequently recognized the Russian Federation's claim to be the successor state of the Soviet Union, including the right to maintain troops in Germany until the end of 1994. However, with post-Soviet Russia facing severe economic hardship, President Boris Yeltsin ordered Russian troop deployment in Germany to be reduced to levels significantly below those permitted in the Treaty. The last Russian troops left Germany at the end of August 1994, four months before the treaty deadline.
In the first decade of the 21st century, the Bundeswehr underwent a gradual transformation to a fully professional force. By 2011, the year Germany voluntarily suspended conscription, the Bundeswehr had retained fewer than 250,000 active duty personnel '' barely two thirds of the country's treaty limit of 370,000.
Claimed violations [ edit ] Article 5, paragraph 3 of the treaty concerning the area of the former East Germany states: "Foreign armed forces and nuclear weapons or their carriers will not be stationed in that part of Germany or deployed there."[8] In 2010, the newspaper Junge Welt alleged this to have been violated by NATO troops during a 2009 exercise in the former East German Trollenhagen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.[9] According to the German Air Force, NATO was merely making an inspection there on that occasion; however, the inspection included a unit from the Finnish Air Force.[10]
In September 2007, France offered Germany joint control over its nuclear arsenal, but the Germans rejected this.[11]
Eastward expansion of NATO [ edit ] The treaty does not mention future NATO membership of other countries.[12] In 1993, then Russian president Boris Yeltsin wrote: "The spirit of the treaty precludes the option of expanding the NATO zone into the East."[13] In a 2014 interview, Mikhail Gorbachev also stated that the decision to expand NATO into the east was a "violation of the spirit of the statements and assurances made to us in 1990".[14] However, in the same interview, Mikhail Gorbachev said "The topic of ''NATO expansion'' was not discussed at all, and it wasn't brought up in those years. I say this with full responsibility."
In 1997, NATO and Russia signed a treaty stating that each country had a sovereign right to seek alliances.[15] Some, like Eduard Shevardnadze, maintain that no commitment on NATO expansion was made during the discussions on German reunification.[16][17] Allegedly, the issue of expanding NATO into Central and Eastern European states was not on the agenda at that time, since all of them were Warsaw Pact members and most still had substantial Soviet military forces stationed on their soil,[18][19] and Gorbachev "did not even contemplate seeking a provision that would bar any other Warsaw Pact countries from eventually pursuing membership in NATO".[17] This was challenged by Svetlana Savranskaya and Tom Blanton in December 2017, after they looked in the declassified record. They commented: "The documents show that multiple national leaders were considering and rejecting Central and Eastern European membership in NATO as of early 1990 and through 1991, that discussions of NATO in the context of German unification negotiations in 1990 were not at all narrowly limited to the status of East German territory, and that subsequent Soviet and Russian complaints about being misled about NATO expansion were founded in written contemporaneous memcons and telcons at the highest levels."[20] They further stated that, "The view of the State Department was that NATO expansion was not on the agenda, because it was not in the interest of the U.S. to organize 'an anti-Soviet coalition' that extended to the Soviet borders, not least because it might reverse the positive trends in the Soviet Union. (See Document 26) The Bush administration took the latter view. And that's what the Soviets heard."[20]
The invocation of the supposed non-expansion pledge to justify Russia's annexation of Crimea has been criticized by NATO.[21][22]
See also [ edit ] Allied Control CouncilBaker-Gorbachev NegotiationsBasic TreatyBonn''Paris conventionsCouncil of Foreign MinistersFour Power Agreement on BerlinGermany TreatyLondon and Paris ConferencesOccupation statutePetersberg AgreementNotes [ edit ] ^ French: Trait(C) sur le r¨glement final en ce qui concerne l'Allemagne; Russian: Ð--оÐ"Ð¾Ð²Ð¾Ñ Ð¾Ð± окончатеÐ>>ьном уÑеÐ"уÐ>>иÑовании в отноÑении Ð'еÑмании , tr. Dogovor ob okonchatel'nom uregulirovanii v otnoshenii Germanii ^ French: Accord Deux Plus Quatre; Russian: ÐоÐ"Ð>>аÑение Ð--ва ÐÐ>>юс четыÑе>> , tr. Soglasheniye Dva plyus chetyre>> References [ edit ] ^ American Foreign Policy Current Documents 1990 (September 1990). "Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany" (PDF) . Roy Rozenweig Center for History and New Media. ^ "Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany". Foothill College. ^ Hailbronner, Kay. "Legal Aspects of the Unification of the Two German States" (PDF) . European Journal of International Law. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zelikow, Philip; Rice, Condoleezza (1997) [1995]. Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674353251. ^ Charles S. Maier, Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East Germany (Princeton University Press, 1997). ISBN 978-0691007465 ^ "The Two plus Four Treaty". Federal Foreign Office (Germany). Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. ^ "Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (two plus four)". September 12, 1990 '' via U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany. ^ "September 12 Two-Plus-Four Ministerial in Moscow: Detailed account [includes text of the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany and Agreed Minute to the Treaty on the special military status of the GDR after unification] | National Security Archive". . Retrieved 2022-03-01 . ^ "NATO ¼bt in Trollenhagen]" [NATO Exercise in Trollenhagen]. (in German). 8 January 2010 . Retrieved 7 February 2022 . ^ "Medientag beim FORCEVAL 2009 auf dem Fliegerhorst Trollenhagen" [Media day at FORCEVAL 2009 on the military airbase Trollenhagen]. Luftwaffe (in German). 16 September 2009. Archived from the original on 1 October 2010 . Retrieved 19 April 2010 . ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (15 September 2007). "'berraschender VorstoŸ: Sarkozy bot Deutschland Atomwaffen an". Der Spiegel. ^ Robert B. Zoellick, The Lessons of German Unification, The National Interest, September 22, 2000 ^ Wiegrefe, Klaus (15 February 2022). "NATO's Eastward Expansion: Is Vladimir Putin Right?". Der Spiegel. ISSN 2195-1349 . Retrieved 28 February 2022 . ^ K"rshunov, Maxim (16 October 2014). "Mikhail Gorbachev: I am against all walls". Russia Beyond the Headlines . Retrieved 7 February 2022 . ^ NATO. "Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation". NATO. ^ Kramer, Mark; Shifrinson, Joshua R. Itzkowitz (2017-07-01). "NATO Enlargement'--Was There a Promise?". International Security. 42 (1): 186''192. doi:10.1162/isec_c_00287. ISSN 0162-2889. S2CID 57571871. ^ a b Kramer, Mark (April 2009). "The Myth of a No-NATO-Enlargement Pledge to Russia". The Washington Quarterly. 32 (2): 39''61. doi:10.1080/01636600902773248. S2CID 154322506. ^ Steven Pifer (6 November 2014). "Did NATO Promise Not to Enlarge? Gorbachev Says "No" ". Brookings Institution. ^ Jack Matlock (3 April 2014). "NATO EXPANSION: WAS THERE A PROMISE?". ^ a b Svetlana Savranskaya; Tom Blanton (12 December 2017). "NATO Expansion: What Gorbachev Heard". National Security Archive. ^ NATO (12 May 2014). "Russia's accusations - setting the record straight, Fact Sheet - April 2014". ^ Michael R¼hle (2014). "NATO enlargement and Russia: myths and realities". NATO Review. NATO. Further reading [ edit ] Trachtenberg, Marc. "The United States and the NATO Non-extension Assurances of 1990: New Light on an Old Problem?" International Security 45:3 (2021): 162-203. and online commentary on H-DIPLO 2021External links [ edit ] Full text in English (Published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office on the Foreign and Commonwealth Office website)
Wisconsin's Voting Machines Were Connected To The Internet During The 2020 Election
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:44
Michael Gableman, Mark Zuckerberg, and Michael Spitzer-RubensteinLast August, Wisconsin Assembly Speaker Robin Vos authorized the Office of Special Counsel (OSC), headed by retired state Supreme Court Justice Michael Gableman, to investigate concerns about the 2020 election. Gableman delivered an interim report to the state assembly on November 10, 2021.
Last Tuesday, Gableman delivered a second interim report to the Wisconsin Assembly's elections committee. Mr. Gableman wrote, ''Ultimately, WEC's directives mandated that widespread ''election fraud'' be undertaken in relation to the November 2020 election.''
Mr. Gableman vetted more than 90 nursing homes in five different counties before concluding there was ''widespread election fraud at Wisconsin nursing homes in November of 2020.''
Mr. Gableman also found that $8.8 million in Zuckerberg grant funds directed solely to five Democratic strongholds in Wisconsin violated the state's election code's prohibition on bribery. He wrote, ''The record created by public document requests shows that CTCL, a private company headquartered in Chicago, engaged in an election bribery scheme.''
Zuckerberg's CTCL grant money came with strings attached that created a two-tiered election system that treated voters differently depending on whether they lived in Democrat or Republican areas. Wisconsin's five largest cities'--Milwaukee, Madison, Racine, Kenosha, and Green Bay'--were invited to take CTCL's private money on the condition that they ''increased in-person voting and absentee voting for targeted areas and groups''.
These groups met particular demographic criteria which, Gableman wrote, ''matched that of the Biden-voter profile''.
Zuckerberg's grant money also hired ''CTCL's partners for election administration''. A New York lawyer and Democrat political operative, Michael Spitzer-Rubenstein was listed as a ''CTCL grant mentor'' who directed election administration in Green Bay.
Mr. Rubenstein provided instructions to Central Count workers, developed absentee voting protocols, and set up a wireless network for Election Day operations in his Hyatt Regency hotel room.
The Special Counsel wrote, ''At Mr. Spitzer Rubenstein's instruction, there were three WiFi networks available. One was the general conference facility public network that would be available to members of the press and others. That network was password-protected, but the password was widely available. A second password-protected WiFi network was created for Central Count staff. Mr. Spitzer Rubenstein also directed that a third WiFi network be established, but that network was to be hidden and it was not to be password-protected. Spitzer Rubenstein also ensured that both networks reached his hotel room on the 8th floor.''
Two major machine manufacturers were identified in Wisconsin, Dominion Voting and ES&S. In regards to Dominion, Mr. Gableman wrote, ''These specific machines can be manipulated to alter actual votes cast'-- either surreptitiously or by the machine technicians.'' He continued:
''The OSC was able to identify, through the reports of experts, that the failed machine recorded two anonymous and unauthorized access events from its VPN. This means, contrary to what Dominion has publicly stated, that at least some machines had access to the internet on election night. Shortly after the unauthorized access was recorded, the machine failed and was reset, wiping all voting history and forcing that election administrator to rely on unverifiable paper printouts from the failed machine.''
In regards to ES&S, Gableman stated that the central problem was that ''several of the machines are made with a 4G wireless modem installed, enabling them to connect to the internet through a Wi-Fi hotspot.''
One municipality under investigation in Wisconsin by the OSC admitted that these machines had these modems and were connected to the internet on election night. The reason given was to ''transmit data'' about votes to the county clerks.
This comes as no surprise as NBC News reported on January 10, 2020, that ES&S had 14,000 modems in use to connect tabulators to the internet.
The OSC learned that all machines in Green Bay were ES&S machines and were connected to a secret, hidden Wi-Fi access point at the Grand Hyatt hotel, which was the location used by the City of Green Bay on the day of the 2020 Presidential election.
The OSC discovered the Wi-Fi, machines, and ballots were controlled by, Michael Spitzer-Rubenstein, a single individual, who was not a government employee but an agent of a special interest group operating in Wisconsin.
The OSC spent a great deal of time looking into the use of a '' ballot tracking and harvesting application'' that was used in Wisconsin, Georgia, and Pennsylvania. The OSC discovered the application when ''reviewing email exchanges between the Zuckerberg 5 and third parties''.
The OSC identified the developers and obtained the source code for the application. These cell phone apps were part of the Zuckerberg funded operation and they allowed the user access to the voter rolls and live updates on ballots received by a county.
The OSC also learned that cities had access to statewide WisVote and BadgerBooks data through an Application Programming Interface (API), which provided real time, free information to special interest groups who used that information for selective, racially-targeted get-out-the-vote purposes under the contracts.
Supreme Court Justice Michael Gableman will continue his investigation, but he has already confirmed that the voting machines were connected to the internet on election night, private money dictated policies that undermined state laws, and there was widespread fraud in Wisconsin's 2020 presidential election which was decided by 20,682 votes.
THE DOWNLOAD:Wisconsin Special Counsel Finds 'Widespread Fraud' In 2020 Nursing Homes: Rampant fraud and abuse occurred statewide at Wisconsin's nursing homes and other residential care facilities,'' according to the Office of Special Counsel's second interim report filed on March 1 with the Wisconsin Assembly. That conclusion represents but one of the key findings of election irregularities detailed in the nearly 150-page report'--a report that also confirms the conclusion of the Racine County Sheriff's office last fall that fraud occurred at nursing homes in Wisconsin. Read more.
Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine Converts To DNA Inside Human Liver Cells: The messenger RNA from Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine reportedly can enter human liver cells and be converted into DNA, contrary to what the CDC has said. A study by Swedish scientists finds that when the vaccine's mRNA enters human liver cells it triggers a number of reactions that yield a reverse transcription that turns the mRNA into spike DNA. The scientists, in their study published in the journal Current Issues of Molecular Biology, state that they have found "evidence that COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 is able to enter the human liver cell line Huh7 in vitro." Read more.
Hunter Biden's Business Partner & Best Friend Sentenced In NY District Court: Hunter Biden's ex-business partner and best friend were just sentenced to one year, plus one day in jail in New York's district court plus 1-year parole and $15m forfeiture for defrauding a Native American tribe. Judge Ronnie Abrams said the crime was too serious for the non-custodial sentence Archer's lawyer requested, but the sentence was less than the 30 months requested by prosecutors. Devon Archer had served '‹with Hunter Biden '‹on the board of Ukrainian natural gas company Burisma Holdings. Read more.
Russian Gas Via Yamal Pipeline Halts Flows To Germany |
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:44
Natural gas flows from Russia to Germany via the Yamal pipeline stopped in the westward direction on Thursday, according to data from the Gascade pipeline operator cited by Reuters.
Flows of natural gas from Russia on the Yamal-Europe pipeline via Belarus to Poland and Germany have been volatile and mostly running east from Germany to Poland since the end of December.
Volatile and lower than typical Russian natural gas supply to Europe in the fourth quarter of 2021 contributed to the energy crisis in Europe, which had its gas storage levels at the lowest in a decade at the start of the winter. As a result, gas and power prices spiked in Europe. But not as much as the natural gas price surge in recent days, after Russia invaded Ukraine last week.
Europe's benchmark natural gas price surged on Thursday morning to hit a new record-high for a second consecutive day, trading at the equivalent of $360 per barrel oil, as concerns over the disruption of Russian gas supply mount.
The gas price at the Dutch TTF hub, the benchmark gas price for Europe, jumped early on Thursday in Amsterdam to trade at $221 (199.99 euro) per MWh, which was a new all-time high. This beat Wednesday's record of $215 (194 euro) per megawatt-hour.
After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, gas supply from Russia has been closely monitored by the market and traders, while European countries and the European Union said they would accelerate efforts to quickly replace as much Russian gas supply as possible.
The European Union could be able to reduce its reliance on Russian natural gas by more than one-third within a year by turning to other suppliers and using other energy sources, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said on Thursday.
''Nobody is under any illusions anymore. Russia's use of its natural gas resources as an economic and political weapon show Europe needs to act quickly to be ready to face considerable uncertainty over Russian gas supplies next winter,'' the IEA's Executive Director Fatih Birol said in a statement.
By Charles Kennedy for
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A Major Internet Backbone Company Cuts Off Russia | WIRED
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:43
Russia's War of choice against Ukraine drew global attention this week with Russian President Vladimir Putin continuing to escalate the conflict as the United States and Europe moved to drastically isolate the Kremlin. Though the front lines of battle have not been digital, Ukraine emphasized this week that Russia is pummeling the embattled country's computer networks with hacking attempts. After years of such activity, Ukrainian internet infrastructure is resilient, and the Ukrainian government is also experimenting with the formation of a volunteer ''IT Army'' to organize recruits from all over the world for its cause.
Ukrainians have been relying on the messaging platform Telegram to get much of their news and official government updates about the situation, and hacktivists have been attempting to make their mark in the conflict as well, though their actions are often dwarfed by the reality of kinetic war.
We've got the story of an online troll who used tactics such as misleading press releases and tricky domain names in an effort to sabotage competitors in the nonalcoholic spirit industry. And the startup Kytch, which sold a device for fixing McDonald's ice cream machines before the fast food giant crushed its business, is suing the Golden aAches for $900 million in damages.
But wait, there's more. We've rounded up all the news here that we didn't break or cover in depth this week. Click on the headlines to read the full stories. And stay safe out there.
US internet infrastructure company Cogent Communications said on Friday that it is ending relationships with its Russian customers, including the state-owned Russian telecoms Rostelecom and TransTelekom. The global internet is interdependent, and Russia has other backbone providers besides Cogent to stay connected to the world, but the company is one of the biggest. Cogent said it weighed the risks that some people in Russia will lose global connectivity against the possibility that the Russian government will benefit from Cogent's service in mounting disinformation campaigns and hacks against Ukrainian targets. ''Our goal is not to hurt anyone. It's just to not empower the Russian government to have another tool in their war chest,'' Cogent CEO Dave Schaeffer told The Washington Post.
The infamous Conti ransomware gang has long been thought to be based in Russia, and last week the group announced its support for the Kremlin's invasion of Ukraine. Since then, Conti has suffered a series of damaging leaks. A Twitter user with the handle @ContiLeaks dropped about 60,000 messages from Conti's internal chats on Sunday, revealing details about the inner workings of the organization, including how the group recruits and trains members. Then @ContiLeaks published a second trove that included more than 100,000 more internal messages and files related to accessing the group's application programming interfaces and source code. By Wednesday, researchers began noticing that Conti was dismantling its infrastructure. It's not uncommon for ransomware groups to go underground and rebuild under a new name, but the saga shows the severity of the blowback Conti received from pro-Ukraine hacktivists.
After a ransomware attack last week, chipmaker Nvidia has been scrambling to deal with attackers who apparently stole 1 terabyte of data from the company and have been slowly leaking increasingly sensitive data from the trove. The hacking group, known as Lapsus$,which is thought to be based in South America, also claimed that Nvidia attempted to ''hack back'' or attack them in retaliation. Earlier this week the attackers leaked information about unreleased, upcoming Nvidia GPUs and source code for an Nvidia AI rendering system called DLSS. After the company refused to pay the attackers a ransom, they released the usernames and passwords of more than 71,000 Nvidia employees on Friday along with two code-signing certificates that could be abused by other attackers worldwide to make their malware appear authentic and trustworthy.
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Russia's Invasion Will Boost 2023 Defense Budget, Top Democrat Says - Defense One
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:41
Russia's invasion of Ukraine will boost the Pentagon's funding for next year, the chairman of the House Armed Services Committee predicted on Thursday.
''Without question, it's going to have to be bigger than we thought,'' Rep. Adam Smith, D-Wash., said at an American Enterprise Institute event. ''The Russian invasion of Ukraine fundamentally altered what our national security posture and what our defense posture needs to be. It made it more complicated and it made it more expensive. I don't see much way to argue it.''
During annual budget negotiations, Republicans typically push for more defense spending while Democrats overwhelmingly argue for cuts to the military and increased spending on domestic programs. But the bipartisan support for Ukraine could unite both parties around a higher defense budget.
''The political reality is that the Russian incursion in Ukraine has created much more support for an increase in the defense budget,'' said Todd Harrison, director for budget analysis at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. ''At a minimum, I think [Democrats] won't oppose it because it's hard to, politically, at this point given what we're seeing.''
In December, Congress authorized nearly $778 billion for defense spending in fiscal 2022, which began Oct. 1, though lawmakers have yet to pass a budget to disperse that money. The Biden administration is expected to submit a 2023 budget request this month. Two weeks ago, ''sources familiar with the negotiations'' told Reuters the request would include more than $800 billion for overall defense spending, including $773 billion for the Defense Department.
Harrison said it's unlikely the White House will edit its budget request, already two months later than usual, to reflect the conflict in Ukraine. Instead, the White House could amend its proposal later in the year or ask Congress for supplemental funding.
But he predicted that lawmakers will add $10 to $20 billion to a $773 billion request without further prompting.
On Thursday, the White House asked Congress to approve $10 billion in humanitarian, security, and economic assistance for Ukraine. That's $3.6 billion more than Bloomberg reported last week; it is part of a $32.5 billion package that also includes coronavirus-response money.
''These resources will mean additional defense equipment for Ukraine, lifesaving humanitarian assistance'--such as emergency food assistance'--for the Ukrainian people, stronger sanctions enforcement, a dedicated task force led by the Department of Justice to go after the ill-gotten gains and other illicit activities of the Russian oligarchs, and additional support for U.S troop deployments to neighboring countries,'' acting OMB Director Shalanda Young said in a statement posted to the White House website.
Mackenzie Eaglen, senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, predicted that 2023 defense spending will eventually top $800 billion, but also urged Smith to give Congress more flexibility in spending because repeated continuing resolutions shorten the fiscal year and all money expires on Oct. 1.
''That could be just as effective as a higher budget,'' she said.
Thousands of American troops have deployed to eastern Europe this year to reassure NATO allies and deter Russia from pushing its troops farther west. If Congress did appropriate more money for the Pentagon, some of it would go to supporting these additional deployments, Harrison said.
But the money would also likely go to buy weapons, aircraft, ships, and submarines to make sure the military can deter both Russia and China, Harrison predicted.
''Now, Congress and DOD, instead of looking at the overall force structure in terms of being able to meet one major theater war at a time'...they're now forced to look at two almost simultaneous wars and that is going to drive a lot more of a increase in demand for force structure,'' he said.
Other NATO allies are also poised to increase their defense spending. On Wednesday, France said it would increase defense spending by an unspecified amount. Earlier this week, Germany pledged to boost its defense spending to 2 percent of its GDP, up half a percent. That would make it the 11th NATO member to meet the alliance's guideline.
If the remaining 19 NATO members met the 2 percent goal, defense spending across the alliance could grow by $80 billion, Cowen & Company analyst Roman Schweizer wrote in a Thursday morning note to investors. If that increase happens, Schweizer estimates $18 billion of that increase could be spending on weapons and equipment.
But spending increases across all alliance members is still unlikely, according to Capital Alpha Partners Byron Callan.
''We have believed that European defense spending could increase, but that has to be assessed on a country-by-country basis,'' Callan wrote in a Monday note to investors. ''Our assessment has been that 'front-line states' such as Poland, Romania, and Finland are more likely to see increases than Spain or Italy, which may feel less of a direct military threat from a more assertive Russia.''
Not everyone, however, agrees that the military needs more money to counter Russia.
''Resources to address the Ukraine crisis should be generated by repurposing existing military funding, not spending more,'' William Hartung, a senior research fellow at the Quincy Institute for Responsible Statecraft said in a statement that accompanied the release of an article about the need to cut defense spending.
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:32
The following organizations are issuers of SMART Health Cards. Please see each one's documentation for more information.A SMART Health Card stores healthcare information and other vital medical data. SMART Health Cards provide a platform to improve privacy and security of patient information, make medical records portable, and reduce healthcare fraud.
SMART Health Card issuers play a critical role in the vaccination verification ecosystem, and the VCI coalition values the importance of their work and publishes the VCI Directory to help ensure that there's a trusted list of organizations associated with SMART Health Card issuance.
The types of issuers permitted in VCI Directory are limited to the following: Clinical health systems and hospitals providing patient care National and regional pharmacy chains National and regional laboratory diagnostics providers National and regional health insurance payors Government and governmental agenciesFor more information on issuer types see the VCI Directory: Issuer Types blog post. And if you would like to learn more about becoming an issuer, go here.
Britain's Covid experts 'abandoned their objectivity and misled with alarming models'
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:12
Scientists abandoned their objectivity, "misled" with alarming models and failed to appreciate the damage lockdown would cause, a government adviser has claimed in a damning indictment of Britain's pandemic response.
Prof Mark Woolhouse, a member of the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Modelling (Spi-M), said that the Government's advisory system was dominated by clinicians and public health specialists who ''weren't looking at the bigger picture''.
In his memoir, The Year The World Went Mad, Prof Woolhouse claimed that lockdowns ''had surprisingly little effect'' and just ''deferred the problem to another day, at great cost''.
He argued that Spi-M was set up to tackle the wrong disease, influenza, and that early models were based on flu dynamics, and so mistakenly thought schools were a major driver while underrepresenting the impact of shielding.
Prof Woolhouse says he was ''extremely sceptical'' about the Imperial College report from March 16 2020 that claimed more than 500,000 people could die without intervention, but The Telegraph revealed last week that, at the time, modellers were still ''uncertain'' of case numbers ''due to data limitations''.
The figures, published a week before lockdown was announced, led to an about-turn from the Government.
Scepticism over figures leading to first lockdown''It was perfectly obvious that no one could predict the course of the epidemic over such a long timescale, so what was the point of publishing those outputs?'' wrote Prof Woolhouse.
''The worst-case epidemic is one in which the virus is allowed to spread in the absence of any countermeasures at all. It's useful to know how big that epidemic would be, but it would never happen in practice. It is inconceivable that we would carry on as normal while hundreds of thousands of people were dying.''
Imperial College London published an analysis the following June, claiming that lockdown had saved nearly half a million lives in Britain.
However, Sweden managed to bring its epidemic under control without lockdown, leaving Imperial College to conclude that it was Sweden's ban on mass gatherings that played the decisive role '' even while arguing it had not been enough in other countries.
''The conclusion wasn't remotely plausible,'' wrote Prof Woolhouse. ''Analyses by other researchers came up with quite different conclusions that the UK epidemic was already in decline before lockdown took effect.
''I expect this debate will rumble on for years, but I doubt anyone would claim now that the Mar 23 lockdown saved anywhere near half a million lives. Anyone who supported lockdown on the basis of the half-million figure was misled.''
An inquiry into the pandemic response is due to begin this spring. However, research is increasingly suggesting that lockdown was not needed because the public naturally begins social distancing when they see cases rise, or friends and family becoming infected.
This week, modellers told the Commons science and technology select committee that many of the recent models were wrong because they had failed to factor in these behavioural shifts.
Prof Graham Medley, the chairman of Spi-M, told MPs: ''Human behaviour is very difficult to predict. If you could do it, then you would make a fortune on the stock exchange. We haven't included that, and maybe that's an error. But on the other hand, we've seen dramatic behaviour changes which were completely unforeseen.''
Spi-M first met in Jan 2020, and modelling from the group was frequently cited by politicians to justify imposing new measures.
Yet in his memoir, Prof Woolhouse said that scientific advisers had given too much weight to preventing deaths from coronavirus, while dismissing the indirect harms of lockdown, such as damage to education, mental health, the economy and the rest of the NHS.
He said that Britain is likely to be paying for the mistakes of lockdown ''for a generation or more''.
''The public health benefits were overestimated, skewing the argument in favour of that course, however damaging it was,'' he added.
''Will the cure turn out to be worse than the disease? It is still early days for doing the reckoning but the moments are not good.''
BBC accused of 'over-egging Covid risks'Prof Woolhouse also accused the BBC of over-egging the risks from Covid and that said scientists had abandoned their objectivity by wading into policy.
''It became routine during the pandemic for scientific advisers and commentators to push for one policy or another,'' he wrote.
''As citizens, they have every right to do that. But when there is a constant stream of government scientific advisers in the media calling for a lockdown, as there was during the second wave in Oct 2020, then we have crossed a line.''
Prof Woolhouse also said it was an ''awkward'' truth that the people who benefited most from suppression of the virus, such as the elderly and vulnerable, were not the group that suffered most from the impact of lockdown: young people and low-income workers.
''Even before the UK first went into lockdown in Mar 2020, we knew that novel coronavirus was far more dangerous to the elderly, the frail and the infirm than to healthy young adults and children,'' he added.
''That should have shaped our response. Instead, the UK administrations continued to act as though everyone was equally at risk. They even actively promoted this misinterpretation to try to bolster acceptance to a lockdown strategy.''
The Year The World Went Mad is published by Sandstone Press
On The Backs Of The Abraham Accords, Jared Kushner Raises Billions And Becomes Middle East Power Player As He Creates A Life Outside Of Trump ' Now The End Begins
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:11
Like a bad penny, Jared Kushner who has been counted out oh so many times keeps appearing and reappearing in the end times fabric of ongoing events in the Middle East. After finding incredible success with the Abraham Accords, co-authored with Pope Francis' right-hand man Mohamed bin Zayed, Jared Kushner has now set up shop in the Middle East having raised billions for his new private equity firm. Being nominated twice for a Nobel Peace Prize doesn't hurt his resume, either.
And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant . And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.'' Daniel 11:22,23 (KJB)
In the book of Daniel, the ''prince of the covenant'' is not Antichrist but rather a prince of some kind that assists the Antichrist right up to the moment that he turns against him and kills him. So it is intriguing to me that meshed deep within the Abraham Accords we have not one, but two Muslim princes occupying the shadowy realms of end times Bible prophecy.
Jared Kushner is striking out alone, touring the Middle East and soliciting funds for his new PE firm on the strength of the Abraham Accords.FROM BUSINESS INSIDER: Jared Kushner has doubled down on the links he created in the Middle East while working in the White House, reportedly courting regional powers for investment for his new private equity firm and founding an initiative to build on the success of his brainchild, the Abraham Accords. The accords saw Israel normalize ties with the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain in August 2020 following decades of angst between Jerusalem and Arab nations over the Palestine question. The agreement was widely praised, and Kushner has been nominated twice for the Nobel Peace Prize for it.
Kushner has moved to capitalize on the success.
Establishing himself as a regional peace broker, Kushner set up the Abraham Accords Institute for Peace last May to help deepen links between Israel, the UAE, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco. Kushner is also writing a book about his time in the White House, which is said to focus on the accords.
He's also sought to strike out financially in the region, launching his own private equity fund, Affinity Partners, in July and courting investment from the sovereign wealth funds of the Middle Eastern nations with which he worked closely in the White House.
As of January 2022, Kushner had secured $3 billion in verbal commitments, Axios reported.
The identities of the investors are not publicly known, but The New York Times reported last November that Kushner struggled to drum up investment from some of the nations on which he focused so closely while in the White House. The UAE declined to invest, The Times said, as did Qatar, citing Kushner's support of the four-year blockade of the country waged by the UAE and Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia, helmed by Kushner's good friend Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, might have helped, though: Axios reported that some of the $3 billion had come from ''foreign sovereign wealth funds.'' Project Brazen, a news outlet founded by the former Wall Street Journal reporters Bradley Stone and Tom Wright, reported in October that Kushner was in talks to secure $2 billion from the kingdom's Public Investment Fund, which is chaired by MBS.
Kushner and MBS are on a first-name basis, texting often and informally when Kushner was in the White House, The Times reported. In 2017, MBS gifted Kushner two swords and a dagger worth $48,000, The Times said. In 2018, Kushner defended MBS following the murder of Washington Post writer Jamal Khashoggi. It appears that MBS and Kushner remain close, with Bloomberg reporting that Kushner met MBS in Saudi Arabia during a tour of the Middle East earlier this year. READ MORE
2021: Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump to launch Abraham Accords caucus>>
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How Zelensky Gave the World a Jewish Hero - The Atlantic
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:01
As the Ukrainian president captivates the world with his bravery, he offers a reminder of the inroads Eastern and Central European Jews have made in overcoming their status as perpetual outsiders.
Johanna Geron / APFor those inclined to see history as depressingly cyclical, the war in Ukraine offers fairly strong evidence. It all feels lifted from a familiar script in which only the actors have been switched'--at anti-Russian protests, a popular placard even has the 20th century's most evil mustache Photoshopped onto Putin's face. But there is one protagonist who is an unusual fit for his role: Volodymyr Zelensky.
The 44-year-old former comedian turned president has exhibited great patriotism and bravery, joining his fate with that of his countrymen on the streets of Kyiv, refusing to leave despite Western offers of an airlift. If he is now, as he put it, ''the No. 1 target'' for the Russians, it is because he is the No. 1 Ukrainian. And what is remarkable, truly mind-blowing in the long sweep of history, is that his Jewishness has not stood in the way of his being embraced as a symbol of the nation.
In the Soviet world that shaped Zelensky and his parents, Jews were perceived as the eternal outsiders, possible fifth columnists, the ''rootless cosmopolitans'' of Stalin's imagination. This of course came on top of living in a place where a particularly virulent strain of anti-Semitism had always existed, a legacy of pogroms and Nazi collaboration. Just outside embattled Kyiv is Babi Yar, where 33,771 Jews were shot and thrown into a ravine over the course of two days in 1941. If Zelensky has now become synonymous with the blue-and-yellow flag of his country, it might signal an unexpected outcome of this conflict that has found Jews feeling finally, improbably, one with a land that has perpetually tried to spit them out.
Read our ongoing coverage of the Russian invasion in Ukraine
Zelensky grew up in the Russian-speaking city of Kryvyi Rih, in the eastern part of Ukraine. And like most Soviet Jews, his parents were highly educated but also limited as to where their ambitions and learning could take them. His father was a professor of mathematics and his mother had studied engineering. These were standard-issue careers for a certain class of Soviet Jews who knew they couldn't come close to any of the fields that shaped society and culture'--one after another turned to the applied sciences as a way to excel.
When asked about what his actual Jewishness has meant to him, Zelensky has been blas(C). In an interview in 2020, he said he came from ''an ordinary Soviet Jewish family,'' adding that ''most Jewish families in the Soviet Union were not religious.'' What this hides, though, is the reality that Jewish identity didn't exist in the Soviet Union, because it couldn't. To be a Jew from the time of Stalin onward was to have a stamp in your internal passport that marked you as such (just as a Ukrainian or Latvian national identity was also indicated). There was very little opportunity for Jewish community, religious practice, or even bare-bones cultural expression. Unlike Ukrainians and Latvians who had national homelands within the Soviet empire where some degree of culture and language were permitted as long as it stuck to the Communist party line, Jews had nothing of the sort. Synagogues were mostly shut down or crawling with KGB informants. Until the late 1980s, gathering for something as innocuous as a Passover seder was practically a subversive act, and teaching Hebrew was simply not allowed.
By the time Zelensky came of age, three or four generations of Soviet Jews had experienced their Jewish identity as a hollow thing, nothing but a black mark on a passport and a sense of peoplehood born of exclusion and a second-class status. All the while, no matter how steeped in Pushkin they might be, they were never able to fully claim any other national allegiance. When the Soviet Union began buckling to pressure to let Jews emigrate in the 1970s, many took the opportunity to do so, even those mathematicians and engineers who had achieved the heights allowed to them. By the early 1990s, just after the Soviet collapse, the permitted trickle became a deluge, and about 1.5 million headed to the United States and Israel.
Read more of our coverage of the Russian invasion
Zelensky and his family were part of the few hundred thousand Jews who stayed, content to assimilate in a post-Soviet world, in which Zelensky found success, first as an actor and then as a politician. Two intersecting trends took place over the past 20 years, both of which transformed the status of Jews in Ukraine. First, the end of the Soviet Union allowed some air to enter Jewish communal life for those who remained. In the eastern-Ukrainian city of Dnipro, not far from where Zelensky grew up, there are now 10 synagogues and a gargantuan community center called Menorah, opened in 2012, that reportedly serves 40,000 people a day'--even though there are only 60,000 Jews in Dnipro. By 2019, a Pew Research Center poll found Ukraine the most accepting of Jews among all Central and Eastern European countries.
As new opportunities for Jewishness were opening up, the past decade also saw instances when Jews were on the front line of defending a democratic and free Ukraine. Prominent Jewish-identified activists participated in the 2013 Euromaidan demonstrations that forced the ouster of pro-Russia President Viktor Yanukovych in early 2014. Later that year, the Jewish governor of the Dnipropetrovsk region established and personally helped fund a militia to defend against Russian-backed separatists in the east.
Zelensky's political rise also took place in this context. It's uncanny in retrospect that the character he played on television in the series Servant of the People'--the role that foretold his actual ascendance to the presidency'--is a nobody whose rise begins when a private rant is filmed and goes viral. But there is a kind of logic to this coincidence. Zelensky grabbed the attention of Ukrainians by playing out what has traditionally been the part of the Jew: the outsider. In this case, what Ukrainians saw in this lonely figure banging on the window was themselves, embattled, trying to hold on to their national identity amid growing threats to their independence. It may have been this aspect of his Jewishness and the way it came to dovetail with those Ukrainian anxieties that made him such a suddenly popular figure, winning 73 percent of the vote in his 2019 election.
In these days of war and uncertainty, the fact that a Jew has come to represent the fighting spirit of Ukraine provides its own kind of hope. Along with all that seems to be recurring'--the military aggression, the assault on freedom'--there is also something new: inclusion and acceptance in a place where it once seemed impossible.
Australia's Shane Warne had chest pain, health issues before death: Thai police | Toronto Sun
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:57
KOH SAMUI '-- Australian cricket great Shane Warne had experienced chest pains prior to his death in Thailand and had asthma and some heart issues, Thai police said on Saturday, citing information from Warne's family.
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One of the finest bowlers of all time whose talent and personality transcended cricket,
Warne died aged 52 on Friday a day after arriving on the island of Koh Samui for a vacation.
''He had asthma and had seen a doctor about his heart,'' Yuttana Sirisombat, superintendent at the Bo Phut police station on Koh Samui, told reporters
Asked about any illnesses before his death, he said: ''We learned from his family that he had experienced chest pains when he was back home in his country.''
Warne was discovered unconscious in his room in a villa he shared with three associates in the Bo Phut area of the popular holiday island.
Medics and hospital staff were unable to revive him. Police have ruled out foul play but said an autopsy was required to confirm the cause of death.
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Australians and the cricket world paid tribute to the man known to compatriots simply as ''Warnie'' on Saturday, after his country woke to the news of his death from a suspected heart attack.
Police superintendent Yuttana declined to comment when asked about the likely cause of death.
He said the Australian's body would be transferred to Surat Thani on the Thai mainland on Sunday for autopsy.
Australian embassy officials assisting police declined to comment to media on Koh Samui.
Earlier on Saturday, three men that police confirmed were Warne's travelling companions were questioned for two hours at the Bo Phut police station. They returned to the station later in the evening and were in discussions for more than two hours, but were not under questioning.
Police had earlier said that his companions were not under suspicion and that the interviews were procedural.
Oil could vault as high as $150 a barrel, veteran analyst warns
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:56
Some pumpjacks operate while others stand idle in the Belridge oil field on November 03, 2021 near McKittrick, California.
Mario Tama | Getty Images
Oil prices are soaring and nothing appears to be stopping their ascent. December to January saw international benchmark Brent crude climb by roughly $11 a barrel, and it's gone up nearly the same amount since the start of February, underpinned by supply concerns, rising inflation and geopolitical tensions.
Brent surpassing $100 a barrel is almost a given at this point, energy analysts say; but now, an increasing number of forecasters predict the commodity surpassing $125 a barrel and even higher.
"Given that you've got this underinvestment in capital exploration, we're running low on physical oil, we're running short of supply," John Driscoll, director of JTD Energy Services, told CNBC on Monday. "There is a scenario where we could vault past $120, even as high as $150" a barrel.
Brent crude crossed $95 a barrel in the last week, its highest level since the summer of 2014 and a 63% increase year-on-year. It was trading at $93.98 per barrel on Wednesday at 10:20 a.m. in London.
Tensions over the threat of a Russian invasion into Ukraine have also helped to push prices up, though a statement from Russia claiming a partial pullback of its troops from Ukraine's border areas on Tuesday led the commodity's price to retreat about 3% from the previous day. While Moscow has rejected the assumption of an impending invasion, NATO leaders and U.S. President Joe Biden insist that the risk of war remains high.
But it's "not only the geopolitical tailwinds that we're picking up, but the fundamentals," Driscoll said.
"The market is in what we call a steep backwardation which gives a premium to any prompt physical available oil. We're starting to sense that demand is on its way to recovering, and we're looking at supply shortfalls," he explained.
Those shortfalls exist both in terms of OPEC+ production '-- the alliance of OPEC and several non-OPEC countries '-- pumping oil below the levels it promised to add to markets, and sector underinvestment in the U.S. and other countries in the wake of Covid-19 and governments' pushes to switch to renewables.
OPEC+ members with quotas were short of their production targets by 700,000 barrels per day in January, with co-leaders of the group Saudi Arabia and Russia also pumping below their quotas, according to S&P Global Platts. This comes despite pledging to gradually unwind record supply cuts.
Investors 'piling into oil markets'These aren't the only signs of a continued bull run for oil: money is pouring into investments in oil-related stocks, and international oil companies are raking in massive profits. As inflation in the U.S. hits its highest rate in decades, analysts recommend energy stocks as smart investments. That inflation, aided by global supply chain issues, isn't just hitting the prices at the gas pump but is also pushing up costs for oil drillers themselves, particularly in the U.S. shale patch. Oilfield services companies have said they will pass on their increased costs to producers.
"As we increase the consumption, our spare capacity drops down, but you also see other key indicators like money managers, the non-commercials, pensions, piling into oil markets," Driscoll said. "Stellar results from oil equities (like) BP, Shell, Total hitting recent highs."
Indeed, the S&P 500 Energy Sector Index is up more than 50% year-on-year.
Driscoll isn't alone in his bullish call '-- J.P. Morgan this month forecast oil as "likely to overshoot to $125" per barrel "on widening spare capacity risk premium."
"Supply misses are rising. Market recognition of strained capacity is also growing," J.P. Morgan wrote in its Feb. 11 report.
The Energy Information Administration lowered its OPEC capacity estimates by 300,000 barrels per day in February, and the producer group hasn't shown any indication that it will deviate from its planned quota increases of 400,000 barrels per day in 2022, despite pleas from the U.S. and others to help lower oil prices.
"This underperformance comes at a critical juncture '' and in our view, as other global producers falter, the combination of underinvestment within OPEC+ nations and post-pandemic rising oil demand (as highlighted by Kolanovic et. al. here) will dovetail to a potential point of energy crisis," analysts at J.P. Morgan said.
Until demand destructionThese factors along with continued global recovery from the coronavirus-induced economic crash mean there's very little in the way of prices continuing to shoot up '' something that could trigger an economic recession, energy ministers warned at the Egyps Petroleum Conference in Cairo this week. Analysts at RBC Capital Markets believe the only thing that could reverse the price climb is a crash in demand as the commodity's price outstrips what buyers can afford.
"We could be early, but the major cornerstone of our thesis over the next year, or longer, assuming the macro economy holds, is that the oil cycle will price higher until it finds a level of demand destruction," Michael Tran, commodity and digital intelligence strategist at RBC Capital Markets wrote in an analyst note on Monday. "It simply does not get more bullish than that."
The bank sees oil hitting $115 per barrel or higher this summer.
"Historically, markets led higher by tightening product and crude inventories are difficult to solve absent a demand destruction event or a supply surge, neither of which appears to be on the horizon," Tran wrote.
Pfizer Steps Up Advertising for Its 'Blockbuster' Drug to Treat Heart Conditions, Including Those Caused by COVID Vaccines, by Michael Nevradakis, Ph.D. | STRAIGHT LINE LOGIC
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:55
It's a nifty trick if you can manage it: get paid for a product that will fix the problems one of your other products caused. From Michael Nevradakis, Ph.D. at
Pfizer and Bristol Myers Squibb this month revived the ''No Time to Wait'' ad campaign urging people experiencing heart issues to visit their doctors. The two drugmakers developed and market Eliquis, the top-selling drug for the very heart conditions associated with people who received Pfizer's COVID vaccine.Two major pharmaceutical companies chose February, the month of love '-- or hearts '-- to launch an advertising campaign urging people experiencing heart issues for the first time to visit their doctors.
Pfizer and Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS) this month revived the ''No Time to Wait'' ad campaign, spending $1.28 million on TV ads alone.
The campaign warns anyone experiencing palpitations and shortness of breath that they may be at increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), other types of blood clots and strokes '-- the same types of cardiovascular ailments found among people who have received COVID-19 vaccines.
The campaign urges viewers to seek early medical attention in order to reduce the risk of these serious complications.
''Early medical attention'' could include prescription drugs '-- including Eliquis, developed and marketed by none other than Pfizer and BMS.
According to industry publication Fierce Pharma:
''The aim is to get patients back into their doctors' offices '-- and of course, if needed, be diagnosed with any relevant condition that may require them to take a blood thinner, such as Eliquis.''
Eliquis, described as a ''blockbuster blood thinner and atrial fibrillation (AF) drug,'' is a major revenue generator for the Pfizer-BMS alliance, delivering more than $9 billion in annual revenue '-- far more than competing drugs such as Xarelto (produced by Bayer in conjunction with Johnson & Johnson), and Pradaxa, produced by Boehringer Ingelheim.
Pfizer and BMS relaunched the ''No Time to Wait'' campaign in conjunction with several advocacy organizations and medical societies, including World Thrombosis Day, which expressed support for the Pfizer-BMS initiative as a means of ''educating'' the public.
Continue reading'†'
Hong Kong residents urged not to panic ahead of COVID mass testing | Reuters
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:54
People wearing face masks walk on the street, following the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, in Hong Kong, China March 4, 2022. REUTERS/Tyrone Siu
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comHONG KONG, March 6 (Reuters) - Hong Kong reported 31,008 new COVID-19 cases and 153 deaths on Sunday as the city's chief secretary said residents should not worry about a looming mass testing scheme, with details to be announced and authorities ensuring a steady supply of food.
The global financial hub is clinging to a "dynamic zero" coronavirus strategy as a massive spike in infections pushed hospitals, isolation centres and funeral parlours beyond capacity. Health experts said around 15% of the city's 7.4 million residents are already infected.
The comments by Chief Secretary John Lee on his blog, came as supermarket shelves were stripped for a seventh consecutive day, with anxious residents stocking up on products left on shelves from tofu and soy sauce to frozen vegetables.
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comAs infections and deaths hit record highs, Hong Kong has implemented its most draconian restrictions, with restrictions on public gatherings of more than two people, most venues closed and flights banned into the city from countries including the United States and Britain.
The government has repeatedly tried to reassure residents after widespread chaos this week due to authorities' mixed messaging over whether a city-wide lockdown would take place and the almost daily tweaking of COVID rules.
While city leader Carrie Lam has said the Chinese-ruled hub will not have a full-blown lockdown during the mass testing, residents remain unnerved about what to expect.
The former British colony has had more than 470,000 COVID infections. Most of the roughly 1,800 deaths have been in the past two weeks, many of them unvaccinated elderly residents as infections have spread in hundreds of nursing homes.
The surge in infections has crippled manpower in the healthcare system, for public transport, mall operators as well as postal services, supermarkets and pharmacies.
Many restaurants and stores have been shuttered with main districts eerily quiet and few residents out in typically busy neighbourhoods.
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reporting by Farah Master, Twinnie Siu and Anne Marie Roantree; Editing by William Mallard
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Ukraine: Angry dock workers in the UK are refusing to unload Russian oil
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:54
BIRKENHEAD, ENGLAND - JANUARY 26: Oil tankers unload at the Essar Oil Tranmere Terminal on the River Mersey.
Christopher Furlong | Getty Images News | Getty Images
LONDON '-- Dock workers in Britain are taking a stand against Russia's invasion of Ukraine with ports in the country refusing to unload Russian oil and gas.
Tough sanctions from the U.K. government mean that Russian ships are not allowed to dock at British ports. However, a loophole means that Russian goods and energy can still be transported into the country using foreign ships '-- there is currently no blockade on oil and gas from Russia.
It appears that workers at these ports are now taking matters into their own hands.
Essar Group, which runs the Stanlow refinery in northwest England, said a German-flagged vessel had been given approval to berth at the nearby Tranmere Oil Terminal on the River Mersey. However, Sharon Graham, the general secretary of U.K. union Unite, said that her members will "under no circumstances unload any Russian oil regardless of the nationality of the vessel which delivers it."
"I am very proud of @unitetheunion's members taking a principled stand to prevent Russian oil coming to our ports," she added via a tweet early on Sunday.
"But it is appalling that they have been put in this position by the @GOVUK, which is still dragging its feet on sanctions."
Meanwhile, two Russian ships that were due to dock in Kent, in southeast England, were turned away this weekend due to the sanctions. Staff at the Grain LNG port had expressed their anger that they might be asked to unload the ships' cargoes.
"The workers at the National Grid terminal don't want to touch the cargo given the tragedy unfolding in Ukraine," Matt Lay, head of energy for the Unison union which represents workers at the Kent terminal, said earlier this week.
"These staff are determined to show their support for the Ukrainian people and uphold the sanctions imposed against Russia."
One of the ships, the Boris Vilkitsky with a consignment of gas, docked at the port of Montoir-de-Bretagne in France on Saturday after being refused into Britain.
Greenpeace said in a statement that it had confronted the tanker in an inflatable at sea, with the activists displaying a banner reading "Fossil Fuels War" as it arrived in France.
In the Netherlands, where Russian ships are not currently banned, dock workers are also reportedly taking a stand. The workers are reportedly preparing for a legal backlash from oil companies and shippers.
Niek Stam, a spokesperson for Dutch union FNV Havens, told journalism unit Source Material: "There is blood on this oil, blood on this coal and blood on the gas ... We are in the process of finding out how we can boycott it without risking an enormous fine in court."
A spokesperson for the British government told Sky News that it was mandatory for all ports and harbors to follow legislation banning all Russian ships.
They added that U.K. ministers were exploring options to "further reduce the already small amount of imports we do get from Russia."
"We continue to urge Europe to put in place plans to end their dependence in Russian gas," they added.
How war in Ukraine and climate change are shaping the nuclear industry
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:53
The Vogtle Unit 3 and 4 site, being constructed by primary contractor Westinghouse, a business unit of Toshiba, near Waynesboro, Georgia, is seen in an aerial photo taken February 2017.
Georgia Power | Reuters
Climate change and global security are pushing against each other in shaping the future. That's particularly apparent in this week's events surrounding nuclear power.
Nuclear power plants generate energy with no carbon dioxide emissions, providing an alternative to the fossil fuels that are warming the atmosphere.
"Coal and other fossil fuels are choking humanity," U.N. Secretary-General Ant"nio Guterres said on Monday after the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its most recent report. "The present global energy mix is broken."
In the same week, Russian military forces attacked the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant in Ukraine. One building in the nuclear power plant compound was set on fire.
"We are issuing a warning, no country has ever shot at nuclear blocks except for Russia," Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said in a video statement, according to a translation. "For the first time ever in our history, in the history of humankind, the terrorist country has reverted to nuclear terror."
Later on Friday, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported that the nuclear power plant continued to be operated and there had been no release of radioactive material. Still, the security event sent shockwaves of fear throughout the globe.
"There is going to be a teeter totter about this," said Kenneth Luongo, the founder of the nonprofit Partnership for Global Security, which works on security and energy policy.
Seeing Ukraine's nuclear reactors come under attack is new, and especially alarming to "much of the population that equates nuclear with weapons and with danger, and with radioactivity and health concerns."
At the same time, nations are coming to realize they can't meet their climate goals with renewables, like wind and solar, alone. Luongo says there was a "sea change" in sentiment about nuclear at the COP 26 climate conference last year.
China and Russia dominateChina and Russia have been the most dominant political powers in nuclear power.
There are about 440 nuclear power reactors operating in more than 30 countries that supply about 10% of the world's electricity, according to the World Nuclear Association. Currently, 55 new reactors are being constructed in 19 countries, and 19 of those are in China. The U.S. only has two underway.
"Certainly, China has the most active program of new nuclear construction," said John Kotek of the Nuclear Energy Institute.
China has "the fastest-growing commercial nuclear energy or civil nuclear energy sector in the world. They are building at a pace that is roughly equivalent to what you signed in the U.S. in the 70s, or France in the 70s and 80s," Kotek said.
Some of China's focus on building new nuclear energy reactors is a response to a rapid growth in demand for energy from a fast-growing population entering the middle class.
Russian has what Kotek calls "a fairly steady program" of new nuclear buildout. Currently, three new nuclear reactors are being built in Russia.
Read more about clean energy from CNBC ProBut Russia is also the world's top nuclear technology exporter.
A common Russian reactor design, called a VVER design, which stands for vodo-vodyanoi enyergeticheskiy reaktor in Russian, or water-water power reactor in English, is currently being built in many other countries besides Russia, including Bangladesh, Belarus, India, Iran, Slovakia and Turkey.
As Russia and China have risen to prominence, the United States has lost "the muscle memory" to build conventional nuclear reactors, Luongo said. Nuclear power got a poor reputation in the United States after the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 in Pennsylvania, and more globally after the accidents at Chornobyl in the Ukrainian Soviet Union in 1986 and Fukushima in Japan in 2011.
But the tide is starting to turn.
The Biden administration's solution was included in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, which was signed into law November, and was effectively a big subsidy. The law includes a $6 billion program intended to preserve the existing U.S. fleet of nuclear power reactors.
At the state level, there are between 75 and 100 nuclear-energy-related bills in state legislatures across the country right now, said Kotek. A decade ago, the average number of nuclear-energy-related bills in state legislatures was a dozen, he said.
"While certainly not every bill is going to pass, it is indicative of a real upsurge in interest in in nuclear," Kotek said.
Most of the resurgence in interest in nuclear energy is driven by concerns about climate change and often appears the strongest in states where coal economies are closing down.
Kotek sees this "coal-to-nuclear transition" where there is "concern in communities and states that are looking at the prospect of coal plant closure, and want to make the best use of the highly trained workforce and the asset that exists at that retiring coal plant," he said.
As an example, in February, West Virginia overturned its moratorium on nuclear power plant construction, which had been in place since 1996.
At the same time, the Russia-Ukraine war gives the United States leverage to pry open more of a footprint in the global market. While the war is tragic, "it's going to result in more opportunity for U.S. nuclear firms as Russia really disqualifies itself," Kotek said.
Russia's dangerous attack at Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant in Ukraine and China's decision to not vote in favor of the IAEA's resolution to prevent the kind of attack "will blowback on both countries' nuclear export reputation," Luongo told CNBC.
"The question is whether the U.S. and other democratic nations rapidly move to make these points and take advantage of the opportunity."
The US is focusing on new nuclearNuclear plants are expensive to build and have, in many places, become more expensive than other baseload energy alternatives like natural gas.
However, the U.S. is pushing hard into what could become the next generation of nuclear.
"The United States has made a decision that they don't want to allow Russia and China to dominate that next phase of the nuclear market. And so the U.S. is pouring billions of dollars '-- shockingly '-- billions of dollars into the development of what are called small modular reactors," Luongo said. Specifically, the government is using the Idaho National Lab as a testing ground for these reactors.
These smaller, advanced reactors are not necessarily new '-- some variation of the technology has been around since the 1950s '-- but they're having a renaissance now, according to Luongo.
They can be built with more standard parts, as opposed to bespoke construction, which allows for faster and cheaper construction.
But while the U.S. is setting itself up to be competitive technologically, it's not prepared from a policy standpoint, Luongo told CNBC. Conventional reactors use uranium enriched to about 5%. Advanced reactors use uranium enriched to about 19%, just under the threshold of what the IAEA has determined to be weapons-grade uranium, which is 20%.
"We haven't really begun to scratch the surface of what that means from a nuclear security and nuclear non-proliferation perspective," Luongo said.
Bennett says Israel will try to mediate on Ukraine even if prospects poor | Reuters
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:44
Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett attends a cabinet meeting at the Prime Minister's office in Jerusalem, February 27, 2022. Abir Sultan/Pool via REUTERS
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comJERUSALEM, March 6 (Reuters) - Israel will continue trying to mediate between Russia and Ukraine even if success seems unlikely, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said on Sunday after returning from surprise talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Ukraine has requested that Israel serve as intermediary, citing the government's good relations with both Kyiv and Moscow. Bennett's office said he had spoken three times over the weekend with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy.
In televised remarks to his cabinet, Bennett gave no details on his three-hour Kremlin meeting with Putin on Saturday, saying only that it had "the blessing and encouragement of all parties" - an allusion to the United States, among other powers.
Register now for FREE unlimited access to"We will continue to assist wherever this is requested, even if the chances are not great," Bennett said. "The moment there is even a small opening, and we have the access to all sides and the capability, I see it as a moral duty to make every attempt."
The Russian embassy in Israel declined to comment. The Ukrainian ambassador to Israel also declined immediate comment, saying he would hold a news conference on Monday.
Israel has condemned the Russian invasion of Ukraine, expressed solidarity with Kyiv and sent humanitarian aid. But Bennett has not met Ukrainian requests for military assistance and has kept channels open to Russia, with which Israel coordinates its operations against Iranian deployments in Syria.
Some 90 children from a Jewish orphanage in the Ukrainian city of Zhytomyr were flown from Romania to Tel Aviv on Sunday.
"I am Naftali, the prime minister of Israel," Bennett, who boarded the El Al plane after it landed, told one boy, kissing him on the head before leading him off the aircraft.
On Twitter, Bennett said the group, accompanied by members of Chabad-Lubavitch, a worldwide Jewish religious movement, had been fleeing battles and shelling for more than a week.
Interior Minister Ayelet Shaked said Israel, which has a population of 9.2 million, was bracing for a "very, very big wave" of immigration sparked by the conflict.
This could entail taking in more than 200,000 Ukrainians who are Jewish or have Jewish family links and more than 600,000 Russians in the same categories, she said.
An Israeli immigration official, who spoke to Reuters on condition of anonymity, had a more modest forecast of an influx "in the low tens of thousands" from Ukraine and Russia.
In what local media have cast as a bid to prevent Russian oligarchs from fleeing to Israel to evade sanctions, the Israel Airports Authority said it had received instructions not to allow private jets to park for more than 24 hours.
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Writing by Dan WilliamsEditing by Jeffrey Heller, Raissa Kasolowsky and Kevin Liffey
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Analysts Warn Of $150 Oil If The West Bans Russian Crude |
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:44
Western leaders have so far been reluctant to slap sanctions on Russian oil and gas exports. Oil buyers and refiners are already in a sort of 'self-sanctioning' mode. Analysts: Iranian barrels cannot replace the loss of Russian oil. The United States and the European Union have been reluctant to slap sanctions on Russia's oil and gas exports since Putin invaded Ukraine, as the Western allies are concerned about the repercussions on Europe's energy supply and skyrocketing oil and gasoline prices.
Still, potential sanctions on Russian energy exports are not off the table. If the West bans Russian oil, international crude prices could skyrocket to $150 per barrel, analysts say.
But even in the event of no sanctions on Russian oil, prices are set to remain very high and jump higher still because buyers and refiners are in a "self-sanctioning" mode, not daring to touch Russian crude and looking for alternative supplies. The possibility of an Iranian nuclear deal that would allow Iran to legitimately return to exporting its oil is a potential drag on oil prices, but barrels from the Islamic Republic cannot replace the loss of Russian oil, analysts say.
"While some remain transfixed with the idea that an Iran agreement will provide much needed relief (from rising oil prices), we again caution that the deal is still not done and the sums entailed would simply be too small to backfill a major Russian disruption," RBC Capital analyst Helima Croft wrote in a note cited by Reuters on Thursday.
There is already disruption in Russian oil exports as Moscow meets mounting challenges in selling its seaborne crude and oil products, with traders, refiners, banks, insurers, and tanker owners unwilling to touch anything coming out of Russia.
Russia's invasion of Ukraine was met with a severe sanctions response from the U.S., the EU, and the UK. The Western allies kicked several Russian banks out of the international SWIFT system, and although direct sanctions on Russia's oil and gas are not (yet) implemented, trade in Russian commodities has become toxic for many global players .
"Because of the banking sanctions we've estimated about 70% of Russian crude oil exports can't be touched. That's about 3.8 million bpd," Amrita Sen, Director of Research at Energy Aspects, told CNBC on Wednesday.
Russia's crude and refined product exports have dropped by one-third, or by 2.5 million bpd, this week, according to estimates from Energy Intelligence based on shipping data and interviews with traders.
Oil market participants have started to realize that a lot of Russian oil could be off the market in the near future'--even if the West doesn't impose direct sanctions on Russian oil'--adding to the already tight market balances.
The oil market seems to believe that sanctions on Russian oil are coming, John Kilduff, partner at Again Capital, told CNBC this week.
"These are barrels that we cannot make up, so that's why this market is on tenterhooks," Kilduff said.
Sanctions on oil from Russia'--which exports around 5 million bpd of crude and 2.8 million bpd of refined products'--would have a much bigger effect on market balances compared to the sanctions on Iran and Venezuela of the previous years, analysts say.
Yet, even without direct sanctions, buyers have started to "self-sanction" themselves, as analysts say.
Refiners have started to replace Russian crude. Some of the biggest U.S. importers of Russian crude oil have started suspending their purchases of the commodity, including Monroe Energy, the third-biggest U.S. buyer of Russian oil.
Neste of Finland said on Tuesday, "Due to the current situation and the uncertainty in the market, Neste has mostly replaced Russian crude oil with other crudes, such as North Sea oil." Neste is preparing "for various options in procurement, production and logistics."
On Wednesday, Portugal's energy group Galp said that it was suspending all new purchases of petroleum products either sourced in Russia or from Russian companies.
"Our decision is simple: Galp will not contribute to finance war," the company said.
Meanwhile, in Russia, Surgutneftegaz hasn't been able to award spot cargoes in three consecutive tenders over the past week, as no one is bidding even at the huge discounts of the Urals grade to Dated Brent.
Russian oil flows are already disrupted by the existing sanctions and even if direct sanctions on oil don't follow, the market will struggle to replace barrels already lost to "self-sanctioning," even if Iran returns to exporting crude soon.
By Tsvetana Paraskova for
More Top Reads From
Ukraine War Could Wipe Out 1 Million Bpd In Local Oil Demand Can Guyana Unlock Its True Energy Potential? Why China Should Want Russia's Invasion To End
U.S. charges American TV producer for violating sanctions against Russian oligarch | WGN-TV
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:28
NEW YORK '' MAY 18: Police keep watch outside the Daniel Patrick Moynihan U.S. Courthouse in lower Manhattan May 18, 2010 in New York City. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
(The Hill) '' The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) announced charges Thursday against an American television producer accused of violating sanctions against a Russian oligarch related to Moscow's invasion of Crimea in 2014.
John Hanick, 71, faces up to 20 years in prison for working closely on the establishment of European television networks with the Russian oligarch, Konstantin Malofeyev, over several years '-- despite longstanding U.S. sanctions on the Russian elite, according to a DOJ press release.
Hanick, who previously worked for Fox News, was indicted by a federal grand jury in the Southern District of New York. He was provisionally arrested in London on Feb. 3, and the U.S. is seeking his extradition.
The DOJ said the case against Hanick marks the ''first-ever criminal indictment'' related to violations of U.S. sanctions imposed on Russia following the 2014 Russian annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine.
''The Justice Department will do everything it can to stamp out Russian aggression and interference,'' said Assistant Attorney General Matthew Olsen of the Justice Department's National Security Division in a statement.
The Biden administration on Wednesday unveiled a KleptoCapture task force to enforce sanctions on the Kremlin and its allies for the brutal invasion of Ukraine launched last week.
''We will leave no stone unturned in our efforts to investigate, arrest, and prosecute those whose criminal acts enable the Russian government to continue this unjust war,'' Attorney General Merrick Garland said in a statement on Wednesday.
An additional eight prominent Russians were sanctioned on Thursday, bringing the total since the start of the invasion to 26 individuals, not including family members, who are included in the measures.
Malofeyev was sanctioned in 2014 for threatening Ukrainians and for financing a separatist rebellion in eastern Ukraine, the DOJ said.
Hanick violated the sanctions by working closely with the oligarch from 2013 to 2017, the DOJ alleges, claiming the American helped establish a Russian cable news network as well as Greek and Bulgarian television networks.
When Hanick was questioned about his connections to Malofeyev in February 2021, he made false statements, the DOJ said. He faces up to five years in prison for allegedly making false claims.
Damien Williams, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, said the case against Hanick ''shows this office's commitment to the enforcement of laws intended to hamstring those who would use their wealth to undermine fundamental democratic processes.''
''This office will continue to be a leader in the Justice Department's work to hold accountable actors who would support flagrant and unjustified acts of war,'' Williams said in a statement.
Covid Invades Cells in the Penis and Testicles of Monkeys, Study Says - The New York Times
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:26
Health | The coronavirus invades cells in the penis and testicles of monkeys, researchers discover. The research demonstrated that the coronavirus infected the genital tracts of three male rhesus macaques. Credit... Jean-Francois Monier/Agence France-Presse '-- Getty Images The coronavirus may infect tissue within the male genital tract, new research on rhesus macaques shows. The finding suggests that symptoms like erectile dysfunction reported by some Covid patients may be caused directly by the virus, not by inflammation or fever that often accompany the disease.
The research demonstrated that the coronavirus infected the prostate, penis, testicles and surrounding blood vessels in three male rhesus macaques. The monkeys were examined with whole body scans specially designed to detect sites of infection.
Scientists '-- who expected to find the coronavirus in spots like the lungs but did not know where else they would find it '-- were somewhat surprised by the discovery.
''The signal that jumped out at us was the complete spread through the male genital tract,'' said Thomas Hope, the paper's senior author and a professor of cell and developmental biology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. ''We had no idea we would find it there.''
When his team initially reviewed a scanned image from the first animal, one of the scientists asked, ''What sex was the animal again?'' Dr. Hope recalled.
''I said, 'I think female.' She said, 'I don't think it's a female.' I went down to the bottom of the image, which was almost cut off, and the testes were brightly lit up. And the signal in the penis was off the radar,'' Dr. Hope said.
The paper was based on findings in just three monkeys, but the findings were consistent, Dr. Hope said. The study has not yet been peer reviewed for publication in a journal, and was posted Monday on the site bioRxiv.
The work was carried out at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in Louisiana. The researchers do not know whether the monkeys had symptoms corresponding to the viral infection of the male genital tract, such as low testosterone levels, low sperm counts, pain or sexual dysfunction, Dr. Hope said.
About 10 to 20 percent of men infected with the coronavirus have symptoms linked to male genital tract dysfunction, studies have reported.
Men infected with the virus are three to six times as likely as others to develop erectile dysfunction, believed to be an indicator of so-called long Covid.
Patients have also reported symptoms such as testicular pain, reduced sperm counts and reduced sperm quality, decreased fertility and hypogonadism, a condition in which the testes produce insufficient amounts of testosterone, leading to low sex drive, sexual dysfunction and reduced fertility.
Other viruses are known to take a toll on fertility, Dr. Hope noted. ''Mumps is most famous historically, for causing sterility,'' he said. ''The Zika virus goes to the testes and infects the testes, and Ebola can also do that.''
Even if just a small fraction of men experience such complications after a coronavirus infection, millions may suffer from impaired sexual and reproductive health in the aftermath of the pandemic, simply because the virus has infected so many people around the world, Dr. Hope warned.
He urged men to get vaccinated, and to seek a medical evaluation if they are concerned about their sexual or reproductive health.
The positron emission tomography technology that was used in the new study was designed to identify the sites of coronavirus infection in a living animal. The technology makes it possible to do repeated, sequential scanning of an animal, tracking how the virus works its way through the body and how it is cleared.
Dr. Hope next plans to determine whether the testicles are a reservoir for the coronavirus, as has been hypothesized by some scientists. He will also look at whether the virus infects tissue in the female reproductive system.
The hope is to use the information to develop treatments that will mitigate the pandemic's impact on fertility. The scans could also potentially detect the location of the virus in patients and help tailor treatments appropriately.
Russian MoD responds to Zaporozhskaya nuclear power station incident '-- RT Russia & Former Soviet Union
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:25
The spokesman for the Russian Ministry of Defense, Major General Igor Konashenkov, issued an official statement on Friday morning concerning the shootout and fire that had occurred at Ukraine's Zaporozhskaya nuclear power plant earlier the same day.
''Last night, an attempt to carry out a horrible provocation was made by Kiev's nationalist regime on the area surrounding the station,'' he announced, claiming the Russian troops patrolling the territory had been attacked by a Ukrainian sabotage group.
According to the spokesman, the Ukrainian forces had attacked Russian soldiers at about 2am local time, opening heavy fire from the training facility next to the power station in order to ''provoke a retaliatory strike on the building.''
The Russian patrol had neutralized the group's firing points, but the saboteurs had then set fire to the training facility as they retreated, Konashenkov said. The blaze was put out by the Ukrainian State Emergency Service's firefighters. ''At the moment of provocation, no staff members were at the facility,'' he noted.
In response to the Russian Ministry of Defense's statement, Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky denied the provocation claims and accused Russian forces of having staged the attack.
The mayor of the nearby town of Energodar had originally reported that the fire had been caused by Russian shelling, and that the blaze had engulfed the power plant itself, but the emergency services dismissed the latter claim.
It was reported on Monday that the facility had been captured by Russian forces, and that staff were keeping operations going and monitoring radiation levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency has offered assurances that there has been no change in those levels in the wake of the incident.
Russia began its military offensive in Ukraine last week, claiming its invasion was aimed at ''demilitarizing'' and ''denazifying'' the government in Kiev and stopping what it called the ''genocide'' in the two breakaway regions of Donetsk and Lugansk. Ukraine has accused Moscow of an unprovoked offensive, with the US and its NATO allies following suit and imposing severe economic sanctions.
Ukraine Has Accused Russia of Using Thermobaric Weapons. Here's What Makes Them So Devastating. - WSJ
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:14
Vacuum blasts can take a far-reaching toll; Russia's TOS-1 systems explained
Ukraine accused Russia of using thermobaric, or vacuum, weapons, whose powerful blast can unleash a devastating toll on people and buildings.
Oksana Markarova, Ukraine's ambassador to the U.S., told reporters on Capitol Hill Monday that Russia had used a thermobaric weapon in an attack earlier that day. U.K. Defense Secretary Ben Wallacesaid Thursday that Russia has deployed such weapons in Ukraine. ''We've seen the deployment of thermobaric artillery weapon systems and we worry how broad those could go,'' he said during a news...
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Ukraine accused Russia of using thermobaric, or vacuum, weapons, whose powerful blast can unleash a devastating toll on people and buildings.
Oksana Markarova, Ukraine's ambassador to the U.S., told reporters on Capitol Hill Monday that Russia had used a thermobaric weapon in an attack earlier that day. U.K. Defense Secretary Ben Wallace said Thursday that Russia has deployed such weapons in Ukraine. ''We've seen the deployment of thermobaric artillery weapon systems and we worry how broad those could go,'' he said during a news conference in Estonia. He didn't say such weapons had been used.
When asked Monday about reports of Russia's use of vacuum warheads, White House press secretary Jen Psaki said, ''I don't have any confirmation of that.''
Thermobaric weapons have been around for decades and have been used by the U.S. and Russia in previous battles. Unlike rockets that are filled with preformed fragments designed to do damage by sending projectiles flying through the air, these weapons hold an explosive mixture containing powdered metals, such as aluminum or magnesium, or organic materials. The mix scatters and ignites, creating a massive explosion designed to go around physical barriers and flow inside structures. That can make the reach of their destructiveness more expansive than other kinds of rockets.
The Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., didn't respond to requests for comment. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said this week that allegations Russia has used thermobaric weapons were a ''complete canard.''
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Russia's TOS-1 series thermobaric system launches unguided, large-caliber vacuum rockets. The munitions use a bursting charge to scatter the thermobaric mixture once it reaches the target. Milliseconds after, a second charge ignites the scattered mix and creates a massive blast.
Not only can the reach of the blast be much bigger than that of typical high explosives, the explosion can flow around barriers and penetrate structures. Because thermobaric weapons are not designed to expel fragments as do conventional explosives, they can be used to target shielded and hidden targets.
N.R. Jenzen-Jones, the director of Armament Research Services, an Australian weapons-analyst organization, said the TOS-1 series of thermobaric rocket launchers has several inherent technical characteristics that make mitigating their potential for civilian harm difficult. ''They are not particularly precise weapons, the rockets are typically fired in salvos covering a wide area, and the munitions produce a large blast effect,'' he said.
Other thermobaric weapons create a high-temperature fireball which causes a powerful pressure drop that sucks in oxygen all around it and creates a prolonged vacuum effect. This can be fatal to people beyond the fireball, making it effective against people inside buildings, caves and bunkers.
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The U.S. used thermobaric weaponry in Afghanistan in 2002 to attack cave complexes where al Qaeda and Taliban fighters were hiding, according to a 2004 report by the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
A 2007 Russian thermobaric weapons test had an explosive yield of 44 tons, according to a Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation report published Tuesday. U.S. nuclear weapons, for context, can range from 50,000 tons to 1.2 megatons, according to the organization.
Russia used thermobaric weapons against ground forces in Ukraine in 2014, according to a 2018 article by the U.S. Army War College. The strike nearly destroyed two Ukrainian mechanized battalions. In Syria, a Russian-made air-to-surface thermobaric bomb killed almost 100 people at a market, according to the article. China also produces thermobaric munitions.
Write to Ana Rivas at, Roque Ruiz at and Taylor Umlauf at
Associate of Pope Francis Found Guilty of Sexual Abuse in Argentina - WSJ
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:14
Allegations over Bishop Gustavo Zanchetta's conduct raised questions over pope's handling of abuse cases
BUENOS AIRES'--Bishop Gustavo Zanchetta, a longtime associate of Pope Francis, was convicted by an Argentine court Friday of sexually assaulting young men in a case that has raised questions about the pope's handling of sexual abuse at the highest level of the Catholic hierarchy.
A court in Orn, located in Argentina's northern province of Salta, where Bishop Zanchetta served from 2013 to 2017, sentenced him to four years and six months in prison for the assault on two former seminarians there.
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BUENOS AIRES'--Bishop Gustavo Zanchetta, a longtime associate of Pope Francis, was convicted by an Argentine court Friday of sexually assaulting young men in a case that has raised questions about the pope's handling of sexual abuse at the highest level of the Catholic hierarchy.
A court in Orn, located in Argentina's northern province of Salta, where Bishop Zanchetta served from 2013 to 2017, sentenced him to four years and six months in prison for the assault on two former seminarians there.
The bishop's lawyer, Javier Belda, said he would appeal.
Several men said they communicated their accusations to the Vatican before the pope assigned Bishop Zanchetta to a high post there in 2017. Bishop Zanchetta remained in his Vatican post for more than two years after the accusations became public. In 2019, he was tried by the Vatican's doctrinal office on unspecified accusations.
Prosecutors in Argentina said they sought documentation from the bishop's Vatican trial. But the results were never made public, and prosecutors said the Vatican didn't provide the documentation.
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The Vatican didn't respond to a request for comment about the case and the verdict.
''This is a stunning ruling from the pope's homeland. It's a sign that even where the Catholic Church wields power, civil societies increasingly will not tolerate sexual abuse of young adults by powerful figures, even if the accused is a Catholic bishop, and even if that bishop is supported by Pope Francis himself,'' said Anne Barrett Doyle of, which tracks abuse cases around the world.
In a small courtroom in Orn, a three-judge panel delivered the sentence. Bishop Zanchetta, wearing a dark suit, clerical collar and mask, mostly looked down as the verdict was read.
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On Friday, relatives and friends of the seminarians cried outside the courthouse after the verdict was announced. Some said they were angry that the bishop didn't receive a tougher sentence.
''We asked for eight years. This isn't enough,'' one woman at the court told local reporters, according to a video published by El Tribuno newspaper.
Another woman at the court said that Bishop Zanchetta's victims had been emotionally damaged by their experience. ''They don't have work'...Their life is one of trauma,'' she said. The two women didn't identify themselves.
Carlos Lombardi, an Argentine lawyer who works with victims of sexual abuse in the country's Catholic Church, called Bishop Zanchetta's conviction a blow to Pope Francis, raising doubts about the church's commitment to tackling the crisis.
''They don't protect the rights of the victims,'' said Mr. Lombardi, who wasn't involved in Bishop Zanchetta's case. ''They cover up for the priests.''
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Before he was elected pope, then-Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio served as president of the Argentine bishops conference while Father Gustavo Zanchetta served as the body's general secretary near Buenos Aires.
He was one of the first bishops appointed by Pope Francis, shortly after the latter's election in 2013, and assigned to Orn, a city of 350,000 in a sprawling province that features highland wineries and posh resorts as well as destitute indigenous communities and drug smuggling.
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In December 2017, Pope Francis appointed the bishop to a senior position in the Vatican office that manages a large part of the Holy See's real-estate holdings and financial investment.
In late December 2018, El Tribuno, a local newspaper in Salta, reported that three priests had accused Bishop Zanchetta of sexual abuse and economic malfeasance, bringing their allegations to the Vatican's envoy in Buenos Aires in 2016. The report suggested that the pope could have known of the accusations before he brought the bishop to Rome.
The Vatican spokesman said at the time that no accusations of sexual abuse had emerged until autumn 2018. He said the bishop had resigned from his diocese in 2017 because of ''very tense relations'' with the priests under his authority there.
''There were accusations of authoritarianism against him, but no accusations of sexual abuse,'' said the Vatican spokesman, who added that the pope gave the bishop his job at the Vatican in recognition of his ''administrative management ability.''
When he resigned in 2017, before the allegations against him became public, Bishop Zanchetta was 53 years old, more than 20 years short of the standard retirement age for bishops. He cited unspecified health reasons in a public statement.
In May 2019, Pope Francis revealed in an interview with Mexican television that Bishop Zanchetta was being tried by the Vatican's doctrinal office.
The pope said that he had known before the bishop resigned about accusations that he had kept pornographic images on his cellphone, but he said that the bishop had ''defended himself well,'' claiming his phone had been hacked.
The pope said the priests had accused the bishop of ''abuse of power,'' but the pope didn't specify whether the alleged abuse had a sexual element.
''Certainly, he had a way of treating people that was, according to some, despotic, authoritarian,'' the pope said.
He also discussed Bishop Zanchetta's economic management in Orn. ''Economically he was messy, but he did not manage the economic matters he handled badly. He was messy but he has vision,'' the pope said.
Bishop Zanchetta remained in office until 2021 and is now listed in the official Vatican directory as a ''former assessor.'' The Vatican spokesman didn't respond to a question about the bishop's reason for leaving office.
'--Ryan Dube and Paulo Trevisani contributed to this article.
Write to Francis X. Rocca at
European gas prices soar to all-time high '-- RT Business News
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:12
Gas prices in Europe spiked to nearly $2,400 per 1,000 cubic meters, or '‚¬212 per megawatt-hour in household terms, on Friday for the first time in market history as Russia's military offensive in Ukraine continues.
The April futures at the TTF hub in the Netherlands soared to $2,392 per 1,000 cubic meters, beating the record of $2,280 set the previous day, according to data from London's ICE exchange.
On Thursday, westbound natural gas flows from Russia to Germany through the Yamal-Europe pipeline stopped despite additional bids from Gazprom's consumers. Supplies were later resumed.
The dramatic growth of European gas prices seen over the past several months is being exacerbated by the ongoing war in Ukraine. Russia accounts for nearly 40% of the continent's gas supplies, while Ukraine is a major transit country for Russian gas.
For more stories on economy & finance visit RT's business section
'Chicken Kiev' to be renamed '-- RT Russia & Former Soviet Union
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:12
A UK supermarket chain is showing its support for Ukrainians by tweaking the popular dish's name
UK supermarket chain Sainsbury's is renaming its 'Chicken Kiev' products 'Chicken Kyiv,' to reflect Ukrainian spelling, and is also removing 'Russian Standard' vodka and Russian sunflower seeds from its shelves.
In a statement to UK media, Britain's second largest supermarket chain said that it stands ''united with the people of Ukraine'' and would donate £2 million ($2.64mn) to help those affected by the humanitarian crisis there. Sainsbury's didn't limit its support to donations, however, and also conducted a review of its product range.
''We have decided to remove from sale all products that are 100% sourced from Russia. This means that from [Friday] we will no longer sell two products '' Russian Standard vodka and Karpayskiye black sunflower seeds,'' the retail giant announced.
''We are also re-naming 'Chicken Kiev' to 'Chicken Kyiv' and the new packaging will be available in the coming weeks,'' a spokesperson said, referring to the different ways of spelling the Ukrainian capital's name: in Russian, 'Kiev' and, in Ukrainian, 'Kyiv.'
Russia's military attack on Ukraine prompted many Western countries to introduce harsh sanctions against Moscow and a growing list of companies have ceased their Russian operations. Another popular supermarket chain, Waitrose, told that it would not be renaming Chicken Kiev, which it also sells.
Russian troops invaded Ukraine on February 24. Ordering the attack, Russia's President Vladimir Putin cited an urgent need to ''denazify'' and to ''demilitarize'' Ukraine. The West has responded by imposing a raft of major sanctions which targeted key sectors of the Russian economy.
Ukraine War Hits Farmers as Russia Cuts Fertilizer Supplies, Hurting Brazil - WSJ
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 14:55
Shortages and higher costs take a toll on the major crop producer, threatening to spur global food inflation
SƒO PAULO'--Brazil is searching for new fertilizer suppliers as the war in Ukraine threatens to cut off shipments to one of the world's breadbaskets, with potential ripple effects on already high global food inflation.
The Latin American country is the largest producer of coffee, soybeans and sugar, and the most dependent of the world's agricultural superpowers on imported fertilizer. Brazil imports some 85% of its fertilizers and about a fifth of those imports come from Russia. The Russian trade ministry has called for a broad...
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SƒO PAULO'--Brazil is searching for new fertilizer suppliers as the war in Ukraine threatens to cut off shipments to one of the world's breadbaskets, with potential ripple effects on already high global food inflation.
The Latin American country is the largest producer of coffee, soybeans and sugar, and the most dependent of the world's agricultural superpowers on imported fertilizer. Brazil imports some 85% of its fertilizers and about a fifth of those imports come from Russia. The Russian trade ministry has called for a broad suspension of fertilizer exports, state news agency TASS reported Friday.
''Brazil depends on fertilizers''s a sacred question for us,'' President Jair Bolsonaro told reporters earlier this week, defending his decision to maintain cordial relations with Moscow as Russia attacks Ukraine. Mr. Bolsanaro was one of the last world leaders to visit Russian President Vladimir Putin before the invasion of Ukraine began on Feb. 24, meeting with him at the Kremlin on Feb. 16.
If Brazil's farmers have to pay significantly more for fertilizer or are unable to produce as many crops, the cost of its agricultural products is likely to climb, driving up world food prices.
Brazil is also an important supplier of corn and beef. Higher grain prices increase animal-feed costs, which are passed on to consumers, who have to pay more for meat and other animal products.
Before the Ukraine conflict, farmers across the world were struggling to buy enough fertilizers, some of which more than doubled in price last year. Higher natural-gas prices hampered production of the ammonia needed for nitrogen fertilizers, while power outages at Chinese fertilizer plants and Hurricane Ida in the U.S. curtailed global production.
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War in Ukraine and sanctions on Russia have made the situation worse, industry analysts said, raising the prospect of a prolonged global supply crunch that would further stoke inflation and hunger among the world's poor.
Russia, which accounts for about two-thirds of the world's ammonium nitrate production according to commodity analysts at S&P Global, has halted exports until April to guarantee supplies for farmers at home. Higher natural-gas prices as a result of the conflict have also pushed up prices for the product, which is used to increase the yields of crops such as corn and wheat.
''No one knows what's going to happen,'' said Ricardo Arioli, a soybean farmer from Brazil's center-west state of Mato Grosso. ''War means a total lack of certainty. The cost of production becomes a big unknown,'' he said.
Brazilian Agriculture Minister Tereza Cristina Dias
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said she was planning to travel to Canada this month to secure more supplies. Canada is the world's largest producer of potash fertilizers, followed by Russia and Belarus.
Ms. Dias said Brazil has enough stocks to last farmers until October. Not everyone agrees.
The Brazilian National Fertilizer Association, which represents fertilizer companies in this country, has warned that local fertilizer stocks will only last for another three months. Sanctions and travel restrictions have hampered shipments to Brazil, the group said.
''We are now experiencing firsthand what it means to depend on imported fertilizer,'' said Jeferson Souza,
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a fertilizer analyst at Agrinvest Commodities, a brokerage in Brazil. Sluggish productivity has kept Brazil from developing a bigger domestic fertilizer industry, he said.
Brazil's government said it would launch a national fertilizer plan to stimulate investment in potash and phosphorus mines. It would take years for farmers to reap any benefits, analysts said.
Global food prices were already at around a 10-year high before the Russian invasion of Ukraine, as the coronavirus pandemic hampered shipments and heavy rains in some growing regions curtailed production. That is translating to higher rates of hunger among the world's poorest families, who are also dealing with the economic impact of the pandemic, national governments and aid groups have warned.
The problem is particularly acute in Latin American countries such as Brazil, where inflation is pushing up daily costs including rent and electricity, leaving families with even less cash for food. By the end of 2020, one in three people in Latin America and the Caribbean'--226 million people'--were unable to afford a nutritious diet or were skipping meals to feed their children, said Julio Berdegu(C),
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regional representative for Latin America and the Caribbean at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
That was before food inflation gripped the region. ''It would be a miracle if the situation doesn't get worse,'' Mr. Berdegu(C) said.
Higher fertilizer costs also prevent Brazil's farmers from increasing production of grains to make up for shortfalls from Ukraine and Russia, a major growing area.
''Brazil has the technology to produce,'' said Antonio Galvan, a farmer and head of Brazil's Soybean Producers Association. ''Now with these embargoes, the price of fertilizers could go up so much that it's not even worth planting.''
Write to Luciana Magalhaes at and Samantha Pearson at
Yes wee can: study gives green light to use urine as crop fertiliser | Drug resistance | The Guardian
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 14:54
Urine can be used as a fertiliser without fear it will fuel the spread of antibiotic resistance, researchers have revealed '' although they urge caution against using fresh bodily waste to water crops.
Urine is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus and has been used for generations to help plants grow. But the presence of urinary tract infections in donors means the fluid can also contain DNA from bacteria '' including genes for antibiotic resistance.
One concern is that even if the microbes themselves are killed either as a result of storage conditions or pasteurisation, this DNA could be taken up by other bacteria in the environment and end up causing antibiotic-resistant infections in humans.
The spread of antibiotic resistance is an issue experts have said is as great a threat to humanity as the climate crisis.
But now experts say that, for stored urine at least, bacterial DNA is not passed on to other microbes.
''I think this is an important step in demonstrating that we have methods where we can reduce the risks that the things in urine pose,'' said Dr Krista Wigginton, a co-author of the research from the University of Michigan.
Writing in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, Wigginton and colleagues report how they investigated the issue by focusing on rings of DNA found within certain microbes, including bacteria, and which can be passed between them. Such DNA plasmids have previously been found in urine.
The team collected more than 100 litres of urine from male and female donors across Vermont and stored it for between 12 and 16 months '' enough time for a substance within the urine, known as urea, to break down to ammonia.
The team introduced plasmid DNA that contained genes for resistance towards two antibiotics, tetracycline and ampicillin, into the aged urine and carried out a number of tests to see whether the common soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi would take up the DNA and hence gain antibiotic resistance.
The results reveal no difference in the uptake of either antibiotic resistance gene by Acinetobacter baylyi, whether aged urine immediately spiked with plasmid DNA was used, aged urine incubated with the plasmid DNA for 10 hours or plasmid DNA in water.
However, as the time the plasmid DNA spent in the aged urine increased to 24 hours, a 99% drop in the uptake of the antibiotic resistant genes by the soil bacteria was seen. That, the team said, suggested the contents of the urine affected the plasmid DNA over time, making it less able to be taken up '' possibly by severing the plasmid.
''We found that after a pretty short time in this stored urine '... the DNA had lost its ability to transform these environmental bacteria,'' said Wigginton. But, she noted: ''When we first excrete the DNA, the bacteria can take it up.''
The team carried out further tests on filtered, and filtered and heat treated, aged urine, finding these measures removed components of the urine that are important in reducing the ability for the plasmid DNA to be transferred to the soil bacteria. The team say that suggests either bacteria within the urine itself, or enzymes in the aged urine, are responsible for decreasing the ability for the plasmid DNA to be shared with the soil bacteria.
The team conclude that, provided urine is aged '' as is the case in most systems designed to collect urine for fertiliser '' it is unlikely to spread antibiotic resistance if used on crops.
The study has limitations, including that it only looked at plasmid DNA and only examined the spread to one type of bacteria.
But Wigginton said the idea of using human urine for fertiliser was a growing field: an estimated 330 tonnes of nitrogen and 20 tonnes of phosphorus a day could be retrieved should 10% of the US population collect their urine.
''Humans have been collecting urine and using it for fertiliser for a long, long time, but then in the west that really stopped with the invention of sewage system,'' she said. ''We are just trying now to figure out with this infrastructure system that we have, how do we pull back and think differently about what goes into this sewage system and capture some of those valuable products before [they] get mixed and diluted with everything else?''
Shell defends decision to buy discounted oil from Russia
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 14:53
Shell officially changed its name on Friday, ditching "Royal Dutch", which has been part of its identity since 1907.
Rick Wilking | Reuters
Oil major Shell has sought to defend its decision to buy a heavily-discounted consignment of oil from Russia, saying it would commit the profits to a fund dedicated to humanitarian aid for Ukraine.
On Friday, Shell purchased 100,000 metric tons of flagship Urals crude from Russia. It was reportedly bought at a record discount, with many firms shunning Russian oil due to Moscow's unprovoked invasion of its neighbor. The purchase did not violate any Western sanctions.
Shell said in a statement late Saturday that it had been in "intense talks with governments and continue to follow their guidance around this issue of security of supply, and are acutely aware we have to navigate this dilemma with the utmost care."
"We didn't take this decision lightly and we understand the strength of feeling around it," the statement read.
The company has faced heavy criticism from Ukraine's Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba, who wants companies to cut all business ties with Russia.
"One question to Shell: doesn't Russian oil smell Ukrainian blood for you?" Kuleba said in a tweet Saturday.
Speaking to CNBC Monday, Kuleba launched a scathing attack on firms still doing business with Russia, saying that some major oil companies could find themselves on the wrong side of history.
"The world will judge them accordingly. And history will judge them accordingly," he told CNBC's Hadley Gamble.
Shell said earlier this week that it intended to exit its joint ventures with Russian gas giant Gazprom and its related entities.
Meanwhile, rival BP announced Sunday last week that it was offloading its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, a Russian-controlled oil company, potentially hitting the British oil major with a costly $25 billion charge.
In its new statement, Shell said Saturday that the company welcomed "any direction or insights" from governments or policymakers.
"We will continue to choose alternatives to Russian oil wherever possible, but this cannot happen overnight because of how significant Russia is to global supply," the company said in the statement.
'--Jessica Bursztynsky contributed to this article.
Russian banks rush to switch to Chinese card system | Reuters
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 14:11
UnionPay, a Chinese credit card company, displays on the exhibit hall floor during the Money 20/20 conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. on October 24, 2017. REUTERS/Steve Marcus
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comMarch 6 (Reuters) - Several Russian banks said on Sunday they would soon start issuing cards using the Chinese UnionPay card operator's system coupled with Russia's own Mir network, after Visa and MasterCard said they were suspending operations in Russia.
Announcements regarding the switch to UnionPay came on Sunday from Sberbank (SBER.MM), Russia's biggest lender, as well as Alfa Bank and Tinkoff.
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reporting by Reuters;Editing by Elaine Hardcastle
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
As COVID vaccine demand falls, states left with huge stockpiles
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 12:31
Published March 3, 2022 1:20PM
Updated 4:52PM
articleA nurse administers a COVID-19 vaccine shot to a woman at a vaccination site in Queens, N.Y. (FOX 5 NY Photo)
As demand for COVID-19 vaccines collapses in many areas of the U.S., states are scrambling to use stockpiles of doses before they expire and have to be added to the millions that have already gone to waste.
From some of the least vaccinated states, like Indiana and North Dakota, to some of the most vaccinated states, like New Jersey and Vermont, public health departments are shuffling doses around in the hopes of finding providers that can use them.
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State health departments told The Associated Press they have tracked millions of doses that went to waste, including ones that expired, were in a multi-dose vial that couldn't be used completely or had to be tossed for some other reason like temperature issues or broken vials.
Nearly 1.5 million doses in Michigan, 1.45 million in North Carolina, 1 million in Illinois and almost 725,000 doses in Washington couldn't be used.
The percentage of wasted doses in California is only about 1.8%, but in a state that has received 84 million doses and administered more than 71 million of them, that equates to roughly 1.4 million doses. Providers there are asked to keep doses until they expire, then properly dispose of them, the California Department of Public Health said.
The problem is not unique to the U.S. More than a million doses of the Russian Sputnik vaccine expired this week in Guatemala, because nobody wanted to take the shot.
Vaccination program managers say that tossing out doses is inevitable in any inoculation campaign because of the difficulty in aligning supply and demand for a product with a limited shelf life.
But the coronavirus pandemic has killed nearly 6 million people and shattered economies across the globe, and every dose that goes to waste feels like a missed opportunity considering how successful the vaccines are in preventing death and serious disease.
It also comes only about a year after people desperate to get the vaccine attempted to jump in line to get ahead of those deemed higher priority. Hospital board members, their trustees and donors around the U.S. got early access or offers for vaccinations, raising complaints about favoritism and inequity at a time when the developing world had virtually no doses.
Dr. Varma: Pfizer vaccine studyDr. Jay Varma comments on the new data from a study of the efficacy of Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine on children between 5 and 11 years old.
And many poorer nations still have low vaccine rates, including 13 countries in Africa with less than 5% of their population fully vaccinated. They are plagued by unpredictable deliveries, weak health care systems, vaccine hesitancy and some supply issues, although health officials say inventory is markedly stronger than earlier in the pandemic.
In fact, supplies are so strong that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now advises doctors that it's OK to discard doses if it means opening up the standard multi-dose vials to vaccinate a single person and the rest has to be tossed.
"Pivoting to what's happening now, you have much more production and distribution to low-income countries," said Dr. Joseph Bresee, who directs the COVID-19 Vaccine Implementation Program at the Task Force for Global Health in Decatur, Georgia. "The issue of some stockpiles in the U.S., Germany and Japan, that are not redistributed to sub-Saharan Africa, it's less of an acute problem now because vaccine production and distribution is in high-gear right now serving those low-income countries."
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Related Stories How will the world decide when the pandemic is over? Pandemic triggered children's mental health emergency, groups say What are COVID-19 breakthrough cases? How the coronavirus pandemic can attack your mental health WHO chief: Science delivered but politics triumphed amid pandemic The Department of Health and Human Services also said that redistributing states' excess doses to other nations is not feasible because of the difficulty in transporting the shots, which must remain cold, in addition to not being cost-effective because of the relatively small number concentrated at sites.
Of the 688 million doses sent to states, 550 million to 600 million have been administered, HHS said Monday. The vaccines authorized in the U.S., made by Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson, can last for up to about six months from the time of manufacture.
A senior HHS official familiar with vaccine distribution plans would not say how many doses nationwide have already been marked as wastage, stating that there were too many variables to effectively calculate a nationwide rate and that states would have the most accurate figures. The official took issue with the word "wastage," saying it implies mismanagement when states are effectively overseeing their inventories.
The CDC, however, uses the term "wastage" on its website and asks states to report their numbers. The agency did not reply to requests for those figures.
The average number of Americans getting their first shot is down to about 80,000 a day, the lowest point since the U.S. vaccination campaign began in December 2020. About 76% of the U.S. population has received at least one shot and roughly 65% of all Americans are fully vaccinated.
With demand so low, states will undoubtedly be confronted with more waste in the months ahead, although they will benefit from any booster expansions.
Idaho, for example, has 230,000 doses on hand but is only averaging fewer than 2,000 doses administered a week.
Vaccine Breakthrough COVIDBeing vaccinated against COVID-19 doesn't guarantee that you won't get infected. But here is why getting vaccinated helps protect you anyway and is so crucial to ending the pandemic.
Oregon's vaccination rate is slightly higher than the national average, but the health authority there said last week that they have "significant excess vaccine on hand" because of the recent drop in demand. The state is trying to use up as many of the 716,000 doses in its inventory as possible.
Rhode Island has the highest percentage of residents who are fully vaccinated in the nation, at slightly more than 80%, but the health department reported having 137,000 doses on hand last week. Health officials say they need them for a big push to increase the vaccination rate for booster doses.
Health officials in some states have developed "matchmaker" programs to connect vaccine providers with excess doses with providers seeking doses. Many said they're attempting to redistribute doses with expiration dates that are quickly approaching. New Jersey has a task force that has transferred more than 600,000 doses around the state since June. West Virginia has offered to transfer Pfizer adult doses to nearby states.
Immunization managers have been asking for single-dose vials, especially for pediatricians, but it may not work for manufacturers to package it that way yet, said Claire Hannan, executive director at the Association of Immunization Managers. She said wasting vaccine "just can't be an issue."
"We tell this to providers, but the most important thing is getting people vaccinated. And that's hard when the demand goes down. You don't have constant flow," she said. "But that's just a necessary evil I guess."
HHS said states are ordering prudently, paralleling the drop in demand. The minimum order for Pfizer used to be nearly 1,200 doses but now it's 100, and Moderna reduced the number of doses per vial, the agency said.
"Given what we've seen in terms of the number of people still unvaccinated, I do think finding any way to get the shot in arms, even at the expense of potential wastage, is still important," said Katie Greene, an assistant research director at the Duke-Margolis Center for Health Policy.
AP Medical Writer Mike Stobbe contributed to this report.
Oil Went Below $0. Some Think It Will Rebound to $150 One Day. - WSJ
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 06:36
Debate rages about the long-term value of crude in the wake of its collapse and quick recovery
Oil markets began the 2020s by nosediving below $0 a barrel for the first time. Investors and analysts are now trying to work out what the rest of the decade holds in store.
Some think the bust will set in motion a boom, predicting that investment in oil-and-gas production will dry up and propel crude prices back above $100 a barrel.
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Oil markets began the 2020s by nosediving below $0 a barrel for the first time. Investors and analysts are now trying to work out what the rest of the decade holds in store.
Some think the bust will set in motion a boom, predicting that investment in oil-and-gas production will dry up and propel crude prices back above $100 a barrel.
''That funding pressure is going to be massive. It's going to be really difficult for some of the producers to produce,'' said Trevor Woods, chief investment officer of Ohio-based hedge fund Northern Trace Capital. ''We could hit $150 pretty easily by 2025.''
Others say the pandemic will sap fuel demand after the threat of contracting coronavirus has faded, cementing an era of cheap oil.
The debate over the long-term direction of the world's most important energy source is thorny. Oil markets have dozens of moving parts, making them hard to forecast.
In the long run, most analysts agree prices should gravitate to a level at which energy producers profit from making just enough crude to match demand. Covid-19 has made that calculation more complex. Investors are unsure whether the pandemic will permanently alter transport and consumption patterns, or expedite the move toward cleaner energy sources.
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Oil prices staged a quick recovery after turning negative in late April, boosted by a pickup in China's economy as well as output cuts by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Russia and producers in North America. The rally has stalled since new coronavirus cases threatened to hit fuel demand in Southern and Western U.S. states. West Texas Intermediate futures, the benchmark in U.S. oil markets, have traded at around $40 a barrel since late June.
The case for soaring prices rests on asset managers and banks declining to bankroll necessary investments in new and existing oil wells, leading to a shortfall of crude.
Oil companies have already slashed spending plans, seeking to shore up their balance sheets in response to the drop in revenue caused by the pandemic. Exxon Mobil Corp. , which last week warned of big losses in its second-quarter earnings, has said it plans to reduce capital spending in 2020 by $10 billion, or 30%.
European majors are also responding to pressure from investors to reduce their carbon footprint. BP PLC cut its investment plans by 25% to $12 billion and is reviewing whether to develop oil-and-gas fields it hasn't fully tapped.
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All told, investment in upstream oil-and-gas assets is expected to slump 32% this year to $328.4 billion, the International Energy Agency said in May, the biggest decline in at least 10 years.
This belt tightening will have a lasting impact on the world's ability to produce oil, said Christyan Malek, an analyst at JPMorgan. He estimates that five million barrels a day'--or roughly 5% of pre-Covid-19 levels'--will be lost, and that an additional $625 billion will need to be invested by 2030 for production to catch up with demand.
Prices will rise higher than they did in the past to incentivize new oil output, according to Mr. Malek. That is partly because investors are telling energy companies to drill for higher-quality crude and cut methane emissions, raising production costs.
''Could we see oil move to $100 over the next two years?'' Mr. Malek said. ''Absolutely.''
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Richard Fullarton, chief investment officer of London-based investment fund Matilda Capital Management, said he expects the price of oil to vault above $100 a barrel in the second half of the 2020s.
''We're never going to physically run out of oil,'' he said. ''It's whether we're going to deploy the capital to access that oil.''
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Such predictions are at odds with the futures market, which pegs Brent crude at less than $60 a barrel for the rest of the decade. The market is overestimating the speed at which the world will move away from fossil fuels, said Mr. Woods of Northern Trace. He agrees that prices will surge, possibly surpassing Brent's 2008 peak of $148, to spur producers in the U.S. shale patch and elsewhere to bring oil out of the ground fast enough.
A transition to green energy sources such as wind and solar is ''fully bought into by business leaders, but outside the [European Union] there is extremely slow policy implementation,'' said Mr. Woods. ''So fossil-fuel use is going to continue to grow.''
For others, a return to $100 oil is fantastical.
Producers will be able to pump more than enough oil at $50 a barrel, according to Citigroup analyst Edward Morse. His rationale: Technological improvements have lowered production costs, while the pandemic will encourage people to keep working from home and taking fewer flights, crimping oil demand.
OPEC could also keep a lid on the market, according to Martijn Rats, an analyst at Morgan Stanley. When peak oil demand comes into sight, Saudi Arabia and other low-cost producers may turn on the spigots to claim greater market share rather than bolster prices, he said.
''We know from the experience in March and April that when OPEC and Russia turn on the taps we're not going to go back to 60 bucks,'' Mr. Rats said. ''They made their point.''
Write to Joe Wallace at
Who's Behind the Portland Billboards Demanding People Stop Having Kids?
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 17:11
Early this year, two mysterious billboards rose above the city.
The boards, at Northeast Killingsworth Street and Interstate 205 and Southeast Division and 106th Avenue, went up Jan. 3 and 12, respectively. Both blare the same terse message: ''Stop Having Kids,'' in white text on a black background.
The billboards say they are paid for by a little-known organization called Stop Having Kids. That same advocacy group, which got its start in Portland, according to a spokeswoman, put up a third billboard along Interstate 5 near Salem: ''A Lot of Humans Wish They Had Never Been Born.''
Oregonians pride themselves on free speech'--our state constitution provides broader protections than does the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Animal rights groups, environmental extremists, and white supremacists have long taken advantage of the state's ''say anything'' attitude. Even the police buy billboards to get their message out.
But advocating against procreation? That's a new message for this city.
So we set out to figure out who's behind it.
First things first: By all accounts, the billboards are not somebody's idea of a sick joke.
Stop Having Kids spokeswoman Ashley Riddle says the group started informally in Portland a few months before March 2021 and identifies itself as a ''collective liberation movement.'' Its website makes the group's platform clear: The organization is ''antinatalist,'' meaning it's against all human reproduction.
Lamar Advertising, a billboard company based in Baton Rouge, La., owns the billboards in question, part of the company's portfolio of 400 billboards in the Portland area.
Richard Smith, Lamar's Portland manager, says headquarters reviews prospective advertisers. ''Once [the vice president of governmental affairs] vets it with his people, then we don't worry about it because it's been done at the highest level of our company,'' Smith says. ''You sign a contract, you pay for it, your billboard goes up.''
Smith declined to disclose the duration of Stop Having Kids' contract or how much the group is paying, but he says medium-sized bulletins on the eastside of Portland cost between $800 and $1,200 a month.
Riddle says money for the billboards came from an anonymous donor, and actually getting them put up was a long process: ''There was some difficulty in finding a company that would follow through. [Companies] would seem all for it, and then they stopped responding.''
She declined to identify the founder of Stop Having Kids by his full name, saying she knows him only as ''Dietz.''
State records show, however, that Stop Having Kids was incorporated in January 2021 by Eric Goldberg, a Portland photographer whose middle name is Dietz.
Riddle says Dietz creates almost all of the content on the organization's website, most of which is information on antinatalism.
Information about Goldberg isn't readily available. The owner of is cloaked by an internet proxy, and the website lists no staff or contact information aside from the email address
Goldberg did not respond to WW's requests for comment. That makes it a little harder to unpack what he's seeking.
After all, Oregon's birth rates are already low. According to the Oregon Office of Economic Analysis, the state's birth rate stands at 40th in the nation. And in 2020, state figures show, deaths here outnumbered births for the first time ever.
Stop Having Kids defines antinatalism as ''a philosophical and ethical stance against human reproduction'' and says antinatalists consider human reproduction to be ''an irreversible, unnecessary, indefensible, and enduring form of harm, regardless of circumstances, situations, or consciousness in living.''
The group says it wants to inspire and provoke critical thinking about reproductive choices and is against forcing individuals to do anything either way.
The site lists a myriad of reasons for being antinatalist, including ''Birth Defects,'' ''Life Is Suffering'' and ''Enough People Already.''
Stop Having Kids also links antinatalism to veganism, coining the term ''vegantinatalism.'' The site says the two ideologies are one and the same since both are rooted in harm reduction and compassion.
Goldberg's activism apparently isn't reserved for antinatalism.
2020 news reports from Minnesota say an Oregonian named Eric Goldberg, the same age as the Stop Having Kids founder (now 34), used a $1,900 drone to surveil a chicken farming operation there when a truck driver for the chicken processing plant blasted the drone from the sky with his shotgun. The shooter was arrested.
In addition to billboards and its website, Stop Having Kids does advocacy work through sidewalk demonstrations that Riddle calls ''street outreach.''
A small group stations itself on a sidewalk with signs that say things like ''Normalize Antinatalism'' and ''Parenthood Regret Is a Silent Epidemic.''
Riddle says the goal of street outreach is to have as many conversations as possible. ''People share their stories about being child-free or wishing they were never born or their parents saying that they regret having them.''
On the flipside, sidewalk pop-ups often spark confrontation, which is documented and posted on Stop Having Kids' YouTube channel.
In a clip taken on Southwest 5th Avenue in Portland and uploaded to YouTube on Jan. 17, a man on a bike rides by the demonstrators and says, ''Not down with eugenics.'' The unseen camera operator recording the interaction responds, ''Where do you see anything about eugenics?'' The biker says, ''I think you know exactly what I'm talking about.'' To this, the recorder says, ''This has nothing to do with eugenics.'...We are totally against human procreation all across the board.''
The Portland clip isn't the only time the group's messaging has been likened to eugenics, controlling reproduction to increase desired heritable characteristics. In a video uploaded Jan. 25, 2021, a woman, after filming and yelling at demonstrators, says, ''I don't like Nazis who pretend to help others and try to make minorities not have children.''
Riddle says despite such incidents, responses from passersby have been overwhelmingly positive. (Riddle's Minneapolis chapter of Stop Having Kids also prepares food and hands it out to individuals experiencing homelessness and does garbage cleanups.) But increasing the fold has been difficult. ''There's a lot of people who will reach out and say they would love to join,'' Riddle says, ''but then a day comes and they don't show.''
Stop Having Kids raises money through donations and merchandise sales. Every month, a portion of proceeds goes to a different organization.
For February 2022, it's sending money to React19, an organization ''working to increase our understanding in the role of COVID-19 in those who experience systemic and prolonged symptoms, after acute infection or after vaccination.''
U.S. Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Wis.), one of the most ardent anti-vaxxers in Congress, hosted an ''expert panel'' on vaccine dangers in November, including a React19 co-founder as one of his experts. React19 did not respond to a request for comment.
Riddle says she's unaware of any particular reason Stop Having Kids chose to support React19. ''It's just whatever pops up on Dietz's radar.''
Holodomor - Wikipedia
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 15:20
1932''33 man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine
Holodomor Ð'оÐ>>Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ñ Ð² УкÑаїніStarved peasants on a street in
Kharkiv, 1933
CountryUkrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet UnionLocationCentral and eastern UkrainePeriod1932''1933Total deathsAround 3.5 million; see death tollObservationsConsidered genocide by 16 countriesConsidered as a criminal act of Stalin's regime by 6 countriesConsidered a tragedy or crime against humanity by 5 international organizationsReliefForeign relief rejected by the state. 176,200 and 325,000 tons of grains provided by the state as food and seed aids between February and July 1933.The Holodomor (Ukrainian: Ð'оÐ>>Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾ÌÑ , romanized: Holodomor , IPA: [É...olodoËmÉ--r] ;[2] derived from моÑити Ð"оÐ>>одом , moryty holodom , 'to kill by starvation'),[a][3][4][5] also known as the Terror-Famine or the Great Famine,[9] was a famine in Soviet Ukraine from 1932 to 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians. It was a large part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932''1933. The term Holodomor emphasises the famine's man-made and allegedly intentional aspects such as rejection of outside aid, confiscation of all household foodstuffs and restriction of population movement. As part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932''1933 which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country, millions of inhabitants of Ukraine, the majority of whom were ethnic Ukrainians, died of starvation in a peacetime catastrophe unprecedented in the history of Ukraine.[10] Since 2006, the Holodomor has been recognized by Ukraine[11] and 15 other countries as a genocide of the Ukrainian people carried out by the Soviet government.[12]
Early estimates of the death toll by scholars and government officials varied greatly. A United Nations joint statement signed by 25 countries in 2003 declared that 7''10 million perished.[14] Current scholarship estimates a range of 4 to 7 million victims,[15] with more precise estimates ranging from 3.3[16] to 5 million.[17] According to the findings of the Court of Appeal of Kyiv in 2010, the demographic losses due to the famine amounted to 10 million, with 3.9 million direct famine deaths, and a further 6.1 million birth deficits.[18]
Whether the Holodomor was genocide is still the subject of academic debate, as are the causes of the famine and intentionality of the deaths.[19][20][21] Some scholars believe that the famine was planned by Joseph Stalin to eliminate a Ukrainian independence movement.[10] Others suggest that the man-made famine was a consequence of Soviet industrialisation.[23][24][25]
Etymology Holodomor literally translated from Ukrainian means "death by hunger", "killing by hunger, killing by starvation", or sometimes "murder by hunger or starvation."[24] It is a compound of the Ukrainian holod , 'hunger'; and mor , 'plague'. The expression moryty holodom means "to inflict death by hunger." The Ukrainian verb moryty (моÑити ) means "to poison, to drive to exhaustion, or to torment." The perfective form of moryty is zamoryty , 'kill or drive to death by hunger, exhausting work.'[citation needed ] In English, the Holodomor has also been referred to as the artificial famine, famine genocide, terror famine, and terror-genocide.[27]
It was used in print in the 1930s in Ukrainian diaspora publications in Czechoslovakia as Haladamor and by Ukrainian immigrant organisations in the United States and Canada by 1978; in the Soviet Union, of which Ukraine was a constituent republic, any references to the famine were dismissed as anti-Soviet propaganda, even after de-Stalinization in 1956, until the declassification and publication of historical documents in the late 1980s made continued denial of the catastrophe unsustainable.[27]
Discussion of the Holodomor became possible as part of the glasnost policy of openness. In Ukraine, the first official use of famine was a December 1987 speech by Volodymyr Shcherbytskyi, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, on the occasion of the republic's 70th anniversary.[32] An early public usage in the Soviet Union was in a February 1988 speech by Oleksiy Musiyenko, Deputy Secretary for ideological matters of the party organisation of the Kyiv branch of the Union of Soviet Writers in Ukraine.[33][34] The term may have first appeared in print in the Soviet Union on 18 July 1988, when his article on the topic was published. Holodomor is now an entry in the modern, two-volume dictionary of the Ukrainian language, published in 2004, described as "artificial hunger, organised on a vast scale by a criminal regime against a country's population."[36]
According to Elazar Barkan, Elizabeth A. Cole, and Kai Struve, there is a competition among victims in constructing an "Ukrainian Holocaust", stating that since the 1990s Holodomor has been adopted by anti-communists due to its similarity to the Holocaust in an attempt to promote the narrative that the Soviet Communists killed 10 million Ukrainians, while the Nazis only killed 6 million Jews. They stated that Holodomor was "introduced and popularized by the Ukrainian diaspora in North America before Ukraine became independent" and that "the term 'Holocaust' is not explained at all." According to them, this has been used to create a "victimized national narrative" and "compete with the Jewish narrative in order to obscure the 'dark sides' of Ukraine's national history and to counter accusations that their fathers collaborated with the Germans."[37]
History Scope and duration The famine affected the Ukrainian SSR as well as the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (a part of the Ukrainian SSR at the time) in spring 1932[38] and from February to July 1933, with the most victims recorded in spring 1933. The consequences are evident in demographic statistics: between 1926 and 1939, the Ukrainian population increased by only 6.6%, whereas Russia and Belarus grew by 16.9% and 11.7%, respectively.[40][41]
From the 1932 harvest, Soviet authorities were able to procure only 4.3 million tons as compared with 7.2 million tons obtained from the 1931 harvest. Rations in towns were drastically cut back, and in winter 1932''33 and spring 1933, people in many urban areas starved. Urban workers were supplied by a rationing system and therefore could occasionally assist their starving relatives in the countryside, but rations were gradually cut; and by spring 1933, urban residents also faced starvation. At the same time, workers were shown agitprop movies depicting peasants as counterrevolutionaries who hid grain and potatoes at a time when workers, who were constructing the "bright future" of socialism, were starving.[44]
The first reports of mass malnutrition and deaths from starvation emerged from two urban areas of the city of Uman, reported in January 1933 by Vinnytsia and Kyiv oblasts. By mid-January 1933, there were reports about mass "difficulties" with food in urban areas, which had been undersupplied through the rationing system, and deaths from starvation among people who were refused rations, according to the December 1932 decree of the Central Committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party. By the beginning of February 1933, according to reports from local authorities and Ukrainian GPU (secret police), the most affected area was Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, which also suffered from epidemics of typhus and malaria. Odessa and Kyiv oblasts were second and third, respectively. By mid-March, most of the reports of starvation originated from Kyiv Oblast.[citation needed ]
By mid-April 1933, Kharkiv Oblast reached the top of the most affected list, while Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Vinnytsia, and Donetsk oblasts, and Moldavian SSR were next on the list. Reports about mass deaths from starvation, dated mid-May through the beginning of June 1933, originated from raions in Kyiv and Kharkiv oblasts. The "less affected" list noted Chernihiv Oblast and northern parts of Kyiv and Vinnytsia oblasts. The Central Committee of the CP(b) of Ukraine Decree of 8 February 1933 said no hunger cases should have remained untreated. Local authorities had to submit reports about the numbers suffering from hunger, the reasons for hunger, number of deaths from hunger, food aid provided from local sources, and centrally provided food aid required. The GPU managed parallel reporting and food assistance in the Ukrainian SSR. Many regional reports and most of the central summary reports are available from present-day central and regional Ukrainian archives.[45] The Ukrainian Weekly, which was tracking the situation in 1933, reported the difficulties in communications and the appalling situation in Ukraine.[citation needed ]
Cannibalism Evidence of widespread cannibalism was documented during the Holodomor:[46][47]
Survival was a moral as well as a physical struggle. A woman doctor wrote to a friend in June 1933 that she had not yet become a cannibal, but was "not sure that I shall not be one by the time my letter reaches you." The good people died first. Those who refused to steal or to prostitute themselves died. Those who gave food to others died. Those who refused to eat corpses died. Those who refused to kill their fellow man died. Parents who resisted cannibalism died before their children did.
The Soviet regime printed posters declaring: "To eat your own children is a barbarian act.":'Š225'Š More than 2,500 people were convicted of cannibalism during the Holodomor.[50]
Causes The reasons for the famine are a subject of scholarly and political debate. Some scholars suggest that the man-made famine was a consequence of the economic problems associated with changes implemented during the period of Soviet industrialisation.[23][24][25] There are also those who blame a systematic set of policies perpetrated by the Soviet government under Stalin designed to exterminate the Ukrainians.[10][51] According to Stephen Wheatcroft, the grain yield for the Soviet Union preceding the famine was a low harvest of between 55 and 60 million tons,[52]:'Šxix''xxi'Š likely in part caused by damp weather and low traction power, yet official statistics mistakenly reported a yield of 68.9 million tons.[54] Mark Tauger has suggested an even lower harvest of 45 million tons based on data from 40% of collective farms which has been criticized by other scholars.[54] While Wheatcroft rejects the genocide characterization of the famine, he states that "the grain collection campaign was associated with the reversal of the previous policy of Ukrainisation"[55] and that "[Wheatcroft and his colleague's] work has confirmed '' if confirmation were needed '' that the grain campaign in 1932/33 was unprecedentedly harsh and repressive."[56] Historian Stephen G. Wheatcroft lists four problems Soviet authorities ignored that would hinder the advancement of agricultural technology and ultimately contributed to the famine:[56]
"Over-extension of the sown area" '-- Crops yields were reduced and likely some plant disease caused by the planting of future harvests across a wider area of land without rejuvenating soil leading to the reduction of fallow land."Decline in draught power" '-- the over extraction of grain lead to the loss of food for farm animals, which in turn reduced the effectiveness of agricultural operations."Quality of cultivation" '-- the planting and extracting of the harvest, along with ploughing was done in a poor manner due to inexperienced and demoralized workers and the aforementioned lack of draught power."The poor weather" '-- drought and other poor weather conditions were largely ignored by Soviet authorities who gambled on good weather and believed agricultural difficulties would be overcome.Mark Tauger in contrast to Wheatcroft, argues that human factors such as low traction power and an exhausted workforce were worse in 1933 than previous years yet that year there had been a higher harvest, so the cause of the low harvest was mostly due to various natural factors.[57] Mark Tauger has suggested an even lower harvest than Wheatcroft has of 45 million tons based on data from 40% of collective farms which has been criticized by other scholars.[54] Mark Tauger has suggested that drought, damp weather, and the flooding of fields by heavy rain diluted the harvest.[58] The proposal of harsh rain as a cause has been criticized as being contradictory to Stephen Wheatcroft's explanation of drought as a primary factor for the low harvest.[59] Another natural factor which reduced the harvest suggested by Tauger was endemic plant rust and swarms of insects.[58] According to Tauger warm and wet weather stimulated wheat growth which was insufficiently dealt with due to lack of peasant work motivation and primitive agricultural technology.[58] Deep snow and excess crop yield caused by peasants postponing harvest work and leaving out ears on the field to be gleaned later as part of peasant resistance is argued by Tauger to have caused an infestation of mice which destroyed grain stores and ate animal fodder.[58]
According to Natalya Naumenko, collectivization in the Soviet Union and lack of favored industries were primary contributors to famine mortality (52% of excess deaths), and some evidence shows there was discrimination against ethnic Ukrainians and Germans.[60] Lewis H. Siegelbaum, Professor of History at Michigan State University, states that Ukraine was hit particularly hard by grain quotas which were set at levels which most farms could not produce. The 1933 harvest was poor, coupled with the extremely high quota level, which led to starvation conditions. The shortages were blamed on kulak sabotage, and authorities distributed what supplies were available only in the urban areas.[citation needed ] According to a Centre for Economic Policy Research paper published in 2021 by Andrei Markevich, Natalya Naumenko, and Nancy Qian, regions with higher Ukrainian population shares were struck harder with centrally planned policies corresponding to famine, and Ukrainian populated areas were given lower amounts of tractors which were correlated to a reduction in famine mortality, ultimately concluding that 92% of famine deaths in Ukraine alone along with 77% of famine deaths in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus combined can be explained by systematic bias against Ukrainians.[61] The collectivization and high procurement quota explanation for the famine is somewhat called into question by the fact that the oblasts of Ukraine with the highest losses being Kyiv and Kharkiv which produced far lower amounts of grain than other sections of the country. Oleh Wolowyna comments that peasant resistance and the ensuing repression of said resistance was a critical factor for the famine in Ukraine and parts of Russia populated by national minorities like Germans and Ukrainians allegedly tainted by "fascism and bourgeois nationalism" according to Soviet authorities.[62]
In Ukraine collectivisation policy was enforced, entailing extreme crisis and contributing to the famine. In 1929''30, peasants were induced to transfer land and livestock to state-owned farms, on which they would work as day-labourers for payment in kind.[63] Collectivization in the Soviet Union, including the Ukrainian SSR, was not popular among the peasantry and forced collectivisation led to numerous peasant revolts. The first five-year plan changed the output expected from Ukrainian farms, from the familiar crop of grain to unfamiliar crops like sugar beets and cotton. In addition, the situation was exacerbated by poor administration of the plan and the lack of relevant general management. Significant amounts of grain remained unharvested, and'--even when harvested'--a significant percentage was lost during processing, transportation, or storage.[citation needed ]
In the summer of 1930, the government instituted a program of food requisitioning, ostensibly to increase grain exports. Food theft was made punishable by death or 10 years imprisonment.[63] Food exports continued during the famine, albeit at a reduced rate. In regard to exports, Michael Ellman states that the 1932''1933 grain exports amounted to 1.8 million tonnes, which would have been enough to feed 5 million people for one year.[65]
It has been proposed that the Soviet leadership used the man-made famine to attack Ukrainian nationalism, and thus it could fall under the legal definition of genocide.[46][23][66][67][69] For example, special and particularly lethal policies were adopted in and largely limited to Soviet Ukraine at the end of 1932 and 1933. According to Timothy Snyder, "each of them may seem like an anodyne administrative measure, and each of them was certainly presented as such at the time, and yet each had to kill."[71] Under the collectivism policy, for example, farmers were not only deprived of their properties but a large swath of these were also exiled in Siberia with no means of survival.[72] Those who were left behind and attempted to escape the zones of famine were ordered shot. There were foreign individuals who witnessed this atrocity or its effects. For example, there was the account of Arthur Koestler, a Hungarian-British journalist, which described the peak years of Holodomor in these words:
At every [train] station there was a crowd of peasants in rags, offering icons and linen in exchange for a loaf of bread. The women were lifting up their infants to the compartment windows'--infants pitiful and terrifying with limbs like sticks, puffed bellies, big cadaverous heads lolling on thin necks.[73]
Regional variation The collectivization and high procurement quota explanation for the famine is somewhat called into question by the fact that the oblasts of Ukraine with the highest losses being Kyiv and Kharkiv which produced far lower amounts of grain than other sections of the country.[62] A potential explanation for this was that Kharkiv and Kyiv fulfilled and over fulfilled their grain procurements in 1930 which led to raions in these Oblasts having their procurement quotas doubled in 1931 compared to the national average increase in procurement rate of 9%, in fact while Kharkiv and Kyiv had their quotas increased the Odesa oblast and some raions of Dnipropetrovsk oblast had their procurement quotas decreased.[74] In addition according to Nataliia Levchuk of the Ptoukha Institute of Demography and Social Studies "the distribution of the largely increased 1931 grain quotas in Kharkiv and Kyiv oblasts by raion was very uneven and unjustified because it was done disproportionally to the percentage of wheat sown area and their potential grain capacity.''[74]
Repressive policies A "black board" published in the newspaper "Under the Flag of Lenin" in January 1933'--a "blacklist" identifying specific
kolhozes and their punishment in the
Bashtanka Raion,
Mykolayiv oblast, Ukraine.
Several repressive policies were implemented in Ukraine during the famine, including but not limited to the Law of Spikelets, Blacklisting, the internal passport system, and harsh grain requisitions.
The "Decree About the Protection of Socialist Property", nicknamed by the farmers the Law of Spikelets, was enacted on 7 August 1932. The purpose of the law was to protect the property of the kolkhoz collective farms. It was nicknamed the Law of Spikelets because it allowed people to be prosecuted for gleaning leftover grain from the fields. There were more than 200,000 people sentenced under this law.[65]
The blacklist system was formalized in 1932 by the November 20 decree "The Struggle against Kurkul Influence in Collective Farms";[76] blacklisting, synonymous with a board of infamy, was one of the elements of agitation-propaganda in the Soviet Union, and especially Ukraine and the ethnically Ukrainian Kuban region in the 1930s. A blacklisted collective farm, village, or raion (district) had its monetary loans and grain advances called in, stores closed, grain supplies, livestock, and food confiscated as a penalty, and was cut off from trade. Its Communist Party and collective farm committees were purged and subject to arrest, and their territory was forcibly cordoned off by the OGPU secret police.[76] Although nominally targeting collective farms failing to meet grain quotas and independent farmers with outstanding tax-in-kind, in practice the punishment was applied to all residents of affected villages and raions, including teachers, tradespeople, and children.[76] In the end at least 400 collective farms were put on the black board in Ukraine, more than half of them in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast alone.[77] Every single raion in Dnipropetrovsk had at least one blacklisted village, and in Vinnytsia oblast five entire raions were blacklisted. This oblast is situated right in the middle of traditional lands of the Zaporizhian Cossacks. Cossack villages were also blacklisted in the Volga and Kuban regions of Russia.[76] Some blacklisted areas[78] in Kharkiv could have death rates exceeding 40%[79] while in other areas such as Stalino blacklisting had no particular effect on mortality.[79]
The passport system in the Soviet Union (identity cards) was introduced on 27 December 1932 to deal with the exodus of peasants from the countryside. Individuals not having such a document could not leave their homes on pain of administrative penalties, such as internment in labour camps (Gulag). Joseph Stalin signed the January 1933 secret decree named "Preventing the Mass Exodus of Peasants who are Starving", restricting travel by peasants after requests for bread began in the Kuban and Ukraine; Soviet authorities blamed the exodus of peasants during the famine on anti-Soviet elements, saying that "like the outflow from Ukraine last year, was organized by the enemies of Soviet power."[80] There was a wave of migration due to starvation and authorities responded by introducing a requirement that passports be used to go between republics and banning travel by rail.[81] During a single month in 1933, 219,460 people were either intercepted and escorted back or arrested and sentenced.[82] It has been estimated that there were some 150,000 excess deaths as a result of this policy, and one historian asserts that these deaths constitute a crime against humanity.[65] In contrast, historian Stephen Kotkin argues that the sealing of the Ukrainian borders caused by the internal passport system was in order to prevent the spread of famine related diseases.[83]
Between January and mid-April 1933, a factor contributing to a surge of deaths within certain region of Ukraine during the period was the relentless search for alleged hidden grain by the confiscation of all food stuffs from certain households, which Stalin implicitly approved of through a telegram he sent on the 1 January 1933 to the Ukrainian government reminding Ukrainian farmers of the severe penalties for not surrendering grain they may be hiding.[62] In his review of Anne Applebaum's book Mark Tauger gives a rough estimate of those affected by the search for hidden grain reserves: "In chapter 10 Applebaum describes the harsh searches that local personnel, often Ukrainian, imposed on villages, based on a Ukrainian memoir collection (222), and she presents many vivid anecdotes. Still she never explains how many people these actions affected. She cites a Ukrainian decree from November 1932 calling for 1100 brigades to be formed (229). If each of these 1100 brigades searched 100 households, and a peasant household had five people, then they took food from 550,000 people, out of 20 million, or about 2''3 percent."[84] In order to make up for unfulfilled grain procurement quotas in Ukraine, reserves of grain were confiscated from three sources including, according to Oleh Wolowyna, "(a) grain set side for seed for the next harvest; (b) a grain fund for emergencies; (c) grain issued to collective farmers for previously completed work, which had to be returned if the collective farm did not fulfill its quota."[62]
In Ukraine, there was a widespread purge of Communist party officials at all levels. According to Oleh Wolowyna, 390 "anti-Soviet, counter-revolutionary insurgent and chauvinist" groups were eliminated resulting in 37,797 arrests, that lead to 719 executions, 8,003 people being sent to Gulag camps, and 2,728 being put into internal exile.[62] 120,000 individuals in Ukraine were reviewed in the first 10 months of 1933 in a top-to-bottom purge of the Communist party resulting in 23% being eliminated as perceived class hostile elements.[62] Pavel Postyshev was set in charge of placing people in the head of Machine-Tractor Stations in Ukraine which where responsible for purging elements deemed to be class hostile.[62] By the end of 1933, 60% of the heads of village councils and raion committees in Ukraine were replaced with an additional 40,000 lower-tier workers being purged.[62] Purges were also extensive in the Ukrainian populated territories of the Kuban and North Caucasus. 358 of 716 party secretaries in Kuban were removed, along with 43% of the 25,000 party members there; in total, 40% of the 115,000 to 120,000 rural party members in the North Caucasus were removed.[85] Party officials associated with Ukrainization were targeted, as the national policy was viewed to be connected with the failure of grain procurement by Soviet authorities.[86]
Despite the crisis, the Soviet government actively denied to ask for foreign aid for the famine and instead actively denied the famine's existence.[87] What aid was given was selectively distributed to preserve the collective farm system. Grain producing oblasts in Ukraine such as Dnipropetrovsk were given more aid at an earlier time than more severely affected regions like Kharkiv which produced less grain.[62] Joseph Stalin had quoted Vladimir Lenin during the famine declaring: "He who does not work, neither shall he eat."[65]This perspective is argued by Michael Ellman to have influenced official policy during the famine, with those deemed to be idlers being disfavored in aid distribution as compared to those deemed "conscientiously working collective farmers";[65] in this vein, Olga Andriewsky states that Soviet archives indicate that the most productive workers were prioritized for receiving food aid.[88] Food rationing in Ukraine was determined by city categories (where one lived, with capitals and industrial centers being given preferential distribution), occupational categories (with industrial and railroad workers being prioritized over blue collar workers and intelligentsia), status in the family unit (with employed persons being entitled to higher rations than dependents and the elderly), and type of workplace in relation to industrialization (with those who worked in industrial endeavors near steel mills being preferred in distribution over those who worked in rural areas or in food).[89]
Ukrainians in other Republics Ukrainians in other parts of the Soviet Union also experienced famine and repressive policies and this is sometimes viewed as being connected to the Holodomor in Ukraine. In 1932''33, the policies of forced collectivization of the Ukrainian population of the Soviet Union, which caused a devastating famine that greatly affected the Ukrainian population of the Kuban. According to the All-Union census of 1926''1937, the rural population in the North Caucasus decreased by 24%. In the Kuban alone, from November 1932 to the spring of 1933, the number of documented victims of famine was 62,000. According to other historians, the real death toll is many times higher.[90] During the Soviet famine of 1932''1933 Krasnodar lost over 14% of its population.[62] The mass repressions of the 1930s also resulted in the arrest and execution of over 1,500 Ukrainian speaking intellectuals from Krasnodar. Many teachers of Ukrainian language were arrested and exiled from the region. By 1932, all Ukrainian language education establishments were closed. The professional Ukrainian theatre in Krasnodar was closed. All Ukrainian toponyms in the Kuban, which reflected the areas from which the first Ukrainians settlers had moved, were changed. The names of Stanytsias such as Kiev was changed to "Krasnoartilyevskaya", and Uman to "Leningrad", and Poltavska to "Krasnoarmieiskaya". The physical destruction of all aspects of Ukrainian culture and the Ukrainian population, and the resultant ethnic cleansing of the population, the Russification, the Holodomor of 1932''33 and 1946''47 and other tactics used by the Union government lead to the catastrophic fall in population that associated themselves with Ukrainian ethnicity in the Kuban. Official Soviet Union statistics of 1959 state that Ukrainians made up 4% of the population, in 1989 '' 3%. The self-identification of the Ukrainian population of Kuban decreased from 915,000 in 1926, to 150,000 in 1939.[65] and to 61,867 in 2002. Ethnic minorities in Kazakhstan were significantly affected by the Kazakh famine of 1931''1933 in addition to the Kazakhs as Ukrainians had the second highest proportional death rate after the Kazakhs themselves as the Ukrainian population in Kazakhstan decreased from 859,396 to 549,859[91] (a reduction of almost 36% of their population) while other ethnic minorities in Kazakhstan lost 12% and 30% of their populations.[91]
Aftermath and immediate reception Despite attempts by the Soviet authorities to hide the scale of the disaster, it became known abroad thanks to the publications of journalists Gareth Jones, Malcolm Muggeridge, Ewald Ammende, Rhea Clyman, photographs made by engineer Alexander Wienerberger, etc. To support their denial of the famine, the Soviets hosted prominent Westerners such as George Bernard Shaw, French ex-prime minister ‰douard Herriot, and others at Potemkin villages, who then made statements that they had not seen hunger.[92][93][94]
Areas depopulated by the famine were resettled by Russians in the Zaporizhzhya, Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts, but not as much so in central Ukraine.[95] In some areas were depopulation was due to migration rather than mortality, Ukrainians returned to their places of residence to find their homes occupied by Russians, leading to widespread fights between Ukrainian farmers and Russian settlers.[95] Such clashes caused around one million Russian settlers to be returned home.[95]
During the German occupation of Ukraine, the occupation authorities allowed the publication of articles in local newspapers about Holodomor and other communist crimes, but they also did not want to pay too much attention to this issue in order to avoid stirring national sentiment.[citation needed ] In 1942, Stepan Sosnovy, an agronomist in Kharkiv, published a comprehensive statistical research on the number of Holodomor casualties, based on documents from Soviet archives.[96]
In the post-war period, the Ukrainian diaspora disseminated information about the Holodomor in Europe and North America. At first, the public attitude was rather cautious, as the information came from people who had lived in the occupied territories, but it gradually changed in the 1950s. Scientific study of the Holodomor, based on the growing number of memoirs published by survivors, began in the 1950s.[citation needed ]
Death toll Map of depopulation of Ukraine and southern Russia from 1929 to 1933, with territories which were not part of the Soviet state during the famine in white
The Soviet Union long denied that the famine had taken place. The NKVD (and later KGB) controlled the archives for the Holodomor period and made relevant records available very slowly. The exact number of the victims remains unknown and is probably impossible to estimate, even within a margin of error of a hundred thousand.[97] However, by the end of 1933, millions of people had starved to death or otherwise died unnaturally in the Soviet republics. In 2001, based on a range of official demographic data, historian Stephen G. Wheatcroft noted that official death statistics for this period were systematically repressed and showed that many deaths were un-registered. Estimates vary in their coverage, with some using the 1933 Ukraine borders, some of the current borders, and some counting ethnic Ukrainians. Some extrapolate on the basis of deaths in a given area, while others use archival data. Some historians question the accuracy of Soviet censuses, as they may reflect Soviet propaganda. Other estimates come from recorded discussions between world leaders. In an August 1942 conversation, Stalin gave Winston Churchill his estimates of the number of "kulaks" who were repressed for resisting collectivisation as 10 million, in all of the Soviet Union, rather than only in Ukraine. When using this number, Stalin implied that it included not only those who lost their lives but also those who were forcibly deported.[99][100] Additionally, there are variations in opinion as to whether deaths in Gulag labour camps should be counted or only those who starved to death at home. Estimates before archival opening varied widely such as: 2.5 million (Volodymyr Kubiyovych);[100] 4.8 million (Vasyl Hryshko);[100] and 5 million (Robert Conquest).
In the 1980s, dissident demographer and historian Alexander P. Babyonyshev (writing as Sergei Maksudov) estimated officially non-accounted child mortality in 1933 by 150,000,[102] leading to a calculation that the number of births for 1933 should be increased from 471,000 to 621,000 (down from 1,184,000 in 1927).[verification needed ] Given the decreasing birth rates and assuming the natural mortality rates in 1933 to be equal to the average annual mortality rate in 1927''1930 (524,000 per year), a natural population growth for 1933 would have been 97,000 (as opposed to the recorded decrease of 1,379,000). This was five times less than the growth in the previous three years (1927''1930). Straight-line extrapolation of population (continuation of the previous net change) between census takings in 1927 and 1936 would have been +4.043 million, which compares to a recorded -538,000 change. Overall change in birth and death amounts to 4.581 million fewer people but whether through factors of choice, disease or starvation will never be fully known.[citation needed ]
In the 2000s, there were debates among historians and in civil society about the number of deaths as Soviet files were released and tension built between Russia and the Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko. Yushchenko and other Ukrainian politicians described fatalities as in the region of seven to ten million.[103][104][105][106] Yushchenko stated in a speech to the United States Congress that the Holodomor "took away 20 million lives of Ukrainians,"[107][108] while former Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a public statement giving the death toll at about 10 million.[109][110][111] Some Ukrainian and Western historians use similar figures. Historian David R. Marples gave a figure of 7.5 million in 2007.[112] During an international conference held in Ukraine in 2016, Holodomor 1932''1933 loss of the Ukrainian nation, at the National University of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko, it was claimed that during the Holodomor 7 million Ukrainians were killed, and in total, 10 million people died of starvation across the USSR.[113]
However, the use of the 7 to 20 million figures has been criticized by historians Timothy D. Snyder and Stephen G. Wheatcroft. Snyder wrote: "President Viktor Yushchenko does his country a grave disservice by claiming ten million deaths, thus exaggerating the number of Ukrainians killed by a factor of three; but it is true that the famine in Ukraine of 1932''1933 was a result of purposeful political decisions, and killed about three million people."[111] In an email to Postmedia News, Wheatcroft wrote: "I find it regrettable that Stephen Harper and other leading Western politicians are continuing to use such exaggerated figures for Ukrainian famine mortality" and "[t]here is absolutely no basis for accepting a figure of 10 million Ukrainians dying as a result of the famine of 1932''33."[109][110][114] In 2001, Wheatfcroft had calculated total population loss (including stillbirth) across the Union at 10 million and possibly up to 15 million between 1931 and 1934, including 2.8 million (and possibly up to 4.8 million excess deaths) and 3.7 million (up to 6.7 million) population losses including birth losses in Ukraine.
Declassified Soviet statistics (in thousands)[100]YearBirthsDeathsNatural change19271,18452366119281,13949664319291,08153954219301,0235364871931975515460193278266811419334711,850''1,37919345714838819357593424171936895361534In 2002, Ukrainian historian Stanislav Kulchytsky, using demographic data including those recently unclassified, narrowed the losses to about 3.2 million or, allowing for the lack of precise data, 3 million to 3.5 million.[100][115][116] The number of recorded excess deaths extracted from the birth/death statistics from Soviet archives is contradictory. The data fail to add up to the differences between the results of the 1926 Census and the 1937 Census.[100] Kulchytsky summarized the declassified Soviet statistics as showing a decrease of 538,000 people in the population of Soviet Ukraine between 1926 census (28,926,000) and 1937 census (28,388,000).[100] Similarly, Wheatcroft's work from Soviet archives showed that excess deaths in Ukraine in 1932''1933 numbered a minimum of 1.8 million (2.7 including birth losses): "Depending upon the estimations made concerning unregistered mortality and natality, these figures could be increased to a level of 2.8 million to a maximum of 4.8 million excess deaths and to 3.7 million to a maximum of 6.7 million population losses (including birth losses)".
A 2002 study by French demographer Jacques Vallin and colleagues [118][119] utilising some similar primary sources to Kulchytsky, and performing an analysis with more sophisticated demographic tools with forward projection of expected growth from the 1926 census and backward projection from the 1939 census estimates the number of direct deaths for 1933 as 2.582 million. This number of deaths does not reflect the total demographic loss for Ukraine from these events as the fall of the birth rate during the crisis and the out-migration contribute to the latter as well. The total population shortfall from the expected value between 1926 and 1939 estimated by Vallin amounted to 4.566 million. Of this number, 1.057 million is attributed to the birth deficit, 930,000 to forced out-migration, and 2.582 million to the combination of excess mortality and voluntary out-migration. With the latter assumed to be negligible, this estimate gives the number of deaths as the result of the 1933 famine about 2.2 million. According to demographic studies, life expectancy, which had been in the high forties to low fifties, fell sharply for those born in 1932 to 28 years, and for 1933 fell further to the extremely low 10.8 years for females and 7.3 years for males; it remained abnormally low for 1934 but, as commonly expected for the post-crisis period peaked in 1935''36.[120]
According to historian Snyder in 2010, the recorded figure of excess deaths was 2.4 million. However, Snyder claims that this figure is "substantially low" due to many deaths going unrecorded. Snyder states that demographic calculations carried out by the Ukrainian government provide a figure of 3.89 million dead, and opined that the actual figure is likely between these two figures, approximately 3.3 million deaths to starvation and disease related to the starvation in Ukraine from 1932 to 1933. Snyder also estimates that of the million people who died in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from famine at the same time, approximately 200,000 were ethnic Ukrainians due to Ukrainian-inhabited regions being particularly hard hit in Russia. As a child, Mikhail Gorbachev, born into a mixed Russian-Ukrainian family, experienced the famine in Stavropol, Russia. He recalled in a memoir that "In that terrible year [in 1933] nearly half the population of my native village, Privolnoye, starved to death, including two sisters and one brother of my father."[121]
Wheatcroft and R. W. Davies concluded that disease was the cause of a large number of deaths: in 1932''1933, there were 1.2 million cases of typhus and 500,000 cases of typhoid fever. Malnourishment increases fatality rates from many diseases, and are not counted by some historians. From 1932 to 1934, the largest rate of increase was recorded for typhus, commonly spread by lice. In conditions of harvest failure and increased poverty, lice are likely to increase. Gathering numerous refugees at railway stations, on trains and elsewhere facilitates the spread. In 1933, the number of recorded cases was 20 times the 1929 level. The number of cases per head of population recorded in Ukraine in 1933 was already considerably higher than in the USSR as a whole. By June 1933, the incidence in Ukraine had increased to nearly 10 times the January level, and it was much higher than in the rest of the USSR.
Holodomor, 1933, photograph by Alexander Wienerberger
A "Red Train" of carts from the "Wave of Proletarian Revolution" collective farm in the village of Oleksiyivka, Kharkiv oblast in 1932. "Red Trains" took the first harvest of the season's crop to the government depots. During the Holodomor, these brigades were part of the Soviet Government's policy of taking away food from the peasants.
Estimates of the human losses due to famine must account for the numbers involved in migration (including forced resettlement). According to Soviet statistics, the migration balance for the population in Ukraine for 1927''1936 period was a loss of 1.343 million people. Even when the data were collected, the Soviet statistical institutions acknowledged that the precision was less than for the data of the natural population change. The total number of deaths in Ukraine due to unnatural causes for the given ten years was 3.238 million; accounting for the lack of precision, estimates of the human toll range from 2.2 million to 3.5 million deaths.
According to Babyonyshev's 1981 estimate,[102] about 81.3% of the famine victims in the Ukrainian SSR were ethnic Ukrainians, 4.5% Russians, 1.4% Jews and 1.1% were Poles. Many Belarusians, Volga Germans and other nationalities became victims as well. The Ukrainian rural population was the hardest hit by the Holodomor. Since the peasantry constituted a demographic backbone of the Ukrainian nation, the tragedy deeply affected the Ukrainians for many years. In an October 2013 opinion poll (in Ukraine) 38.7% of those polled stated "my families had people affected by the famine", 39.2% stated they did not have such relatives, and 22.1% did not know.[126]
There was also migration in to Ukraine as a response to the famine: in response to the demographic collapse, the Soviet authorities ordered large-scale resettlements, with over 117,000 peasants from remote regions of the Soviet Union taking over the deserted farms.[127]
Genocide question Countries that officially recognise the Holodomor as an act of
genocide (2020)
Passers-by and the corpse of a starved man on a street in
Kharkiv, 1932
Scholars continue to debate "whether the man-made Soviet famine was a central act in a campaign of genocide, or whether it was designed to simply cow Ukrainian peasants into submission, drive them into the collectives and ensure a steady supply of grain for Soviet industrialization."[128] Whether the Holodomor is a genocide is a significant issue in modern politics and there is no international consensus on whether Soviet policies would fall under the legal definition of genocide.[129][130] A number of governments, such as the United States and Canada, have recognized the Holodomor as an act of genocide. However, David R. Marples states such decisions are mostly based on emotions, or on pressure by local groups rather than hard evidence.[131]
Scholarly positions are diverse. Raphael Lemkin, James Mace, Norman Naimark, Timothy Snyder and Anne Applebaum considered the Holodomor a genocide and the intentional result of Stalinist policies.[132][133]:'Š12'Š [134]:'Š134''135'Š Michael Ellman considers the Holodomor a crime against humanity, but does not use the term genocide.[136]:'Š681''682,'Š686'Š Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde consider the deaths to be primarily due to intentional state policy, not poor harvests.[137][138]:'Š259'Š Robert Davies, Stephen Kotkin, Stephen Wheatcroft and J. Arch Getty reject the notion that Stalin intentionally wanted to kill Ukrainians, but exacerbated the situation by enacting bad policies and ignorance of the problem.[21][139][140] In 1991, American historian Mark Tauger considered the Holodomor primarily the result of natural conditions and failed economic policy, not intentional state policy.[141] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn opined on 2 April 2008 in Izvestia that the 1930s famine in Ukraine was similar to the Russian famine of 1921''22 as both were caused by the ruthless robbery of peasants by Bolshevik grain procurements.[142]
Soviet and Western denial Holodomor denial is the assertion that the 1932''1933 genocide in Soviet Ukraine either did not occur or did occur but was not a premeditated act. Denying the existence of the famine was the Soviet state's position and reflected in both Soviet propaganda and the work of some Western journalists and intellectuals including George Bernard Shaw, Walter Duranty, and Louis Fischer.[146][148] In Britain and the United States, eye-witness accounts by Welsh freelance journalist Gareth Jones[149][150] and by the American Communist Fred Beal[151] were met with widespread disbelief.[152][153]
In the Soviet Union, authorities all but banned discussion of the famine, and Ukrainian historian Stanislav Kulchytsky stated the Soviet government ordered him to falsify his findings and depict the famine as an unavoidable natural disaster, to absolve the Communist Party and uphold the legacy of Stalin.[154]
In modern politics One of the interpretations of
The Running Man painting by
Kazimir Malevich, also known as
Peasant Between a Cross and a Sword, is the artist's indictment of the Great Famine.
[155] "Kasimir Malevich's haunting 'The Running Man' (1933''34), showing a peasant fleeing across a deserted landscape, is eloquent testimony to the disaster."
Whether the Holodomor was a genocide or ethnicity-blind, was man-made or natural, and was intentional or unintentional are issues of significant modern debate. The event is considered a genocide by Ukraine,[158] a crime against humanity by the European Parliament,[159] and the lower house of parliament of Russia condemned the Soviet regime "that has neglected the lives of people for the achievement of economic and political goals".[160]
On 10 November 2003 at the United Nations, 25 countries, including Russia, Ukraine, and United States signed a joint statement on the seventieth anniversary of the Holodomor with the following preamble:
In the former Soviet Union millions of men, women and children fell victims to the cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime. The Great Famine of 1932''1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor), took from 7 million to 10 million innocent lives and became a national tragedy for the Ukrainian people. In this regard, we note activities in observance of the seventieth anniversary of this Famine, in particular organized by the Government of Ukraine.Honouring the seventieth anniversary of the Ukrainian tragedy, we also commemorate the memory of millions of Russians, Kazakhs and representatives of other nationalities who died of starvation in the Volga River region, Northern Caucasus, Kazakhstan and in other parts of the former Soviet Union, as a result of civil war and forced collectivisation, leaving deep scars in the consciousness of future generations.[161]
The Ukrainian parliament first recognized the Holodomor as a genocide in 2003, and criminalized both Holodomor denial and Holocaust denial in 2006. In 2010, the Kyiv Court of Appeal ruled that the Holodomor was an act of genocide and held Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Stanislav Kosior, Pavel Postyshev, Mendel Khatayevich, Vlas Chubar and other Bolshevik leaders responsible.[162]
The Holodomor has been compared to the Irish Famine of 1845''1849 that took place in Ireland under British rule,[163][164][165] which has been the subject of similar controversy and debate.
Remembrance To honour those who perished in the Holodomor, monuments have been dedicated and public events held annually in Ukraine and worldwide.
Ukraine Candles and wheat as a symbol of remembrance during the Holodomor Remembrance Day 2013 in
LvivSince 1998, Ukraine has officially observed a Holodomor Memorial Day on the fourth Saturday of November,[166][126][167][168][169] established by a presidential decree of Leonid Kuchma. In 2006, customs were established for a minute of silence at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, flags flown at half-mast, and restrictions on entertainment broadcasting.[170] In 2007, three days of commemorations on the Maidan Nezalezhnosti included video testimonies of communist crimes in Ukraine and documentaries, scholarly lectures,[171] and the National Bank of Ukraine issued a set of commemorative coins.[172]
As of 2009, Ukrainian schoolchildren take a more extensive course of the history of the Holodomor.[173]
The National Museum of the Holodomor-Genocide was erected on the slopes of the Dnieper river, welcoming its first visitors on 22 November 2008.[174] The ceremony of the memorial's opening was dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Holodomor.
In an October 2013 opinion poll, 33.7% of Ukrainians fully agreed and 30.4% rather agreed with the statement "The Holodomor was the result of actions committed by the Soviet authorities, along with Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, and was the result of human actions".[126] In the same poll, 22.9% of those polled fully or partially agreed with the view that the famine was caused by natural circumstances, but 50.5% disagreed with that.[126] Furthermore, 45.4% of respondents believed that the Holodomor was "a deliberate attempt to destroy the Ukrainian nation" and 26.2% rather or completely disagreed with this.[126]
In a November 2021 poll, 85% agreed that the Holodomor was a genocide of Ukrainians.[175]
Canada The first public monument to the Holodomor was erected and dedicated in 1983 outside City Hall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, to mark the 50th anniversary of the famine-genocide. Since then, the fourth Saturday in November has in many jurisdictions been marked as the official day of remembrance for people who died as a result of the 1932''33 Holodomor and political repression.[176]
On 22 November 2008, Ukrainian Canadians marked the beginning of National Holodomor Awareness Week. Citizenship, Immigration, and Multiculturalism Minister Jason Kenney attended a vigil in Kyiv.[177] In November 2010, Prime Minister Stephen Harper visited the Holodomor memorial in Kyiv, although Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych did not join him.[citation needed ]
Saskatchewan became the first jurisdiction in North America and the first province in Canada to recognize the Holodomor as a genocide.[178] The Ukrainian Famine and Genocide (Holodomor) Memorial Day Act was introduced in the Saskatchewan Legislature on 6 May 2008,[179] and received royal assent on 14 May 2008.[180]
On 9 April 2009, the Province of Ontario unanimously passed bill 147, "The Holodomor Memorial Day Act", which calls for the fourth Saturday in November to be a day of remembrance. This was the first piece of legislation in the Province's history to be introduced with Tri-Partisan sponsorship: the joint initiators of the bill were Dave Levac, MPP for Brant (Liberal Party); Cheri DiNovo, MPP for Parkdale''High Park (NDP); and Frank Klees, MPP for Newmarket''Aurora (PC). MPP Levac was made a chevalier of Ukraine's Order of Merit.[181]
On 2 June 2010, the Province of Quebec unanimously passed bill 390, "Memorial Day Act on the great Ukrainian famine and genocide (the Holodomor)".[182]
On 25 September 2010, a new Holodomor monument was unveiled at St. Mary's Ukrainian Catholic Church, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, bearing the inscription "Holodomor: Genocide By Famine in Ukraine 1932''1933" and a section in Ukrainian bearing mention of the 10 million victims.[183]
On 21 September 2014, a statue entitled "Bitter Memories of Childhood" was unveiled outside the Manitoba Legislative Building in Winnipeg to memorialize the Holodomor.[184]
A monument to the Holodomor has been erected on Calgary's Memorial Drive, itself originally designated to honour Canadian servicemen of the First World War. The monument is located in the district of Renfrew near Ukrainian Pioneer Park, which pays tribute to the contributions of Ukrainian immigrants to Canada.[citation needed ]
On 21 October 2018, a memorial statue was unveiled on Canada Boulevard in Exhibition Place of Toronto. The site provides a place for an annual memorial on the fourth Saturday of November.[185]
Poland On 16 March 2006, the Senate of the Republic of Poland paid tribute to the victims of the Great Famine and declared it an act of genocide, expressing solidarity with the Ukrainian nation and its efforts to commemorate this crime.[186]
On 22 January 2015, a Holodomor monument was erected in the city of Lublin.[187]
United States The Ukrainian Weekly reported a meeting taking place on 27 February 1982 in the parish center of the Ukrainian Catholic National Shrine of the Holy Family in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Great Famine caused by the Soviet authorities. On 20 March 1982, the Ukrainian Weekly also reported a multi-ethnic community meeting that was held on 15 February on the North Shore Drive at the Ukrainian Village in Chicago to commemorate the famine which took the lives of seven million Ukrainians. Other events in commemoration were held in other places around the United States as well.[citation needed ]
On 29 May 2008, the city of Baltimore held a candlelight commemoration for the Holodomor at the War Memorial Plaza in front of City Hall. This ceremony was part of the larger international journey of the "International Holodomor Remembrance Torch", which began in Kyiv and made its way through thirty-three countries. Twenty-two other US cities were also visited during the tour. Then-Mayor Sheila Dixon presided over the ceremony and declared 29 May to be "Ukrainian Genocide Remembrance Day in Baltimore". She referred to the Holodomor "among the worst cases of man's inhumanity towards man".[188]
On 2 December 2008, a ceremony was held in Washington, D.C., for the Holodomor Memorial.[189] On 13 November 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama released a statement on Ukrainian Holodomor Remembrance Day. In this, he said that "remembering the victims of the man-made catastrophe of Holodomor provides us an opportunity to reflect upon the plight of all those who have suffered the consequences of extremism and tyranny around the world".[190][191] NSC Spokesman Mike Hammer released a similar statement on 20 November 2010.[192]
In 2011, the American day of remembrance of Holodomor was held on 19 November. The statement released by the White House Press Secretary reflects on the significance of this date, stating that "in the wake of this brutal and deliberate attempt to break the will of the people of Ukraine, Ukrainians showed great courage and resilience. The establishment of a proud and independent Ukraine twenty years ago shows the remarkable depth of the Ukrainian people's love of freedom and independence".[193]
On 7 November 2015, the Holodomor Genocide Memorial was opened in Washington D.C.[194][195]
In the 115th Congress, both the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives adopted resolutions commemorating the 85th anniversary of the Holodomor, "the Soviet Union's manmade famine that it committed against the people of Ukraine in 1932 and 1933."[196] The Senate Resolution, S. Res. 435 (115th Congress)[197] was adopted on 3 October 2018 and stated that the U.S. Senate "solemnly remembers the 85th anniversary of the Holodomor of 1932''1933 and extends its deepest sympathies to the victims, survivors, and families of this tragedy." On 11 December 2018, the United States House of Representatives adopted H. Res. 931 (115th Congress),[198] a resolution extending the House's "deepest sympathies to the victims and survivors of the Holodomor of 1932''1933, and their families" and condemned "the systematic violations of human rights, including the freedom of self-determination and freedom of speech, of the Ukrainian people by the Soviet Government."[citation needed ]
Holodomor memorials A touring van devoted to Holodomor education, seen in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2017
"Light the candle" event at a Holodomor memorial in Kyiv
Monument to victims of Holodomor in Novoaydar, Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine
Monument to the Victims of the Holodomor, Lublin, Poland
Roman Kowal's Holodomor Memorial in Winnipeg, Canada
1983 Holodomor Monument in Edmonton, Canada (first in the world)
Holodomor Monument in Calgary, Canada
Stamp of Ukraine, 1993
Monument dedicated to victims of years 1932''33 famine in Vyshhorod, Ukraine. The authors are Boris Krylov and Oles Sydoruk
Holodomor memorial, Mykhailivska Square, Kyiv
In popular culture Cinema Harvest of Despair (1984), directed by Slavko Nowytski (documentary film)Famine-33 (1991), directed by Oles YanchukThe Guide (2014), directed by Oles SaninChild 44 (2015), directed by Daniel Espinosa based on the book by Tom Rob Smith briefly describes the HolodomorBitter Harvest (2017), directed by George MendelukMr. Jones (2019), directed by Agnieszka HollandLiterature Ulas Samchuk's novel Maria (1934) is dedicated to the Holodomor, (English translation, Maria. A Chronicle of a Life 1952).[199]
Theatre The play Holodomor premiered in Tehran, Iran in February 2021.[200]
See also BloodlandsDroughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union1921''22 famine in TatarstanRussian famine of 1921''1922Soviet famine of 1946''1947Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph StalinFamine-33Holodomor: The Unknown Ukrainian Tragedy (1932''1933)Hunger PlanList of faminesGreat Famine of 1315''1317Russian famine of 1601''1603Russian famine of 1891''1892Great Chinese FamineList of Holodomor memorials and monumentsMass killings under communist regimesKhmer RougeNational Museum of the Holodomor-GenocideThe Soviet StoryNotes ^ Also literally known as "Extermination by Hunger" or "Hunger-extermination". References ^ Jones, Adam (2016). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 90. Holodomor '' the Ukrainian "famine-extermination" of 1932''1933 at the hands of Stalin's Soviet regime (Chapter 5); "a compound word combining the root holod 'hunge' with the verbal root mor 'extinguish', 'exterminate' (Lubomyr Hajda, Harvard University). ^ Graziosi, Andrea. 2005. "Les Famines Sovi(C)tiques de 1931''1933 et le Holodomor Ukrainien." Cahiers du monde russe et sovi(C)tique 46(3): 453''472 [457]. doi:10.4000/monderusse.8817. ^ Werth, Nicolas. 2007. "La grande famine ukrainienne de 1932''1933." In La terreur et le d(C)sarroi: Staline et son syst¨me, edited by N. Werth. Paris. ISBN 2-262-02462-6. p. 132. ^ Graziosi, Andrea (2005). LES FAMINES SOVI‰TIQUES DE 1931''1933 ET LE HOLODOMOR UKRAINIEN [The Soviet famines of 1931''1933 and the Ukrainian Holodomor]. Cahier du Monde Russe. p. 464. ^ Boriak, Hennadii. 2009. Sources for the Study of the 'Great Famine' in Ukraine. Cambridge, MA. ^ a b c "The famine of 1932''33". Encyclop...dia Britannica online. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015 . Retrieved 2 November 2015 . The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932''33 '' a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians ... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine ... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated ... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself. ^ ЗАКОÐ' УКРАЇÐ'Ð: ПÑо Ð'оÐ>>Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ñ 1932''1933 Ñоків в УкÑаїні [Law of Ukraine: About the Holodomor of 1932''1933 in Ukraine]. (in Ukrainian). 28 November 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015 . Retrieved 6 May 2015 . ^ "International Recognition of the Holodomor". Holodomor Education. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015 . Retrieved 26 December 2015 . ^ "Joint statement by the delegations of Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Egypt, Georgia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Nauru, Pakistan, Qatar, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America on the seventieth anniversary of the Great Famine of 1932''1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor) to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2017 . Retrieved 11 March 2017 . In the former Soviet Union millions of men, women and children fell victims to the cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime. The Great Famine of 1932''1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor), which took from 7 million to 10 million innocent lives and became a national tragedy for the Ukrainian people. ... [A]s a result of civil war and forced collectivization, leaving deep scars in the consciousness of future generations. ... [W]e deplore the acts and policies that brought about mass starvation and death of millions of people. We do not want to settle scores with the past, it could not be changed, but we are convinced that exposing violations of human rights, preserving historical records and restoring the dignity of victims through acknowledgement of their suffering, will guide future societies and help to avoid similar catastrophes in the future. ... ^ Gorbunova, Viktoriia, and Vitalii Klymchuk. "The Psychological Consequences of the Holodomor in Ukraine." East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies 7.2 (2020): 33''68. "The Holodomor was the largest man-made famine in Ukraine's history (the number of victims reached 4''7 million, according to different calculations)." ^ Snyder 2010, p. 53. "It seems reasonable to propose a figure of approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related disease in Soviet Ukraine in 1932''1933". ^ Marples, David R. (1 January 2007). Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Central European University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-963-7326-98-1. Still, the researchers have been unable to come up with a firm figure of the number of victims. Conquest cites 5 million deaths; Werth from 4 to 5 million; and Kul'chyts'kyi 3.5 million. The data of V. Tsaplin, on the other hand, indicate 2.9 million deaths in 1933 alone. ^ Ð'аÐ>>ивайченко назваÐ>> коÐ>>ичество жеÑтв Ð"оÐ>>одомоÑа в УкÑаине [Nalyvaichenko called the number of victims of Holodomor in Ukraine] (in Russian). 14 January 2010. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012 . Retrieved 21 July 2012 . ^ Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931''1933. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9 . Retrieved 15 June 2017 . ^ Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931''1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1''65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89 . ISSN 2163-839X. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. ^ a b Getty, J. Arch (2000). "The Future Did Not Work". The Atlantic . Retrieved 18 July 2020 . Similarly, the overwhelming weight of opinion among scholars working in the new archives (including Courtois's co-editor Werth) is that the terrible famine of the 1930s was the result of Stalinist bungling and rigidity rather than some genocidal plan. ^ a b c Kulchytsky, Stanislav (6 March 2007). "Holodomor of 1932''33 as genocide: gaps in the evidential basis". Den. Part 1 '' Part 2 '' Part 3 '' Part 4 ^ a b c Fawkes, Helen (24 November 2006). "Legacy of famine divides Ukraine". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012 . Retrieved 21 July 2012 . ^ a b Marples, David (30 November 2005). "The great famine debate goes on ..." Edmonton Journal. ExpressNews, University of Alberta. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. ^ a b Serbyn, Roman (2005). "Ukraine (Famine)". In Shelton, Dinah L. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Vol. 3. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale. pp. 1055''1061. ISBN 0-02-865847-7. OCLC 470301730. ^ Graziosi, Andrea (2004''2005). "The Soviet 1931''1933 Famines and the Ukrainian Holodomor: Is a New Interpretation Possible, and What Would Its Consequences Be?". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 27 (1''4): 97''115. JSTOR 41036863. ^ Musiienko, O. H. 18 February 1988. "Hromadians'ka pozytsiia literatury i perebudova [The Civic Position of Literature and Perestroika]." Literaturna Ukra¯na. pp. 7''8. ^ U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine (1988). Investigation of the Ukrainian Famine 1932''1933. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. p. 67. Archived from the original on 7 January 2007 . Retrieved 27 July 2012 . ^ Busel, Vyacheslav T., ed. (2004) [2001]. "holodomor" Ð"оÐ>>одомоÑ. Ð'еÐ>>икий тÐ>>умачний сÐ>>овник сучасної укÑаїнської мови [Great Explanatory Dictionary of Modern Ukrainian] (in Ukrainian). Kyiv: Perun. ISBN 978-966-569-013-9. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016 . Retrieved 29 February 2016 . Штучний Ð"оÐ>>од, оÑÐ"анізований у веÐ>>ичезних масÑтабах зÐ>>очинною вÐ>>адою ÐÑоти насеÐ>>ення вÐ>>асної кÑаїни. [Artificial famine organised on a vast scale by criminal authorities against the population of their own country.] ^ Barkan, Elazar; Cole, Elizabeth A.; Struve, Kai (2007). Shared History, Divided Memory: Jews and Others in Soviet-Occupied Poland, 1939''1941. Leipziger Universit¤tsverlag. pp. 120''121. ISBN 978-3865832405. ^ " "Ð'оÐ>>Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ñ 1932''33 Ñоків в УкÑаїні: документи і матеÑіаÐ>>и"/ УÐоÑядник РусÐ>>ан ПиÑіÐ"; Ð'АÐ' УкÑаїни.Ін-т істоÑії УкÑаїни.-К.:Ð'ид.дім "КиÑ--во-Ð'оÐ"иÐ>>янська академія" " ["Famine in Ukraine 1932''33: documents and materials / compiled by Ruslan Pyrig National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Institute of History of Ukraine. -K.:section Kyiv-Mohyla Academy 2007]. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012 . Retrieved 7 September 2012 . ^ "University of Toronto Data Library Service". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. ^ "Demoscope Weekly". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. ^ ХоÐ>>Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ñ '' 2009 Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 November 2010. ^ "Ð'оÐ>>од 1932''1933 Ñоків на УкÑаїні: очима істоÑиків, мовою документів" [The famine of 1932''1933 in Ukraine: through the eyes of historians, in the language of documents]. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012 . Retrieved 7 September 2012 . ^ a b Margolis, Eric. "Seven million died in the 'forgotten' holocaust". Archived from the original on 9 September 2017 . Retrieved 8 October 2017 . ^ ÐокуÑ, Ð'асиÐ>>ий [Sokur, Vasily] (21 November 2008). Ð'ыявÐ>>енным во вÑемя Ð"оÐ>>одомоÑа Ð>>юдоедам ходивÑие Ðо сеÐ>>ам медицинские Ñаботники даваÐ>>и отÑавÐ>>енные "ÐÑиманки" '' кусок мяса иÐ>>и хÐ>>еба. Facts and Commentaries (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 January 2013 . Retrieved 27 July 2012 . The author suggests that never in the history of mankind was cannibalism so widespread as during the Holodomor. ^ Boriak, Hennadii (November 2008). "Holodomor Archives and Sources: The State of the Art" (PDF) . The Harriman Review. 16 (2): 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2011. ^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2002, p. 77. "[T]he drought of 1931 was particularly severe, and drought conditions continued in 1932. This certainly helped to worsen the conditions for obtaining the harvest in 1932". ^ Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009). The years of hunger: Soviet agriculture, 1931''1933. Vol. 5. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780333311073. ^ a b c Marples, David R. (14 July 2002). "Analysis: Debating the undebatable? Ukraine Famine of 1932''1933". The Ukrainian Weekly. Vol. LXX, no. 28 . Retrieved 26 November 2021 . ^ Davies, Robert W.; Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2009). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931''1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. xv. doi:10.1057/9780230273979. ISBN 9780230238558. ^ a b Davies, Robert W.; Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2004). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931''1933. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 436''441. ISBN 9780333311073. ^ Tauger, Mark (2006). "Arguing from errors: On certain issues in Robert Davies' and Stephen Wheatcroft's analysis of the 1932 Soviet grain harvest and the Great Soviet famine of 1931''1933". Europe-Asia Studies. 58 (6): 975. doi:10.1080/09668130600831282. S2CID 154824515. ^ a b c d Tauger, Mark (January 2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931''1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 67. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89 . ISSN 0889-275X . Retrieved 14 November 2021 '' via ResearchGate. PDF version, archived from the original on 24 August 2012. ^ Naumenko, Natalya (March 2021). "The Political Economy of Famine: The Ukrainian Famine of 1933". The Journal of Economic History. 81 (1): 156''197. doi:10.1017/S0022050720000625 . ISSN 0022-0507. ^ Naumenko, Natalya (March 2021). "The Political Economy of Famine: The Ukrainian Famine of 1933". The Journal of Economic History. 81 (1): 156''197. doi:10.1017/S0022050720000625 . ISSN 0022-0507. ^ Markevich, Andrei; Naumenko, Natalya; Qian, Nancy (29 July 2021). "The Political-Economic Causes of the Soviet Great Famine, 1932''33" (PDF) . Centre for Economic Policy Research . Retrieved 26 November 2021 '' via REPEC. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wolowyna, Oleh (October 2020). "A Demographic Framework for the 1932''1934 Famine in the Soviet Union". Journal of Genocide Research. 23 (4): 501''526. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1834741. S2CID 226316468. ^ a b Reid, Anna (7 October 2017). "Rule by Starvation" . Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017 . Retrieved 8 October 2017 . ^ a b c d e f Ellman, Michael (June 2007). "Stalin and the Soviet famine of 1932''33 Revisited" (PDF) . Europe-Asia Studies. Routledge. 59 (4): 663''693. doi:10.1080/09668130701291899. S2CID 53655536. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. ^ Finn, Peter (27 April 2008). "Aftermath of a Soviet Famine". Archived from the original on 5 November 2012 . Retrieved 21 July 2012 . There are no exact figures on how many died. Modern historians place the number between 2.5 million and 3.5 million. Yushchenko and others have said at least 10 million were killed. ^ Marples, David (30 November 2005). "The Great Famine Debate Goes On ..." Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009 . Retrieved 21 July 2012 . ^ Kulchytskyi, Stanislav. "Holodomor-33: Why and how?". Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (25 November '' 1 December 2006). Available online. ^ The term anodyne administrative measure in the quote means a measure that was not meant to solve the problem but to calm the hungry crowds, or a measure which, in of itself, would not create opposition (See wikt:anodyne). The term 'Anodyne' refers to pain relieving methods, drugs or remedies, used prior to the 20th century. ^ Shifman, Misha (2015). Physics In A Mad World. London: World Scientific. p. 15. ISBN 978-9814619288. ^ Marton, Kati (2007). Great Escape . New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 98. ISBN 978-0743261159. ^ a b "New Insights". Harvard University. Archived from the original on 16 January 2022. ^ "Total Direct Famine Losses of Population per 1,000 by Raion in Ukraine for 1933". ^ a b c d Andriewsky, Olga (January 2015). "Towards a Decentred History: The Study of the Holodomor and Ukrainian Historiography". East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies. University of Alberta. 2 (1): 18''52. doi:10.21226/T2301N . ^ Papakin, Heorhii (27 November 2010). " 'Chorni doshky' Holodomoru '' ekonomichnyi metod znyshchennia hromadian URSR (SPYSOK)" ьчоÑні доÑкіь Ð'оÐ>>одомоÑу '' економічний метод зніщеннія Ð"Ñомадян УРÐÐ (ÐПÐÐОК) ['Black boards' of the Holodomor: An economic method for the destruction of community members of the Ukrainian SSR (list)]. Istorychna Pravda (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 3 January 2019 . Retrieved 25 January 2021 . ^ "Blacklisted Entities in Ukraine, 1932''1933". ^ a b "Total Direct Famine Losses of Population per 1,000 by Raion in Ukraine for 1933". ^ Martin, Terry (2001). The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923''1939 (paperback ed.). Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 306''307. ISBN 9780801486777 . Retrieved 2 December 2021 '' via Google Books. 'TsK VKP/b/ and Sovnarkom have received information that in the Kuban and Ukraine a massive outflow of peasants 'for bread' has begun into Belorussia and the Central-Black Earth, Volga, Western, and Moscow regions. / TsK VKP/b/ and Sovnarkom do not doubt that the outflow of peasants, like the outflow from Ukraine last year, was organized by the enemies of Soviet power, the SRs and the agents of Poland, with the goal of agitation 'through the peasantry' ... TsK VKP/b/ and Sovnarkom order the OGPU of Belorussia and the Central-Black Earth, Middle Volga, Western and Moscow regions to immediately arrest all 'peasants' of Ukraine and the North Caucasus who have broken through into the north and, after separating out the counterrevolutionariy elements, to return the rest to their place of residence.' ... Molotov, Stalin ^ Mark B. Tauger, The 1932 Harvest and the Famine of 1933, Slavic Review, Volume 50, Issue 1 (Spring, 1991), 70''89, (PDF Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine) ^ Werth, Nicholas (1999). "A State against Its People: Violence, Repression, and Terror in the Soviet Union". In Courtois, St(C)phane (ed.). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Translated by Mark Kraemer; Jonathan Murphy (illustrated hardcover ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780674076082 . Retrieved 2 December 2021 '' via Google Books. ^ Kotkin, Stephen (8 November 2017). "Terrible Talent: Studying Stalin". The American Interest (Interview). Interviewed by Richard Aldous . Retrieved 26 November 2021 . ^ Tauger, Mark (1 July 2018). "Review of Anne Applebaum's 'Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine' ". History News Network. George Washington University . Retrieved 22 October 2019 . ^ Davies, Robert W.; Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2004). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931''1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 178. ISBN 9780333311073. ^ Davies, Robert W.; Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2004). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931''1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 190. ISBN 9780333311073. In a considerable number of districts in Ukraine and the North Caucasus counter-revolutionary elements '' kulaks, former officers, Petlyurians, supporters of the Kuban' Rada and others '' were able to penetrate into the kolkhozy as chairmen or influential members of the board, or as bookkeepers and storekeepers, and as brigade leaders at the threshers, and were able to penetrate into the village soviets, land agencies and cooperatives. They attempt to direct the work of these organisations against the interests of the proletarian state and the policy of the party; they try to organise a counter-revolutionary movement, the sabotage of the grain collections, and the sabotage of the village. ^ Davies, Robert W.; Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2004). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931''1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 441. ISBN 9780333311073. ^ Andreiwsky, Olga (2015). "Towards a Decentred History: The Study of the Holodomor and Ukrainian Historiography". East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 2 (1): 17. doi:10.21226/T2301N . Finally, new studies have revealed the very selective '-- indeed, highly politicized '-- nature of state assistance in Ukraine in 1932''1933. Soviet authorities, as we know, took great pains to guarantee the supply of food to the industrial workforce and to certain other categories of the population '-- Red Army personnel and their families, for example. As the latest research has shown, however, in the spring of 1933, famine relief itself became an ideological instrument. The aid that was provided in rural Ukraine at the height of the Famine, when much of the population was starving, was directed, first and foremost, to 'conscientious' collective farm workers '-- those who had worked the highest number of workdays. Rations, as the sources attest, were allocated in connection with spring sowing). The bulk of assistance was delivered in the form of grain seed that was 'lent' to collective farms (from reserves that had been seized in Ukraine) with the stipulation that it would be repaid with interest. State aid, it seems clear, was aimed at trying to salvage the collective farm system and a workforce necessary to maintain it. At the very same time, Party officials announced a campaign to root out 'enemy elements of all kinds who sought to exploit the food problems for their own counter-revolutionary purposes, spreading rumours about the famine and various 'horrors'. Famine-relief, in this way, became yet another way to determine who lived and who died. ^ Malko, Victoria A. (2021). The Ukrainian Intelligentsia and Genocide: The Struggle for History, Language, and Culture in the 1920s and 1930s. Lexington Books. pp. 152''153. ISBN 978-1498596794. ^ Osadchenko, E.V.; Rudneva, S.E. "HUNGER IN KUBAN 1932''1933". ^ a b Isabelle, Ohayon (13 January 2016). 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Toronto: The Basilian Press, for Ukrainian Association of Victims of Russian Communist Terror. ^ Soldatenko, Valerii (2003). Ð'оÐ>>одний тÑидцять тÑетій суб'Ñ--ктивні думки ÐÑо об'Ñ--ктивні ÐÑоцеси [The starvation of '33: subjective thoughts about objective processes]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Ukrainian) (24, 28 June '' 4 July). ^ Berezhkov, Valentin. 1993. Kak ya stal perevodchikom Stalina. Moscow, DEM. ISBN 5-85207-044-0. p. 317. ^ a b c d e f g Kulchytskyi, Stanislav. 23''29 November 2002. "How many of us perished in Holodomor in 1933." Dzerkalo Tyzhnia. Available online "ÐкіÐ>>ьки нас заÐ"инуÐ>>о від Ð'оÐ>>одомоÑу 1933 Ñоку?" [How many of us died from the Holodomor of 1933?] (in Ukrainian) . Retrieved 20 January 2021 . ^ a b Sergei Maksudov, "Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR 1918''1958", in The Samizdat Register II, ed. R. Medvedev (London''New York 1981) ^ Fawkes, Helen (24 November 2006). "Legacy of famine divides Ukraine". BBC News. 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Archived from the original on 20 March 2008. Further reading Declarations and legal acts U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine. 19 April 1988. "Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine" (Report to Congress).United Nations. 2003. Joint Statement on the Great Famine of 1932''1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor)Address of the Verkhovna Rada to the Ukrainian nation on commemorating the victims of Holodomor 1932''1933 (in Ukrainian)Books and articles Ammende, Ewald, Human life in Russia, (Cleveland: J.T. Zubal, 1984), Reprint, Originally published: London: Allen & Unwin, 1936.The Black Deeds of the Kremlin: a white book, S.O. Pidhainy, Editor-In-Chief, (Toronto: Ukrainian Association of Victims of Russian-Communist Terror, 1953), (Vol. 1 Book of testimonies. Vol. 2. The Great Famine in Ukraine in 1932''1933).Bruski, Jan Jacek (2008). Hołodomor 1932''1933. Wielki Gł"d na Ukrainie w dokumentach polskiej dyplomacji i wywiadu (in Polish). Warszawa: Polski Instytut Spraw MiÄdzynarodowych. ISBN 978-83-89607-56-0. Marco Carynnyk, Lubomyr Luciuk and Bohdan S Kordan, eds, The Foreign Office and the Famine: British Documents on Ukraine and the Great Famine of 1932''1933, foreword by Michael Marrus (Kingston: Limestone Press, 1988)Boriak, H. (2001). The Publication of Sources on the History of the 1932''1933 Famine-Genocide: History, Current State, and Prospects. Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 25(3/4), 167''186.Chastushka Journal of American folklore, Volume 89 Houghton, Mifflin, and Co., 1976Curran, Declan with L Luciuk & A G Newby, co-eds, "Famines in European Economic History: The last great European famines reconsidered," Routledge, 2015Davies, R.W., The Socialist offensive: the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, 1929''1930, (London: Macmillan, 1980).Der ukrainische Hunger-Holocaust: Stalins verschwiegener V¶lkermord 1932/33 an 7 Millionen ukrainischen Bauern im Spiegel geheimgehaltener Akten des deutschen Ausw¤rtigen Amtes, (Sonneb¼hl: H. Wild, 1988), By Dmytro Zlepko. [eine Dokumentation, herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Dmytro Zlepko].Dolot, Miron, Who killed them and why?: in remembrance of those killed in the Famine of 1932''1933 in Ukraine, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, Ukrainian Studies Fund, 1984); "Execution By Hunger, The Hidden Holocaust" (W.W. Norton & Company, 1985).Dushnyk, Walter, 50 years ago: the famine holocaust in Ukraine, (New York: Toronto: World Congress of Free Ukrainians, 1983).Barbara Falk, Sowjetische St¤dte in der Hungersnot 1932/33. Staatliche Ern¤hrungspolitik und st¤dtisches Alltagsleben (= Beitr¤ge zur Geschichte Osteuropas 38), K¶ln: B¶hlau Verlag 2005 ISBN 3-412-10105-2F¼rst, Juliane. Stalin's Last Generation: Soviet Post-War Youth and the Emergence of Mature Socialism Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-957506-0Gregorovich, Andrew, "Black Famine in Ukraine 1932''33: A Struggle for Existence", Forum: A Ukrainian Review, No. 24, (Scranton: Ukrainian Workingmen's Association, 1974).Kowalski, Ludwik. Hell on Earth: Brutality and Violence Under the Stalinist Regime Wasteland Press. 2008. ISBN 978-1-60047-232-9Luciuk, L. Y. (ed), "Holodomor: Reflections on the Great Famine of 1932''1933 in Soviet Ukraine" (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 2009)Halii, Mykola, Organized famine in Ukraine, 1932''1933, (Chicago: Ukrainian Research and Information Institute, 1963).Hlushanytsia, Pavlo, "Tretia svitova viina Pavla Hlushanytsi == The third world war of Pavlo Hlushanytsia", translated by Vera Moroz, (Toronto: Anabasis Magazine, 1986). [Bilingual edition in Ukrainian and English].Holod na Ukraini, 1932''1933: vybrani statti, uporiadkuvala Nadiia Karatnyts'ka, (New York: Suchasnist', 1985).Holod 1932''33 rokiv na Ukraini: ochyma istorykiv, movoij dokumentiv, (Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo politychnoyi literatury Ukrainy, 1990).Hryshko, Vasyl, The Ukrainian Holocaust of 1933, Edited and translated by Marco Carynnyk, (Toronto: Bahrianyi Foundation, Suzhero, Dobrus, 1983).Holodomor: The Great Famine in Ukraine 1932''1933 (Warsaw''Kyiv, 2009)"The Institute of National Remembrance | Holodomor. The Great Famine in Ukraine 1932''1933". 2009. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015 . Retrieved 6 July 2015 . International Commission of Inquiry into the 1932''33 Famine in Ukraine, Proceedings [transcript], 23''27 May 1988, Brussels, Belgium, Jakob W.F. Sundberg, President; Legal Counsel, World Congress of Free Ukrainians: John Sopinka, Alexandra Chyczij; Legal Council for the commission, Ian A. Hunter, 1988.International Commission of Inquiry into the 1932''33 Famine in Ukraine. Proceedings [transcript], 21 October '' 5 November 1988, New York City, [Jakob W.F. Sundberg, President; Counsel for the Petitioner, William Liber; General Counsel, Ian A. Hunter], 1988.International Commission of Inquiry into the 1932''1933 Famine in Ukraine. Final report, [Jacob W.F. Sundberg, President], 1990. [Proceedings of the International Commission of Inquiry and its Final report are in typescript, contained in 6 vols. Copies available from the World Congress of Free Ukrainians, Toronto].Kalynyk, Oleksa, Communism, the enemy of mankind: documents about the methods and practise of Russian Bolshevik occupation in Ukraine, (London: The Ukrainian Youth Association in Great Britain, 1955).Klady, Leonard, "Famine Film Harvest of Despair", Forum: A Ukrainian Review, No. 61, Spring 1985, (Scranton: Ukrainian Fraternal Association, 1985).Kolektyvizatsia і Holod na Ukraini 1929''1933: Zbirnyk documentiv і materialiv, Z.M. Mychailycenko, E.P. Shatalina, S.V. Kulcycky, eds., (Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 1992).Kostiuk, Hryhory, Stalinist rule in Ukraine: a study of the decade of mass terror, 1929''1939, (Munich: Institut zur Erforschung der UdSSSR, 1960).Kovalenko, L.B. & Maniak, B.A., eds., Holod 33: Narodna knyha-memorial, (Kyiv: Radians'kyj pys'mennyk, 1991).Krawchenko, Bohdan, Social change and national consciousness in twentieth-century Ukraine, (Basingstoke: Macmillan in association with St. Anthony's College, Oxford, 1985).R. Kuśnierz, Ukraina w latach kolektywizacji i Wielkiego Glodu (1929''1933),Torun, 2005Leonard Leshuk, ed., Days of Famine, Nights of Terror: Firsthand Accounts of Soviet Collectivization, 1928''1934 (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 1995)Luciuk, Lubomyr (and L Grekul), Holodomor: Reflections on the Great Famine of 1932''1933 in Soviet Ukraine (Kashtan Press, Kingston, 2008.)Lubomyr Luciuk, ed., Not Worthy: Walter Duranty's Pulitzer Prize and The New York Times (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 2004)Lettere da Kharkov: la carestia in Ucraina e nel Caucaso del Nord nei rapporti dei diplomatici italiani, 1932''33, a cura di Andrea Graziosi, (Torino: Einaudi, 1991).Mace, James E., Communism and the dilemma of national liberation: national communism in Soviet Ukraine, 1918''1933, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Ukrainian Research Institute and the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U.S., 1983).Makohon, P., Svidok: Spohady pro 33-ho, (Toronto: Anabasis Magazine, 1983).Martchenko, Borys, La famine-genocide en Ukraine: 1932''1933, (Paris: Publications de l'Est europeen, 1983).Marunchak, Mykhailo H., Natsiia v borot'bi za svoie isnuvannia: 1932 і 1933 v Ukraini і diiaspori, (Winnipeg: Nakl. Ukrains'koi vil'noi akademii nauk v Kanadi, 1985).Memorial, compiled by Lubomyr Y. Luciuk and Alexandra Chyczij; translated into English by Marco Carynnyk, (Toronto: Published by Kashtan Press for Canadian Friends of "Memorial", 1989). [Bilingual edition in Ukrainian and English. this is a selection of resolutions, aims and objectives, and other documents, pertaining to the activities of the Memorial Society in Ukraine].Mishchenko, Oleksandr, Bezkrovna viina: knyha svidchen', (Kyiv: Molod', 1991).Oleksiw, Stephen, The agony of a nation: the great man-made famine in Ukraine, 1932''1933, (London: The National Committee to Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Artificial Famine in Ukraine, 1932''1933, 1983).Pavel P. Postyshev, envoy of Moscow in Ukraine 1933''1934, [selected newspaper articles, documents, and sections in books], (Toronto: World Congress of Free Ukrainians, Secretariat, [1988], The 1932''33 Famine in Ukraine research documentation).Pidnayny, Alexandra, A bibliography of the great famine in Ukraine, 1932''1933, (Toronto: New Review Books, 1975).Pravoberezhnyi, Fedir, 8,000,000: 1933-i rik na Ukraini, (Winnipeg: Kultura і osvita, 1951).Rajca, Czesław (2005). Gł"d na Ukrainie. Lublin/Toronto: Werset. ISBN 978-83-60133-04-0. Senyshyn, Halyna, Bibliohrafia holody v Ukraini 1932''1933, (Ottawa: Montreal: Umman, 1983).Solovei, Dmytro, The Golgotha of Ukraine: eye-witness accounts of the famine in Ukraine, compiled by Dmytro Soloviy, (New York: Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, 1953).Stradnyk, Petro, Pravda pro soviets'ku vladu v Ukraini, (New York: N. Chyhyryns'kyi, 1972).Taylor, S.J., Stalin's apologist: Walter Duranty, the New York Times's Man in Moscow, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).The Foreign Office and the famine: British documents on Ukraine and the great famine of 1932''1933, edited by Marco Carynnyk, Lubomyr Y. Luciuk and Bohdan Kor.The man-made famine in Ukraine (Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1984). [Seminar. Participants: Robert Conquest, Dana Dalrymple, James Mace, Michael Nowak].United States, Commission on the Ukraine Famine. Investigation of the Ukrainian Famine, 1932''1933: report to Congress / Commission on the Ukraine Famine, [Daniel E. Mica, chairman; James E. Mace, Staff Director]. (Washington D.C.: U.S. G.P.O. 1988).United States, Commission on the Ukrainian Famine. Oral history project of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine, James E. Mace and Leonid Heretz, eds. (Washington, D.C.: Supt. of Docs, U.S. G.P.O., 1990).Velykyi holod v Ukraini, 1932''33: zbirnyk svidchen', spohadiv, dopovidiv ta stattiv, vyholoshenykh ta drukovanykh v 1983 rotsi na vidznachennia 50-littia holodu v Ukraini '' The Great Famine in Ukraine 1932''1933: a collection of memoirs, speeches and essays prepared in 1983 in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Famine in Ukraine during 1932''33, [Publication Committee members: V. Rudenko, T. Khokhitva, P. Makohon, F. Podopryhora], (Toronto: Ukrains'ke Pravoslavne Bratstvo Sv. Volodymyra, 1988), [Bilingual edition in Ukrainian and English].Verbyts'kyi, M., Naibil'shyi zlochyn Kremlia: zaplianovanyi shtuchnyi holod v Ukraini 1932''1933 rokiv, (London: Dobrus, 1952).Voropai, Oleksa, V deviatim kruzi, (London, England: Sum, 1953).Voropai, Oleksa, The Ninth Circle: In Commemoration of the Victims of the Famine of 1933, Olexa Woropay; edited with an introduction by James E. Mace, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, Ukrainian Studies Fund, 1983).Wheatcroft, S. G. (2000). "The Scale and Nature of Stalinist Repression and its Demographic Significance: On Comments by Keep and Conquest" (PDF) . Europe-Asia Studies. 52 (6): 1143''1159. doi:10.1080/09668130050143860. ISSN 0966-8136. PMID 19326595. S2CID 205667754. Krawchenko, Bohdan; Serbyn, Roman (1986). Famine in Ukraine 1932''1933. Canada: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. p. 208. ISBN 9780920862438. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holodomor ."Holodomor Museum website" . Retrieved 20 January 2021 . "Holodomor survivors share their stories" . Retrieved 20 January 2021 . "Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute's MAPA Digital Atlas of Ukraine focus on the history of the Holodomor" . Retrieved 20 January 2021 . "Gareth Jones' international exposure of the Holodomor, plus many related background articles" . Retrieved 5 July 2006 . (in Ukrainian) Famine in Ukraine 1932''1933 Archived 7 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine at the Central State Archive of Ukraine (photos, links)Stanislav Kulchytsky, Italian Research on the Holodomor, October 2005.Stanislav Kulchytsky, "Why did Stalin exterminate the Ukrainians? Comprehending the Holodomor. The position of Soviet historians" '' Six-part series from Den: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6; Kulchytsky on Holodomor 1''6 (in Ukrainian and Russian) Valeriy Soldatenko, "A starved 1933: subjective thoughts on objective processes", Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, Kyiv, Ukraine, 28 June '' 4 July 2003. Available online (in Ukrainian and Russian) Stanislav Kulchytsky's articles in Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, Kyiv, Ukraine"How many of us perish in Holodomor on 1933", 23 November 2002 '' 29 November 2002. Available online"Reasons of the 1933 famine in Ukraine. Through the pages of one almost forgotten book" 16''22 August 2003. Available online"Reasons of the 1933 famine in Ukraine-2", 4 October 2003 '' 10 October 2003. Available online"Demographic losses in Ukraine in the twentieth century", 2 October 2004 '' 8 October 2004. Available online"Holodomor-33: Why and how?" 25 November '' 1 December. Available onlineUkraine Famine Revelations from the Russian Archives at the Library of CongressSergei Melnikoff, Photos of Holodomor gulag.ipvnews.orgThe General Committee decided this afternoon not to recommend the inclusion of an item on the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932''1933 in Ukraine. www.un.orgNicolas Werth Case Study: The Great Ukrainian Famine of 1932''1933 / CNRS '' FranceHolodomor '' Famine in Soviet Ukraine 1932''1933 archived from kiev.usembassy.govFamine in the Soviet Union 1929''1934 '' collection of archive materials rusarchives.ruHolodomor: The Secret Holocaust in Ukraine '' official site of the Security Service of Ukraine, program about the Great Hunger archived from www.cbc.caMurphy, Caryle (1 October 1983). "Ukrainian Americans Commemorate Famine in Homeland 50 Years Ago". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. People's war 1917''1932 by Kyiv city organization "Memorial" archived from Kis, Defying Death Women's Experience of the Holodomor, 1932''1933
Trump National Security Council Official Received Report on Multiple Shooters And ANTIFA And ISIS Involvement In Las Vegas Shooting - National File
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 15:08
News By Patrick Howley March 2, 2022 at 6:19pm Bombshell evidence prepared for a recently-deceased Trump National Security Council (NSC) official explicitly reports on multiple shooters carrying out the Las Vegas terrorist shooting of October 1, 2017. The report states that Stephen Paddock did not actually commit suicide but was executed by others, pointing to Antifa and ISIS involvement and FBI foreknowledge of the attack. The report also provides evidence that an ANTIFA group claimed responsibility for the shooting with the message: ''One of our comrades from our Las Vegas branch has made these fascist Trump supporting dogs pay.'' The following report was prepared for Rich Higgins, who served in the National Security Council strategic planning office in 2017. Higgins died of complications at a hospital at around 3 AM on February 23, 2022. The more than 50-page report is entitled ''All Source Assessment: Attack on the Route 91 Country Music Festival October 1, 2017 Mandalay Bay Hotel Las Vegas, Nevada'' and was prepared for Higgins shortly after he left the National Security Council.According to the Rich Higgins Las Vegas document: ''The report fuses open source information with tactical counter terrorism analysis, cyber intelligence, and digital data mining capabilities.'' The report states: ''Stephen Paddock may have anticipated the arrival of a fly in team of additional shooters that would assist in the operational execution.''
The report names an Australian man named Brian A. Hodge as a ''person of interest'' with ''possible ties to Islamic organizations and a possible Islamic State (IS) linkage.'' The report states that ''Mr. Hodges' personal profile is more befitting of a left wing or Anti-Fascist Action (ANTIFA) affiliate, but recent intelligence reports point to an increased level of collaboration between groups like Antifa and Islamic State.''
On page 45, the report states: ''The FBI was closely monitoring Antifa operative engagements with Islamic State and Al Qaeda (Arabian Peninsula and Islamic Maghreb) personnel in Germany'...the FBI has discovered a ''level of chatter'' between left wing revolutionary groups and Islamic terrorist groups.'' It turns out, according to the report, that ''Mr. Hodge traveled to Berlin, Paris, London, and back to Berlin approximately 2 weeks prior to the attack in Las Vegas.''
The Las Vegas official single-shooter narrative has been torn apart by recent evidence from Mindy Robinson's ''Route 91'' documentary which shows that other 911 calls identified multiple shooters. There is a ton of evidence that there were clearly bodies in other locations and shooters in other locations. This reporter has been in communication with a group that created an open source intelligence virtual map of video evidence and incident reports from Vegas, which ranges in location all around the city, a very wide radius.
Sources have said that there was a shooting at an airport in connection to a possible assassination attempt on Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who may have been staying at the Mandalay Bay hotel then slipped into undercover civilian gear either to flee the premises or to gamble anonymously before he was forced to flee the premises in disguise. The top floors, 35 to 39, of the Mandalay Bay Hotel house the Four Seasons Las Vegas. On that night, the Four Seasons Las Vegas was owned by Bill Gates through the firm Cascade Investment and also Saudi Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, who was at odds with bin Salman. Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal was arrested by the Saudis for corruption on November 4, shortly after the shooting. President Donald Trump quietly dispatched a delegation to Saudi Arabia after the shooting. Left-wing billionaire George Soros' Soros Fund Management ''shorted'' '-- meaning bet against '-- the stock price of Mandalay Bay's MGM shortly before the shooting, and MGM owns the Mandalay Bay shooting site. MGM Grand CEO James Murren quietly dumped a lot of his personal MGM stock prior to the shooting.
Brian Hodge is a central figure in the Higgins Report on the shooting. The report explains how Hodge, born 1981 and linked to a bunch of addresses in West Hollywood, served a witness for the Australian press and claimed to be inside Stephen Paddock's hotel suite in a different half of the suite. But Hodge also claimed on social media that he was ''hiding in the bushes.'' He said that there were ''multiple shooters'' including ''one on my hotel room floor.''
On page 29, the Higgins Report states: ''Further data mining of Mr. Hodge's activity on the night of the attack reveals that while he was originally located at the Mandalay Bay and the surrounding Enterprise area, (he) departed downtown Las Vegas while publicly claiming to have been hiding in the bushes outside the Mandalay Bay. Mr. Hodge's signatures reveal that he is located approximately 10 miles north of the Mandalay Bay hotel'...''
On page 32, the report refers to Hodge's statement that a security guard had been killed on his floor, which conflicts with the Official Narrative which holds that a security guard named Jesus Campos was shot repeatedly by Paddock but survived. The Higgins Report states: ''How did Mr. Hodge know, only 3 hours after the attack, in advance of the public and most officials, that a security guard had been killed (actually shot and wounded) on the 32nd floor?''
According to the report, ''Intelligence methods reveal that'' during the frenzy Hodge stayed at Knotty Pine Motel in north Las Vegas in Room Number 17, a room that was associated with a man named German Torres Moreno, a Mexican national from the city of Penjamo, Mexico, in Guanajuato, Mexico, an area that is rife with ISIS recruiting.''
According to the report, Hodge communicated and interacted with people associated with various Muslim-oriented groups including ''Travel to Medina,'' with a front office in Brooklyn.
Hodge hails from Melbourne, Antifa and went back to Melbourne briefly in December, after the shooting, for about a day. Evidence shows that Melbourne ANTIFA took credit for the attack then deleted the message, with Melbourne Antifa stating: ''One of our comrades from our Las Vegas branch has made these fascist Trump supporting dogs pay.''
ISIS also claimed responsibility, referring to Stephen Paddock as one of their operatives. Paddock, who was dating and living at the Mandalay Bay with a woman from Australia named Marilou Danley, who was in the Philipines when the shooting took place. An ISIS communication network said that Paddock had converted to Islam and ISIS granted him the Muslim name Abu Abdul Barr al-Amriki, as Newsweek reported.
According to Al-Naba, reportedly an ISIS magazine, ISIS stated: ''A soldier of the caliphate attacked a gathering of 22,000 Americans at a concert in the city of Las Vegas, resulting in nearly 60 killed and 600 injured'' and said ''Brother Abu Abdul Bar stationed himself in a room on the 32nd floor of a hotel overlooking the concert and opened fire continuously on the crowds using 23 firearms and more than 2,000 bullets and died, may God accept him, after running out of ammunition.''
According to the Higgins Report: ''Immediately following the attack, during the morning of October 2, Mr. Hodge appears in numerous Australian media reports including print, radio and television. Notably, he does not share the links to these radio and television interviews on any of his own social media outlets. This is highly suspicious behavior. Later in the day on October 2, Mr. Hodge departed Las Vegas and arrived in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While in New Mexico, Mr. Hodge appears to travel to the Anatolia Doner Kebab House'...This restaurant address is affiliated with numerous other businesses in the Albuquerque area and is owned by a Mr. Mehmet Kokangul and Umit Kokangul. Mr. Mehmet Kokangul appears to be a Turkish National from Adana Turkey, a known center of Islamic State activity in Turkey.''
The case of the suspicious witness bears similarity to the case of Chris Mahony, a supposed car-crash eyewitness for CNN's Wolf Blitzer at the Charlottesville scene. Mahony, as I revealed, turned out to have been an adviser for George Soros' Open Society Initiative, a social friend of George Soros' son Alexander, a press eyewitness to previous geopolitical activity in Sierra Leone, and a member of the socialist New Zealand Fabian Society, which uses a crest that portrays a wolf in sheep's clothing, which is an expression used to signify infiltration of the innocent.
Rich Higgins was fired from the Trump National Security Council in 2017, prior to the Las Vegas attack, after he wrote a Political Warfare memo that got leaked in which Higgins identified the ''Deep State'' working against President Donald Trump. Higgins wrote in that memo: ''In Maoist insurgence, the formation of a counter-state is essential to seizing State power.''
About the Author:
SummaryRecent Posts ContactPatrick Howley is the experienced reporter who exposed Ralph Northam's racist yearbook photos, Cal Cunningham's extramarital affair, the VA scandal, and broke other groundbreaking articles that have permanently altered the United States' political landscape.
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Sinister reason behind Vladimir Putin's unusual walk could be linked to the KGB - World News - Mirror Online
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 14:17
Analysis of his walk appears to show Putin walking with a clear rigid leg and a right arm that remains stiff while his left swings.- which could be linked to former military training
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Vladimir Putin puts nuclear forces on high alert
Vladimir Putin appears to have shown signs of a distinctive walk, which could be linked to KGB training.
Analysis of his walk appears to show Putin walking with a clear rigid leg and a right arm that remains stiff.
Meanwhile Putin's left arm swings at his side.
Researchers have suggested it could be linked to weapons training he received while part of the Soviet KGB - where he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel before the Soviet Union broke up.
Researchers, based in Portugal, Italy, and the Netherlands, wrote: ''According to this manual, KGB operatives were instructed to keep their weapon in their right hand close to their chest and to move forward with one side, usually the left, presumably allowing subjects to draw the gun as quickly as possible when confronted with a foe."
It comes after suggestions Putin has been taking steroids which may make him more aggressive.
For all the live updates from the Russian invasion follow our liveblog
Researchers say his walk could be linked to weapons training he received while part of the KGB ( Image:
AFP/Getty Images)Former foreign secretary Lord David Owen said he suspects steroid use due to changes in the shape of Putin's face, which could be caused by muscle-boosting drugs.
Lord Owen told Times Radio: "Look at his face, see how that has changed - he now has an oval face.
"People who said, oh, it's plastic surgery or Botox, I don't believe that at all.
"He's on either anabolic steroids as a bodybuilder - and he's very proud of his muscles and strips to the waist and everything like that - or he's on corticosteroids.
"If you're on these drugs, this gives you this face.
Analysis of his walk appears to show Putin walking with a clear rigid leg and a right arm that remains stiff ( Image:
Tass/PA Images) KGB operatives were instructed to keep their weapon in their right hand close to their chest ( Image:
Getty Images)"It reduces your immunity and makes you more vulnerable to Covid.
"This man has been in complete isolation, quite extraordinary, won't see anybody, stays miles away, tremendous pressures.
"Which indicates he's on a steroid and probably, maybe, a combination of both."
Lord Owen said the anabolic steroids can increase a person's aggression.
It comes after experts fear the Covid-19 pandemic scrambled Vladimir Putin 's mental health, sparking the paranoia which led to the invasion of Ukraine.
It comes after suggestions Putin has been taking steroids which may make him more aggressive ( Image:
Zuma Press/PA Images) The Russian president had limited contact with people during the worst of the events of the last two years, with those in his very inner circle having to isolate before being granted an audience.
Putin's insistence he ordered troops into his peaceful neighbour's territory to protect people subjected to bullying and genocide- of which there is no evidence- has fuelled fears for his mental health.
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FLASHBACK: Leaked Tape in 2014 Showed State Department's Victoria Nuland Saying "F*** the EU" then Plotting Ukraine Coup Using Biden's Help
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 14:14
The more things change, the more they stay the same. In 2014 the State Department's Victoria Nuland reportedly was caught on tape planning a coup in Ukraine using Biden's help.Victoria Nuland is currently serving as Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs in the Biden '' Obama Administration but she was with the State Department under Obama as well. She was instrumental in the affairs in Ukraine at that time. We've written about Nuland in the past, especially when it relates to Ukraine. Recently when Nuland was before the Senate no one asked her about her past actions with the Obama gang.
Obama/Biden State Department Pick Victoria Nuland Wasn't Asked about the Steele Dossier and Other Ukraine Related Topics '' Given a Pass at Senate Hearing
But back in 2014 Nuland was very busy in Ukraine. She was seen passing out cakes to protesters in Kiev, Ukraine at that time. A few weeks after this the protests in that country got violent and a number of individuals died during these riots.
TRENDING: FOOD WARS: Russia Bans Fertilizer Exports to Crush Global Markets - Hungary bans All Grain Exports
At this time, Nuland made a call with another American, Jeffrey Pyatt, to discuss the events in Ukraine. She mentioned Jake Sullivan in the call as well as Joe Biden. In their phone conversation, Nuland and Pyatt discussed who should join a unity government. Nuland notified Pyatt that after the review of the three opposition candidates for the post of Prime Minister of Ukraine, the US State Department had selected Arseniy Yatsenyuk.
Joe Biden was involved in their decision. It was a coup. The Americans had picked their candidate.
The video below from that time discusses the call and the actions in Ukraine at that time. See below starting at about the 14:00 minute mark.
Franse jongeren stemmen nauwelijks. Kunnen Tinder en snoep hen verleiden? | De Volkskrant
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 13:05
Vrijwilliger Romane Piquet van A Vot(C) gaat langs de deur bij Franse jongeren. Beeld Cyril Marcilhacy
Een saladekom vol snoepjes in de ene arm, een tas met chocoladekoekjes in de andere '' Jessica Remillard staat klaar voor een charmeoffensief bij 'haar' jongeren. Ze werkt als begeleider in een flat vol sociale huurwoningen voor jongeren in Parijs. Een springplank voor het leven, noemt Remillard het. Naast een goedkope studio pal aan de Seine krijgen jongeren hier hulp bij de eerste stappen in hun studie of loopbaan.
Vanavond begeleidt Remillard de vrijwilligers van A Vot(C) in hun strijd tegen een van de grootste obstakels op weg naar de presidentsverkiezingen in april: onthouding. De afgelopen jaren werd record op record gestapeld, met als triest hoogtepunt de regionale verkiezingen in juni vorig jaar. Van alle Fransen tussen 18 en 35 jaar besloot 82 procent niet naar de stembus te gaan. Een democratisch alarmsignaal, oordeelde president Emmanuel Macron.
De onthouding treft niet alleen jongeren, maar ze zijn wel oververtegenwoordigd onder de niet-stemmers. Daarom richt A Vot(C), een onafhankelijke Franse ngo gericht op burgerrechten en democratie, zich in de eerste plaats op hen. Vastberaden de democratie 'zo dicht mogelijk bij jongeren te brengen' lanceerden ze onlangs een campagne via Tinder. Voordat gebruikers tussen 18 en 25 zich een weg naar hun potentile date kunnen swipen, toont de datingapp eerst een oproep: 'Als je bij jou om de hoek date'... Stem dan bij jou om de hoek!'
Verkeerd ingeschreven Ouderwets offline ontmoeten kan ook. Terwijl vrijwilliger Romane Piquet verwachtingsvol haar oor tegen een voordeur drukt, legt collega Ha¯dar Hamid de missie van vanavond uit. Om te kunnen stemmen in Frankrijk moet je als kiezer geregistreerd zijn bij het juiste stembureau. Voor jongeren gebeurt dat automatisch als ze 18 jaar worden. 'Maar wie verhuist voor bijvoorbeeld studie of werk, moet zelf zijn inschrijving wijzigen naar het juiste bureau. Veel mensen weten dat niet.'
Zo kon het dat bij de vorige presidentsverkiezingen in 2017 maar liefst 7,6 miljoen Franse kiezers verkeerd stonden ingeschreven, grofweg 15 procent van het totaal aantal stemgerechtigden. Wie daar op verkiezingsdag pas achter komt, is al te laat. 'Daarom gaan we nu langs de huizen om zoveel mogelijk jongeren te helpen zich goed te registreren.' Aan de deur kunnen ze een qr-code scannen die toegang geeft tot een gratis chatbot met informatie en hulp bij de administratieve stappen. 'Het is aan hen te beslissen wat ze doen, maar we geven ze in ieder geval de sleutels.'
Studenten naar de voedselbank 'Is er een deadline voor de inschrijving?' ‰lo¯se staat verbaasd in haar deuropening. De twintiger uit Bretagne mag politieke wetenschappen hebben gestudeerd, maar 'dan nog is het moeilijk op de hoogte te blijven van hoe het allemaal werkt.' Ze staat nog geregistreerd in haar geboortedorp Plour-sur-Rance, al woont en werkt ze tegenwoordig in Parijs. Ze heeft geen flauw idee op wie ze moet gaan stemmen, maar verwacht wel te gaan '' tenminste in de eerste ronde. 'Ik hoop op meer gelijkheid tussen en mannen en vrouwen. En steun aan studenten, want veel jonge mensen werden veroordeeld tot de voedselbank omdat ze door de pandemie hun inkomen verloren. Dat zou niet nodig moeten zijn.'
Mocht geen van de linkse kandidaten het tot de tweede ronde schoppen '' een waarschijnlijk scenario, afgaande op de peilingen '' dan blijft ze misschien alsnog thuis, zegt ‰lo¯se. 'We stemmen dan altijd maar weer voor iemand die we eigenlijk niet willen. In 2017 heb ik dat ook gedaan, maar deze campagne interesseert me een stuk minder dan de vorige keer.'
Game of Thrones Na het schokkende recordaantal onthouders bij de regionale verkiezingen deed het parlement onderzoek naar de oorzaken ervan. Politieke apathie of ronduit wantrouwen over het systeem spelen een rol, net als het gevoel dat stemmen nauwelijks invloed heeft op het dagelijks leven. Vaak is het een bewuste keuze, zo concludeerde de parlementaire onderzoekscommissie. Fransen besluiten massaal niet te stemmen uit verzet tegen de politiek en uit onvrede over politici.
Maar dat jongeren zich niet meer interesseren voor politiek is een veelgehoorde misvatting, zegt Dorian Dreuil, expert bij politiek onderzoeksinstituut Jean Jaur¨s en co-voorzitter van A Vot(C). 'Ze zijn juist steeds meer gengageerd, en heel ge¯nteresseerd in de actualiteit en grote thema's zoals het klimaat of discriminatie. Maar jongeren zijn ook pragmatisch en kiezen voor concrete acties met directe impact, een petitie tekenen of aan een demonstratie meedoen.' Met A Vot(C) hoopt hij te overtuigen dat de stembusgang daarnaast belangrijk is. 'Zoals ze zeggen in Game of Thrones: macht is daar waar mensen denken dat het is.'
Met een pizzadoos onder de arm en een doorzakkende boodschappentas schuifelt Julie de hal van het appartementencomplex binnen. Het vrijwilligersteam komt met hun qr-code als geroepen. 'Cool dat jullie dit doen, ik heb geen idee of ik ben ingeschreven.' Er is weinig duidelijke informatie, verontschuldigt ze zich, en jongeren zijn al zo druk. 'Ik heb geen idee op wie ik moet stemmen of wie de kandidaten zijn', zegt de masterstudent financin. 'Maar als je niet kiest, doet een ander dat voor je. Dus ik denk dat ik wel ga.'
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Turning Muslims Away, Poland Welcomes Ukrainians - WSJ
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 13:03
Warsaw opens door to biggest recent wave of migration into the European Union
March 26, 2019 7:00 am ETWARSAW'--Four and a half years ago, Maryna Karalop packed up and moved from Ukraine to Poland. Since then, so did some two million other Ukrainians'--the biggest wave of migration into the European Union in recent times.
Poland's government has resisted EU quotas to take in asylum-seekers from Syria, Afghanistan and Eritrea whose arrival has reshaped European politics, fueling populist parties across the continent. At the same time, Warsaw rolled out the welcome mat for Ukrainians who sought a better life after the Russian invasion...
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WARSAW'--Four and a half years ago, Maryna Karalop packed up and moved from Ukraine to Poland. Since then, so did some two million other Ukrainians'--the biggest wave of migration into the European Union in recent times.
Poland's government has resisted EU quotas to take in asylum-seekers from Syria, Afghanistan and Eritrea whose arrival has reshaped European politics, fueling populist parties across the continent. At the same time, Warsaw rolled out the welcome mat for Ukrainians who sought a better life after the Russian invasion of 2014 precipitated an economic crisis.
''I see my future here. It's quiet, it's comfortable, I like everything,'' said Ms. Karalop, 40 years old, who with her husband now runs an employment agency in Warsaw that mostly caters to fellow Ukrainians. Her daughter, who is 14, has learned to speak fluent Polish and is enrolled in a local school.
''The biggest reason we're here is the future of our child,'' Ms. Karalop said. ''In Poland, all roads would be opened for her.''
Poland issued more first-time residence permits to non-EU citizens than any other EU nation in 2017, with 86% of them going to Ukrainians, in the latest available European migration statistics. Those Ukrainians accounted for 18.7% of all newcomers to the entire EU.
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The influx, which continues unabated, is bringing a demographic transformation with long-term implications for Poland. The country of 38 million had virtually no ethnic minorities since World War II, when its huge Jewish community was largely wiped out by the Nazis and its borders were shifted westward, leaving ethnically mixed eastern regions in Soviet Ukraine and Belarus.
The exodus also poses challenges for Ukraine, where mass emigration has become a campaign issue ahead of March 31 presidential elections. Yulia Tymoshenko, the former prime minister challenging President Petro Poroshenko, named this outflow as the second biggest danger facing Ukraine after the Russian military onslaught.
''How much time do we have to close our eyes to the fact that a million Ukrainians leave the country each year? Three, two, five years? How much creative class do we still have left before we allow them all to leave?'' she said at a security conference in Munich in February.
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Most other candidates agree on the need to bring Ukrainian workers back home'--something that won't happen until the country's economy starts to recover.
Poland faces a shortage of labor'--and the country's conservative government has favored Ukrainians because most are Christian, unlike Muslim immigrants from Syria or Afghanistan.
''In Poland, there is a general consensus that we don't want the kind of postcolonial Western style of immigration,'' said Radoslaw Sikorski, a former parliament speaker and foreign minister who backs the more liberal opposition. ''People think Christians are all right, and non-Christians are not all right, Christians will assimilate and the non-Christians won't. It's that simple.''
Poland's booming economy needs these workers because millions of working-age Poles'--like millions of other Eastern Europeans'--have taken advantage of EU freedom-of-movement rules over the past decade to seek better-paying jobs in the U.K., Germany and other Western European nations. The Ukrainians are coming to fill the resulting void, part of tectonic shifts in Europe's demographic makeup.
''In Poland, you don't look for work, work looks for you,'' said
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Artem Zozulia, head of the Ukraine Foundation, an organization that helps Ukrainian migrants integrate, in the southwestern city of Wroclaw. ''In Ukraine, finding work is a job.''
In Wroclaw, a city of 630,000 that Poland gained from Germany after World War II, some 90,000 Ukrainians arrived in recent years, local officials said, taking jobs that range from Uber drivers and construction workers to software developers.
Ukrainians make up one-tenth of employees in the city's 200 information-technology companies, said Ewa Kaucz, president of the Wroclaw Agglomeration Development Agency. ''Without the Ukrainians, the situation on the labor market in Wroclaw would be dramatically worse,'' she said.
Ukrainian officials highlight the contribution that their citizens make to Poland's growth, one of Europe's fastest at 5.1% last year. ''It is a large-scale phenomenon because the Polish economy now in many respects doesn't just function, but also develops precisely because of the Ukrainians,'' said Ukraine's Foreign Minister
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Pavlo Klimkin.
While the shared history of Ukraine and Poland had many dark pages, so far the influx has been remarkably uncontroversial in Poland, with only a few fringe groups protesting.
Polish government officials said there hasn't been any significant increase in crime due to Ukrainian immigration, and few incidents of hate crimes. According to an opinion poll released this month, 52% of Poles have favorable feelings toward Ukrainian migrants, 36% are neutral and 12% are hostile.
''I don't have anything against the Ukrainians coming here'--we are doing the same, going to other countries,'' said Krzysztof Lematowicz, a logistics specialist from the Wroclaw area who was strolling through the city's medieval main square on a break from his current job in the Netherlands. ''In the Netherlands, I can see the difference between the Poles and the Dutch. But here, I can't even spot who is a Ukrainian until they start talking.''
Many Polish politicians and officials like to highlight common history and the close relationships between the two countries' cultures, languages and cuisines. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth encompassed much of Ukraine and Belarus until the late 18th century, and the interwar Polish Republic included today's western Ukraine.
''There is a tradition in Poland of living together with Ukrainians and Belarusians,'' said Slawomir Debski, director of the Polish Institute of International Affairs. ''The tradition of a mono-ethnic Poland is relatively new, and it has two main contributors'--Hitler and Stalin. People in Poland understand instinctively that these cultures can live peacefully together without upheavals.''
Polish lawmaker Tomasz Rzymkowski agreed: ''Our cultural differences are very small, and the roots of our nations are intertwined.''
That history also had its share of bloodshed. Uprisings against Polish feudals feature prominently in Ukrainian literature. Ukrainian nationalists assassinated Poland's interior minister in 1934. The worst came during World War II, when anti-Communist Ukrainian nationalists and Polish resistance fighters fought each other, and massacres abounded.
Former Polish lawmaker Krzysztof Bosak, who is now vice president of the National Movement, a far-right anti-immigrant party, says that legacy is one reason why Ukrainian immigration should be curtailed.
''It is a historical fact that we had a big Ukrainian minority, and even a majority in some regions. But there was no common tradition, and the tensions were very big. This is why we have two separate nations,'' Mr. Bosak said.
Though ties between the two governments are generally good today, the different interpretations of this painful past can still poison the relationship. That is especially so as Kiev and Warsaw are promoting historical narratives that whitewash inconvenient facts'--and as Russia seeks to drive a wedge between its two neighbors.
''The number of people in Poland with positive feelings about Ukraine has fallen in recent years,'' cautioned historian Piotr Tyma, who heads the Union of Ukrainians in Poland, an association that represents the country's Ukrainian minority. ''It can very well turn out that this acceptance of the Ukrainian influx is temporary. If Poland's economic conjuncture changes, the anti-Ukrainian voices will become louder.''
Write to Yaroslav Trofimov at
The Pfizer Vaccine Only Has 1,291 Side Effects!
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 12:32
By Emerald Robinson
A judge forced the FDA to release Pfizer's clinical data and it's worse than you can possibly imagine.
The FDA was forced by a judge to release clinical data on the COVID vaccines back in January and so 55,000 pages of documents were just released. The FDA had originally wanted to hide the data for 75 years and release it in 2096 because, of course, the FDA is basically engaged in a criminal conspiracy. The COVID vaccines should never have been approved. This was obvious from the very beginning when animal trials were skipped in the Trump Administration's ill-fated ''Operation War Speed.'' And now it's undeniably true. We have the clinical data, and it's horrific.
Hiding out in one appendix is the clinical data for Pfizer's vaccine '-- which lists 1,291 adverse side effects in alphabetical order. Let's give you just the bad things that can happen to people who took the Pfizer vaccine that start with the letter ''a'' to enjoy:
1p36 deletion syndrome; 2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria; 5'nucleotidase increased; Acoustic neuritis;Acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency;Acquired epidermolysis bullosa;Acquired epileptic aphasia;Acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus;Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis;Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures;Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis;Acute flaccid myelitis;Acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis;Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy;Acute kidney injury;Acute macular outer retinopathy;Acute motor axonal neuropathy;Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy;Acute myocardial infarction;Acute respiratory distress syndrome;Acute respiratory failure;Addison's disease;Administration site thrombosis;Administration site vasculitis;Adrenal thrombosis;Adverse event following immunisation;Ageusia;Agranulocytosis;Air embolism;Alanine aminotransferase abnormal;Alanine aminotransferase increased;Alcoholic seizure;Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis;Allergic oedema;Alloimmune hepatitis;Alopecia areata;Alpers disease;Alveolar proteinosis;Ammonia abnormal;Ammonia increased;Amniotic cavity infection; Amygdalohippocampectomy; Amyloid arthropathy; Amyloidosis; Amyloidosis senile; Anaphylactic reaction; Anaphylactic shock; Anaphylactic transfusion reaction; Anaphylactoid reaction; Anaphylactoid shock; Anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy;Angioedema;Angiopathic neuropathy;Ankylosing spondylitis; Anosmia;Antiacetylcholine receptor antibody positive;Anti-actin antibody positive;Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive;Anti-basal gangliaantibody positive;Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positive;Anti-epithelial antibody positive;Anti-erythrocyte antibody positive;Anti-exosome complex antibody positive;Anti-GAD antibody negative;Anti-GAD antibody positive;Anti-ganglioside antibody positive;Antigliadin antibody positive;Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody positive;Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease;Anti-glycyl-tRNA synthetase antibody positive;Anti-HLA antibody test positive;Anti-IA2 antibody positive;Anti-insulin antibody increased;Anti-insulin antibody positive;Anti-insulin receptor antibody increased;Anti-insulin receptor antibody positive;Anti-interferon antibody negative;Anti-interferon antibody positive;Anti-islet cell antibody positive;Antimitochondrial antibody positive;Anti-muscle specific kinase antibody positive;Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies positive;Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein associated polyneuropathy;Antimyocardial antibody positive;Anti-neuronal antibody positive;Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody increased;Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive;Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive vasculitis;Anti-NMDA antibody positive;Antinuclear antibody increased;Antinuclear antibody positive;Antiphospholipid antibodiespositive;Antiphospholipid syndrome;Anti-platelet antibody positive;Anti-prothrombin antibody positive;Antiribosomal P antibody positive;Anti-RNA polymerase III antibody positive;Anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody test positive;Anti-sperm antibody positive;Anti-SRP antibody positive;Antisynthetase syndrome;Anti-thyroid antibody positive;Anti-transglutaminase antibody increased;Anti-VGCC antibody positive;Anti-VGKC antibody positive;Anti-vimentin antibody positive;Antiviral prophylaxis;Antiviral treatment;Anti-zinc transporter 8 antibody positive;Aortic embolus;Aortic thrombosis;Aortitis;Aplasia pure red cell;Aplastic anaemia;Application site thrombosis;Application site vasculitis;Arrhythmia;Arterial bypass occlusion;Arterial bypass thrombosis;Arterial thrombosis;Arteriovenous fistula thrombosis;Arteriovenous graft site stenosis;Arteriovenous graft thrombosis;Arteritis;Arteritis coronary;Arthralgia;Arthritis;Arthritis enteropathic;Ascites;Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis;Aspartate aminotransferase abnormal;Aspartate aminotransferas increased;Aspartate-glutamate-transporter deficiency;AST to platelet ratio index increased;AST/ALT ratio abnormal;Asthma;Asymptomatic COVID-19;Ataxia;Atheroembolism;Atonic seizures;Atrial thrombosis;Atrophic thyroiditis;Atypical benign partial epilepsy;Atypical pneumonia;Aura;Autoantibody positive;Autoimmune anaemia;Autoimmune aplastic anaemia;Autoimmune arthritis;Autoimmune blistering disease;Autoimmune cholangitis;Autoimmune colitis;Autoimmune demyelinating disease;Autoimmune dermatitis;Autoimmune disorder;Autoimmune encephalopathy;Autoimmune endocrine disorder;Autoimmune enteropathy;Autoimmune eye disorder;Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia;Autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia;Autoimmune hepatitis;Autoimmune hyperlipidaemia;Autoimmune hypothyroidism;Autoimmune inner ear disease;Autoimmune lung disease;Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome;Autoimmune myocarditis;Autoimmune myositis;Autoimmune nephritis;Autoimmune neuropathy;Autoimmune neutropenia;Autoimmunepancreatitis;Autoimmune pancytopenia;Autoimmune pericarditis;Autoimmuneretinopathy;Autoimmune thyroid disorder;Autoimmune thyroiditis;Autoimmuneuveitis;Autoinflammation with infantile enterocolitis;Autoinflammatory disease;Automatism epileptic;Autonomic nervous system imbalance;Autonomic seizure;Axial spondyloarthritis;Axillary vein thrombosis;Axonal and demyelinatingpolyneuropathy;Axonal neuropathy;
You get the idea. There are 9 pages of side effects in small print.
You already know that children, especially young boys, can get myocarditis from the vaccines but you should add to that list the serious possibility of them getting: a brain stem embolism, acute kidney injury, cardiac failure, frontal lobe epilepsy, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, herpes, interstitial lung disease, or Type 1 diabetes mellitus '-- just to pick a few very serious side effects from a very sobering list.
And don't tell me that your chances are slim of getting injured. The U.S. government's own database, the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), has over 1 million reports of ''adverse events'' to the new vaccines '-- with 24,000 events listed as ''death.'' Pfizer was aware of more than 158,000 ''adverse events'' when they asked for approval from the FDA. People had serious issues after taking the Pfizer vaccine and Pfizer knew it before it sought approval for its vaccine. Look at this chart compiled by Pfizer itself.
Why would the FDA approve a new vaccine when 15,000 people had serious disorders of the nervous system after taking it?
There's simply no good reason.
Tell your friends and tell your family: the vaccination of children must stop immediately. The U.S. government has bought 50 million doses of this poison for children under the age of 5 pedning FDa approval and it must never be allowed to use them.
Call your elected representatives, call your senators, call everyone you know to put a stop to this today.
Do not allow anyone to jab a child with this stuff.
If Ever There Were a Time for Financial Freedom, It's Now
Sat, 05 Mar 2022 12:31
Michael J. Casey is CoinDesk's Chief Content Officer.
In years hence, when we look back on how cryptocurrencies became integrated into the global economy, this week may be viewed as a turning point.
For one, there was the unprecedented phenomenon of a besieged European government crowdfunding armament procurement with donations from around the world, demonstrating not only crypto's global capacity for peer-to-peer fund transfers but also the power of decentralized action as decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO) and other crypto communities swiftly mobilized. At the same time, the West's swift move to cut off Russian banks from the SWIFT messaging system gave people a crash lesson in the gatekeeping plumbing of the incumbent international financial system to which cryptocurrencies offer an alternative.
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More importantly, people have been forced to reckon with cryptocurrency's value proposition and what it means to embrace it.
Crypto is about financial freedom. It has always been about freedom. But at least now we have a stark set of scenarios to help people get their heads around it. I hope that will help them not only see crypto's potential to change entrenched paradigms but also to consider with more open minds the challenges it poses to our existing priorities and assumptions.
These issues were thrust into the spotlight by decisions from crypto exchanges such as Kraken and Binance to deny a Ukrainian request that they disable transfers to all Russian accounts, indiscriminately. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton told Rachel Maddow that she was ''disappointed'' that some ''so-called crypto exchanges'' were ''refusing to end transactions with Russia for some philosophy of libertarianism or whatever.''
This might seem reasonable to you. After all, assigning blame between the two warring forces in this conflict is pretty much black and white. So, why not keep the crypto money flowing to Ukraine's bitcoin (BTC) and ether (ETH) addresses but starve Russia? What's so wrong with that?
The problem is this isn't just about blocking the Russian central bank's assets or seizing the yacht of a Vladimir Putin crony oligarch under order of sanctions. A blanket block on Russian crypto accounts would cut off millions of ordinary citizens, many of whom are now desperate for money as panic provoked by sanctions has drained ATMs of cash and crashed the ruble's exchange rate. This would arbitrarily and individually target Russian citizens.
Among all those cut off from funds, there'd be no way to determine who among them supports the war. By many accounts, dissent runs far deeper in Russia than the thousands of brave souls who've turned up to protests in Moscow and were arrested for their troubles. Given Russian authorities' standoffish approach to bitcoin, it's fair to assume Putin's domestic cronies aren't big crypto users. Meanwhile, there are a multitude of reasons why it's near impossible for the government to use crypto to avoid sanctions in any meaningful way, as Blockchain Association General Counsel Jake Chervinsky and others have pointed out. There's a bigger point to all this: Crypto's raison d'etre is to be a store of value and a medium of exchange that people can freely use without interference by outside parties. The minute that is impeded, for whatever reasons, that higher purpose is lost.
To be sure, whenever bitcoin users move funds out of self-custody wallets into centralized custodial exchanges such as Kraken and Binance to buy or sell fiat, they relinquish the mode of autonomy on which cryptocurrency's freedom-inspired ethos is founded. However, the most successful among them are trusted because, consumed by that same ethos, they are aligned philosophically, economically and fiduciarily with their customers' belief in it (and roundly castigated any time they stray from it). Officials should recognize and support the principled stance these exchanges are taking toward their users.
My own support for it, by the way, does not stem from ''some philosophy of libertarianism or whatever.'' It is grounded in the practical reality that '' to quote the pseudonymous Web 3 thought leader 6529: ''There are no other constitutional rights in substance without freedom to transact.'' The idea: It's all very well for governments to profess support for free speech, but if they prevent citizens from obtaining or sending funds to pay for, say, a computer or for internet access, they effectively deny them that right.
The widely cited tweet thread from which 6529's comment was lifted was produced in response to Canada's move to force exchanges to restrict crypto payments to people associated with the truckers protest there '' a situation that now seems tiny in comparison to the crisis facing the world.
It's hard to find anything positive arising from the horrors in Ukraine. But if there is one, it might be that Russia's despicable actions have restored a fervor in the West for the freedoms we enjoy and an acknowledgment that we must fight to protect them.
I hope this newfound awareness of the need to promote and protect financial freedom also arises from this moment.
The leader in news and information on cryptocurrency, digital assets and the future of money, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups. As part of their compensation, certain CoinDesk employees, including editorial employees, may receive exposure to DCG equity in the form of stock appreciation rights, which vest over a multi-year period. CoinDesk journalists are not allowed to purchase stock outright in DCG.
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Russia could turn to Bitcoin mining to fight sanctions -
Fri, 04 Mar 2022 14:09
Rich in energy, but starved of foreign currency, Russia may use Bitcoin mining to dent the impact of ever tougher sanctions as the war in Ukraine drags on, according to one analyst.
''It wouldn't be a stretch for the Russian government or certain sanctioned entities to look to mining as a way to get access to Bitcoin,'' said David Carlisle, director of Policy and Regulatory Affairs at blockchain analytics firm Elliptic.
''They could be translated to goods and services or just hard cash.''
Countries such as Iran might have already leveraged mining of crypto currencies, which is highly energy intensive, to convert its sanctioned energy into Bitcoin and hard currency for the government.
About 4.5% of Bitcoin mining took place in Iran in the last year, potentially generating $1 billion for the government, Carlisle said.
At the same time, Russia and Belarus have been two of the most welcoming countries after China issued a blanket ban on crypto mining last May.
China was the largest Bitcoin mining hub in the world and some Chinese miners have migrated to central Asia and eastern Europe, including Russia.
Russia's President Vladmir Putin has backed crypto mining, despite the Bank of Russia's proposal to ban mining and trading. Belarus said in January it would continue its liberal crypto rules.
Carlisle listed crypto mining along with cyber crime and non-compliant entities such as certain crypto exchanges as three potential ways for Russia to evade sanctions.
However, given the size of Russia's economy and its financial market, crypto is unlikely to play a big role in helping Russia to circumvent sanctions.
Now read: Bitcoin falls on reports that Russia shelled Ukrainian nuclear plant
VIDEO - (21) '­¸Amy Tarkanian'­¸ on Twitter: "Lindsey Graham & John McCain in Ukraine in December 2016 preparing for a proxy war with Russia all the way back then. Then, Trump came in and stopped it all from happening." / Twi
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:42
'­¸Amy Tarkanian'­¸ : Lindsey Graham & John McCain in Ukraine in December 2016 preparing for a proxy war with Russia all the way back the'...
Fri Mar 04 12:33:04 +0000 2022
VIDEO - Dr. Fauci Reflects on HIV Colleagues Lost in Flight MH-17 |
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:13
On Sunday, July 20, 2014, just before the opening of the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Australia, we had the opportunity to speak with Dr. Anthony Fauci, Director of NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) about the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.Among those lost was world-renowned AIDS researcher Dr. Joep Lange, former president of the International AIDS Society, which organizes the conference. This enormous loss is on the minds of all conference participants and many HIV/AIDS colleagues around the globe. In his brief video, Dr. Fauci expresses his condolences to the family and friends of those lost and shares inspiration from Dr. Lange.
For more coverage from the conference visit: AIDS 2014.
VIDEO - Series of overdoses reported in Downtown Austin |
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:03
Officials said at least 12 people were transported and two people died.
AUSTIN, Texas '-- The Austin Police Department is investigating after a series of overdoses occurred overnight.
On Friday morning, Austin-Travis County EMS confirmed there were a total of seven incidents in the downtown area, with 12 people taken to hospitals. Two people died on the scene.
ATCEMS said the overdoses all happened between midnight and 7 a.m., and they all appear to be connected from a "medical standpoint." Medics said the signs and symptoms were all similar.
NEW: @KVUE has learned at least 2 people died from suspected overdoses overnight & several others were taken to the hospital. Medics responded to at least 3 scenes w/ multiple patients, as well as other one-off scenes, all in the downtown area. More expected from officials later.
'-- Bryce Newberry (@Bryce_Newberry) March 4, 2022In an update on Saturday morning, the Travis County Office of the Chief Medical Officer said hospital partners had identified the agent as xylazine, an analog of clonidine, an opiate analog.
The medical officer said xylazine is used in veterinary medicine as a sedative and analgesic with muscle relaxant properties. It is also used to cause vomiting. Human studies on the drug were halted because of serious side effects.
Naloxone can be used as an antidote for the drug. The medical officer has advised EMS medics and providers to have adequate stocks of naloxone, airway management and suctioning equipment to help contain the outbreak and prevent further harm to the community.
An increase in opiate overdose incidents and naloxone use has been noted in the system over the last few days. Hospital...
Posted by Office Of The Chief Medical Officer - City Of Austin-Travis County on Saturday, March 5, 2022Police initially believed fentanyl, a synthetic opiate similar to heroin, was involved in a few of the incidents. Fentanyl can be in a pill, powder, patch, solid or liquid form. It can also be lethal in small amounts.
"Investigators are currently working to confirm the drugs involved, the source of those drugs, and any connections between the victims," the APD said. "The community needs to be aware of this public health risk and the dangers associated with the drug fentanyl."
Officials said the patients were all over the age of 18. Sgt. Tracy Gerrish with the APD Homicide Unit said in a Friday afternoon press conference that she believes the two people that died were people experiencing homelessness.
"Going back and looking at stats, it looks like about 20% to 25% of our overdoses are in the people-experiencing-homelessness community. So, this fentanyl reaches all aspects of life and all ages. We had two juveniles last weekend overdose on fentanyl. So it's everywhere and in every community," she said.
ATCEMS Cpt. Darren Noak said that a total of 13 ambulances and 10 command assets responded to the overdose incidents.
"Most of these patients that we encountered were exhibiting signs and symptoms of opioid overdoses but, then again, there were some that had other signs and symptoms that were not consistent with opioid overdoses," Noak said. "Currently, the office of the chief medical officer is providing a medical advisory to all of our local medical providers."
Gerrish said overdoses have been increasing annually and that there have been about 25 or 30 cases this year so far. She said that, in the past week, police officers have used Narcan in three or four incidents where people were experiencing an overdose.
"We're definitely seeing a lot more overdoses and it is a fentanyl crisis right now," Gerrish said.
Gerrish also said it is possible that the overnight incidents could be attributed to a particular batch of the drug being distributed.
Both Gerrish and Noak said APD and ATCEMS are prepared for the upcoming SXSW festival.
"I can tell you that with SXSW coming up, police response is going to be to flood the downtown area with narcotics officers, undercover officers who are going to get dealers in and around the downtown area," Gerrish said.
Anyone with information regarding these cases is asked to call APD Homicide or the Organized Crime division at 512-974-8477 (TIPS), or use the Crime Stoppers app. Tips can be submitted anonymously.
Stanford soccer player Katie Meyer, 22, dies
Austin-Travis County moves to Stage 2 of COVID-19 guidelines for first time since May 2021
Two arrested after SWAT call evacuates residents from southeast Austin apartments
VIDEO - (22) Jack Posobiec 🇺🇸 on Twitter: "He's right" / Twitter
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 16:00
Jack Posobiec 🇺🇸 : He's right
Sat Mar 05 12:05:36 +0000 2022
VIDEO - School districts recruiting teachers in Mexico to fill vacancies
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 15:16
The Education Service Center along with several school districts in Region 2 are traveling to Mexico to interview potential teacher candidates to meet the growing demand in their schools.
The 'Exchange Teachers' Visiting International Teacher Program was approved by the ESC-2 Board of Directors in December 2021. District officials from Beeville ISD, Gregory-Portland ISD, Kingsville ISD, Robstown ISD, and San Diego ISD are conducting interviews in the state of Tlaxcala.
''There are 65 candidates available right now. It does not mean we are going to use all 65, it's just what the district is needing at this time,'' said ESC-2 Associate Director of Curriculum, Instruction & Accountability Dr. Daniel Ceballos.
District leaders say COVID-19 exacerbated the demand for educators. The need goes beyond teachers in core subjects like math and science.
''Now it's really English teachers, special ed teachers, bilingual teachers, those are in high demand,'' said Kingsville ISD Superintendent Dr. Cissy Reynolds-Perez. ''There may be potential other vacancies, because usually about May or April is when people start deciding if they are going to retire or not and so we just need to have a pool ready to make sure that we can fill those vacancies quickly and easily.''
Region 2 directors are looking forward to bringing highly qualified candidates into the classrooms though this specialized partnership.
''Making sure that all the shortages positions are taken care of, I think it's going to be important not only to the teachers but the kids and the communities there,'' said Dr. Ceballos. ''And what a better way than to have somebody also, an international teacher that comes in to also learn about the different culture as well, I think it's an added benefit.''
Copyright 2022 Scripps Media, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
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VIDEO - A closer look at the volunteers who are signing up to fight the Russians : NPR
Sun, 06 Mar 2022 14:51
Ukraine's western city of Lviv has, so far, been spared the worst of Russia's invasion. But a diverse resistance is taking shape there and is reinforcing some of the cities now under attack.
It's a city that has so far been spared the worst of Russia's war on Ukraine. And that means it's had time to prepare and even reinforce the cities now under attack. Here a diverse resistance is taking shape. And it's made up of everyone from rank-and-file soldiers to a seasoned fighter driven by ideology to a house painter who's never picked up a weapon. At a military enlistment center, men are signing up to fight. A couple women that are nurses want to be military medics. They turn around and see Zhora Malconyan.
And I saw you walking up with your duffle bag. What are you going to do here?
ZHORA MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) Defend the Ukraine.
FADEL: The 19-year-old is trying to sign up to fight. The interior design student says when he tried last week, it was chaos.
MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) They were only taking the people who served before. So now I'm back here to try to sign up again.
FADEL: He hates the Russian government for attacking his country, the Belarusian government for threatening to join the attack, but not the people. His grandparents are in Belarus. He talks to them every day and sends the money.
What do you want to do? Where do you want to go?
MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) Wherever I would be sent - I don't care.
FADEL: So if they send - if they say, all right, go to Kharkiv, go to Kyiv, you're ready. You're going to go today.
MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) Of course. Yes.
FADEL: You're not scared?
MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) No. Why? They came to our land. So they have to be scared, not us.
FADEL: What's in your bag?
MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) Metal cups, a bag, uniform, medic - sweets.
FADEL: So you're ready to go.
MALCONYAN: (Through interpreter) Yes (laughter).
FADEL: He runs off to get in line as Yulia Kravatz and her brother embrace their father. They walk off in tears. Her father fought against Russian forces in 2014 when they annexed Crimea.
YULIA KRAVATZ: (Crying) And now he's going to the war again. And I hope that it will finish soon because we need our fathers here in our homes. And we want stay in our country. And we want to be freedom from Russia - occupation. And we hope that our father will come back alive.
FADEL: I pray that he will. I pray he will. And what did you just say to him when you said goodbye?
KRAVATZ: Come back alive. We wait on you.
FADEL: Her mother isn't with them. She couldn't face the goodbye.
KRAVATZ: She just told father that she is waiting for him and hope he will come back soon.
FADEL: Did you ever tell him, don't go?
KRAVATZ: Sure. But our father is a nationalist. And he love Ukraine very much. And he said, if I don't go, then who will go? So we need to do this.
UNIDENTIFIED INSTRUCTOR #1: (Speaking Ukrainian).
UNIDENTIFIED INSTRUCTOR #2: (Speaking Ukrainian).
FADEL: Across town, hundreds of people stand in an open field watching three instructors who rotate - one on first aid, another on how to make Molotov cocktails and third on weapons. After the demonstration, there are questions from the crowd.
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #1: (Through interpreter). Tell me, please, how many seconds it takes for the whole magazine to be empty.
UNIDENTIFIED INSTRUCTOR #1: (Speaking Ukrainian).
FADEL: In the crowd, I find Micola.
And what's your full name?
MICOLA: No - because my family now in Belarus.
FADEL: The fact that he's fighting Russia would put his family in danger in Belarus, where Russia has control and troops are poised to join the attack on Ukraine. Micola's with a few other Belarusians learning about weapons. He says they are all part of a group of foreign fighters that are forming to fight Russian troops assaulting Ukrainian cities.
MICOLA: I'm waiting guys from Poland - Belarus guys from Poland. We are united here and go to Kyiv to help our guys.
FADEL: He's here today because some of the men with him have no experience, so they're watching the instructors.
MICOLA: I'd like to hang instead of lamps as much ruskis (ph) as I can.
FADEL: Missiles?
MICOLA: Ruskis - Russians.
FADEL: If you didn't catch that, he says he wants to see Russians hanging from every lamppost. And you said you fought before. Or is that a...
MICOLA: I'm a hunter.
MICOLA: I have a lot of experience for killing animals.
FADEL: But have you ever killed...
FADEL: ...A person?
MICOLA: No. It's more easier to kill a person than animal.
FADEL: Really?
MICOLA: Yeah - because if you hate some person, it's OK. I don't hate animals.
FADEL: Next to him is a tall man with a beard and tattoos visible on his hand and neck. He gives only his first name, Andree.
ANDREE: I'm the head of the foreign fighters who come from Europe to Azov Battalion. This is my group. Now they're going to make a tactical training. Then they're going to go to the front.
FADEL: So let's talk about the Azov Battalion. That regiment has a reputation for having the fiercest fighters in Ukraine. The paramilitary is credited with recapturing the southern port city of Mariupol from Russian separatists in 2014. And despite their neo-Nazi affiliations, they were folded into Ukraine's National Guard. Groups like this are what Putin uses when he tries to paint Ukraine as rife with Nazis. It's part of his justification for invading. Andree bristles when our producer, Graham Smith, asks about a symbol he's wearing.
GRAHAM SMITH, BYLINE: So I can't help but notice the patch on your shoulder.
ANDREE: (Unintelligible).
SMITH: I think it's a patch that's associated with kind of a right-wing political movement.
MICOLA: Cannot say that.
SMITH: What's the name of it?
ANDREE: Cannot say that.
FADEL: He won't say.
SMITH: Political movement.
ANDREE: It's not far-right.
SMITH: I don't know how to describe it.
FADEL: In times of war, people don't always ask questions about who's coming to defend them. And it seems like a lot of people are coming.
ANDREE: A lot of them come from Belarus.
FADEL: Belarus.
ANDREE: Yeah. A lot of them come from Lukashenko regime and Putin. A lot of them come from United States and Germany, Switzerland.
FADEL: You have Americans in your group.
ANDREE: We have Americans. And also, America's on the way.
FADEL: They're on their way.
FADEL: How many Americans would you say are in your group?
ANDREE: Cannot say this.
FADEL: You can't say this. I have to ask, is there any concern to have so many foreign fighters coming to Ukraine that you don't know who they are, why they're coming?
ANDREE: They all been checked.
FADEL: How do you check them?
ANDREE: Cannot say this.
FADEL: So far, only 10 are in the country, but he expects hundreds. And Andree is eager to stop with the logistics and get to the fight in Kyiv.
ANDREE: It actually was funny thing. I told superior guys that I feel like I'm a tour agent and they want to go back (laughter).
FADEL: You feel like a what?
ANDREE: A tour agent - guys come here. Drive this. Go over there. Do this. So the guys - I'm sick of this s***. I'm going to go over there. No way (laughter). There soon will be no Russians left.
FADEL: When do you think you're going to go?
ANDREE: (Sighing).
FADEL: Yet another question that he can't answer.
LUKA: Well, not exactly - but because the city expanded.
FADEL: So we're out in front of this abandoned factory that is now the site, I guess, of people building Molotov cocktails. We're going to go inside and see what's up.
FADEL: We pull back a plastic curtain and walk through what looks like a hipster cafe and then out back.
FADEL: So this whole courtyard is filled with what look like abandoned buildings. But they're artist studios and apparently underground clubs.
LUKA: Oh, you see - it's hanging over there?
FADEL: Who is hanging over there?
LUKA: Vladimir Putin.
FADEL: Oh, wow. There's an effigy over here of this guy. Yeah - Vladimir Putin hanging from a balcony of what looks like an abandoned building.
LUKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #2: (Speaking Ukrainian).
LUKA: It's - American journalist.
FADEL: Hello.
FADEL: OK. This is a theater - usually. (Inhale). It smells like gas. This whole room smells like gas.
LUKA: Of course. So don't smoke cigarettes.
FADEL: Don't smoke cigarettes in here (laughter).
LUKA: That open to there?
FADEL: What's back here?
So they just lifted a black curtain, and we walked in, and there's a bunch of empty bottles.
So what is this?
METROV SOVKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
LUKA: "It's just prepared empty bottles to maybe make the cocktail for our occupants."
FADEL: It feels like an artist collective - you know, if firebombs weren't being made here. There are bicycles mounted on the wall, one of them covered in dried flowers, spray-painted murals on empty lockers.
Metrov Sovka is running the operation today. Just last week, before the war started, he was a house painter.
SOVKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
LUKA: "Now, like, this unites everyone. And I never thought, I'm going to do this. I had absolutely different, like, view on life."
FADEL: You said you had an absolutely different view on life. Like, describe what you were like six days ago.
LUKA: (Speaking Ukrainian). "I like more of a chill, relaxed, laid-back lifestyle. Like, I come back home from work, and I smoke a hookah and I relax,"
FADEL: OK. And so how did you end up being the Molotov cocktail factory guy (laughter)?
SOVKA: Oh, YouTube, Google.
LUKA: "And then we tested it out on that wall over there."
FADEL: Oh. So this black...
SOVKA: Yes. Yes.
FADEL: ...Burns all over this wall is from practicing?
SOVKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
FADEL: They're sending them to the front lines, to various check points. But Sovka hopes the Russians turn back before these firebombs are ever used.
SOVKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
LUKA: "So this is a point that we always had friends in Russia. And - but Russian people - we have to understand that it's the Russian government who is the terrorists in this situation."
FADEL: They offer to put one together. They take us outside to show us how it works.
SOVKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #3: (Speaking Ukrainian).
SOVKA: (Speaking Ukrainian).
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #4: (Speaking Ukrainian).
FADEL: If the Russians make it here, they say, this is where they'll face their biggest fight.
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Clips & Documents

Audio Clips
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ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - russia bombs nuclear plant (1min22sec).mp3
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ABC WNT - anchor Deirdre Bolton - gas prices rising fastest in history (47sec).mp3
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Blinken report NPR.mp3
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CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - [sign-off] pray for ukraine (7sec).mp3
CBS Mornings - anchor Gayle King - Melinda Gates bills friendship with epstein (1min11sec).mp3
CBS Weekend - anchor Adriana Diaz - [headline] defiant no-fly zone (15sec).mp3
CBS Weekend - anchor Natalie Brand - request (1) migs or close the skies (50sec).mp3
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Explanation 4 guilt trip.mp3
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ISO Nilch.mp3
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old leaked burns wikileak TWO kicker.mp3
Pat Robertson -Putin is being compelled by God to invade Ukraine in preparation for a massive End Times invasion of Israel.mp3
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