Google, Mozilla Blacklist Gab's 'Dissenter' Free Speech Browser Extension | Breitbart
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 14:27
Joe Raedle/Getty ImagesBoth Google and Mozilla have banned Gab's Dissenter.com extension from their browsers' extension stores. Dissenter's mission is to bring a free speech comment system to every site on the Internet.The developers at Gab recently launched a new platform called Dissenter, which acts as a comment system for every website on the internet. Dissenter has a web interface, but also created an extension for popular web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome. Now both companies, which together hold a large majority of the PC browser market, have blacklisted the Dissenter extension from their browser extension galleries.
The issue was first noted by Gab and Dissenter founder Andrew Torba who posted the email he received from Mozilla to Twitter, the tweet can be seen below:
Dissenter is a brand-new product with one primary rule '' people can exercise their First Amendment rights online in plain text. Apparently @Mozilla regards this as a violation of their terms of service. pic.twitter.com/OisY19H7aI
'-- Dissenter.com ð'¬Gab.com (@getongab) April 10, 2019
Approximately 24 hours later, Google reached out to inform Torba that the Dissenter extension was also being removed from the Chrome extension store:
Like clockwork, Google Chrome has removed Dissenter from the Chrome Extension Store.
You want to talk about collusion?
Chrome and Firefox have 75% of web browser market share. Just a coincidence that within 24 hours they both remove Dissenter, right? pic.twitter.com/BbdtKX0OAi
'-- Dissenter.com ð'¬Gab.com (@getongab) April 11, 2019
Breitbart News reached out to Torba for comment on Dissenter's removal from the extension store, Torba told Breitbart News: ''Gab is the home of free speech online. The company allows all speech that is protected by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, Gab's Dissenter extension was, yesterday, ejected without cause from the Google and Mozilla Extension Stores. This is the most recent example of a months-long coordinated campaign to eject Gab from as many corners of the Internet as possible. Our crowdfunding platform, StartEngine, kicked us off of their platform last month, and is refusing to return $150,000 in fees we paid to them. We plan to sue.''
Torba noted that this isn't the first time that sites like Gab and Dissenter have faced blacklisting by tech firms: ''Payments companies like Paypal, Stripe, Square, Cash App, Coinbase, and Bitpay have all booted us off. Microsoft Azure, Joyent, GoDaddy, Apple, Google's Android store, and other infrastructure providers, too, have denied us service, all because we refuse to censor user-generated content that is within the boundaries of the law.''
But Torba and the rest of the Gab and Dissenter teams don't plan to give up just yet, instead, they plan to release their own web browser: ''We now plan to fork the Chromium browser and enter into the browser market with a new offering that puts free speech and users first. We will also build an app store for this browser that doesn't discriminate against anyone and puts users, their privacy, and their freedom first.''
The Dissenter extension can still be installed directly from the Dissenter.com website but is no longer available in the Mozilla or Chrome extension stores.
Lucas Nolan is a reporter for Breitbart News covering issues of free speech and online censorship. Follow him on Twitter @LucasNolan or email him at email@example.com
MOST POPULARFROM THE HOMEPAGE
Georgetown votes to raise tuition by $27 to pay for reparations
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 14:13
On Thursday, students at Georgetown University voted to raise tuition at the school by $27.20 per semester to provide reparations to the descendants of 272 slaves owned and later sold by the school in the 1800s.
The vote was part of a nonbinding student referendum. Approximately 66% of students voted in favor.
"The university values the engagement of our students and appreciates that 3,845 students made their voices heard in yesterday's election. Our students are contributing to an important national conversation and we share their commitment to addressing Georgetown's history with slavery," said Todd Olson, Georgetown Vice President for Student Affairs, in a written statement.
Olson's statement indicates that the funds are intended to be used to advance "causes and proposals that directly benefit descendants still residing in underprivileged communities." Exactly how those causes and proposals will be enacted is still to be determined.
"There are many approaches that enable our community to respond to the legacies of slavery," he writes. "The University has made a commitment to further our efforts in dialogue and partnership with the Descendant community, seeking to promote work that draws on the inherent strengths and expertise of our community in collaboration with the Descendant and Jesuit communities and that promotes racial justice."
The results of the referendum are as follows: 66.08% for yes (2541 votes), 33.92% for no (1304 votes). This means that the referendum passes.
'-- GUSA Elections (@GUSAElections) April 12, 2019The move would raise approximately $380,800 per year from the university's 7,000 undergraduate students starting during the fall 2020 semester. For the 2019-2020 school year, Georgetown's undergraduate tuition is $27,720 per semester, or about $55,440 per year, making it one of the most expensive schools in the country.
Georgetown has one of the wealthiest student bodies in the country. According to analysis by The New York Times, the median family income of a student from Georgetown is $229,100, and 74% come from the highest-earning 20% of American households.
At its founding, Georgetown relied financially on profits from Jesuit-owned plantations in Maryland. According to The New York Times, when the school was in need of funds in 1838, the Jesuit priests who founded and ran the college decided to sell the slaves on these plantations.
The sale of those individuals resulted in the separation of numerous families and forced hundreds into horrific conditions. It raised the 2019 equivalent of roughly $3.3 million for the school. Today, the school's endowment is valued at $1.66 billion.
"The school wouldn't be here without them," Shepard Thomas, a junior at Georgetown who is a part of the student organization that advocated for the referendum, tells The New York Times. "Students here always talk about changing the world after they graduate. Why not change the world when you're here?"
In 2016, Georgetown decided to provide admissions preference to the descendants of the slaves sold by the school.
"It makes me feel happy that we, as students, decided to set a precedent for the betterment of people's lives," says Thomas, who is himself a descendant of slaves sold by the university.
Mladen Antonov | AFP | Getty Images
Healy Hall, the flagship building of Georgetown University's main campus in Washington, D.C.
The New York Times estimates that over dozen universities, including Brown and Harvard, have publicly recognized their ties to slavery, but few schools have taken measures like those at Georgetown.
Reparations have also become a popular political topic among presidential candidates '-- Senators Cory Booker, Kamala Harris and Elizabeth Warren each support some form of reparations research or initiative. On Tuesday, Booker introduced legislation to the Senate that would look into and study reparations.
"Since slavery in this country, we have had overt policies fueled by white supremacy and racism that have oppressed African-Americans economically for generations," Booker said in a statement. "This bill is a way of addressing head-on the persistence of racism, white supremacy, and implicit racial bias in our country. It will bring together the best minds to study the issue and propose solutions that will finally begin to right the economic scales of past harms and make sure we are a country where all dignity and humanity is affirmed."
Like this story? Subscribe to CNBC Make It on YouTube!
It costs over $70,000 a year to go to Harvard'--but here's how much students actually payLori Lightfoot makes history as Chicago's first black woman and first openly gay mayorFewer than 1 in 5 Americans think the college admissions process is fair
Austria mulls user registration for online platforms - The Local
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 14:12
Austria said Wednesday it was considering a law to make it mandatory for big internet platforms to register their users and deprive those behind hate posts of anonymity.
"Unfortunately there have been an increasing number of clear violations, denigrations and humiliations online in the past under the cover of anonymity.
That's why we need a framework for more responsibility online," Chancellor Sebastian Kurz wrote on Twitter.
The new law would take effect in 2020 and would make it mandatory for platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram to register their users, said Gernot Bluemel, minister in charge of EU affairs, art, culture and media.
It would be up to the platforms themselves to decide the form of registration, but authorities would be able to access users' identities in case of hate postings or on suspicion of other laws being broken, he said.
"The online space should not be a space without laws," Bluemel told reporters after a weekly cabinet meeting, adding that Austria aimed to set a precedent for other countries in the matter.
French President Emmanuel Macron earlier this year caused controversy by suggesting a ban on anonymous postings on social media.
In Austria, the law would have to be approved MPs as well as the European Commission to make sure it is in line with EU guidelines that stipulate, for example, that member states cannot regulate a platform provider more strictly than its country of origin.
The proposed law would only apply to internet platforms that have a certain reach -- more than 100,000 users or 500,000 euros ($430,000) annual turnover in Austria -- as well as online media that receive more than 50,000 euros in state aid, Bluemel said.
Austrian opposition parties have criticised the proposal, saying it restricts online freedom and gives even more user data to online giants, such as Facebook, which is already under fire over how it handles such information.
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:35
1 STATUS OF ATTORNEY GENERAL APPROVED U.S. PERSON PROCEDURES UNDER E.O. 12333 May 16, 2017 Executive Order 12333, United States Intelligence Activities, establishes the Executive Branch framework for the country's national intelligence efforts, and for protecting privacy and civil liberties in the conduct of intelligence activities. It was originally issued by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. It was most recently revised and re-issued by President George W. Bush in 2008. ODNI released an information paper to explain the 2008 changes. Part 1 of the Order lays out the various roles and responsibilities of our national security and intelligence elements of the Executive Branch. Restrictions on the conduct of intelligence activities are contained in Part 2 of the Executive Order. Definitions and general terms are addressed in Part 3. Under Section 2.3, Intelligence Community elements may collect, retain, and disseminate information concerning United States persons pursuant to procedures established by the head of the IC element and approved by the Attorney General after consultation with the DNI. In February 2015, as part of the dialogue between the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board and the Intelligence Community, the ODNI compiled a table providing information about the Attorney-General approved guidelines under EO 12333. The table lists the dates on which each element's guidelines were adopted and provides links to the guidelines if not classified. The table is now updated to reflect additional publicly available documents.
2 IC Element AG-Approved Procedures Classification Notes/Where Posted For Public Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Intelligence Agency Intelligence Activities: Procedures Approved by the Attorney General Pursuant to Executive Order 12333 (January 17, 2017) These documents are UNCLASSIFIED. Posted on C=A's public Privacy and Civil Liberties homepage Central Intelligence Agency Intelligence Activities: Procedures Approved by the Attorney General Pursuant to Executive Order 12333: https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/privacy-and-civil-liberties/CIA-AG-Guidelines-Signed.pdf Statement on the Release of the Central =ntelligence Agency's Updated Executive Order 12333 Procedures: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/press-releases-statements/2017-press-releases-statements/statement-on-updated-EO-12333-procedures.html Detailed Overview of CIA AG Guidelines: https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/privacy-and-civil-liberties/Detailed-Overview-CIA-AG-Guidelines.pdf
3 IC Element AG-Approved Procedures Classification Notes/Where Posted For Public Department of Defense (DoD) Intelligence Components1 DoD Manual 5240.1, Procedures Governing the Conduct of DoD Intelligence Activities (August 8, 2016) Classified Annex to DoD 5240.01-R Procedures (May 27, 1988) Supplemental Procedures [to DoD 5240.1-R] Governing Communications Metadata Analysis (approved by AG Mukasey, SECDEF Gates) (January 3, 2008) DoD Manual 5240.1 is UNCLASSIFIED. The Classified Annex is classified ''SECRET//S=.'' The Supplemental Procedures were originally classified ''SECRET//S='' DoD Manual 5240.1 is publicly posted by DoD in multiple locations. See, for example, http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/524001m.pdf. The Classified Annex of DoD 5240.1-R will remain in effect until superseded. The Classified Annex has been published in redacted form on IC on the Record - beginning on page 118 of this document: http://www.dni.gov/files/documents/1118/CLEANED022.%20NSA%20Core%20Intelligence%20Oversight%20Training.pdf. The Supplemental Procedures have been declassified and published without redaction: http://www.dni.gov/files/documents/0909/DoD%20Supplemental%20Procedures%2020080314.pdf In addition, note that NSA also follows United States Signals Directive (USSID) SP0018, Legal Compliance and U.S. Persons Minimization Procedures (January 25, 2011). USSID 18 is classified ''SECRET//S=.'' =t has been published in redacted form: http://www.dni.gov/files/documents/1118/CLEANEDFinal%20USSID%20SP0018.pdf 1 National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and the intelligence and counterintelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps.
4 IC Element AG-Approved Procedures Classification Notes/Where Posted For Public Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)2 ODNI Instruction 20.01 (April 21, 2005) adopting CIA AG-approved Guidelines. The ODNI Instruction is UNCLASSIFIED The ODN= publicly posts ''=ntelligence Community Directives'' which apply to the IC as a whole. It does not publish its internal policies (referred to as ''=nstructions''). ODNI Instruction 20.01 is a general policy that adopts CIA regulations until superseded by an applicable ODNI Instruction. The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) is part of the ODNI, and has its own AG-approved procedures - Guidelines for Access, Retention, Use, and Dissemination by the National Counterterrorism Center And Other Agencies of Information in Datasets Containing Non-Terrorism Information (March 22, 2012). This document is UNCLASS=F=ED, and is posted on NCTC's public website at http://www.nctc.gov/transparency.html. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The Attorney General Guidelines for Domestic FBI Operations (September 29, 2008) This document is UNCLASSIFIED. This unclassified document is posted on the Department of Justice public website at http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/ag/legacy/2008/10/03/guidelines.pdf. Department of Homeland Security Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) Office of Intelligence and Analysis Intelligence Oversight Program and Guidelines (January 19, 2017). This document is UNCLASSIFIED. This unclassified document is posted on the DHS public website at https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/office-of-intelligence-and-analysis-intelligence-oversight-program-and-guidelines.pdf 2 Section 1.7 of EO 12333 sets forth the duties and responsibilities of each IC element. These duties and responsibilities generally include collection, analysis, and dissemination of information to support that =C element's mission. Regarding collection of information, Section 1.7 provides that the following =C elements shall collect information ''overtly or through publicly available sources'': ODN= (including NCTC); D:S =&A; State =NR; Treasury O=A; DEA ONSI; and Energy Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence.
5 IC Element AG-Approved Procedures Classification Notes/Where Posted For Public United States Coast Guard (USCG)- Intelligence and counterintelligence elements Pending issuance of final procedures, operating pursuant to: Commandant Instruction - COMDINST 3820.12, Coast Guard Intelligence Activities (August 28, 2003). This document is UNCLASSIFIED This unclassified document is posted on the USCG public website at https://media.defense.gov/2017/Mar/28/2001723014/-1/-1/0/CIM_3820_12.PDF. Department of Energy, Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence Department of Energy Procedures for Intelligence Activities (January 17, 2017) This document is UNCLASSIFIED This unclassified document is posted on the DOE public website at: https://www.directives.doe.gov/files/department-of-energy-procedures-for-intelligence-activities/view Department of Treasury Office of Intelligence and Analysis (OIA) Pending issuance of final procedures, operating pursuant to: EO 12333 and statutory responsibilities of the IC element, as advised by supporting legal counsel. When finalized, document will be UNCLASSIFIED Not applicable. Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) Department of State Guidelines for Intelligence Activities (August 15, 1989) This document is UNCLASSIFIED. This unclassified document is posted at http://www.dni.gov/files/icotr/State%20Department%201989%20AG%20Guidelines.pdf.
6 IC Element AG-Approved Procedures Classification Notes/Where Posted For Public Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of National Security Intelligence (ONSI) Pending issuance of final procedures, operating pursuant to: Guidance of the Office of Chief Counsel, other guidance, and: Attorney General approved ''Guidelines for Disclosure of Grand Jury and Electronic, Wire, and Oral Interception Information Identifying United States Persons'' (September 23, 2002); Attorney General approved ''Guidelines Regarding Disclosure to the Director of Central Intelligence and Homeland Security Officials of Foreign Intelligence Acquired in the Course of a Criminal =nvestigation'' (September 23, 2002). The two specifically-referenced documents are UNCLASSIFIED The first document is posted at: http://www.dni.gov/index.php/about/organization/ic-legal-reference-book-2012/ref-book-disclosure-of-information-identifying-usps The second document is posted at: http://www.dni.gov/index.php/about/organization/ic-legal-reference-book-2012/ref-book-foreign-intelligence-acquired-in-the-course-of-a-criminal-investigation
FamilyTreeDNA Says It Will Give Your DNA to the FBI
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:32
Photo: Andreas Rentz (Getty)A popular DNA-testing company seems to be targeting true crime fans with a new pitch to let them share their genetic information with law enforcement so cops can catch violent criminals.
Two months ago, FamilyTreeDNA raised privacy concerns after BuzzFeed revealed the company had partnered with the FBI and given the agency access to the genealogy database. Law enforcement's use of DNA databases has been widely known since last April when California officials revealed genealogy website information was instrumental in determining the identity of the Golden State Killer. But in that case, detectives used publicly shared raw genetic data on GEDmatch. The recent news about FamilyTreeDNA marked the first known time a home DNA test company had willingly shared private genetic information with law enforcement.
Several weeks later, FamilyTreeDNA changed their rules to allow customers to block the FBI from accessing their information. ''Users now have the ability to opt out of matching with DNA relatives whose accounts are flagged as being created to identify the remains of a deceased individual or a perpetrator of a homicide or sexual assault,'' the company said in a statement at the time.
But now the company seems to be embracing this partnership with law enforcement with their new campaign called, ''Families Want Answers.''
The company plans to air a new advertisement this week in San Francisco that features Ed Smart, father of Elizabeth Smart, who was abducted in 2002 and held captive for nine months before being rescued.
In the ad, Ed Smart makes a plea for people to share their DNA so they can help families who have lost a child. ''When a loved one is a victim of a violent crime families want answers,'' he says as the ad shows footage of a child's shoe on a playground, crime scene tape, and parents embracing. ''There is more DNA available at crime scenes than any other evidence. If you are one of the millions of people who have taken a DNA test your help can provide the missing link.''
FamilyTreeDNA did not immediately respond to a Gizmodo request for comment on whether the new ad campaign was a response to recent reporting on the company's arrangement with FBI.
In a public statement, FamilyTreeDNA's president and founder, Bennett Greenspan, seemed to appeal to both genealogy hobbyists and true crime fans. ''The genealogy community has the ability to crowd-source crime solving,'' Greenspan said. ''If FamilyTreeDNA can help prevent violent crimes, save lives, or bring closure to families, then we feel the company has a moral responsibility to do so.''
The press release states that the company's terms of service only allow law enforcement to receive private customer information through a ''valid legal process such as a subpoena or a search warrant.''
FamilyTreeDNA users may have a ''moral responsibility'' to decide if they want to opt out of sharing their data with law enforcement or risk having their DNA narc on them or their family members.
[FamilyTreeDNA via ZDNet]
Common additive may be why you have food allergies | MSUToday | Michigan State University
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 12:42
A Michigan State University researcher has found that a common food additive may be linked to a rise in food allergies.
Cheryl Rockwell, an assistant professor of pharmacology and toxicology in the College of Human Medicine, began studying the possible link between the synthetic food additive tert-butylhydroquinone, or tBHQ, nine years ago.
Now she has received an award from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to continue her work. The Outstanding New Environmental Scientist, or ONES, award comes with a $1.5 million, five-year grant to support her research.
Rockwell has dreamed of winning the award since she was a postgraduate student. She recently was notified that she was among only five researchers this year to be selected.
Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1972, tBHQ is a preservative in many foods, such as cooking oil, nuts, crackers, waffles and breads. Often tBHQ is not listed on the label, Rockwell said.
Her research has shown that tBHQ causes T cells, a critical part of the body's immune system, to release a set of proteins that can trigger allergies to such foods as nuts, milk, eggs, wheat and shell fish.
''I think of the immune system as a military force,'' Rockwell said. ''Its job is to protect the body from pathogens, such as viruses. The T cells are the generals.''
Normally, the T cells release proteins, known as cytokines, that help fight the invaders, she said, but when tBHQ was introduced in laboratory models, the T cells released a different set of cytokines that are known to trigger allergies to some foods.
Her studies showed that when tBHQ was present, the T cells started behaving differently.
''The T cells stopped acting as soldiers in the defense against pathogens and started causing allergies, Rockwell said. ''What we're trying to find out now is why the T cells are behaving this way.''
The expanded use of tBHQ, she said, parallels a rise in food allergies and an increase in the severity of some allergic reactions.
With her ONES grant, Rockwell plans to study a signaling pathway she has identified in cells that appears to play a role in causing the food allergies when tBHQ is present. She hopes to identify other chemicals that trigger that same signaling pathway.
''We think there could be quite a few,'' she said, including lead and cadmium.
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences created the ONES program to support researchers early in their careers and conduct innovative research to study how the environment influences human health.
''This project is my baby,'' she said. ''I need to keep it going.''
Food additive may influence how well flu vaccines work -- ScienceDaily
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 12:41
Michigan State University scientists have linked a common food preservative to an altered immune response that possibly hinders flu vaccines.
The study conducted in mice, presented at the 2019 Experimental Biology meeting in Orlando, Fla., April 7 at 9 a.m., offers up a new potential factor in vaccine effectiveness.
Tert-butylhydroquinone, or tBHQ, can be found in several food products including cooking oils, frozen meats (especially fish) and processed foods such as chips and crackers. Products don't always have to include it on ingredient lists.
"If you get a vaccine, but part of the immune system doesn't learn to recognize and fight off virus-infected cells, then this can cause the vaccine to be less effective," said Robert Freeborn, a fourth-year doctoral student who led the study with Cheryl Rockwell, an associate professor in pharmacology and toxicology. "We determined that when tBHQ was introduced through the diet, it affected certain cells that are important in carrying out an appropriate immune response to the flu."
Using various flu strains including H1N1 and H3N2, Freeborn and Rockwell focused on CD4 and CD8 T cells and incorporated tBHQ into the food of mice in an amount comparable to human consumption.
"CD4 T cells are like movie directors that tell everyone else what to do," Freeborn said. "The CD8 T cells are the actors that do what the director wants."
The researchers looked at several response factors including whether the T cells showed up, were able to do the right job and ultimately, recognize and remember the invading virus.
"Overall, we saw a reduced number of CD8 T cells in the lung and a reduction in the number of CD4 and CD8 T cells that could identify the flu virus in the mice that were exposed to tBHQ," Freeborn said. "These mice also had widespread inflammation and mucus production in their lungs."
TBHQ also slowed down the initial activation of T cells, reducing their ability to fight off an infection sooner. This allowed the virus to run rampant in the mice until the cells fully activated.
A second phase of the study showed the additive hindered the immune system's ability to remember how to respond to the flu virus, particularly when another strain was introduced at another time. This resulted in a longer recovery and additional weight loss in the mice.
"It's important for the body to be able to recognize a virus and remember how to effectively fight it off," Freeborn said. "That's the whole point of vaccines, to spur this memory and produce immunity. TBHQ seems to impair this process."
The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Materials provided by Michigan State University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Trump's Sister Maryanne Trump Barry Resigns Amid Investigation Into Whether Judge Barry and Her Siblings Violated Judicial Ethics With Tax Schemes
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 12:41
President Donald Trump's older sister, Judge Maryanne Trump Barry, recently resigned from her role as a federal appellate judge. By doing so, she ended an investigation into potentially fraudulent tax schemes The New York Times reported last year. The Times report spurred an investigation into whether the tax schemes violated judicial conduct rules. The resignation means Barry is no longer subject to such rules, so the investigation is moot.
The New York Times reported Barry's resignation on Wednesday, but the resignation took place in February. Two lawyers connected to the complaint told The Times about Barry's resignation after they were notified that the investigation had been closed.
According to the Times report, the Trump siblings "had engaged in dubious tax schemes during the 1990s, including instances of outright fraud, that greatly increased the inherited wealth of Mr. Trump and his siblings. Judge Barry not only benefited financially from most of those tax schemes, The Times found; she was also in a position to influence the actions taken by her family."
The 82-year-old retired judge has not heard cases in more than two years, but she was still listed as an inactive senior judge. In a February 1 letter, a court official notified the four people who filed the complaint that the investigation was "receiving the full attention" of a judicial conduct council. On February 11, Judge Barry filed her retirement papers.
Judicial council reviews may result in the censure or reprimand of federal judges, and perhaps even lead to a referral to the House of Representatives for impeachment. Given the House Democrats' thirst to impeach President Donald Trump, it seems rather likely they would have pursued impeachment proceedings against Judge Barry should the judicial council have recommended them.
While Judge Barry has retired, she is still entitled to receive an annual salary equal to what she earned when she last met workload requirements. The New York Times estimated this salary to be between $184,500 and $217,600 per year.
"The Times investigation focused on how the profits and ownership of the real estate empire built by the president's father, Fred C. Trump, were transferred to Donald J. Trump and his siblings, often in ways designed to dodge gift and estate taxes," the Times report explained.
"The New York Times's allegations of fraud and tax evasion are 100 percent false, and highly defamatory," Charles J. Harder, a lawyer for the president, told the paper last fall.
Yet Judge Barry's retirement might suggest there is some truth to the claims.
PJ Media reached out to Brad Parscale, Trump's 2020 reelection campaign manager, for comment on Judge Barry's retirement. Parscale did not respond by press time.
Hey @Parscale, I'm writing about Trump's sister's retirement and am wondering if the Trump campaign as a statement about it. The @nytimes reports that tax schemes with her siblings brought Maryanne Trump Barry down, but I'd love to hear your side of this.
'-- Tyler O'Neil (@Tyler2ONeil) April 11, 2019 Trump once mused that his sister would make a great Supreme Court justice. When the president had an opportunity to name justices to the Supreme Court, she pushed for Judge Thomas Hardiman, with whom she served as an appeals judge.
In the 2016 election, Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas) attacked Trump for his praise of Judge Barry, whom Cruz called a "radical pro-abortion extremist." In 2000, Barry wrote a 40-page appeals court decision calling a New Jersey ban on late-term abortions "unconstitutionally and incurably vague," slamming it for placing an "undue burden" on a woman's "right" to abortion.
Follow Tyler O'Neil, the author of this article, on Twitter at @Tyler2ONeil.
Firefox rejects free speech, bans free speech commenting plugin Dissenter from its extensions gallery
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 12:40
Update '' April 11, 2019: The post has been updated to include Mozilla's response explaining why Dissenter was removed from the Firefox extensions gallery.
Dissenter, the extension which allows users to create a comments section for any page on the internet, has been banned from the Firefox extensions gallery for supposedly violating Mozilla's Acceptable Use Policy.
Mozilla is the company behind the Firefox browser and sent an email to Dissenter informing them that the extension had been disabled and will no longer appear in the Firefox extensions gallery.
Source: Twitter.com '' @getongab
Dissenter reached out to Mozilla asking which parts of the Acceptable Use Policy it violated. Mozilla responded by saying it had received abuse reports (but provided no examples) and that the extension was being used to ''degrade, intimidate, incite violence against, or encourage prejudicial action against someone or a group based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, religion, geographic location or other protected category.''
Source: Twitter.com '' @getongab
Dissenter replied to Mozilla and disputed its claims by saying that the extension permits people to view and interact with content on Dissenter.com, that illegal posts are moderated, and that offensive racial epithets in the English language are not displayed. This means it's impossible for the extension to be used as Mozilla described and Dissenter would like Mozilla to reconsider its decision.
Source: Twitter.com '' @getongab
Dissenter also noted that the extension has a feature which filters out offensive racial epithets in the English language as a good faith effort to comply with extension stores' policies on discrimination and hate speech. However, despite this good faith effort, Mozilla has banned Dissenter from its extensions gallery.
Users that already have the Dissenter Firefox extension can still use it although Dissenter won't be able to push any new updates to those users.
For users that don't currently have the Dissenter Firefox extension installed, it's still possible to download it directly from the Dissenter website and install it manually. However, this manual download of Dissenter appears to be designed as a ''Temporary Add-on'' which means users have to reactivate this version of Dissenter every time they open Firefox.
If you still want to use the Dissenter extension, the most practical solution is to install it on one of the other supported browsers (which you can see on Dissenter's download page) and then start using that browser to comment via Dissenter.
Use The Fastest Browser That Doesn't Track You
Blocks ads. Blocks tracking. Keeps you and your data private. Free and open source. Up to 8 times faster page loads than Chrome and Safari. Join the Brave revolution today.
>> Use Brave To Browse The Web Faster, In Private <<
Tom ParkerTom Parker provides news and analysis on how we can promote free speech, stop censorship, and protect our personal data online. [email protected]
The New York Times sells premium ads based on how an article makes you feel '' Poynter
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 12:38
A year ago, without ceremony, The New York Times piloted ad placements based on the emotions certain articles evoke. ''Project Feels'' has now generated 50 campaigns, more than 30 million impressions and strong revenue results (the Times declines to specify how much).
So it's a hit, and the sort of advertising innovation based on data science, artificial intelligence and algorithm that the Times expects to scale up '-- and that other news organizations are exploring.
To take an example of what the Times more formally is calling ''perspective targeting,'' an interview/profile of Cher was determined to put the reader into an inspired, amused and adventurous mood. Should those feelings be a fit to an advertiser's pitch, a placement automatically drops into the digital edition of the story.
Unlike those ads that stalk you across the internet based on what you have read and looked at, the connection will typically be invisible to the reader.
Here is how the futuristic-sounding product was developed and how it works:
The Times began by asking a volunteer group of readers to choose from a list of 18 emotions that they felt as they read a sample of Times stories. With 150,000 data points, an analysis team could identify articles with strong emotional resonance. The resulting algorithm then instantly finds which combination of emotions is evoked as the story is posted. The Times and its advertisers can track with some precision whether the ad outperforms a more random placement. Some have generated as much as 80 percent more impressions than regular behavioral targeting. The average lift is 40 percent. That success supports a premium charge. The offering also includes ''neutrality targeting'': that is, isolating upsetting stories that could decrease receptivity to ad messages '-- placements to be avoided. At a glance this may sound a bit manipulative and ''Brave New World''-like to consumers of news.
Journalists and other news purists may also wonder whether the Times newsroom is now being tasked with producing lots of emotional stories.
Neither is the case, Allison Murphy, senior vice president of advertising innovation, told me in an interview. The newsroom turned out plenty of emotionally charged stories, anyhow. So it has done nothing different. The ad sales initiative ''doesn't influence what is covered'' and editorial integrity is not compromised.
Allison Murphy. (Courtesy The New York Times)
And the ''Project Feels'' ads are actually less intrusive, she argues, since they do not depend on the sort of information about you and your preferences that cookies harvest.
Together, Murphy said, the two kinds of ''Feels'' targeting are a match to rising privacy concerns. They also provide ''an original type of brand safety'' at a time when advertisers need to worry about landing next to objectionable content on platforms like YouTube or Facebook.
To date, the most popular advertiser categories have been entertainment and corporate social responsibility messages. The first of the Feels sales was to a story evoking ''adventurous'' and aligned with a client's launch of a new science fiction series. ''Self-confident'' was paired with a message centered on women's empowerment. Ads to date have also appeared across 10 other categories.
Of the 18 available emotions, 14 are positive. But even negatives like sadness or indignation, Murphy said, could support a given cause or candidate. ''Boredom'' isn't and won't be much of a seller.
Here's the list:
OptimisticInspiredSelf-ConfidentAmusedAdventurousIn the mood to spendLoveSadnessBoredomInterestFearHateHopeHappinessNostalgicIndulgentCompetitiveInformed I asked whether Project Feels might be exported as a franchised service to other news organizations.
''Generally no,'' Murphy replied. ''The whole model is based on Times content, and it requires maintenance. '... We are very fortunate to have the resources to invest in this sort of innovation.'' That includes both ''the breadth of our content,'' she added, and the sophistication to do a rigorous measure of what works and how well.
However, other organizations are already playing in the same sandbox and more will follow. A Digiday story on Project Feels last summer noted that ESPN can target ads depending on whether a given fan's team is winning or losing. USA Today has a version called Lens Targeting with stories graded on the mood likely to be evoked.
As Murphy's job title suggests, perspective targeting is not a one-off but part of a series of innovation projects. She was involved in the development of Flex Frames, a premium full-screen display that works on any device. Next she is planning a variant of Feels to get at motivation.
More broadly, the industry has been seeing data analysis generating models that can match story choices to a target audience's greatest ''passion topics'' or can guide strategy for digital subscription paywalls and pricing.
I am not saying emotional targeting and its algorithmic cousins are the Holy Grail of a new business model '-- but they can't hurt.
WikiLeaks on Twitter: "While earlier WikiLeaks and New York Times reporting indicates that the US government influenced Ecuador over Assange using loans, the Times also reported the US successfully bullied Ecuador's current government over breast feeding
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 12:15
Welcome home! This timeline is where you'll spend most of your time, getting instant updates about what matters to you.
Tweets not working for you? Hover over the profile pic and click the Following button to unfollow any account.
Say a lot with a little When you see a Tweet you love, tap the heart '-- it lets the person who wrote it know you shared the love.
Spread the word The fastest way to share someone else's Tweet with your followers is with a Retweet. Tap the icon to send it instantly.
Join the conversation Add your thoughts about any Tweet with a Reply. Find a topic you're passionate about, and jump right in.
Learn the latest Get instant insight into what people are talking about now.
Get more of what you love Follow more accounts to get instant updates about topics you care about.
Find what's happening See the latest conversations about any topic instantly.
Never miss a Moment Catch up instantly on the best stories happening as they unfold.
Mike Pence raises Julian Assange case with Ecuadorean president, White House confirms - Washington Times
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 11:17
Vice President Mike Pence discussed the situation surrounding WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange during a meeting Thursday with Ecuadorean President Lenn Moreno in Quito, a White House official said afterwards '-- heeding calls from Democrats wary of Mr. Assange staying shielded more than six years since seeking refuge inside Ecuador's London embassy.
''The vice president raised the issue of Mr. Assange. It was a constructive conversation. They agreed to remain in close coordination on potential next steps going forward,'' a White House official said in a statement issued following Thursday's meeting with Mr. Moreno, The Washington Examiner first reported.
Ten senators, all Democrats, wrote Mr. Pence a day earlier urging him to press Mr. Moreno about the WikiLeaks publisher during his trip abroad Thursday.
Led by Sen. Robert Menendez of New Jersey, the ranking Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the letter to Mr. Pence said it was ''imperative that you raise U.S. concerns with President Moreno about Ecuador's continued support for Mr. Assange at a time when WikiLeaks continues its efforts to undermine democratic processes globally.''
Representatives for neither Mr. Menendez nor Mr. Assange immediately returned messages seeking comment on the meeting.
Ecuador's foreign minister, Jose Valencia, said Friday that the situation involving Mr. Assange's refugee status does not involve the United States, AFP reported.
''Ecuador and the United Kingdom, and of course Mr. Assange as a person who is currently staying, on asylum, at our embassy'' will decide the next steps, said Mr. Valencia. ''It does not enter, therefore, on an agenda with the United States.''
Mr. Assange, 46, entered the Ecuadorean Embassy in London in June 2012 amid fears of being extradited to the U.S. and prosecuted for publishing classified documents through WikiLeaks, the anti-secrecy website he helped launch six years earlier. He was subsequently granted asylum by Mr. Moreno's predecessor, Rafael Correa, but has refrained from exiting the embassy in light of an outstanding arrest warrant issued by British authorities after he entered.
The Department of Justice began investigating WikiLeaks in 2010 following its publication of classified military and diplomatic documents, and the website has hardly refrained from leaking secrets in the years since. WikiLeaks notably published internal Democratic Party emails and stolen CIA documents in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
Mr. Assange has not publicly been charged by U.S. prosecutors.
Copyright (C) 2019 The Washington Times, LLC. Click here for reprint permission.
The Washington Times Comment PolicyThe Washington Times welcomes your comments on Spot.im, our third-party provider. Please read our
Comment Policy before commenting.
Ecuador: Rights Group Warns Visit by Mike Pence to Bolster US Influence | News | teleSUR English
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 11:16
The Center for Economic and Social Rights (CDES) in Ecuador has warned that United States Vice President Mike Pence's visit to Ecuador ''seeks to align the country to U.S. influence: that is turn Ecuador into a territory of war, sign an aggressive frere trade agreement, eliminate 'irritating' subjects like the Texaco (Chevron) case, and dismantle sovereign regional integration.''
RELATED: Venezuela's Arreaza Calls US 'Violator of Rights' Amid Mike Pence Brazil Visit
Pence met Ecuadorean President Lenin Moreno Thursday morning in the presidential palace and discussed cooperation, the commercial relations, immigration and Venezuela.
In late April, after several attacks by an armed group operating in Ecuador's northern border, Ecuador signed a security cooperation agreement with the U.S. to fight transnational organized crime and drug trafficking.
Analysts fear cooperation will drag Ecuador into the U.S.-sponsored war on drugs that has been unsuccessful in ending drug mafias while generating more violence in destitute areas.
Ecuador has also taken steps towards a commercial alliance with the U.S. In May, the minister of commerce, Pablo Campana, announced Moreno's government is seeking to become a member of the Pacific Alliance, reactivate investment and commerce treaties and begin negotiations for a ''commercial agreement'' with the U.S.
RELATED: Ecuador's National Assembly Approves Neoliberal Productive Development Law
''The priority is to strengthen commercial relations with the U.S. and Mexico to talk about entering the Pacific Alliance,'' Campana said back in May.
U.S. ambassador in Ecuador Todd Chapman has said on multiple occasions that Ecuador needs to solve the problem with Chevron ''and other U.S. companies'' in order to attract investments.
As Pence was arriving in Ecuador, the Constitutional Court was resolving Chevron's request to reverse the 2013 ruling sentencing the transnational company to pay US$9.5 billion for environmental damage in the Amazon.
On Wednesday the Court resolved the case but did not notify the plaintiffs, Indigenous and Campesino communities affected by Chevron's pollution. According to the court, those involved will be notified within seven working days.
The case against Chevron began in 1993.
Although nothing official has been announced on WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's situation, the Associated Press reported that a group of Democrat legislators urged Pence to talk to President Moreno about their concerns over Assange. "WikiLeaks continues its efforts to undermine democratic processes around the world," they argued.
Mike Pence announced the U.S. will donate US$1.5 million "to fight corruption and stregthen civil society." This comes as the recently appointed general attorney, under the banner of fighting corruption, has linked former President Rafael Correa to an alleged attempted kidnapping.
Executive Orders | National Archives
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 04:57
Executive Order 12333--United States intelligence activities
Source: The provisions of Executive Order 12333 of Dec. 4, 1981, appear at 46 FR 59941, 3 CFR, 1981 Comp., p. 200, unless otherwise noted.
Table of Contents
Part 1.Goals, Direction, Duties, and Responsibilities With Respect to the National Intelligence Effort1.1 Goals1.2 The National Security Council1.3 National Foreign Intelligence Advisory Groups1.4 The Intelligence Community1.5 Director of Central Intelligence1.6 Duties and Responsibilities of the Heads of Executive Branch Departments and Agencies1.7 Senior Officials of the Intelligence Community1.8 The Central Intelligence Agency1.9 The Department of State1.10 The Department of the Treasury1.11 The Department of Defense1.12 Intelligence Components Utilized by the Secretary of Defense1.13 The Department of Energy1.14 The Federal Bureau of InvestigationPart 2.Conduct of Intelligence Activities2.1 Need2.2 Purpose2.3 Collection of Information2.4 Collection Techniques2.5 Attorney General Approval2.6 Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities2.7 Contracting2.8 Consistency With Other Laws2.9 Undisclosed Participation in Organizations Within the United States2.10 Human Experimentation2.11 Prohibition on Assassination2.12 Indirect ParticipationPart 3.General Provisions3.1 Congressional Oversight3.2 Implementation3.3 Procedures3.4 Definitions3.5 Purpose and Effect3.6 RevocationTimely and accurate information about the activities, capabilities, plans, and intentions of foreign powers, organizations, and persons and their agents, is essential to the national security of the United States. All reasonable and lawful means must be used to ensure that the United States will receive the best intelligence available. For that purpose, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, and as President of the United States of America, in order to provide for the effective conduct of United States intelligence activities and the protection of constitutional rights, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Goals, Direction, Duties and Responsibilities With Respect to the National Intelligence Effort
1.1Goals. The United States intelligence effort shall provide the President and the National Security Council with the necessary information on which to base decisions concerning the conduct and development of foreign, defense and economic policy, and the protection of United States national interests from foreign security threats. All departments and agencies shall cooperate fully to fulfill this goal.(a) Maximum emphasis should be given to fostering analytical competition among appropriate elements of the Intelligence Community.(b) All means, consistent with applicable United States law and this Order, and with full consideration of the rights of United States persons, shall be used to develop intelligence information for the President and the National Security Council. A balanced approach between technical collection efforts and other means should be maintained and encouraged.(c) Special emphasis should be given to detecting and countering espionage and other threats and activities directed by foreign intelligence services against the United States Government, or United States corporations, establishments, or persons.(d) To the greatest extent possible consistent with applicable United States law and this Order, and with full consideration of the rights of United States persons, all agencies and departments should seek to ensure full and free exchange of information in order to derive maximum benefit from the United States intelligence effort.
1.2The National Security Council.(a) Purpose. The National Security Council (NSC) was established by the National Security Act of 1947 to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign and military policies relating to the national security. The NSC shall act as the highest Executive Branch entity that provides review of, guidance for and direction to the conduct of all national foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, and special activities, and attendant policies and programs.(b) Committees. The NSC shall establish such committees as may be necessary to carry out its functions and responsibilities under this Order. The NSC, or a committee established by it, shall consider and submit to the President a policy recommendation, including all dissents, on each special activity and shall review proposals for other sensitive intelligence operations.
1.3National Foreign Intelligence Advisory Groups.(a) Establishment and Duties. The Director of Central Intelligence shall establish such boards, councils, or groups as required for the purpose of obtaining advice from within the Intelligence Community concerning:(1) Production, review and coordination of national foreign intelligence;(2) Priorities for the National Foreign Intelligence Program budget;(3) Interagency exchanges of foreign intelligence information;(4) Arrangements with foreign governments on intelligence matters;(5) Protection of intelligence sources and methods;(6) Activities of common concern; and(7) Such other matters as may be referred by the Director of Central Intelligence.(b) Membership. Advisory groups established pursuant to this section shall be chaired by the Director of Central Intelligence or his designated representative and shall consist of senior representatives from organizations within the Intelligence Community and from departments or agencies containing such organizations, as designated by the Director of Central Intelligence. Groups for consideration of substantive intelligence matters will include representatives of organizations involved in the collection, processing and analysis of intelligence. A senior representative of the Secretary of Commerce, the Attorney General, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense shall be invited to participate in any group which deals with other than substantive intelligence matters.1.4The Intelligence Community. The agencies within the Intelligence Community shall, in accordance with applicable United States law and with the other provisions of this Order, conduct intelligence activities necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of the national security of the United States, including:(a) Collection of information needed by the President, the National Security Council, the Secretaries of State and Defense, and other Executive Branch officials for the performance of their duties and responsibilities;(b) Production and dissemination of intelligence;(c) Collection of information concerning, and the conduct of activities to protect against, intelligence activities directed against the United States, international terrorist and international narcotics activities, and other hostile activities directed against the United States by foreign powers, organizations, persons, and their agents;(d) Special activities;(e) Administrative and support activities within the United States and abroad necessary for the performance of authorized activities; and(f) Such other intelligence activities as the President may direct from time to time.
1.5Director of Central Intelligence. In order to discharge the duties and responsibilities prescribed by law, the Director of Central Intelligence shall be responsible directly to the President and the NSC and shall:(a) Act as the primary adviser to the President and the NSC on national foreign intelligence and provide the President and other officials in the Executive Branch with national foreign intelligence;(b) Develop such objectives and guidance for the Intelligence Community as will enhance capabilities for responding to expected future needs for national foreign intelligence;(c) Promote the development and maintenance of services of common concern by designated intelligence organizations on behalf of the Intelligence Community;(d) Ensure implementation of special activities;(e) Formulate policies concerning foreign intelligence and counterintelligence arrangements with foreign governments, coordinate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence relationships between agencies of the Intelligence Community and the intelligence or internal security services of foreign governments, and establish procedures governing the conduct of liaison by any department or agency with such services on narcotics activities;(f) Participate in the development of procedures approved by the Attorney General governing criminal narcotics intelligence activities abroad to ensure that these activities are consistent with foreign intelligence programs;(g) Ensure the establishment by the Intelligence Community of common security and access standards for managing and handling foreign intelligence systems, information, and products;(h) Ensure that programs are developed which protect intelligence sources, methods, and analytical procedures;(i) Establish uniform criteria for the determination of relative priorities for the transmission of critical national foreign intelligence, and advise the Secretary of Defense concerning the communications requirements of the Intelligence Community for the transmission of such intelligence;(j) Establish appropriate staffs, committees, or other advisory groups to assist in the execution of the Director's responsibilities;(k) Have full responsibility for production and dissemination of national foreign intelligence, and authority to levy analytic tasks on departmental intelligence production organizations, in consultation with those organizations, ensuring that appropriate mechanisms for competitive analysis are developed so that diverse points of view are considered fully and differences of judgment within the Intelligence Community are brought to the attention of national policymakers;(l) Ensure the timely exploitation and dissemination of data gathered by national foreign intelligence collection means, and ensure that the resulting intelligence is disseminated immediately to appropriate government entities and military commands;(m) Establish mechanisms which translate national foreign intelligence objectives and priorities approved by the NSC into specific guidance for the Intelligence Community, resolve conflicts in tasking priority, provide to departments and agencies having information collection capabilities that are not part of the National Foreign Intelligence Program advisory tasking concerning collection of national foreign intelligence, and provide for the development of plans and arrangements for transfer of required collection tasking authority to the Secretary of Defense when directed by the President;(n) Develop, with the advice of the program managers and departments and agencies concerned, the consolidated National Foreign Intelligence Program budget, and present it to the President and the Congress;(o) Review and approve all requests for reprogramming National Foreign Intelligence Program funds, in accordance with guidelines established by the Office of Management and Budget;(p) Monitor National Foreign Intelligence Program implementation, and, as necessary, conduct program and performance audits and evaluations;(q) Together with the Secretary of Defense, ensure that there is no unnecessary overlap between national foreign intelligence programs and Department of Defense intelligence programs consistent with the requirement to develop competitive analysis, and provide to and obtain from the Secretary of Defense all information necessary for this purpose;(r) In accordance with law and relevant procedures approved by the Attorney General under this Order, give the heads of the departments and agencies access to all intelligence, developed by the CIA or the staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence, relevant to the national intelligence needs of the departments and agencies; and(s) Facilitate the use of national foreign intelligence products by Congress in a secure manner.
1.6Duties and Responsibilities of the Heads of Executive Branch Departments and Agencies.(a) The heads of all Executive Branch departments and agencies shall, in accordance with law and relevant procedures approved by the Attorney General under this Order, give the Director of Central Intelligence access to all information relevant to the national intelligence needs of the United States, and shall give due consideration to the requests from the Director of Central Intelligence for appropriate support for Intelligence Community activities.(b) The heads of departments and agencies involved in the National Foreign Intelligence Program shall ensure timely development and submission to the Director of Central Intelligence by the program managers and heads of component activities of proposed national programs and budgets in the format designated by the Director of Central Intelligence, and shall also ensure that the Director of Central Intelligence is provided, in a timely and responsive manner, all information necessary to perform the Director's program and budget responsibilities.(c) The heads of departments and agencies involved in the National Foreign Intelligence Program may appeal to the President decisions by the Director of Central Intelligence on budget or reprogramming matters of the National Foreign Intelligence Program.
1.7Senior Officials of the Intelligence Community. The heads of departments and agencies with organizations in the Intelligence Community or the heads of such organizations, as appropriate, shall:(a) Report to the Attorney General possible violations of federal criminal laws by employees and of specified federal criminal laws by any other person as provided in procedures agreed upon by the Attorney General and the head of the department or agency concerned, in a manner consistent with the protection of intelligence sources and methods, as specified in those procedures;(b) In any case involving serious or continuing breaches of security, recommend to the Attorney General that the case be referred to the FBI for further investigation;(c) Furnish the Director of Central Intelligence and the NSC, in accordance with applicable law and procedures approved by the Attorney General under this Order, the information required for the performance of their respective duties;(d) Report to the Intelligence Oversight Board, and keep the Director of Central Intelligence appropriately informed, concerning any intelligence activities of their organizations that they have reason to believe may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential directive;(e) Protect intelligence and intelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure consistent with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;(f) Disseminate intelligence to cooperating foreign governments under arrangements established or agreed to by the Director of Central Intelligence;(g) Participate in the development of procedures approved by the Attorney General governing production and dissemination of intelligence resulting from criminal narcotics intelligence activities abroad if their departments, agencies, or organizations have intelligence responsibilities for foreign or domestic narcotics production and trafficking;(h) Instruct their employees to cooperate fully with the Intelligence Oversight Board; and(i) Ensure that the Inspectors General and General Counsels for their organizations have access to any information necessary to perform their duties assigned by this Order.
1.8The Central Intelligence Agency. All duties and responsibilities of the CIA shall be related to the intelligence functions set out below. As authorized by this Order; the National Security Act of 1947, as amended; the CIA Act of 1949, as amended; appropriate directives or other applicable law, the CIA shall:(a) Collect, produce and disseminate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence, including information not otherwise obtainable. The collection of foreign intelligence or counterintelligence within the United States shall be coordinated with the FBI as required by procedures agreed upon by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;(b) Collect, produce and disseminate intelligence on foreign aspects of narcotics production and trafficking;(c) Conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States and, without assuming or performing any internal security functions, conduct counterintelligence activities within the United States in coordination with the FBI as required by procedures agreed upon by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;(d) Coordinate counterintelligence activities and the collection of information not otherwise obtainable when conducted outside the United States by other departments and agencies;(e) Conduct special activities approved by the President. No agency except the CIA (or the Armed Forces of the United States in time of war declared by Congress or during any period covered by a report from the President to the Congress under the War Powers Resolution (87 Stat. 855)1) may conduct any special activity unless the President determines that another agency is more likely to achieve a particular objective;(f) Conduct services of common concern for the Intelligence Community as directed by the NSC;(g) Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to authorized functions;(h) Protect the security of its installations, activities, information, property, and employees by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the CIA as are necessary; and(i) Conduct such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections (a) through (h) above, including procurement and essential cover and proprietary arrangements.
1.9The Department of State. The Secretary of State shall:(a) Overtly collect information relevant to United States foreign policy concerns;(b) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to United States foreign policy as required for the execution of the Secretary's responsibilities;(c) Disseminate, as appropriate, reports received from United States diplomatic and consular posts;(d) Transmit reporting requirements of the Intelligence Community to the Chiefs of United States Missions abroad; and(e) Support Chiefs of Missions in discharging their statutory responsibilities for direction and coordination of mission activities.
1.10The Department of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury shall:(a) Overtly collect foreign financial and monetary information;(b) Participate with the Department of State in the overt collection of general foreign economic information;(c) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to United States economic policy as required for the execution of the Secretary's responsibilities; and(d) Conduct, through the United States Secret Service, activities to determine the existence and capability of surveillance equipment being used against the President of the United States, the Executive Office of the President, and, as authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury or the President, other Secret Service protectees and United States officials. No information shall be acquired intentionally through such activities except to protect against such surveillance, and those activities shall be conducted pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.
1.11The Department of Defense. The Secretary of Defense shall:(a) Collect national foreign intelligence and be responsive to collection tasking by the Director of Central Intelligence;(b) Collect, produce and disseminate military and military-related foreign intelligence and counterintelligence as required for execution of the Secretary's responsibilities;(c) Conduct programs and missions necessary to fulfill national, departmental and tactical foreign intelligence requirements;(d) Conduct counterintelligence activities in support of Department of Defense components outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, and within the United States in coordination with the FBI pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General;(e) Conduct, as the executive agent of the United States Government, signals intelligence and communications security activities, except as otherwise directed by the NSC;(f) Provide for the timely transmission of critical intelligence, as defined by the Director of Central Intelligence, within the United States Government;(g) Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to authorized intelligence functions;(h) Protect the security of Department of Defense installations, activities, property, information, and employees by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the Department of Defense as are necessary;(i) Establish and maintain military intelligence relationships and military intelligence exchange programs with selected cooperative foreign defense establishments and international organizations, and ensure that such relationships and programs are in accordance with policies formulated by the Director of Central Intelligence;(j) Direct, operate, control and provide fiscal management for the National Security Agency and for defense and military intelligence and national reconnaissance entities; and(k) Conduct such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections (a) through (j) above.
1.12Intelligence Components Utilized by the Secretary of Defense. In carrying out the responsibilities assigned in section 1.11, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to utilize the following:(a) Defense Intelligence Agency, whose responsibilities shall include;(1) Collection, production, or, through tasking and coordination, provision of military and military-related intelligence for the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, other Defense components, and, as appropriate, non-Defense agencies;(2) Collection and provision of military intelligence for national foreign intelligence and counterintelligence products;(3) Coordination of all Department of Defense intelligence collection requirements;(4) Management of the Defense Attache system; and(5) Provision of foreign intelligence and counterintelligence staff support as directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.(b) National Security Agency, whose responsibilities shall include:(1) Establishment and operation of an effective unified organization for signals intelligence activities, except for the delegation of operational control over certain operations that are conducted through other elements of the Intelligence Community. No other department or agency may engage in signals intelligence activities except pursuant to a delegation by the Secretary of Defense;(2) Control of signals intelligence collection and processing activities, including assignment of resources to an appropriate agent for such periods and tasks as required for the direct support of military commanders;(3) Collection of signals intelligence information for national foreign intelligence purposes in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;(4) Processing of signals intelligence data for national foreign intelligence purposes in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;(5) Dissemination of signals intelligence information for national foreign intelligence purposes to authorized elements of the Government, including the military services, in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;(6) Collection, processing and dissemination of signals intelligence information for counterintelligence purposes;(7) Provision of signals intelligence support for the conduct of military operations in accordance with tasking, priorities, and standards of timeliness assigned by the Secretary of Defense. If provision of such support requires use of national collection systems, these systems will be tasked within existing guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;(8) Executing the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense as executive agent for the communications security of the United States Government;(9) Conduct of research and development to meet the needs of the United States for signals intelligence and communications security;(10) Protection of the security of its installations, activities, property, information, and employees by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the NSA as are necessary;(11) Prescribing, within its field of authorized operations, security regulations covering operating practices, including the transmission, handling and distribution of signals intelligence and communications security material within and among the elements under control of the Director of the NSA, and exercising the necessary supervisory control to ensure compliance with the regulations;(12) Conduct of foreign cryptologic liaison relationships, with liaison for intelligence purposes conducted in accordance with policies formulated by the Director of Central Intelligence; and(13) Conduct of such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections (1) through (12) above, including procurement.(c) Offices for the collection of specialized intelligence through reconnaissance programs, whose responsibilities shall include:(1) Carrying out consolidated reconnaissance programs for specialized intelligence;(2) Responding to tasking in accordance with procedures established by the Director of Central Intelligence; and(3) Delegating authority to the various departments and agencies for research, development, procurement, and operation of designated means of collection. (d) The foreign intelligence and counterintelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, whose responsibilities shall include:(1) Collection, production and dissemination of military and military-related foreign intelligence and counterintelligence, and information on the foreign aspects of narcotics production and trafficking. When collection is conducted in response to national foreign intelligence requirements, it will be conducted in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence. Collection of national foreign intelligence, not otherwise obtainable, outside the United States shall be coordinated with the CIA, and such collection within the United States shall be coordinated with the FBI;(2) Conduct of counterintelligence activities outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, and within the United States in coordination with the FBI; and(3) Monitoring of the development, procurement and management of tactical intelligence systems and equipment and conducting related research, development, and test and evaluation activities.(e) Other offices within the Department of Defense appropriate for conduct of the intelligence missions and responsibilities assigned to the Secretary of Defense. If such other offices are used for intelligence purposes, the provisions of Part 2 of this Order shall apply to those offices when used for those purposes.1.13The Department of Energy. The Secretary of Energy shall:(a) Participate with the Department of State in overtly collecting information with respect to foreign energy matters;(b) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence necessary for the Secretary's responsibilities;(c) Participate in formulating intelligence collection and analysis requirements where the special expert capability of the Department can contribute; and(d) Provide expert technical, analytical and research capability to other agencies within the Intelligence Community.
1.14The Federal Bureau of Investigation. Under the supervision of the Attorney General and pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may establish, the Director of the FBI shall:(a) Within the United States conduct counterintelligence and coordinate counterintelligence activities of other agencies within the Intelligence Community. When a counterintelligence activity of the FBI involves military or civilian personnel of the Department of Defense, the FBI shall coordinate with the Department of Defense;(b) Conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States in coordination with the CIA as required by procedures agreed upon by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;(c) Conduct within the United States, when requested by officials of the Intelligence Community designated by the President, activities undertaken to collect foreign intelligence or support foreign intelligence collection requirements of other agencies within the Intelligence Community, or, when requested by the Director of the National Security Agency, to support the communications security activities of the United States Government;(d) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence; and(e) Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to the functions authorized above.
Conduct of Intelligence Activities
2.1Need. Accurate and timely information about the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons and their agents is essential to informed decisionmaking in the areas of national defense and foreign relations. Collection of such information is a priority objective and will be pursued in a vigorous, innovative and responsible manner that is consistent with the Constitution and applicable law and respectful of the principles upon which the United States was founded.
2.2Purpose. This Order is intended to enhance human and technical collection techniques, especially those undertaken abroad, and the acquisition of significant foreign intelligence, as well as the detection and countering of international terrorist activities and espionage conducted by foreign powers. Set forth below are certain general principles that, in addition to and consistent with applicable laws, are intended to achieve the proper balance between the acquisition of essential information and protection of individual interests. Nothing in this Order shall be construed to apply to or interfere with any authorized civil or criminal law enforcement responsibility of any department or agency.
2.3Collection of Information. Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to collect, retain or disseminate information concerning United States persons only in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General, consistent with the authorities provided by Part 1 of this Order. Those procedures shall permit collection, retention and dissemination of the following types of information:(a) Information that is publicly available or collected with the consent of the person concerned;(b) Information constituting foreign intelligence or counterintelligence, including such information concerning corporations or other commercial organizations. Collection within the United States of foreign intelligence not otherwise obtainable shall be undertaken by the FBI or, when significant foreign intelligence is sought, by other authorized agencies of the Intelligence Community, provided that no foreign intelligence collection by such agencies may be undertaken for the purpose of acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons;(c) Information obtained in the course of a lawful foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, international narcotics or international terrorism investigation;(d) Information needed to protect the safety of any persons or organizations, including those who are targets, victims or hostages of international terrorist organizations;(e) Information needed to protect foreign intelligence or counterintelligence sources or methods from unauthorized disclosure. Collection within the United States shall be undertaken by the FBI except that other agencies of the Intelligence Community may also collect such information concerning present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present or former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting;(f) Information concerning persons who are reasonably believed to be potential sources or contacts for the purpose of determining their suitability or credibility;(g) Information arising out of a lawful personnel, physical or communications security investigation;(h) Information acquired by overhead reconnaissance not directed at specific United States persons;(i) Incidentally obtained information that may indicate involvement in activities that may violate federal, state, local or foreign laws; and(j) Information necessary for administrative purposes.In addition, agencies within the Intelligence Community may disseminate information, other than information derived from signals intelligence, to each appropriate agency within the Intelligence Community for purposes of allowing the recipient agency to determine whether the information is relevant to its responsibilities and can be retained by it.
2.4Collection Techniques. Agencies within the Intelligence Community shall use the least intrusive collection techniques feasible within the United States or directed against United States persons abroad. Agencies are not authorized to use such techniques as electronic surveillance, unconsented physical search, mail surveillance, physical surveillance, or monitoring devices unless they are in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such procedures shall protect constitutional and other legal rights and limit use of such information to lawful governmental purposes. These procedures shall not authorize:(a) The CIA to engage in electronic surveillance within the United States except for the purpose of training, testing, or conducting countermeasures to hostile electronic surveillance;(b) Unconsented physical searches in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for:(1) Searches by counterintelligence elements of the military services directed against military personnel within the United States or abroad for intelligence purposes, when authorized by a military commander empowered to approve physical searches for law enforcement purposes, based upon a finding of probable cause to believe that such persons are acting as agents of foreign powers; and(2) Searches by CIA of personal property of non-United States persons lawfully in its possession.(c) Physical surveillance of a United States person in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for:(1) Physical surveillance of present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present of former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting; and(2) Physical surveillance of a military person employed by a nonintelligence element of a military service.(d) Physical surveillance of a United States person abroad to collect foreign intelligence, except to obtain significant information that cannot reasonably be acquired by other means.2.5Attorney General Approval. The Attorney General hereby is delegated the power to approve the use for intelligence purposes, within the United States or against a United States person abroad, of any technique for which a warrant would be required if undertaken for law enforcement purposes, provided that such techniques shall not be undertaken unless the Attorney General has determined in each case that there is probable cause to believe that the technique is directed against a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power. Electronic surveillance, as defined in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, shall be conducted in accordance with that Act, as well as this Order.
2.6Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities. Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to:(a) Cooperate with appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose of protecting the employees, information, property and facilities of any agency within the Intelligence Community;(b) Unless otherwise precluded by law or this Order, participate in law enforcement activities to investigate or prevent clandestine intelligence activities by foreign powers, or international terrorist or narcotics activities;(c) Provide specialized equipment, technical knowledge, or assistance of expert personnel for use by any department or agency, or, when lives are endangered, to support local law enforcement agencies. Provision of assistance by expert personnel shall be approved in each case by the General Counsel of the providing agency; and(d) Render any other assistance and cooperation to law enforcement authorities not precluded by applicable law.
2.7Contracting. Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to enter into contracts or arrangements for the provision of goods or services with private companies or institutions in the United States and need not reveal the sponsorship of such contracts or arrangements for authorized intelligence purposes. Contracts or arrangements with academic institutions may be undertaken only with the consent of appropriate officials of the institution.
2.8Consistency With Other Laws. Nothing in this Order shall be construed to authorize any activity in violation of the Constitution or statutes of the United States.
2.9Undisclosed Participation in Organizations Within the United States. No one acting on behalf of agencies within the Intelligence Community may join or otherwise participate in any organization in the United States on behalf of any agency within the Intelligence Community without disclosing his intelligence affiliation to appropriate officials of the organization, except in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such participation shall be authorized only if it is essential to achieving lawful purposes as determined by the agency head or designee. No such participation may be undertaken for the purpose of influencing the activity of the organization or its members except in cases where:(a) The participation is undertaken on behalf of the FBI in the course of a lawful investigation; or(b) The organization concerned is composed primarily of individuals who are not United States persons and is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power.
2.10Human Experimentation. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The subject's informed consent shall be documented as required by those guidelines.
2.11Prohibition on Assassination. No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, assassination.
2.12Indirect Participation. No agency of the Intelligence Community shall participate in or request any person to undertake activities forbidden by this Order.
3.1Congressional Oversight. The duties and responsibilities of the Director of Central Intelligence and the heads of other departments, agencies, and entities engaged in intelligence activities to cooperate with the Congress in the conduct of its responsibilities for oversight of intelligence activities shall be as provided in title 50, United States Code, section 413. The requirements of section 662 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2422), and section 501 of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (50 U.S.C. 413), shall apply to all special activities as defined in this Order.
3.2Implementation. The NSC, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Director of Central Intelligence shall issue such appropriate directives and procedures as are necessary to implement this Order. Heads of agencies within the Intelligence Community shall issue appropriate supplementary directives and procedures consistent with this Order. The Attorney General shall provide a statement of reasons for not approving any procedures established by the head of an agency in the Intelligence Community other than the FBI. The National Security Council may establish procedures in instances where the agency head and the Attorney General are unable to reach agreement on other than constitutional or other legal grounds.
3.3Procedures. Until the procedures required by this Order have been established, the activities herein authorized which require procedures shall be conducted in accordance with existing procedures or requirements established under Executive Order No. 12036. Procedures required by this Order shall be established as expeditiously as possible. All procedures promulgated pursuant to this Order shall be made available to the congressional intelligence committees.
3.4Definitions. For the purposes of this Order, the following terms shall have these meanings:(a) Counterintelligence means information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.(b) Electronic surveillance means acquisition of a nonpublic communication by electronic means without the consent of a person who is a party to an electronic communication or, in the case of a nonelectronic communication, without the consent of a person who is visibly present at the place of communication, but not including the use of radio direction-finding equipment solely to determine the location of a transmitter.(c) Employee means a person employed by, assigned to or acting for an agency within the Intelligence Community.(d) Foreign intelligence means information relating to the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations or persons, but not including counterintelligence except for information on international terrorist activities.(e) Intelligence activities means all activities that agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to conduct pursuant to this Order.(f) Intelligence Community and agencies within the Intelligence Community refer to the following agencies or organizations:(1) The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA);(2) The National Security Agency (NSA);(3) The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA);(4) The offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs;(5) The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State;(6) The intelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Energy; and(7) The staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence.(g) The National Foreign Intelligence Program includes the programs listed below, but its composition shall be subject to review by the National Security Council and modification by the President:(1) The programs of the CIA;(2) The Consolidated Cryptologic Program, the General Defense Intelligence Program, and the programs of the offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance, except such elements as the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense agree should be excluded;(3) Other programs of agencies within the Intelligence Community designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or by the President as national foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities;(4) Activities of the staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence;(5) Activities to acquire the intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations by the United States military forces are not included in the National Foreign Intelligence Program.(h) Special activities means activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities, but which are not intended to influence United States political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.(i) United States person means a United States citizen, an alien known by the intelligence agency concerned to be a permanent resident alien, an unincorporated association substantially composed of United States citizens or permanent resident aliens, or a corporation incorporated in the United States, except for a corporation directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments.3.5Purpose and Effect. This Order is intended to control and provide direction and guidance to the Intelligence Community. Nothing contained herein or in any procedures promulgated hereunder is intended to confer any substantive or procedural right or privilege on any person or organization.
3.6Revocation. Executive Order No. 12036 of January 24, 1978, as amended, entitled "United States Intelligence Activities," is revoked.
1Editorial note: The correct citation is (87 Stat. 555).
Executive Order 12333 - Wikipedia
Sun, 14 Apr 2019 03:28
Order officially creating the U.S. Intelligence Community
Executive Order 12333 was signed by President Ronald Reagan on December 4, 1981.
Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, was an Executive Order intended to extend powers and responsibilities of U.S. intelligence agencies and direct the leaders of U.S. federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. This executive order was titled United States Intelligence Activities.
It was amended by Executive Order 13355: Strengthened Management of the Intelligence Community, on August 27, 2004. On July 30, 2008, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13470 amending Executive Order 12333 to strengthen the role of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).
Part 1 [ edit ] "Goals, Direction, Duties and Responsibilities with Respect to the National Intelligence Effort" lays out roles for various intelligence agencies, including the Departments of Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury.
Part 2 [ edit ] "Conduct of Intelligence Activities" provides guidelines for actions of intelligence agencies.
Collection of Information [ edit ] Part 2.3 permits collection, retention and dissemination of the following types of information along with several others.
(c) Information obtained in the course of a lawful foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, international narcotics or international terrorism investigation
. . .
(i) Incidentally obtained information that may indicate involvement in activities that may violate federal, state, local or foreign laws
Proscription on assassination [ edit ] Part 2.11 of this executive order reiterates a proscription on US intelligence agencies sponsoring or carrying out an assassination. It reads:
No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, political assassination.
Previously, EO 11905 (Gerald Ford) had banned political assassinations and EO 12036 (Jimmy Carter) had further banned indirect U.S. involvement in assassinations. As early as 1998, this proscription against assassination was reinterpreted, and relaxed, for targets who are classified by the United States as connected to terrorism.
Impact [ edit ] Executive Order 12333 has been regarded by the American intelligence community as a fundamental document authorizing the expansion of data collection activities. The document has been employed by the National Security Agency as legal authorization for its collection of unencrypted information flowing through the data centers of internet communications giants Google and Yahoo!.
In July 2014 chairman David Medine and two other members of the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, a government oversight agency, indicated a desire to review Executive Order 12333 in the near future, according to a report by journalist Spencer Ackerman of The Guardian.
In July 2014, former State Department official John Tye published an editorial in The Washington Post, citing his prior access to classified material on intelligence-gathering activities under Executive Order 12333, and arguing that the order represented a significant threat to Americans' privacy and civil liberties.
In the movie Get Smart, Agent 23 tells Maxwell Smart,"assassinations are prohibited by Executive Order 1-2-333."
See also [ edit ] United States Intelligence CommunityChurch CommitteeCOINTELPROList of United States federal executive ordersTargeted killing [ edit ] ^ a b Ronald Reagan, "Executive Order 12333'--United States Intelligence Activities," US Federal Register, Dec. 4, 1981. ^ "Executive Order 13470". Fas.org . Retrieved May 6, 2011 . ^ "Bush Orders Intelligence Overhaul", by Associated Press, July 31, 2008 ^ Executive Order: Further Amendments to Executive Order 12333, United States Intelligence Activities, White House, July 31, 2008 ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov . Retrieved May 6, 2011 . ^ CRS Report for Congress Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary January 4, 2002 ^ Walter Pincus (February 15, 1998). "Saddam Hussein's Death Is a Goal, Says Ex-CIA Chief". The Washington Post. p. A36. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008 . Retrieved December 30, 2008 . ^ Barton Gellman (October 21, 2001). "CIA Weighs 'Targeted Killing' Missions: Administration Believes Restraints Do Not Bar Singling Out Individual Terrorists". The Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008 . Retrieved December 30, 2008 . ^ a b c Spencer Ackerman, "NSA Reformers Dismayed after Privacy Board Vindicates Surveillance Dragnet: Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board Endorses Agency's So-called '702' Powers, Plus Backdoor Searches of Americans' Information", 'The Guardian (London), July 2, 2014. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (August 20, 2014). "Meet John Tye: the kinder, gentler, and by-the-book whistleblower". Ars Technica. Further reading [ edit ] Full textRonald Reagan, "Executive Order 12333'--United States Intelligence Activities", US Federal Register, December 4, 1981.External links [ edit ] Metadata concerning Executive Order 12333, US Federal Register '' indicates other executive orders that this E.O. amends, revokes, and is amended by.Executive Order 12333 Documents Redefine 'Collection,' Authorize Majority Of Dragnet Surveillance Programs, Techdirt, 2014/09/29Should U.S. officials say anything that could harm U.S. soldiers?, Milnet '' (a 5k summary of eo12333)Executive Order 13355: Strengthened Management of the Intelligence Community, White House, August 27, 2004.Executive Order 13355: Strengthened Management of the Intelligence Community, US Federal Register, September 1, 2004.Procedures Governing the Activities of DoD Intelligence Components that Affect United States Persons, December 1982.Another Law Under Assault, Washington Post, September 29, 2005.Hess, Pamela (November 8, 2002). "Experts: Yemen strike not assassination". UPI. Elizabeth B. Bazan (January 4, 2002). "Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333:A Brief Summary" (PDF) . CRS Report for Congress . Retrieved April 26, 2006 . Tom O'Connor, Mark Stevens (November 2005). "The Handling of Illegal Enemy Combatants". Archived from the original on May 5, 2006 . Retrieved April 26, 2006 . "Memorandum on Executive Order 12333 and Assassination" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2006 . Retrieved April 26, 2006 . Jeffrey Addicott (November 7, 2002). "The Yemen Attack: Illegal Assassination or Lawful Killing?". JURIST. Archived from the original on April 18, 2006 . Retrieved April 26, 2006 .
News about #IStandWithIlhanOmar on Twitter
Sat, 13 Apr 2019 16:00
Welcome home! This timeline is where you'll spend most of your time, getting instant updates about what matters to you.
Tweets not working for you? Hover over the profile pic and click the Following button to unfollow any account.
Say a lot with a little When you see a Tweet you love, tap the heart '-- it lets the person who wrote it know you shared the love.
Spread the word The fastest way to share someone else's Tweet with your followers is with a Retweet. Tap the icon to send it instantly.
Join the conversation Add your thoughts about any Tweet with a Reply. Find a topic you're passionate about, and jump right in.
Learn the latest Get instant insight into what people are talking about now.
Get more of what you love Follow more accounts to get instant updates about topics you care about.
Find what's happening See the latest conversations about any topic instantly.
Never miss a Moment Catch up instantly on the best stories happening as they unfold.
Seth Abramson - Wikipedia
Sat, 13 Apr 2019 13:43
American professor, poet, and attorney
Seth Abramson (born October 31, 1976) is an American professor, poet, attorney, journalist, and author.
Early life and education [ edit ] Abramson is a graduate of Dartmouth College (1998), Harvard Law School (2001), the Iowa Writers' Workshop (2009), and the doctoral program in English at University of Wisconsin-Madison (2010; 2016).
Career [ edit ] Abramson is an assistant professor of Communication Arts and Sciences at University of New Hampshire and affiliate faculty at the New Hampshire Institute of Art. His teaching areas include digital journalism, post-internet cultural theory, post-internet writing, and legal advocacy. Prior to entering academia in 2015, Abramson was a trial attorney for the New Hampshire Public Defender from 2001 to 2007. While still an attorney and member in good standing of the New Hampshire Bar Association and the Federal Bar for the District of New Hampshire, he no longer practices.
Since 2010, Abramson has at various times been a columnist for Indiewire, The Huffington Post, and Poets & Writers on subjects ranging from politics to higher education and metamodernism.Publishers Weekly notes that Abramson has "picked up a very large following as a blogger and commentator, covering poetry, politics, and higher education, and generating a controversial, U.S. News-style ranking of graduate programs in writing."
In November 2018, Abramson became a political columnist for Newsweek.
In a 2019 interview, a Playboy interviewer said that that "Abramson helped pioneer the literary form of the [Twitter] 'thread'" and, speaking of his 2018 book Proof of Collusion, credited "the eccentric New Hampshirite" for "his meticulous attention to the evidence of Trumpworld's alleged collusion with the Kremlin." The magazine added that Abramson was a "left-brained gonzo."
On March 26, 2019, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House Press Secretary, issued an official statement from her White House social media account referring to Abramson on a list of 32 "angry and hysterical Trump haters."
Creative writing [ edit ] Abramson has published a number of poetry books and anthologies. Publishers Weekly describes Abramson as "serious and ambitious...uncommonly interested in general statements, in hard questions, and harder answers, about how to live."
Colorado Review called Northerners, Abramson's second collection of poetry, "alternately expansive and deeply personal...of crystalline beauty and complexity," terming Abramson "a major American voice."Notre Dame Review echoed the sentiment, calling Abramson "a powerful voice."
Abramson won the 2008 J. Howard and Barbara M.J. Wood Prize from Poetry. Editor Don Share said of Abramson's "What I Have," "The poem absorbs certain details but doesn't fasten upon them the way poets are tempted to do; it's not adjectival, it's not descriptive, it's not painting a kind of canvas with scenery on it, and yet those details are really fascinating."
Best American Experimental Writing [ edit ] Abramson, with the poet Jesse Damiani, has been series co-editor of the annual anthology of innovative verse, Best American Experimental Writing, since its inception with Omnidawn in 2012. The series was picked up by Wesleyan University Press in 2014. Guest editors for the series have included Cole Swensen (2014), Douglas Kearney (2015), Charles Bernstein and Tracie Morris (2016), Myung Mi Kim (2018), and Carmen Maria Machado and Joyelle McSweeney (2019).
In 2018, The Rumpus called the anthology "meaty, daring, and beautiful." Nicole Rudick, managing editor of The Paris Review, has called the series "just my kind of rabbit hole."
Trump-Russia investigation [ edit ] After the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Abramson received widespread attention for his tweets alleging collusion between the Trump campaign and the Russian government. Based on the timing, publicly known content, and personnel involved in those meetings, Abramson suggests that, through intermediaries, Trump and Putin came to an understanding in 2013 that Trump would run for president and push for an end to U.S. sanctions against Russia, and that Putin would in return greenlight a multibillion-dollar Trump Tower Moscow deal and other potential Trump ventures in Russia while using Russian capabilities to aid the Trump campaign. According to the Washington Post, "There are, to be sure, many leaps in his analysis. Abramson's tweets link copiously to sources, but they range in quality from investigative news articles to off-the-wall Facebook posts and tweets from Tom Arnold."
Writers at The New Republic, The Atlantic, and Deadspin have described Abramson as a conspiracy theorist, while Ben Mathis-Lilley of Slate argues that Abramson is "not making things up, per se; he's just recycling information you could find on any news site and adding sinister what-if hypotheticals to create conclusions that he refers to . . . as 'investigatory analyses.'" The Chronicle of Higher Education notes, however, that Abramson often "feuds with anti-Trump conspiracy theorists whom he sees linking to dubious sources and making claims without evidence."
Meanwhile, Virginia Heffernan writes in Politico that Abramson's "theory-testing" is "urgently important."Der Spiegel calls Abramson "a quintessential American figure: an underdog who became an involuntary hero."The New York Observer writes that "events like Trump's 2013 trip to Russia for Miss Universe were covered extensively on Abramson's feed prior to the mainstream media catching on, a fact that has given him a reputation for being early to connect events within the broader Russia story." According to Avi Selk of The Washington Post, Abramson "has become virally popular by reframing a complex tangle of public reporting on the Russia scandal into a story so simple it can be laid out in daily tweets."
In November 2018, Abramson published the New York Times bestselling book Proof of Collusion (Simon & Schuster), which sought to establish "proof of collusion in the Trump-Russia case." A Playboy interviewer wrote of Proof of Collusion that "not one error has been found in the book." According to a review in the Herald, "Amassed theories and suggestive juxtapositions notwithstanding, we end up with something closer to the Scottish 'not proven' verdict with its unique mix of moral conviction of guilt and inability to conclusively prove the case."
The MFA Research Project [ edit ] Abramson authors The MFA Research Project (MRP), a website that publishes indexes of creative writing Master of Fine Arts (MFA) programs based on surveys and hard-data research. Indexes appearing on the MRP include ordered listings of program popularity, funding, selectivity, fellowship placement, job placement, student-faculty ratio, application cost, application response times, application and curriculum requirements, and foundation dates. The MRP also publishes surveys of current MFA applicants, and of various creative writing programs. Writing for The Cambridge Companion to American Poetry Since 1945, Hank Lazer described Abramson's project as "a daring and data-rich endeavor."The Missouri Review observed that Abramson, along with novelist Tom Kealey, "had done a tremendous amount of work to peel back the layers of MFA programs and get applicants to make informed decisions."
Data from the MRP was regularly published by Poets & Writers between 2008 and 2013. The Chronicle of Higher Education termed the Poets & Writers national assessment methodology "comprehensive" and "the only MFA ranking regime." The data was not without its critics. In September 2011, a critical open letter signed by professors from undergraduate and graduate creative writing programs was published. In their response, Poets & Writers asserted that it adhered to the highest journalistic standards. The magazine's Editorial Director Mary Gannon said of Abramson, the rankings' primary researcher, that he "has been collecting data about applicants' preferences and about MFA programs for five years, and we stand behind his integrity."
In June 2018, Abramson published an expanded version of the MRP data archive as part of a nonfiction reference guide, The Insider's Guide to Graduate Degrees in Creative Writing (Bloomsbury).
Controversy [ edit ] In May 2014, Abramson was criticised for his Huffington Post piece "Last Words for Elliot Rodger", a "remix" of words taken from the final YouTube video of the perpetrator of the Isla Vista killings, which Abramson published less than two days after they took place. Both the reuse of Rodger's words and the timing of the poem caused offense. Although Abramson called the work "a vehicle for amity and compassion", Omnidawn, Abramson's publisher at the time, issued a statement saying that it was "dismayed, disheartened, distressed", adding that "his actions in this matter are not in alignment with our principles."
Awards [ edit ] 2008, J. Howard and Barbara M.J. Wood Prize2010, Green Rose Prize2012, August Derleth Fiction Prize2012, Akron Poetry Prize2018, National Council for the Training of Journalists Honoree Selected works [ edit ] Books [ edit ] The Creative Writing MFA Handbook [Contributing Author] (Continuum Publishing, 2008)The Suburban Ecstasies (Ghost Road Press, 2009)The Poets & Writers Guide to MFA Programs [Contributing Author] (Poets & Writers, 2011)Northerners (New Issues/Western Michigan University Press, 2011)Thievery (University of Akron Press, 2013)Best American Experimental Writing 2014 [Series Co-Editor] (Omnidawn, 2014)Best American Experimental Writing 2015 [Series Co-Editor] (Wesleyan University Press, 2015)Metamericana (BlazeVOX Books, 2015)DATA (BlazeVOX Books, 2016)Best American Experimental Writing 2016 [Series Co-Editor] (Wesleyan University Press, 2016)Golden Age (BlazeVOX Books, 2017)An Insider's Guide to Graduate Creative Writing Degrees (Bloomsbury, 2018)Best American Experimental Writing 2018 [Series Co-Editor] (Wesleyan University Press, 2018)Proof of Collusion: How Trump Betrayed America (Simon & Schuster, 2018)Proof of Conspiracy: How Trump's International Collusion Threatens American Democracy (Macmillan, 2019)Best American Experimental Writing 2020 [Series Co-Editor] (Wesleyan University Press, 2020)Citizen Journalist (Macmillan, 2020)Anthologies [ edit ] Xconnect (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000)Lawyers and Poetry (West Virginia University Press, 2001)Best New Poets 2008 (University of Virginia Press, 2008)Poetry of the Law (University of Iowa Press, 2010)The Bloomsbury Anthology of Contemporary Jewish American Poetry (Bloomsbury, 2013)After the Program Era: The Past, Present, and Future of Creative Writing in the University (University of Iowa Press, 2017)References [ edit ] ^ a b Plenda, Melanie (2015-03-24). "Acclaimed Author and Poet Seth Abramson joins UNH Manchester English Program". University of New Hampshire at Manchester. Archived from the original on 2018-05-25. ^ Seth Abramson (2017-02-08). "Listen up, progressives: We need to be smart in the digital age". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on 2018-05-25. ^ a b "Seth Abramson archive at Newsweek". www.newsweek . Retrieved 22 December 2018 . ^ "Combined Print & E-Book Nonfiction NYT Bestsellers for December 2, 2018". www.nytimes . Retrieved 27 November 2018 . ^ a b New Hampshire Institute of Art (2018-06-05). "Seth Abramson Joins NHIA MFA Faculty" . Retrieved 2018-06-23 . ^ "Seth Abramson". UNH at Manchester. 2016-02-24 . Retrieved 22 June 2018 . ^ "Seth Abramson - HuffPost". www.huffingtonpost.com . Retrieved 22 June 2018 . ^ "On American Metamodernism," The Huffington Post (February 7, 2014).  ^ "A New Press Play Column: Seth Abramson's 'Metamericana'", Indiewire (January 31, 2014).  ^ Review of Northerners, Publishers Weekly (May 2011).  ^ Interview with Seth Abramson. Playboy (March 2019).  ^ Interview with Seth Abramson. Playboy (March 2019).  ^ Tweet by Sarah Huckabee Sanders. Twitter (March 26, 2019).  ^ Northerners, Publishers Weekly (Review).  ^ Northerners (review), Colorado Review.  ^ "From Ruin to Rebirth," Notre Dame Review.  ^ "You're Always Moving Toward Silence," Poetry (March 2009 Poetry Foundation Podcast).  ^ "Best American Experimental Writing Anthology Announced," The Poetry Foundation (November 12, 2012).  ^ "Announcing Omnidawn's New Annual Anthology, Best American Experimental Writing," Omnidawn (November 7, 2012). "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-21 . Retrieved 2012-11-21 . CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) ^ "Best American Experimental Writing: Guidelines for Submitting," Wesleyan University Press (April 17, 2014).  ^ "Best American Experimental Writing," Wesleyan University Press (November 20, 2017).  ^ "Logic and Lack of Logic: Best American Experimental Writing 2016," The Rumpus (February 23, 2018).  ^ "Staff Picks: Nicole Rudick," The Paris Review (June 17, 2016).  ^ a b c Selk, Avi (December 6, 2017). "People can't stop reading a professor's theory of a Trump-Russia conspiracy '-- true or not". The Washington Post . Retrieved May 25, 2018 . ^ Dickey, Colin (8 June 2017). "The New Paranoia". The New Republic . Retrieved 2017-07-03 . ^ McKay Coppins (2017-07-02). "How the Left Lost Its Mind". The Atlantic . Retrieved 2018-05-25 . ^ Blest, Paul (2017-04-04). "Trump Conspiracy Tweetstorms Are The Infowars Of The Left". Deadspin . Retrieved 2018-05-25 . ^ Ben Mathis-Lilley (2017-12-05). "Democrats: Please, Please Stop Sharing Seth Abramson's Very Bad Tweets". Slate. Archived from the original on 2018-05-25. ^ Kolowich, Steve (2017-05-15). "What Is Seth Abramson Trying to Tell Us?". The Chronicle of Higher Education. ISSN 0009-5982 . Retrieved 2017-07-03 . ^ Virginia Heffernan (September''October 2017). "The Rise of the Twitter Thread". Politico . Retrieved 2018-05-25 . ^ Christoph Scheuermann (June 4, 2018). "Army of Investigators Has Trump in Its Sights". Der Spiegel . Retrieved 2018-06-22 . ^ Mike Albanese (June 21, 2018). "Seth Abramson Is Combating Trump and the Media on Twitter". New York Observer . Retrieved 2018-06-22 . ^ "Combined Print & E-Book Nonfiction NYT Bestsellers for December 2, 2018". www.nytimes . Retrieved 27 November 2018 . ^ Interview with Seth Abramson. Playboy (March 2019).  ^ "Review: Proof of Collusion: How Trump Betrayed America, by Seth Abramson". HeraldScotland . Retrieved 2019-04-07 . ^ "Protected Blog ' Log in". mfaresearchproject.wordpress.com . Retrieved 22 June 2018 . ^ "American Poetry and Its Institutions," The Cambridge Companion to American Poetry Since 1945 (February 8, 2013)  ^ "The MFA Degree: A Bad Decision?", The Missouri Review (August 29, 2011).  Archived 2014-04-19 at the Wayback Machine ^ "What Defines a Successful Post-M.F.A. Career?", The Chronicle of Higher Education (November 3, 2011).  ^ "M.F.A. Application-Season Etiquette," The Chronicle of Higher Education.  ^ "Creative Writing Profs Dispute Their Ranking. No, the Entire Notion of Ranking!", The New York Observer, Kat Stoeffel (September 8, 2011).  ^ a b "Poets & Writers Responds to Open Letter". Poets & Writers. 13 September 2011 . Retrieved 13 September 2011 . ^ "Abramson Publisher "Distressed" by His Elliot Rodger "Remix " ". Coldfront. 29 May 2014 . Retrieved 28 August 2014 . ^ Kempf, Christopher (10 June 2014). "The Poetics of Tragedy". Los Angeles Review of Books . Retrieved 14 January 2015 . ^ "Rap Genius and Bad Poetry: It's Always Too Soon to Grab Personal Attention After a Tragedy". Flavorwire. 27 May 2014 . Retrieved 14 January 2016 . ^ "Omnidawn Breaks the Sound Barrier for BAX". Poetry Foundation. 30 May 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16 . Retrieved 28 August 2014 . ^ "NCJT list of 238 most respected journalists" (PDF) , NCTJ, October 11, 2018 , retrieved October 11, 2018 External links [ edit ] Interviews [ edit ] The Conversant (March 7, 2015) As It Ought to Be (March 12, 2014) Poem of the Week (January 29, 2014) Full Stop (November 8, 2012) LitBridge (September 14, 2012) Poetry Society of America (March 12, 2010) 
Uber unveils IPO with warning it may never make a profit | Daily Mail Online
Sat, 13 Apr 2019 13:09
Uber has admitted it may never make a profit after revealing comprehensive financial details of the decade-old company for the first time.
The firm also spent $457 million (£350m) investing in self-driving cars, flying taxis and other technologies in last year alone.
Information about Uber's finances were made public as part of an IPO filing ahead of going public on the New York Stock exchange.
The S-1 filing underscores Uber's rapid growth in the last three years, attracting 91 million users to its ride lift service.
It also shows how a string of public scandals and increased competition from rivals have weighed on its plans to attract and retain riders.
That includes the death of a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona, in March 2018 at the hands of one Uber's self-driving test cars.
Scroll down for video
Uber has admitted it may never make a profit after revealing comprehensive financial details of the decade-old company for the first time. The firm also spent $457 million (£350m) investing in self-driving cars, flying taxis and other technologies in last year alone (stock0
Uber has long struggled to turn an annual profit, although it has tipped over the line briefly in some of its quarterly reports.
The latest disclosure revealed just how far Uber remains from turning a profit, with the company cautioning it expects operating expenses to 'increase significantly in the foreseeable future' and it 'may not achieve profitability.'
Uber lost $3.03 billion (£2.3bn) in 2018 and spent a total of $1.5 billion (£1.15bn) in research and development during that period, the S-1 document revealed.
The San Francisco based company, which was started after its founders struggled to get a cab on a snowy night, is hoping that its investment in automated technology will minimise it's reliance on human drivers in the long-term.
Writing in the S-1 papers, a spokesman for the firm said: 'Along the way to a potential future autonomous vehicle world, we believe that there will be a long period of hybrid autonomy, in which autonomous vehicles will be deployed gradually against specific use cases while Drivers continue to serve most consumer demand.
'As we solve specific autonomous use cases, we will deploy autonomous vehicles against them.
'Such situations may include trips along a standard, well-mapped route in a predictable environment in good weather.'
Information about Uber's finances were made public as part of an IPO filing ahead of going public on the New York Stock exchange. This image shows a concept for the firm's flying taxi
The S-1 filing underscores Uber's rapid growth in the last three years, attracting 91 million users to its ride lift service. This image shows a model for a potential final design for the Uber flying taxi, which will be known as Uber Air
WHAT IS UBER AIR AND HOW MUCH WILL IT COST?UberAir is a network of small, electric, aircraft that enable four-person ridesharing flights in densely populated areas. Artist's impression shown
UberAir is a network of small, electric, aircraft that enable four-person ridesharing flights in densely populated areas.
The 'electrical vertical take-off and landing vehicles' (eVTOLs) differ from helicopters in that they are quieter, safer, more affordable, and more environmentally-friendly, Uber claims.
Users will order the aircraft through the Uber app much like they would one of the firm's taxis.
Once they have selected an UberAIR ride, the craft will fly to the nearest 'Skyport' - a series of launch pads spread across the city.
Uber estimates that an all-electric, 200mph (320kph) ride across the skies of Los Angeles will be price-competitive with an UberX trip of the same distance.
Uber predicts that trips from LAX to the Staples Centre during rush hour can be reduced from up to 1 hour 20 minutes on the ground to less than 30 minutes using UberAir.
Its prediction includes UberX transfers to and from UberAir launch pads - the flight over LA itself will take around four minutes, the firm said.
The plan will rely on a network of 'Skyports,' which will allow the VTOL Uber Air craft to take off and land on rooftops across the country
The filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission revealed Uber had 91 million average monthly active users on its platforms, including for ride-hailing and Uber Eats, at the end of 2018.
This is up 33.8 per cent from 2017, but growth slowed from 51 per cent a year earlier.
Uber had not disclosed the latest user numbers before, and the figure indicates the scale of the business.
Although its user base includes customers of other services and ride-sharing, the number is nearly five times the 18.6 million announced by rival Lyft.
Uber in 2018 had $11.3 billion (£8.65bn) revenue, up around 42 per cent over 2017, but below the 106 per cent growth the prior year.
Uber set a placeholder amount of $1 billion (£770m) but did not specify the size of the IPO.
Reuters reported this week that Uber plans to sell around $10 billion (£7.65bn) worth of stock at a valuation of between $90 and $100 billion (£69 and £76.5bn).
Investment bankers had previously told Uber it could be worth as much as $120 billion (£90bn).
Uber would be the largest initial public offering since that of Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba Group Holding Ltd in 2014, which raised $25 billion (£19bn).
Although Uber is no longer targeting a $120 billion (£90bn) valuation in the IPO, some stock bonuses to Chief Executive Dara Khosrowshahi and other company executives are only triggered when that valuation is reached.
It also shows how a string of public scandals have weighed on its plans to attract and retain riders. That includes the death of a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona, in March 2018 at the hands of one Uber's self-driving test cars. (pictured in this file photo)
The Volvo SUV was in self-driving mode with a human back-up operator behind the wheel in Tempe when a woman walking a bicycle was hit. Elaine Herzberg, 49, died in hospital. This image shows the vehicle after the crash
HOW DID AN UBER AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE HIT AND KILL A WOMAN IN ARIZONA?A self-driving Uber vehicle struck and killed a pedestrian in the first death involving a fully autonomous test vehicle on March 19, 2018.
The accident prompted the ride-hailing company to suspend road-testing of such cars in the US and Canada.
The Volvo SUV was in self-driving mode with a human back-up operator behind the wheel in Tempe when a woman walking a bicycle was hit.
Elaine Herzberg, 49, died in hospital.
Police have said that the victim, 49 year old Elaine Herzberg, stepped out in front of the car suddenly and they do not believe the car was to blame.
Uber suspended its self-driving vehicle testing in the Phoenix area, Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Toronto.
The testing has been going on for months as car makers and technology companies compete to be the first with cars that operate on their own.
Uber's self-driving car crash that led to the death of a mother-of-two could have been avoided, driverless vehicle experts have claimed.
Cortica, a firm that develops artificial intelligence for autonomous vehicles, has analysed the dash cam video.
The company concludes the car, which failed to brake or swerve before the collision, had enough time to react and potentially save Ms Herzberg's life.
Speaking to CNET, Cortica's CEO Igal Raichelgauz said the firm's self-driving AI system detected Ms Herzberg 0.9 seconds before impact.
At this point the car was around 50 feet (15 metres) away.
He said the autonomous car's cameras and radar system should have had enough time to pick up the pedestrian and react to the situation.
Driverless cars are fitted with a system of cameras, radar and lidar sensors that allow them to 'see' their surroundings and detect traffic, pedestrians and other objects.
An AI computer system then decides what actions the car takes to avoid a collision - a setup that is supposed to work as well at night as during the day.
A top executive for the maker of Lidar sensors used on Uber's self-driving car said she was 'baffled' as to why the vehicle failed to recognise Ms Herzberg.
Uber will follow Lyft in going public.
Shares in its smaller rival closed at $61.01 (£46.7) on Thursday, 15 per cent below its IPO price set late last month, a development which has sent a chilling signal for other tech start-ups looking to go public.
After making the public filing, Uber will begin a series of investor presentations, called a roadshow, which Reuters has reported will start the week of April 29.
The company is on track to price its IPO and begin trading on the New York Stock Exchange in early May.
Uber faces questions over how it will navigate any transition towards self-driving vehicles, a technology seen as potentially dramatically lowering costs but which could also disrupt its business model.
Last year, the ride-hailing giant settled a legal dispute over trade secrets with Google parent firm Alphabet's Waymo self-driving vehicle unit.
Waymo, in its lawsuit, had said one of its former engineers who became chief of Uber's self-driving car project took with him thousands of confidential documents.
Uber revealed in the filing it could have to pay a license fee to Waymo or face a substantial delay to the development of its self-driving technology if the initial assessment of its technology by an independent expert is confirmed.
The expert, installed as part of Uber's settlement with Waymo, has identified on an interim basis certain functions in Uber's autonomous vehicle software that 'are problematic and other functions that are not,' Uber said.
Uber has long struggled to turn an annual profit, although it has tipped over the line briefly in some of its quarterly reports. The latest disclosure revealed just how far Uber remains from turning a profit, however (stock image)
A Waymo spokesperson said: 'This review is on-going and we will continue to take the necessary steps to ensure our confidential information is not being used by Uber.'
One advantage Uber will likely seek to play up to investors is that it is the largest player in many of the markets in which it operates.
Analysts consider building scale crucial for Uber's business model to become profitable.
In addition to answering questions about Uber's finances, CEO Khosrowshahi will be tasked with convincing investors that he has successfully changed the culture and business practices after a series of embarrassing scandals over the last two years.
Those have included sexual harassment allegations, a massive data breach that was concealed from regulators, use of illicit software to evade authorities and allegations of bribery overseas. Khosrowshahi joined Uber in 2017 to replace company co-founder Travis Kalanick who was ousted as CEO.
Uber said in its filing its ridehailing position in the United States and Canada was 'significantly impacted by adverse publicity events' and that its position in many markets has been threatened by discounts from other ride-hailing companies.
A #DeleteUber campaign surged on social media in 2017 after a public relations crisis, which Uber said in its filing meant hundreds of thousands of consumers stopped using its platform within days.
Uber said its market share fell in most regions last year, although the rate of decline has slowed.
The company claims more than 65 per cent market share in the United States and Canada, versus Lyft's stated 39 per cent in the United States.
Uber is reserving some shares in the IPO for drivers who have completed 2,500 trips among other criteria.
WHAT TYPE OF FLYING TAXIS COULD WE EXPECT TO SEE IN THE FUTURE?Advances in electric motors, battery technology and autonomous software has triggered an explosion in the field of electric air taxis.
Larry Page, CEO of Google parent company Alphabet , has poured millions into aviation start-ups Zee Aero and Kitty Hawk, which are both striving to create all-electric flying cabs.
Kitty Hawk is believed to be developing a flying car and has already filed more than a dozen different aircraft registrations with the Federal Aviation Administration, or FAA.
Page, who co-founded Google with Sergey Brin back in 1998, has personally invested $100 million (£70 million) into the two companies, which have yet to publicly acknowledge or demonstrate their technology.
Secretive start-up Joby Aviation has come a step closer to making its flying taxi a reality.
The California-based company, which is building an all-electric flying taxi capable of vertical take-off, has received $100 million (£70 million) in funding from a group of investors led by Toyota and Intel.
The money will be used to develop the firm's 'megadrone' which can reach speeds of 200mph (321kph) powered by lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide batteries.
The Joby S2 prototype has 16 electric propellers, 12 of which are designed for vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), which means no runway is needed.
AirSpaceX unveiled its latest prototype, Mobi-One, at the North American International Auto Show in early 2018. Like its closest rivals, the electric aircraft is designed to carry two to four passengers and is capable of vertical take-off and landing
The aircraft takes off vertically, like a helicopter, before folding away 12 of its propellers so it can glide like a plane once it is airborne.
Airbus is also hard at work on a similar idea, with its latest Project Vahana prototype, branded Alpha One, successfully completing its maiden test flight in February 2018.
The self-piloted helicopter reached a height of 16 feet (five metres) before successfully returning to the ground. In total, the test flight lasted 53 seconds.
Airbus previously shared a well-produced concept video, showcasing its vision for Project Vahana.
The footage reveals a sleek self-flying aircraft that seats one passenger under a canopy that retracts in similar way to a motorcycle helmet visor.
Airbus Project Vahana prototype, branded Alpha One, successfully completed its maiden test flight in February 2018. The self-piloted helicopter reached a height of 16 feet (five metres) before successfully returning to the ground. In total, the test flight lasted 53 seconds
Like Joby Aviation, Project Vahana is designed to be all-electric and take-off and land vertically.
AirSpaceX is another company with ambitions to take commuters to the skies.
The Detroit-based start-up has promised to deploy 2,500 aircrafts in the 50 largest cities in the United States by 2026.
AirSpaceX unveiled its latest prototype, Mobi-One, at the North American International Auto Show in early 2018.
Like its closest rivals, the electric aircraft is designed to carry two to four passengers and is capable of vertical take-off and landing.
AirSpaceX has even included broadband connectivity for high speed internet access so you can check your Facebook News Feed as you fly to work.
Aside from passenger and cargo services, AirSpaceX says the craft can also be used for medical and casualty evacuation, as well as tactical Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR).
Even Uber is working on making its ride-hailing service airborne.
Dubbed Uber Elevate, Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi tentatively discussed the company's plans during a technology conference in January 2018.
'I think it's going to happen within the next 10 years,' he said.
Israeli Moon Lander Suffered Engine Glitch Before Crash | Space
Sat, 13 Apr 2019 12:44
This was the last photo that the Beresheet spacecraft captured before it crashed into the lunar surface on April 12, 2019.
(Image: (C) SpaceIL/IAI)
Beresheet, the Israeli spacecraft that crashed into the moon during a landing attempt yesterday (April 11), was having problems with its main engine during its descent that left it unable to slow down in time before it smashed into the lunar surface.
"A technical glitch in one of Beresheet's components triggered the chain of events yesterday that caused the main engine of the spacecraft to malfunction," engineers with SpaceIL and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), the teams that built and operated the spacecraft, said in a statement today (April 12).
Engineers at the mission control center in Yehud, Israel, did manage to restart the engine before the crash, but "by that time, its velocity was too high to slow down and the landing could not be completed as planned," SpaceIL officials said in the statement.
Related: Israel's 1st Moon Lander: The SpaceIL Beresheet Lunar Mission in Pictures
The engine problems started when Beresheet was about 8.7 miles (14 kilometers) from the surface of the moon. Beresheet beamed back one last photo of the lunar surface before it lost communication with Earth and slammed into the lunar soil. The final image arrived at SpaceIL's mission control room when Beresheet was 4.7 miles (7.5 kilometers) above the surface of the moon.
Mission controllers lost contact with the spacecraft when it was at an altitude of 492 feet (150 meters) and barreling downward at a speed of 310 mph (500 km/h). "We seem to have a problem with our main engine," SpaceIL's commentator said during a live webcast of the landing operations. "We are resetting the spacecraft to try to enable the engine." A few seconds later, he announced that the main engine was back on '-- but it was already too late.
Israel's Beresheet moon landing captured this self-portrait from 14 miles (22 kilometers) above the lunar surface.
(Image: (C) SpaceIL/IAI)
Israel may not have succeeded in a soft landing on the moon, but the tiny country is not giving up on its lunar ambitions just yet. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who watched the landing attempt from the mission control room, said Israel will try to land on the moon again in the next two to three years.
Israeli Lander Failure Marks 1st Moon Crash in 48 YearsHere's What Mission Control Is Like Before Israel's Beresheet Moon LandingIsraeli Moon Lander Snaps Epic Space Selfie with a Full EarthEmail Hanneke Weitering at firstname.lastname@example.org or follow her @hannekescience. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.
Have a news tip, correction or comment? Let us know at email@example.com.
Illinois Senate to Trump: Release Your Tax Returns or You Won't Be on the 2020 Ballot
Sat, 13 Apr 2019 11:01
Photo: Alex Wong (Getty Images)The Illinois Senate has put its foot down strong in the paint. On Thursday, the Democratic-led Senate proposed a deal that anti-Trump fans can get behind'--either Trump releases five years' worth of his personal income tax returns so they can see how many rubles he received from Russian oligarchs or he won't appear on the state's presidential ballot next year.
National Public Radio reports that this is the crest of a movement by Democratic states to force the president to stop playing the ''I would love to but I'm being audited right now'' game with his tax returns.
During contentious floor debate in the Illinois statehouse, Trump's name wasn't mentioned once by the legislation's sponsor, state Sen. Tony Munoz, a Chicago Democrat who insisted he merely is trying to shed more transparency on the presidential campaign.
''If you want to run for vice president or president of the United States, hey, what's wrong with providing your tax returns for the past five years?'' Munoz asked his colleagues ahead of the Senate's 36-19 vote in favor of his bill.
''If you've got nothing to hide, you shouldn't worry about anything,'' he continued. ''That's how I see it.''
Democrats had been pushing for Trump to release his tax returns when he was a candidate in the 2016 election in hopes of finding how a man who couldn't borrow money inside the United States was balling without the help of Russian interests.
Last week, House Dems told Trump to let those taxes loose, but the president's fuckboy and head of the treasury, Steve Mnuchin (who could use another vowel in his last name) has been playing ''Taxes? Oh I thought you said 'waxes.' Yeah, we are going to be late on those due to miscommunication'' game.
NPR notes that, ''in New York state, Democrats in Albany have sought to work around the White House's intransigence on the issue by trying to gain access to Trump's state income tax returns.''
Of course, Illinois Republicans weren't happy and claimed that the move was unconstitutional and avoided other ballers including the ''state's newly installed billionaire governor, Democrat JB Pritzker.''
''This is quite frankly, with all due respect to the sponsor, an embarrassing waste of the Senate's time,'' said state Sen. Dale Righter, R-Mattoon, NPR reports.
''This is being pushed by a far-leftist organization from the city of Chicago that wants to be able to get up and chirp about the president of the United States,'' Righter said. ''We ought to be better than this.''
Well, we ought to be better than a lot of things, like using migrant children as pawns in a war about a dumb as wall that no one wants, but guess what, we aren't.
''The measure now moves to the Illinois House, which like the Senate is heavily controlled by Democrats,'' NPR reports. This means it's going to pass and the president is going to have to show those taxes or he won't be on the ballot in Illinois, which is fine by him since the state was won by Hillary Clinton in 2016.
IMF approves $4.2bn loan for Ecuador | eNCA
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 23:04
WASHINGTON - The International Monetary Fund on Monday approved a $4.2-billion, three-year loan for Ecuador, part of a broader aid package to help support the government's economic reform program.
The Washington-based lender agreed to the terms of the financing late last month, and the final approval of the IMF board on Monday releases the first installment of $652-million.
READ: IMF won't bail out South Africa: Lagarde
IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde said the aid will support the government's efforts to shore up its finances, including a wage "realignment," gradual lowering of fuel subsidies, and reduction of public debt.
"The savings generated by these measures will allow for an increase in social assistance spending over the course of the program," Lagarde said in a statement, stressing that "Protecting the poor and most vulnerable segments in society is a key objective" of the program.
Quito is expected to receive another $6-billion from the Development Bank of Latin America, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank and the Latin American Reserve Fund.
WATCH: IMF's Lagarde says state capture inquiry good for SA
"The Ecuadoran authorities are implementing a comprehensive reform program aimed at modernizing the economy and paving the way for strong, sustained, and equitable growth," Lagarde said.
IMF performs periodic reviews of its loans to ensure governments are following through on its policy pledge and then releases funds in installments.
Beresheet spacecraft: 'Technical glitch' led to Moon crash - BBC News
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 22:56
Image copyright SpaceIL Image caption Pictures of the moon taken by Beresheet as it made its descent Preliminary data from the Beresheet spacecraft suggests a technical glitch in one of its components caused the lander to crash on the Moon.
The malfunction triggered a chain of events that eventually caused its main engine to switch off.
Despite a restart, this meant that the spacecraft was unable to slow down during the final stages of its descent.
The Israeli spacecraft was the first privately funded probe to attempt a soft landing on the Moon.
The engineering team at SpaceIL and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) said that the first technical issue occurred 14km above the lunar surface. This would have been moments after it sent a selfie of its descent.
The final telemetry reading from the spacecraft revealed that 150m above the lunar surface, the spacecraft was moving at about 500km/h (300mph). At this speed a crash landing was inevitable.
Image copyright Reuters Image caption One of the last photos taken by Beresheet of the moon's surface before it crashed The Beresheet scientists have not specified the faulty component, but during the descent the spacecraft's inertial measurement unit reset - this assesses the orientation and velocity of the probe.
This early investigation does suggest that the main engine, which had been built in Britain, was not the primary source of the failure.
Robert Westcott, a senior propulsion engineer at Nammo Westcott, said: 'It appears that a glitch, perhaps with a sensor, may have caused the on-board computer to erroneously shut down the main engine.
"By the time they had reset the system and the engine successfully restarted it was too late to slow the lander down for the soft landing.
"It looks like our engine performed nominally though."
The team said more tests would be carried out next week to gain a better understanding of the events. Nasa's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) may also be able to take an image of the crash site.
Follow Rebecca on Twitter.
Donald Trump floats idea of third North Korea summit despite failed Hanoi talks | US news | The Guardian
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 17:13
US president said he 'enjoys the summits' with chairman Kim Jong-un and is hopeful for progress on sanctions and human rights
Donald Trump speaks to Kim Jong-un during the second US-North Korea summit at the Metropole Hotel in Hanoi, Vietnam.Photograph: Leah Millis/ReutersDonald Trump has said he is considering a potential third nuclear summit with North Korea's leader Kim Jong-un.
''We will be discussing that and potential meetings, further meetings with North Korea and Kim Jong-un,'' Trump said in the Oval Office at the start of talks with South Korean President Moon Jae-in.
A third summit would follow on Trump's historic breakthrough last year, when he met Kim in Singapore, and a follow-up this February in Hanoi that ended without progress in getting North Korea to give up nuclear weapons.
Trumps's announcement came as North Korea replaced its long-serving nominal head of state with a close aide to leader Kim Jong-un who was placed on a US sanctions list last year for alleged human rights abuses.
Kim Yong Nam, who held the position for almost 20 years, was replaced by Choe Ryong Hae, who will take over the role of representing Pyongyang at international engagements, the state news agency KCNA said.
Both Trump and Moon are heavily invested in bringing North Korea out of the cold. But the unsuccessful summit in Vietnam was a setback for the two allies that has yet to be resolved.
At the White House, the US president insisted that a peaceful resolution of the North Korea standoff remains within reach, and that he continues to place considerable hope in his personal brand of diplomacy.
''I enjoy the summits, I enjoy being with the chairman,'' he said.
Kim is ''a person I've gotten to know very well, and respect and hopefully, and I really believe over a period of time, a lot of tremendous things will happen. I think North Korea has a tremendous potential,'' Trump said.
The Vietnam summit ended without Trump being able to extract major concessions from Kim on the country's nuclear arsenal or Kim getting the reduction he wanted in heavy economic sanctions brought to pressure him into cooperating.
Despite the sanctions, Trump said on Thursday that he supports unspecified South Korean moves to bring humanitarian relief.
''We are discussing certain humanitarian things right now. I'm OK with that, to be honest,'' he said.
Although the broader sanctions should ''remain in place,'' he said he opposes any further tightening and noted that he had stopped planned new measures.
There was ''the option of significantly increasing them ..., but I didn't want to do that,'' he said.
Trump continues to face criticism that he is out of his depth in talks with Kim, and that sitting down with the dictator has yet to bring much benefit.
Moon has staked his presidency on engagement with isolated North Korea, pushing for a resumption of South Korean tourism to the North's Mount Kumgang and operations at the Kaesong Industrial Complex, where companies from the South used to be staffed by workers from the North.
But Moon's plan to unveil details of such projects on 1 March, right after the Hanoi summit, was scrapped and he is under pressure from opponents on the right. One lawmaker branded him the North Korean's ''top spokesman.''
Kim himself has used the impasse to speak out against international sanctions and warn in colourful, defiant terms that his country will not bow to pressure.
Shortly after the Hanoi summit, a series of satellite images emerged suggesting increased activity at the North's Sohae rocket site, triggering international alarm that the nuclear-armed state might be preparing a long-range or space launch.
Natural Gas a Target - The California Pool and Spa Association
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 16:57
On April 8, the California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission held a joint hearing on the issue of building decarbonization. Both state agencies have opened procedures on this issue looking at what the state can do to further reduce greenhouse gases which are affecting climate change.
Recent studies have shown 40% of greenhouse gases in California come from commercial and residential buildings, primarily from how these structures are heated. As such, state legislators and public agencies are embarking on a path to limit or reduce the use of natural gas in commercial and residential buildings. This includes incentives for home builders to build new housing subdivisions without natural gas hookups.
Obviously, this presents huge problems for the swimming pool and spa industry and its future for growth in this state. In testimony submitted to both agencies, CPSA pointed out the pool industry builds backyard facilities for homeowners who want to have a place to gather and relax. In addition to swimming pools and spas, these facilities include outside kitchens, fire pits, fireplaces, space heaters, barbeques, pool and spa heaters, and outside grills. Most, if not all, of these home additions, operate on natural gas. The real backup for natural gas is propane, charcoal or wood.
John Norwood, CPSA's Director of Government Relations, highlighted that studies show the California Dream is still a nice backyard with a pool. In fact, most Californians want to spend more time outside and are willing to invest in backyard kitchens and other facilities, in addition to their pool, for the opportunity to spend more time with their families and friends.
California legislators have already passed legislation committing the state to reduce greenhouse gases 40% below 1990 levels by 2030 and move the state to all renewal energy by 2045. Efforts to restrict or eliminate the use of natural gas are real and yet another challenge for the pool industry and CPSA to engage.
To continue to represent you in the state of CA, we need your support. Join CPSA today to protect the industry from legislation that would negatively impact it.
Why CPSA?CPSA is the only organization registered to lobby on behalf of the pool and spa industry in this state, and the only organization that has consistently maintained a presence in the California Capitol with a proactive government relations program designed to monitor and engage on issues affecting the swimming pool and spa industry at all levels of government.
Poppy Cultivation and Potential Opium Production in Afghanistan | The White House
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 15:50
The annual United States Government estimate of ''Afghanistan Poppy Cultivation and Potential Opium Production'' found poppy cultivation decreased in 2018 compared to 2017, but remained at a near record high. Poppy cultivation in Afghanistan declined 33 percent, from 329,000 hectares in 2017 to 221,000 hectares in 2018. Similarly, potential pure opium production dropped by 42 percent, from 9,140 metric tons in 2017 to 5,330 metric tons in 2018. The decline in cultivation and potential pure production are attributed to large areas of drought in Afghanistan and low opium prices driven by a record 2017 crop.
Afghanistan Poppy/Opium20112012201320142015201620172018Hectares under cultivation115,000180,000198,000213,000201,000207,000329,000221,000Potential pure production (metric tons)4,4004,3005,5006,3004,1005,8009,1405,330The continued large-scale Afghanistan poppy cultivation and opium production further complicates the government of Afghanistan's ability to maintain rule of law and promote a road to peace.
Although heroin originating from Afghanistan is not the driving force of the United States opioid epidemic, drug revenue generated by the Taliban hinders its Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency efforts and broader South Asia Strategy.
The consequences of Afghanistan heroin trafficking are felt by the citizens of Afghanistan and countries along worldwide drug trafficking routes. The United States Government will continue to work to enhance its longstanding partnership with the government of Afghanistan to address this serious problem.
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 14:48
Page 256 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 601 1So in original. Probably should be ''Except''. 2So in original. Probably should be section ''3685''. Sec.619. Territorial applicability of subchapter. 620. Rules and regulations. 621. Reports to Congress. SUBCHAPTER I'--GENERALLY § 601. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 21, 62 Stat. 862, eff. Sept. 1, 1948 Section, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title VIII, § 3, 40 Stat. 226; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, § 6, 54 Stat. 80, related to acting as a foreign agent without notice to Secretary of State. See section 951 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. SUBCHAPTER II'--REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN PROPAGANDISTS EX. ORD. NO. 9176. TRANSFER OFREGISTRATIONFUNC-TIONSFROM THESECRETARY OFSTATE TO THEATTOR-NEYGENERAL Ex. Ord. No. 9176, May 29, 1942, 7 F.R. 4127, provided: By virtue of the authority vested in me by Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941, approved December 18, 1941 (Public Law No. 354, 77th Congress [section 601 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense]), and as President of the United States, it is hereby or -dered as follows: 1. All functions, powers and duties of the Secretary of State under the act of June 8, 1938 (52 Stat. 631), as amended by the act of August 7, 1939 (53 Stat. 1244), re -quiring the registration of agents of foreign principals, are hereby transferred to and vested in the Attorney General. 2. All property, books and records heretofore main -tained by the Secretary of State with respect to his ad -ministration of said act of June 8, 1938, as amended, are hereby transferred to and vested in the Attorney Gen -eral. 3. The Attorney General shall furnish to the Sec -retary of State for such comment, if any, as the Sec -retary of State may desire to make from the point of view of the foreign relations of the United States, one copy of each registration statement that is hereafter filed with the Attorney General in accordance with the provisions of this Executive order. 4. All rules, regulations and forms which have been issued by the Secretary of State pursuant to the provi -sions of said act of June 8, 1938, as amended, and which are in effect shall continue in effect until modified, su -perseded, revoked or repealed by the Attorney General. 5. This order shall become effective as of June 1, 1942. FRANKLIND ROOSEVELT. § 611. Definitions As used in and for the purposes of this sub -chapter'-- (a) The term ''person'' includes an individual, partnership, association, corporation, organiza -tion, or any other combination of individuals; (b) The term ''foreign principal'' includes'-- (1) a government of a foreign country and a foreign political party; (2) a person outside of the United States, un -less it is established that such person is an in -dividual and a citizen of and domiciled within the United States, or that such person is not an individual and is organized under or cre -ated by the laws of the United States or of any State or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and has its principal place of business within the United States; and (3) a partnership, association, corporation, organization, or other combination of persons organized under the laws of or having its prin -cipal place of business in a foreign country. (c) Expect1as provided in subsection (d) ofthis section, the term ''agent of a foreign prin -cipal'' means'-- (1) any person who acts as an agent, rep -resentative, employee, or servant, or any per -son who acts in any other capacity at the order, request, or under the direction or con -trol, of a foreign principal or of a person any of whose activities are directly or indirectly supervised, directed, controlled, financed, or subsidized in whole or in major part by a for -eign principal, and who directly or through any other person'-- (i) engages within the United States in po -litical activities for or in the interests of such foreign principal; (ii) acts within the United States as a pub -lic relations counsel, publicity agent, infor -mation-service employee or political con -sultant for or in the interests of such foreign principal; (iii) within the United States solicits, col -lects, disburses, or dispenses contributions, loans, money, or other things of value for or in the interest of such foreign principal; or (iv) within the United States represents the interests of such foreign principal before any agency or official of the Government of the United States; and (2) any person who agrees, consents, assumes or purports to act as, or who is or holds him -self out to be, whether or not pursuant to con -tractual relationship, an agent of a foreign principal as defined in clause (1) of this sub -section. (d) The term ''agent of a foreign principal'' does not include any news or press service or as -sociation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, or any newspaper, magazine, periodical, or other publi -cation for which there is on file with the United States Postal Service information in compliance with section 36112of title 39, published in the United States, solely by virtue of any bona fide news or journalistic activities, including the so -licitation or acceptance of advertisements, sub -scriptions, or other compensation therefor, so long as it is at least 80 per centum beneficially owned by, and its officers and directors, if any, are citizens of the United States, and such news or press service or association, newspaper, mag -azine, periodical, or other publication, is not owned, directed, supervised, controlled, sub -sidized, or financed, and none of its policies are determined by any foreign principal defined in subsection (b) of this section, or by any agent of a foreign principal required to register under this subchapter; (e) The term ''government of a foreign coun -try'' includes any person or group of persons ex -ercising sovereign de facto or de jure political jurisdiction over any country, other than the United States, or over any part of such country, and includes any subdivision of any such group and any group or agency to which such sov -ereign de facto or de jure authority or functions
Page 257 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 611 are directly or indirectly delegated. Such term shall include any faction or body of insurgents within a country assuming to exercise govern -mental authority whether such faction or body of insurgents has or has not been recognized by the United States; (f) The term ''foreign political party'' includes any organization or any other combination of individuals in a country other than the United States, or any unit or branch thereof, having for an aim or purpose, or which is engaged in any activity devoted in whole or in part to, the es -tablishment, administration, control, or acquisi -tion of administration or control, of a govern -ment of a foreign country or a subdivision there -of, or the furtherance or influencing of the polit -ical or public interests, policies, or relations of a government of a foreign country or a subdivi -sion thereof; (g) The term ''public-relations counsel'' in -cludes any person who engages directly or indi -rectly in informing, advising, or in any way rep -resenting a principal in any public relations matter pertaining to political or public inter -ests, policies, or relations of such principal; (h) The term ''publicity agent'' includes any person who engages directly or indirectly in the publication or dissemination of oral, visual, graphic, written, or pictorial information or matter of any kind, including publication by means of advertising, books, periodicals, news -papers, lectures, broadcasts, motion pictures, or otherwise; (i) The term ''information-service employee'' includes any person who is engaged in furnish -ing, disseminating, or publishing accounts, de -scriptions, information, or data with respect to the political, industrial, employment, economic, social, cultural, or other benefits, advantages, facts, or conditions of any country other than the United States or of any government of a for -eign country or of a foreign political party or of a partnership, association, corporation, organi -zation, or other combination of individuals orga -nized under the laws of, or having its principal place of business in, a foreign country; (j) Repealed. Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(1)(A), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 699. (k) The term ''registration statement'' means the registration statement required to be filed with the Attorney General under section 612(a) of this title, and any supplements thereto re -quired to be filed under section 612(b) of this title, and includes all documents and papers re -quired to be filed therewith or amendatory thereof or supplemental thereto, whether at -tached thereto or incorporated therein by ref -erence; ( l) The term ''American republic'' includes any of the states which were signatory to the Final Act of the Second Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics at Habana, Cuba, July 30, 1940; (m) The term ''United States'', when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Territories, the Canal Zone, the insular possessions, and all other places now or hereafter subject to the civil or military jurisdiction of the United States; (n) The term ''prints'' means newspapers and periodicals, books, pamphlets, sheet music, vis -iting cards, address cards, printing proofs,engravings, photographs, pictures, drawings, plans, maps, patterns to be cut out, catalogs, prospectuses, advertisements, and printed, en -graved, lithographed, or autographed notices of various kinds, and, in general, all impressions or reproductions obtained on paper or other mate -rial assimilable to paper, on parchment or on cardboard, by means of printing, engraving, li -thography, autography, or any other easily rec -ognizable mechanical process, with the excep -tion of the copying press, stamps with movable or immovable type, and the typewriter; ( o ) The term ''political activities'' means any activity that the person engaging in believes will, or that the person intends to, in any way influence any agency or official of the Govern -ment of the United States or any section of the public within the United States with reference to formulating, adopting, or changing the do -mestic or foreign policies of the United States or with reference to the political or public inter -ests, policies, or relations of a government of a foreign country or a foreign political party; (p) The term ''political consultant'' means any person who engages in informing or advising any other person with reference to the domestic or foreign policies of the United States or the po -litical or public interest, policies, or relations of a foreign country or of a foreign political party. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 1, 52 Stat. 631; Aug. 7, 1939, ch. 521, § 1, 53 Stat. 1244; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 249; Proc. No. 2695, July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352; Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, title I, § 20(a), 64 Stat. 1005; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 849, § 1, 70 Stat. 899; Pub. L. 87''366, § 1, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 784; Pub. L. 89''486, § 1, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 244; Pub. L. 91''375, § 6(k), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(1), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 699.) REFERENCES INTEXT For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (m), see section 3602(b) of this title. CODIFICATION Words ''including the Philippine Islands,'' omitted from definition of ''United States'' in subsec. (m) pur -suant to Proc. No. 2695, which granted independence to the Philippines under the authority of section 1394 of this title, under which section Proc. No. 2695 is set out as a note. AMENDMENTS 1995'--Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(1)(A), struck out subsec. (j) which read as follows: ''The term 'political propaganda' includes any oral, visual, graphic, written, pictorial, or other communication or expression by any person (1) which is reasonably adapted to, or which the person disseminating the same believes will, or which he intends to, prevail upon, indoctrinate, convert, in -duce, or in any other way influence a recipient or any section of the public within the United States with ref -erence to the political or public interests, policies, or relations of a government of a foreign country or a for -eign political party or with reference to the foreign policies of the United States or promote in the United States racial, religious, or social dissensions, or (2) which advocates, advises, instigates, or promotes any racial, social, political, or religious disorder, civil riot, or other conflict involving the use of force or violence in any other American republic or the overthrow of any government or political subdivision of any other Amer -ican republic by any means involving the use of force or violence. As used in this subsection the term 'dis -
Page 258 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 611 seminating' includes transmitting or causing to be transmitted in the United States mails or by any means or instrumentality of interstate or foreign com -merce or offering or causing to be offered in the United States mails;''. Subsec. ( o). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(1)(B), substituted ''any activity that the person engaging in believes will, or that the person intends to, in any way influence'' for ''the dissemination of political propaganda and any other activity which the person engaging therein be -lieves will, or which he intends to, prevail upon, indoc -trinate, convert, induce, persuade, or in any other way influence''. Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(1)(C), substituted a pe -riod for semicolon at end. Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(1)(D), struck out subsec. (q) which read as follows: ''For the purpose of section 613(d) of this title, activities in furtherance of the bona fide commercial, industrial or financial interests of a domestic person engaged in substantial commercial, in -dustrial or financial operations in the United States shall not be deemed to serve predominantly a foreign interest because such activities also benefit the inter -ests of a foreign person engaged in bona fide trade or commerce which is owned or controlled by, or which owns or controls, such domestic person: Provided, That (i) such foreign person is not, and such activities are not directly or indirectly supervised, directed, con -trolled, financed or subsidized in whole or in substan -tial part by, a government of a foreign country or a for -eign political party, (ii) the identity of such foreign person is disclosed to the agency or official of the United States with whom such activities are con -ducted, and (iii) whenever such foreign person owns or controls such domestic person, such activities are sub -stantially in furtherance of the bona fide commercial, industrial or financial interests of such domestic per -son.'' 1970'--Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91''375 substituted ''file with the United States Postal Service information in com -pliance with section 3611 of title 39'' for ''file with the Postmaster General a sworn statement in compliance with section 2 of the Act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 553), as amended''. 1966'--Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89''486, § 1(1), redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (2) and (3), substituted in such par. (3) ''combination of persons'' for ''combina -tion of individuals'' and struck out from definition of ''foreign principal'' former pars. (2), (5), and (6) which included ''(2) an individual affiliated or associated with, or supervised, directed, controlled, financed, or subsidized, in whole or in part, by any foreign principal defined in clause (1) of this subsection''; ''(5) a domestic partnership, association, corporation, organization, or other combination of individuals, subsidized directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by any foreign principal defined in clause (1), (3), or (4) of this subsection''; and ''(6) a domestic partnership, association, corporation, or other combination of individuals, supervised, di -rected, controlled, or financed, in whole or in substan -tial part, by any foreign government or foreign politi -cal party''. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89''486, § 1(2), amended provisions generally to redefine ''agent of a foreign principal'' by specifying four categories of activities creating the agency relationship where person acts as agent, em -ployee, representative, or servant or at the order of, or under the control of, a foreign principal, by requiring a showing not only of foreign connections but also of cer -tain activities performed by the agent for foreign inter -ests, by making change as it relates to problem of indi -rect control exerted by foreign principals over their agents, by including political activities and actions as political consultant, by excluding attorneys from the relationship, by incorporating provisions of former par. (3) in par. (2) where a person assumes or purports to act as an agent of a foreign principal, and by eliminating the separate category for military or governmental of -ficials contained in former par. (4). Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89''486, § 1(3), struck out ''clause (1), (2), or (4) of'' before ''subsection (b)''. Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89''486, § 1(4), inserted ''public re-lations'' before ''matter pertaining to'' and ''of such principal'' after ''or relations''. Subsecs. ( o) to (q). Pub. L. 89''486, § 1(5), added subsecs. ( o ) to (q). 1961'--Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 87''366 added par. (6). 1956'--Subsec. (c)(5). Act Aug. 1, 1956, repealed par. (5) which included within definition of ''agent of a foreign principal'' any person trained in foreign espionage sys -tems with certain exceptions. See sections 851 and 852 of Title 50, War and National Defense. 1950'--Subsec. (c)(5). Act Sept. 23, 1950, added par. (5). 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally to redefine terms used in this subchapter. 1939'--Act Aug. 7, 1939, amended section generally to redefine terms used in this subchapter. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1995 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104''65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1970 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 91''375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by Board of Governors of United States Postal Service and published by it in Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91''375, set out as an Effective Date note preced -ing section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486 provided that: ''This Act [enacting sections 219 and 613 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and amending this section and sec -tions 612 to 616 and 618 of this title] shall take effect ninety days after the date of its enactment [July 4, 1966].'' EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, provided that: ''This Act [amending this subchapter] shall take effect on the six -tieth day after the date of its approval, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, prescribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regula -tions, and forms as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act [amending this subchapter].'' EFFECTIVEDATE Section 7 of act June 8, 1938, provided that: ''This Act [enacting this subchapter] shall take effect on the nine -tieth day after the date of its enactment [June 8, 1938].'' SHORTTITLE Section 14 of act June 8, 1938, as added by act Apr. 29, 1942, § 1, provided that: ''This Act [enacting this sub -chapter] may be cited as the 'Foreign Agents Registra -tion Act of 1938, as amended'.'' SEPARABILITY; EFFECT ONEXISTINGLAW Sections 12 and 13 of act June 8, 1938, as added by act Apr. 29, 1942, § 1, provided that: ''SEC. 12. If any provision of this Act [enacting this subchapter], or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act, and the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby. ''SEC. 13. This Act [enacting this subchapter] is an ad -dition to and not in substitution for any other existing statute.'' TRANSFER OFFUNCTIONS Section 2 of act Apr. 29, 1942, provided that: ''Upon the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1942 Amendment note above], all powers, duties, and func -tions of the Secretary of State under the Act of June 8, 1938 (52 Stat. 631), as amended [this subchapter], shall
Page 259 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 612 be transferred to and become vested in the Attorney General, together with all property, books, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations used by or avail -able to the Secretary of State for carrying out the functions devolving on him under the above-cited Act. All rules, regulations, and forms which have been is -sued by the Secretary of State pursuant to the provi -sions of said Act, and which are in effect, shall con -tinue in effect until modified, superseded, revoked, or repealed.'' POLICY ANDPURPOSE OFSUBCHAPTER Act Apr. 29, 1942, amending generally act June 8, 1938, added an opening paragraph preceding section 1 of the latter act and reading as follows: ''It is hereby declared to be the policy and purpose of this Act [enacting this subchapter] to protect the national defense, internal security, and foreign relations of the United States by requiring public disclosure by persons engaging in propaganda activities and other activities for or on be -half of foreign governments, foreign political parties, and other foreign principals so that the Government and the people of the United States may be informed of the identity of such persons and may appraise their statements and actions in the light of their associa -tions and activities.'' § 612. Registration statement (a) Filing; contents No person shall act as an agent of a foreign principal unless he has filed with the Attorney General a true and complete registration state -ment and supplements thereto as required by subsections (a) and (b) of this section or unless he is exempt from registration under the provi -sions of this subchapter. Except as hereinafter provided, every person who becomes an agent of a foreign principal shall, within ten days there -after, file with the Attorney General, in dupli -cate, a registration statement, under oath on a form prescribed by the Attorney General. The obligation of an agent of a foreign principal to file a registration statement shall, after the tenth day of his becoming such agent, continue from day to day, and termination of such status shall not relieve such agent from his obligation to file a registration statement for the period during which he was an agent of a foreign prin -cipal. The registration statement shall include the following, which shall be regarded as mate -rial for the purposes of this subchapter: (1) Registrant's name, principal business ad -dress, and all other business addresses in the United States or elsewhere, and all residence addresses, if any; (2) Status of the registrant; if an individual, nationality; if a partnership, name, residence addresses, and nationality of each partner and a true and complete copy of its articles of co -partnership; if an association, corporation, or -ganization, or any other combination of indi -viduals, the name, residence addresses, and na -tionality of each director and officer and of each person performing the functions of a di -rector or officer and a true and complete copy of its charter, articles of incorporation, asso -ciation, constitution, and bylaws, and amend -ments thereto; a copy of every other instru -ment or document and a statement of the terms and conditions of every oral agreement relating to its organization, powers, and pur -poses; and a statement of its ownership and control; (3) A comprehensive statement of the natureof registrant's business; a complete list of reg -istrant's employees and a statement of the na -ture of the work of each; the name and address of every foreign principal for whom the reg -istrant is acting, assuming or purporting to act or has agreed to act; the character of the business or other activities of every such for -eign principal, and, if any such foreign prin -cipal be other than a natural person, a state -ment of the ownership and control of each; and the extent, if any, to which each such foreign principal is supervised, directed, owned, con -trolled, financed, or subsidized, in whole or in part, by any government of a foreign country or foreign political party, or by any other for -eign principal; (4) Copies of each written agreement and the terms and conditions of each oral agreement, including all modifications of such agree -ments, or, where no contract exists, a full statement of all the circumstances, by reason of which the registrant is an agent of a foreign principal; a comprehensive statement of the nature and method of performance of each such contract, and of the existing and pro -posed activity or activities engaged in or to be engaged in by the registrant as agent of a for -eign principal for each such foreign principal, including a detailed statement of any such ac -tivity which is a political activity; (5) The nature and amount of contributions, income, money, or thing of value, if any, that the registrant has received within the preced -ing sixty days from each such foreign prin -cipal, either as compensation or for disburse -ment or otherwise, and the form and time of each such payment and from whom received; (6) A detailed statement of every activity which the registrant is performing or is as -suming or purporting or has agreed to perform for himself or any other person other than a foreign principal and which requires his reg -istration hereunder, including a detailed statement of any such activity which is a po -litical activity; (7) The name, business, and residence ad -dresses, and if an individual, the nationality, of any person other than a foreign principal for whom the registrant is acting, assuming or purporting to act or has agreed to act under such circumstances as require his registration hereunder; the extent to which each such per -son is supervised, directed, owned, controlled, financed, or subsidized, in whole or in part, by any government of a foreign country or for -eign political party or by any other foreign principal; and the nature and amount of con -tributions, income, money, or thing of value, if any, that the registrant has received during the preceding sixty days from each such per -son in connection with any of the activities referred to in clause (6) of this subsection, ei -ther as compensation or for disbursement or otherwise, and the form and time of each such payment and from whom received; (8) A detailed statement of the money and other things of value spent or disposed of by the registrant during the preceding sixty days in furtherance of or in connection with activi -ties which require his registration hereunder
Page 260 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 612 1So in original. Probably should be ''connection''. 2See References in Text note below. and which have been undertaken by him either as an agent of a foreign principal or for him -self or any other person or in conection1with any activities relating to his becoming an agent of such principal, and a detailed state -ment of any contributions of money or other things of value made by him during the pre -ceding sixty days (other than contributions the making of which is prohibited under the terms of section 6132of title 18) in connection with an election to any political office or in connection with any primary election, conven -tion, or caucus held to select candidates for any political office; (9) Copies of each written agreement and the terms and conditions of each oral agreement, including all modifications of such agree -ments, or, where no contract exists, a full statement of all the circumstances, by reason of which the registrant is performing or as -suming or purporting or has agreed to perform for himself or for a foreign principal or for any person other than a foreign principal any ac -tivities which require his registration here -under; (10) Such other statements, information, or documents pertinent to the purposes of this subchapter as the Attorney General, having due regard for the national security and the public interest, may from time to time re -quire; (11) Such further statements and such fur -ther copies of documents as are necessary to make the statements made in the registration statement and supplements thereto, and the copies of documents furnished therewith, not misleading. (b) Supplements; filing period Every agent of a foreign principal who has filed a registration statement required by sub -section (a) of this section shall, within thirty days after the expiration of each period of six months succeeding such filing, file with the At -torney General a supplement thereto under oath, on a form prescribed by the Attorney Gen -eral, which shall set forth with respect to such preceding six months' period such facts as the Attorney General, having due regard for the na -tional security and the public interest, may deem necessary to make the information re -quired under this section accurate, complete, and current with respect to such period. In con -nection with the information furnished under clauses (3), (4), (6), and (9) of subsection (a) of this section, the registrant shall give notice to the Attorney General of any changes therein within ten days after such changes occur. If the Attorney General, having due regard for the na -tional security and the public interest, deter -mines that it is necessary to carry out the pur -poses of this subchapter, he may, in any particu -lar case, require supplements to the registration statement to be filed at more frequent intervals in respect to all or particular items of informa -tion to be furnished. (c) Execution of statement under oath The registration statement and supplements thereto shall be executed under oath as follows: If the registrant is an individual, by him; if theregistrant is a partnership, by the majority of the members thereof; if the registrant is a per -son other than an individual or a partnership, by a majority of the officers thereof or persons per -forming the functions of officers or by a major -ity of the board of directors thereof or persons performing the functions of directors, if any. (d) Filing of statement not deemed full compli -ance nor as preclusion from prosecution The fact that a registration statement or sup -plement thereto has been filed shall not nec -essarily be deemed a full compliance with this subchapter and the regulations thereunder on the part of the registrant; nor shall it indicate that the Attorney General has in any way passed upon the merits of such registration statement or supplement thereto; nor shall it preclude prosecution, as provided for in this sub -chapter, for willful failure to file a registration statement or supplement thereto when due or for a willful false statement of a material fact therein or the willful omission of a material fact required to be stated therein or the willful omis -sion of a material fact or copy of a material doc -ument necessary to make the statements made in a registration statement and supplements thereto, and the copies of documents furnished therewith, not misleading. (e) Incorporation of previous statement by ref -erence If any agent of a foreign principal, required to register under the provisions of this subchapter, has previously thereto registered with the At -torney General under the provisions of section 2386 of title 18, the Attorney General, in order to eliminate inappropriate duplication, may per -mit the incorporation by reference in the reg -istration statement or supplements thereto filed hereunder of any information or documents pre -viously filed by such agent of a foreign principal under the provisions of said section. (f) Exemption by Attorney General The Attorney General may, by regulation, pro -vide for the exemption'-- (1) from registration, or from the require -ment of furnishing any of the information re -quired by this section, of any person who is listed as a partner, officer, director, or em -ployee in the registration statement filed by an agent of a foreign principal under this sub -chapter, and (2) from the requirement of furnishing any of the information required by this section of any agent of a foreign principal. where by reason of the nature of the functions or activities of such person the Attorney Gen -eral, having due regard for the national security and the public interest, determines that such registration, or the furnishing of such informa -tion, as the case may be, is not necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter. (g) Electronic filing of registration statements and supplements A registration statement or supplement re -quired to be filed under this section shall be filed in electronic form, in addition to any other form that may be required by the Attorney Gen -eral.
Page 261 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 613 (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 2, 52 Stat. 632; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 251; Aug. 3, 1950, ch. 524, § 1, 64 Stat. 399; Pub. L. 89''486, § 2, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 245; Pub. L. 110''81, title II, § 212(a), Sept. 14, 2007, 121 Stat. 749.) REFERENCES INTEXT Section 613 of title 18, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), was repealed by Pub. L. 94''283, title II, § 201(a), May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 496. CODIFICATION In subsec. (e), ''section 2386 of title 18'' was in the original ''the Act of October 17, 1940 (54 Stat. 1201)'', which had been classified to sections 14 to 17 of title 18. ''Section 2386 of title 18'' substituted for ''sections 14 to 17 of title 18'' on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 863, section 1 of which enacted Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. PRIORPROVISIONS Provisions on this subject were contained in sections 612 and 613 of this title prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942. AMENDMENTS 2007'--Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110''81 added subsec. (g). 1966'--Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89''486, § 2(1), struck out re -quirement for transmittal of registration statements by the Attorney General to the Secretary of State and provision declaring a failure of transmission not to be a bar to prosecutions, now covered in section 616(b) of this title. Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 89''486, § 2(2), struck out '', unless, and to the extent, this requirement is waived in writing by the Attorney General'' after ''statement of the nature of the work of each'' and provided for a statement of the extent to which a foreign principal is supervised, directed, etc., by any other foreign prin -cipal. Subsec. (a)(4), (6). Pub. L. 89''486, § 2(3), (4), inserted '', including a detailed statement of any such activity which is a political activity''. Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 89''486, § 2(5), required certain information pertaining to control and financial ar -rangements with respect to those persons, not them -selves foreign principals, who are so related to a for -eign principal that their agents when engaged in politi -cal activities in the interests of the principal are re -quired to register. Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 89''486, § 2(6), inserted require -ment that agent report the money or other things of value spent or disposed of in connection with his be -coming the agent of his foreign principal and all politi -cal contributions made during the preceding sixty days, other than contributions made on behalf of their prin -cipals, such contributions being prohibited under sec -tion 613 of title 18. Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89''486, § 2(7), added subsec. (f). 1950'--Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 3, 1950, made failure to register a continuing offense. 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally. EFFECTIVEDATE OF2007 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 110''81, title II, § 212(c), Sept. 14, 2007, 121 Stat. 750, provided that: ''The amendments made by this sec -tion [amending this section and section 616 of this title] shall take effect on the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 14, 2007].'' EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89''486 effective ninety days after July 4, 1966, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Amendment by act Apr. 29, 1942, effective on the six -tieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, pre-scribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. FEES FORNECESSARYEXPENSES OFREGISTRATIONUNIT Pub. L. 102''395, title I, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1831, pro -vided in part that: ''In addition, notwithstanding 31 U.S.C. 3302, for fiscal year 1993 and thereafter, the At -torney General shall establish and collect fees to re -cover necessary expenses of the Registration Unit (to include salaries, supplies, equipment and training) pur -suant to the Foreign Agents Registration Act [probably means Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.], and shall credit such fees to this appropriation, to remain available until ex -pended.'' § 613. Exemptions The requirements of section 612(a) of this title shall not apply to the following agents of for -eign principals: (a) Diplomatic or consular officers A duly accredited diplomatic or consular offi -cer of a foreign government who is so recognized by the Department of State, while said officer is engaged exclusively in activities which are rec -ognized by the Department of State as being within the scope of the functions of such officer; (b) Officials of foreign government Any official of a foreign government, if such government is recognized by the United States, who is not a public-relations counsel, publicity agent, information-service employee, or a citi -zen of the United States, whose name and status and the character of whose duties as such offi -cial are of public record in the Department of State, while said official is engaged exclusively in activities which are recognized by the Depart -ment of State as being within the scope of the functions of such official; (c) Staff members of diplomatic or consular offi -cers Any member of the staff of, or any person em -ployed by, a duly accredited diplomatic or con -sular officer of a foreign government who is so recognized by the Department of State, other than a public-relations counsel, publicity agent, or information-service employee, whose name and status and the character of whose duties as such member or employee are of public record in the Department of State, while said member or employee is engaged exclusively in the perform -ance of activities which are recognized by the Department of State as being within the scope of the functions of such member or employee; (d) Private and nonpolitical activities; solicita -tion of funds Any person engaging or agreeing to engage only (1) in private and nonpolitical activities in furtherance of the bona fide trade or commerce of such foreign principal; or (2) in other activi -ties not serving predominantly a foreign inter -est; or (3) in the soliciting or collecting of funds and contributions within the United States to be used only for medical aid and assistance, or for food and clothing to relieve human suffering, if such solicitation or collection of funds and con -tributions is in accordance with and subject to
Page 262 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 614 the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 9 of this title, and such rules and regulations as may be prescribed thereunder; (e) Religious, scholastic, or scientific pursuits Any person engaging or agreeing to engage only in activities in furtherance of bona fide re -ligious, scholastic, academic, or scientific pur -suits or of the fine arts; (f) Defense of foreign government vital to United States defense Any person, or employee of such person, whose foreign principal is a government of a foreign country the defense of which the President deems vital to the defense of the United States while, (1) such person or employee engages only in activities which are in furtherance of the policies, public interest, or national defense both of such government and of the Government of the United States, and are not intended to conflict with any of the domestic or foreign poli -cies of the Government of the United States, (2) each communication or expression by such per -son or employee which he intends to, or has rea -son to believe will, be published, disseminated, or circulated among any section of the public, or portion thereof, within the United States, is a part of such activities and is believed by such person to be truthful and accurate and the iden -tity of such person as an agent of such foreign principal is disclosed therein, and (3) such gov -ernment of a foreign country furnishes to the Secretary of State for transmittal to, and reten -tion for the duration of this subchapter by, the Attorney General such information as to the identity and activities of such person or em -ployee at such times as the Attorney General may require. Upon notice to the Government of which such person is an agent or to such person or employee, the Attorney General, having due regard for the public interest and national de -fense, may, with the approval of the Secretary of State, and shall, at the request of the Sec -retary of State, terminate in whole or in part the exemption herein of any such person or em -ployee; (g) Persons qualified to practice law Any person qualified to practice law, insofar as he engages or agrees to engage in the legal representation of a disclosed foreign principal before any court of law or any agency of the Government of the United States: Provided, That for the purposes of this subsection legal rep -resentation does not include attempts to influ -ence or persuade agency personnel or officials other than in the course of judicial proceedings, criminal or civil law enforcement inquiries, in -vestigations, or proceedings, or agency proceed -ings required by statute or regulation to be con -ducted on the record. (h) Agents of foreign principals Any agent of a person described in section 611(b)(2) of this title or an entity described in section 611(b)(3) of this title if the agent has en -gaged in lobbying activities and has registered under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 [2 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.] in connection with the agent's representation of such person or entity. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 3, 52 Stat. 632; Aug. 7, 1939, ch. 521, § 2, 53 Stat. 1245; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 254; Pub. L. 87''366, § 2, Oct. 4, 1961, 75Stat. 784; Pub. L. 89''486, § 3, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 246; Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(2), (3), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 105''166, § 5, Apr. 6, 1998, 112 Stat. 39.) REFERENCES INTEXT The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 104''65, Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 691, which is classified principally to chapter 26 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 2, The Congress. For complete classifica -tion of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 2 and Tables. PRIORPROVISIONS Prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942, section related to additional registra -tion statements after each six months period. Provi -sions on that subject were incorporated in section 612 of this title by 1942 amendment. AMENDMENTS 1998'--Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105''166 substituted ''has en -gaged in lobbying activities and has registered'' for ''is required to register and does register''. 1995'--Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(2), substituted ''judicial proceedings, criminal or civil law enforce -ment inquiries, investigations, or proceedings, or agen -cy proceedings required by statute or regulation to be conducted on the record'' for ''established agency pro -ceedings, whether formal or informal''. Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(3), added subsec. (h). 1966'--Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89''486, § 3(a), designated ex -isting provisions as cls. (1) and (3), struck out ''finan -cial or mercantile'' before ''activities'' in cl. (1), and in -serted the cl. (2) exemption of any person engaging or agreeing to engage in other activities not serving pre -dominantly a foreign interest. Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89''486, § 3(b), added subsec. (g). 1961'--Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87''366 substituted ''private and nonpolitical financial or mercantile activities in furtherance'' for ''private, non-political, financial, mer -cantile, or other activities in furtherance''. 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally. 1939'--Act Aug. 7, 1939, amended section generally. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1995 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104''65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89''486 effective ninety days after July 4, 1966, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Amendment by act Apr. 29, 1942, effective on the six -tieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, pre -scribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. § 614. Filing and labeling of political propaganda (a) Copies to Attorney General; statement as to places, times, and extent of transmission Every person within the United States who is an agent of a foreign principal and required to register under the provisions of this subchapter and who transmits or causes to be transmitted in the United States mails or by any means or instrumentality of interstate or foreign com -merce any informational materials for or in the
Page 263 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 614 interests of such foreign principal (i) in the form of prints, or (ii) in any other form which is rea -sonably adapted to being, or which he believes will be, or which he intends to be, disseminated or circulated among two or more persons shall, not later than forty-eight hours after the begin -ning of the transmittal thereof, file with the At -torney General two copies thereof. (b) Identification statement It shall be unlawful for any person within the United States who is an agent of a foreign prin -cipal and required to register under the provi -sions of this subchapter to transmit or cause to be transmitted in the United States mails or by any means or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce any informational materials for or in the interests of such foreign principal without placing in such informational materials a conspicuous statement that the materials are distributed by the agent on behalf of the foreign principal, and that additional information is on file with the Department of Justice, Washing -ton, District of Columbia. The Attorney General may by rule define what constitutes a conspicu -ous statement for the purposes of this sub -section. (c) Public inspection The copies of informational materials required by this subchapter to be filed with the Attorney General shall be available for public inspection under such regulations as he may prescribe. (d) Library of Congress For purposes of the Library of Congress, other than for public distribution, the Secretary of the Treasury and the United States Postal Serv -ice are authorized, upon the request of the Li -brarian of Congress, to forward to the Library of Congress fifty copies, or as many fewer thereof as are available, of all foreign prints determined to be prohibited entry under the provisions of section 1305 of title 19 and of all foreign prints excluded from the mails under authority of sec -tion 1717 of title 18. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1305 of title 19 and of section 1717 of title 18, the Sec -retary of the Treasury is authorized to permit the entry and the United States Postal Service is authorized to permit the transmittal in the mails of foreign prints imported for govern -mental purposes by authority or for the use of the United States or for the use of the Library of Congress. (e) Information furnished to agency or official of United States Government It shall be unlawful for any person within the United States who is an agent of a foreign prin -cipal required to register under the provisions of this subchapter to transmit, convey, or other -wise furnish to any agency or official of the Government (including a Member or committee of either House of Congress) for or in the inter -ests of such foreign principal any political prop -aganda or to request from any such agency or official for or in the interests of such foreign principal any information or advice with respect to any matter pertaining to the political or pub -lic interests, policies or relations of a foreign country or of a political party or pertaining to the foreign or domestic policies of the UnitedStates unless the propaganda or the request is prefaced or accompanied by a true and accurate statement to the effect that such person is reg -istered as an agent of such foreign principal under this subchapter. (f) Appearances before Congressional commit -tees Whenever any agent of a foreign principal re -quired to register under this subchapter appears before any committee of Congress to testify for or in the interests of such foreign principal, he shall, at the time of such appearance, furnish the committee with a copy of his most recent registration statement filed with the Depart -ment of Justice as an agent of such foreign prin -cipal for inclusion in the records of the commit -tee as part of his testimony. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 4, 52 Stat. 632; Aug. 7, 1939, ch. 521, § 3, 53 Stat. 1246; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 255; Pub. L. 89''486, § 4, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 246; Pub. L. 91''375, § 4(a), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 773; Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(4)''(6), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 700.) CODIFICATION Section 1717 of title 18, referred to in subsec. (d), was in the original ''section 1 of title XII of the Act of June 15, 1917 (40 Stat. 230)'' which was classified to section 343 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Pro -cedure. ''Section 1717 of title 18'' substituted for ''sec -tion 343 of title 18'' on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683, section 1 of which enacted Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. PRIORPROVISIONS Prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942, section related to retention of state -ments as public records. Provisions on that subject were incorporated in section 616 of this title by 1942 amendment. AMENDMENTS 1995'--Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(4)(B), which di -rected striking out ''and a statement, duly signed by or on behalf of such an agent, setting forth full informa -tion as to the places, times, and extent of such trans -mittal'' after ''Attorney General two copies thereof'', was executed by striking out such language, which read in part ''on behalf of such agent'', to reflect the prob -able intent of Congress. Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(4)(A), substituted ''informational materials'' for ''political propaganda''. Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(5), substituted ''infor -mational materials for or'' for ''political propaganda for or'' and substituted ''without placing in such infor -mational materials a conspicuous statement that the materials are distributed by the agent on behalf of the foreign principal, and that additional information is on file with the Department of Justice, Washington, Dis -trict of Columbia. The Attorney General may by rule define what constitutes a conspicuous statement for the purposes of this subsection.'' for cls. (i) and (ii) and concluding provisions which made it unlawful for an agent of a foreign principal to transmit in the United States political propaganda unless the propaganda identified the agent and contained information about the registration of the agent and authorized the Attor -ney General to prescribe regulations relating to the in -formation to be provided. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(6), substituted ''infor -mational materials'' for ''political propaganda''. 1966'--Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89''486, § 4(1), inserted ''for or in the interests of such foreign principal'' after ''politi -cal propaganda'' and substituted ''file with the Attor -
Page 264 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 615 ney General two copies thereof'' for ''sent to the Li -brarian of Congress two copies thereof and file with the Attorney General one copy thereof''. Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89''486, § 4(2), inserted ''for or in the interests of such foreign principal'' after ''political propaganda'', where first appearing, and ''the relation -ship or connection between the person transmitting the political propaganda or causing it to be transmitted and such propaganda;'' after ''setting forth'' and sub -stituted ''such foreign principal'' for each of his foreign principals''. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89''486, § 4(3), substituted ''filed with the Attorney General'' for ''sent to the Librarian of Congress''. Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 89''486, § 4(4), added subsecs. (e) and (f). 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally. 1939'--Act Aug. 7, 1939, amended section generally. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1995 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104''65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89''486 effective ninety days after July 4, 1966, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Amendment by act Apr. 29, 1942, effective on the six -tieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, pre -scribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. TRANSFER OFFUNCTIONS In subsec. (d), ''United States Postal Service'' sub -stituted for ''Postmaster General'' in two places pursu -ant to Pub. L. 91''375, § 4(a), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 773, set out as a note under section 201 of Title 39, Postal Service, which abolished office of Postmaster General of Post Office Department and transferred its functions to United States Postal Service. § 615. Books and records Every agent of a foreign principal registered under this subchapter shall keep and preserve while he is an agent of a foreign principal such books of account and other records with respect to all his activities, the disclosure of which is required under the provisions of this subchapter, in accordance with such business and account -ing practices, as the Attorney General, having due regard for the national security and the pub -lic interest, may by regulation prescribe as nec -essary or appropriate for the enforcement of the provisions of this subchapter and shall preserve the same for a period of three years following the termination of such status. Until regula -tions are in effect under this section every agent of a foreign principal shall keep books of ac -count and shall preserve all written records with respect to his activities. Such books and records shall be open at all reasonable times to the in -spection of any official charged with the en -forcement of this subchapter. It shall be unlaw -ful for any person willfully to conceal, destroy, obliterate, mutilate, or falsify, or to attempt to conceal, destroy, obliterate, mutilate, or falsify, or to cause to be concealed, destroyed, obliter -ated, mutilated, or falsified, any books or records required to be kept under the provisionsof this section. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 5, 52 Stat. 633; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 256; Pub. L. 89''486, § 5, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 247.) PRIORPROVISIONS Prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942, section related to penalties. Provi -sions on that subject were incorporated in section 618 of this title by 1942 amendment. AMENDMENTS 1966'--Pub. L. 89''486 inserted ''in accordance with such business and accounting practices,'' after ''under the provisions of this subchapter,''. 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89''486 effective ninety days after July 4, 1966, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Amendment by act Apr. 29, 1942, effective on the six -tieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, pre -scribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. § 616. Public examination of official records; transmittal of records and information (a) Permanent copy of statement; inspection; withdrawal The Attorney General shall retain in perma -nent form one copy of all registration state -ments furnished under this subchapter, and the same shall be public records and open to public examination and inspection at such reasonable hours, under such regulations, as the Attorney General may prescribe, and copies of the same shall be furnished to every applicant at such reasonable fee as the Attorney General may pre -scribe. The Attorney General may withdraw from public examination the registration state -ment and other statements of any agent of a for -eign principal whose activities have ceased to be of a character which requires registration under the provisions of this subchapter. (b) Secretary of State The Attorney General shall, promptly upon re -ceipt, transmit one copy of every registration statement filed hereunder and one copy of every amendment or supplement thereto filed here -under, to the Secretary of State for such com -ment and use as the Secretary of State may de -termine to be appropriate from the point of view of the foreign relations of the United States. Failure of the Attorney General so to transmit such copy shall not be a bar to prosecution under this subchapter. (c) Executive departments and agencies; Con -gressional committees The Attorney General is authorized to furnish to departments and agencies in the executive branch and committees of the Congress such in -formation obtained by him in the administra -tion of this subchapter, including the names of registrants under this subchapter, copies of reg -
Page 265 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 618 istration statements, or parts thereof, or other documents or information filed under this sub -chapter, as may be appropriate in the light of the purposes of this subchapter. (d) Public database of registration statements and updates (1) In general The Attorney General shall maintain, and make available to the public over the Inter -net, without a fee or other access charge, in a searchable, sortable, and downloadable man -ner, to the extent technically practicable, an electronic database that'-- (A) includes the information contained in registration statements and updates filed under this subchapter; and (B) is searchable and sortable, at a mini -mum, by each of the categories of informa -tion described in section 612(a) of this title. (2) Accountability The Attorney General shall make each reg -istration statement and update filed in elec -tronic form pursuant to section 612(g) of this title available for public inspection over the Internet as soon as technically practicable after the registration statement or update is filed. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 6, 52 Stat. 633; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 256; Pub. L. 89''486, § 6, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(7), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 110''81, title II, § 212(b), Sept. 14, 2007, 121 Stat. 749.) PRIORPROVISIONS Prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942, section related to rules and regula -tions. Provisions on that subject were incorporated in section 620 of this title by 1942 amendment. Provisions on this subject were contained in section 614 of this title prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942. AMENDMENTS 2007'--Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110''81 added subsec. (d). 1995'--Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(7)(A), struck out ''and all statements concerning the distribution of po -litical propaganda'' after ''all registration state -ments''. Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(7)(B), struck out '', and one copy of every item of political propaganda'' after ''supplement thereto''. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(7)(C), struck out ''copies of political propaganda,'' after ''parts thereof,''. 1966'--Pub. L. 89''486 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c). 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally. EFFECTIVEDATE OF2007 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 110''81 effective on the 90th day after Sept. 14, 2007, see section 212(c) of Pub. L. 110''81, set out as a note under section 612 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1995 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104''65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89''486 effective ninety days after July 4, 1966, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Amendment by act Apr. 29, 1942, effective on the six -tieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, pre -scribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. § 617. Liability of officers Each officer, or person performing the func -tions of an officer, and each director, or person performing the functions of a director, of an agent of a foreign principal which is not an indi -vidual shall be under obligation to cause such agent to execute and file a registration state -ment and supplements thereto as and when such filing is required under subsections (a) and (b) of section 612 of this title and shall also be under obligation to cause such agent to comply with all the requirements of sections 614(a) and (b) and 615 of this title and all other requirements of this subchapter. Dissolution of any organiza -tion acting as an agent of a foreign principal shall not relieve any officer, or person perform -ing the functions of an officer, or any director, or person performing the functions of a director, from complying with the provisions of this sec -tion. In case of failure of any such agent of a foreign principal to comply with any of the re -quirements of this subchapter, each of its offi -cers, or persons performing the functions of offi -cers, and each of its directors, or persons per -forming the functions of directors, shall be sub -ject to prosecution therefor. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 7, 52 Stat. 633; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 256; Aug. 3, 1950, ch. 524, § 2, 64 Stat. 400.) PRIORPROVISIONS Section 7 of act June 8, 1938, prior to the general amendment of that act by act Apr. 29, 1942, provided for the effective date of the 1938 act. See Effective Date note set out under section 611 of this title. AMENDMENTS 1950'--Act Aug. 3, 1950, continued the obligation of of -ficers, directors, and persons acting as such to comply with this subchapter despite the dissolution of a for -eign agent. 1942'--Act Apr. 29, 1942, amended section generally. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1942 AMENDMENT Amendment by act Apr. 29, 1942, effective on the six -tieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attorney General may make, pre -scribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. § 618. Enforcement and penalties (a) Violations; false statements and willful omis -sions Any person who'-- (1) willfully violates any provision of this subchapter or any regulation thereunder, or (2) in any registration statement or supple -ment thereto or in any other document filed with or furnished to the Attorney General under the provisions of this subchapter will -fully makes a false statement of a material
Page 266 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE § 618 fact or willfully omits any material fact re -quired to be stated therein or willfully omits a material fact or a copy of a material docu -ment necessary to make the statements there -in and the copies of documents furnished therewith not misleading, shall, upon convic -tion thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, except that in the case of a violation of subsection (b), (e), or (f) of section 614 of this title or of subsection (g) or (h) of this section the punishment shall be a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than six months, or both. (b) Proof of identity of foreign principal In any proceeding under this subchapter in which it is charged that a person is an agent of a foreign principal with respect to a foreign principal outside of the United States, proof of the specific identity of the foreign principal shall be permissible but not necessary. (c) Removal Any alien who shall be convicted of a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of this subchapter or any regulation thereunder shall be subject to removal pursuant to chapter 4 of title II of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.]. (d) Repealed. Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(8)(B), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 700 (e) Continuing offense Failure to file any such registration state -ment or supplements thereto as is required by either section 612(a) or section 612(b) of this title shall be considered a continuing offense for as long as such failure exists, notwithstanding any statute of limitation or other statute to the contrary. (f) Injunctive remedy; jurisdiction of district court Whenever in the judgment of the Attorney General any person is engaged in or about to en -gage in any acts which constitute or will con -stitute a violation of any provision of this sub -chapter, or regulations issued thereunder, or whenever any agent of a foreign principal fails to comply with any of the provisions of this sub -chapter or the regulations issued thereunder, or otherwise is in violation of the subchapter, the Attorney General may make application to the appropriate United States district court for an order enjoining such acts or enjoining such per -son from continuing to act as an agent of such foreign principal, or for an order requiring com -pliance with any appropriate provision of the subchapter or regulation thereunder. The dis -trict court shall have jurisdiction and authority to issue a temporary or permanent injunction, restraining order or such other order which it may deem proper. (g) Deficient registration statement If the Attorney General determines that a reg -istration statement does not comply with the requirements of this subchapter or the regula -tions issued thereunder, he shall so notify the registrant in writing, specifying in what re -spects the statement is deficient. It shall be un -lawful for any person to act as an agent of a for-eign principal at any time ten days or more after receipt of such notification without filing an amended registration statement in full com -pliance with the requirements of this subchapter and the regulations issued thereunder. (h) Contingent fee arrangement It shall be unlawful for any agent of a foreign principal required to register under this sub -chapter to be a party to any contract, agree -ment, or understanding, either express or im -plied, with such foreign principal pursuant to which the amount or payment of the compensa -tion, fee, or other remuneration of such agent is contingent in whole or in part upon the success of any political activities carried on by such agent. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 8, as added Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 257; amended Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, title I, § 20(b), 64 Stat. 1005; June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, § 402(d), 66 Stat. 276; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 849, § 1, 70 Stat. 899; Pub. L. 89''486, § 7, July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 98''620, title IV, § 402(26), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(8), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 104''208, div. C, title III, § 308(e)(19), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009''621.) REFERENCES INTEXT The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended. Chapter 4 of title II of the Act is classified generally to part IV (§ 1221 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 12 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For com -plete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables. PRIORPROVISIONS Provisions on this subject were contained in section 615 of this title prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942. AMENDMENTS 1996'--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104''208 substituted ''re -moval pursuant to chapter 4 of title II of the Immigra -tion and Nationality Act'' for ''deportation in the man -ner provided by sections 1251 to 1253 of title 8''. 1995'--Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(8)(A), struck out ''or in any statement under section 614(a) of this title concerning the distribution of political propa -ganda'' after ''or supplement thereto''. Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104''65, § 9(8)(B), struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: ''The United States Postal Service may declare to be nonmailable any commu -nication or expression falling within clause (2) of sec -tion 611(j) of this title in the form of prints or in any other form reasonably adapted to, or reasonably ap -pearing to be intended for, dissemination or circulation among two or more persons, which is offered or caused to be offered for transmittal in the United States mails to any person or persons in any other American repub -lic by any agent of a foreign principal, if the United States Postal Service is informed in writing by the Secretary of State that the duly accredited diplomatic representative of such American republic has made written representation to the Department of State that the admission or circulation of such communication or expression in such American republic is prohibited by the laws thereof and has requested in writing that its transmittal thereto be stopped.'' 1984'--Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98''620 struck out provision that the proceedings shall be made a preferred cause and expedited in every way.
Page 267 TITLE 22'--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE §§ 661 to 672 1966'--Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 89''486, § 7(1), inserted ex -ception provision. Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 89''486, § 7(2), added subsecs. (f) to (h). 1956'--Act Aug. 1, 1956, amended credit to section by redesignating section 20(b) of act Sept. 23, 1950, as sec -tion 20. 1952'--Subsec. (c). Act June 27, 1952, substituted ''sec -tions 1251 to 1253 of title 8'' for ''sections 155 and 156 of title 8''. 1950'--Subsec. (e). Act Sept. 23, 1950, added subsec. (e). EFFECTIVEDATE OF1996 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104''208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1995 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104''65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1984 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 98''620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98''620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. EFFECTIVEDATE OF1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89''486 effective ninety days after July 4, 1966, see section 9 of Pub. L. 89''486, set out as a note under section 611 of this title. EFFECTIVEDATE Section effective on the sixtieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attor -ney General may make, prescribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as an Effective Date of 1942 Amendment note under section 611 of this title. § 619. Territorial applicability of subchapter This subchapter shall be applicable in the sev -eral States, the District of Columbia, the Terri -tories, the Canal Zone, the insular possessions, and all other places now or hereafter subject to the civil or military jurisdiction of the United States. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 9, as added Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 257; amended Proc. No. 2695, July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352.) REFERENCES INTEXT For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in text, see section 3602(b) of this title. CODIFICATION Words ''including the Philippine Islands,'' omitted from section pursuant to Proc. No. 2695, which granted independence to the Philippine Islands under the au -thority of section 1394 of this title, under which section Proc. No. 2695 is set out as a note. EFFECTIVEDATE Section effective on the sixtieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attor -ney General may make, prescribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as an Effective Date of 1942 Amendment note under section 611 of this title. § 620. Rules and regulations The Attorney General may at any time make, prescribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regula -tions, and forms as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 10, as added Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 257.) PRIORPROVISIONS Provisions on this subject were contained in section 616 of this title prior to general amendment of act June 8, 1938, by act Apr. 29, 1942. EFFECTIVEDATE Section effective on the sixtieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attor -ney General may make, prescribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as an Effective Date of 1942 Amendment note under section 611 of this title. § 621. Reports to Congress The Attorney General shall every six months report to the Congress concerning administra -tion of this subchapter, including registrations filed pursuant to the subchapter, and the nature, sources and content of political propaganda dis -seminated and distributed. (June 8, 1938, ch. 327, § 11, as added Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 263, § 1, 56 Stat. 258; amended Pub. L. 104''65, § 19, Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 704.) AMENDMENTS 1995'--Pub. L. 104''65 added text and struck out former text which read as follows: ''The Attorney General shall, from time to time, make a report to the Congress concerning the administration of this subchapter, in -cluding the nature, sources, and content of political propaganda disseminated or distributed.'' EFFECTIVEDATE OF1995 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104''65 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 24 of Pub. L. 104''65, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1601 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVEDATE Section effective on the sixtieth day after Apr. 29, 1942, except that prior to such sixtieth day the Attor -ney General may make, prescribe, amend, and rescind such rules, regulations, and forms as may be necessary to carry out act Apr. 29, 1942, see section 3 of act Apr. 29, 1942, set out as an Effective Date of 1942 Amendment note under section 611 of this title. CHAPTER 12'--CLAIMS COMMISSIONS §§ 661 to 672. Omitted CODIFICATION Sections 661 to 672, which established the American Mexican Claims Commission in 1942 for the settlement of certain claims, expired pursuant to the provisions of section 661(d), which provided that the authority of the Commission shall terminate at the expiration of four years after the date on which a majority of its mem -bers first appointed took office. Section 661, acts Dec. 18, 1942, ch. 766, § 2, 56 Stat. 1058; Apr. 3, 1945, ch. 52, § 5, 59 Stat. 50; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, § 1106(a), 63 Stat. 972, established American Mexican Claims Commission, prescribed its composi -tion, provided for compensation of its members, and specified its termination date. Acts Dec. 18, 1942, ch. 766, § 2, 56 Stat. 1058; Apr. 3, 1945, ch. 52, § 5, 59 Stat. 50,
Foreign Agents Registration Act | Department of Justice
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 14:46
Foreign Agents Registration Act The Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) was enacted in 1938. FARA is a disclosure statute that requires persons acting as agents of foreign principals in a political or quasi-political capacity to make periodic public disclosure of their relationship with the foreign principal, as well as activities, receipts and disbursements in support of those activities. Disclosure of the required information facilitates evaluation by the government and the American people of the statements and activities of such persons in light of their function as foreign agents. The FARA Registration Unit of the Counterintelligence and Export Control Section (CES) in the National Security Division (NSD) is responsible for the administrative enforcement of the Act.
FARA Contact InformationPublic information relating to the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) may be obtained in person at the FARA Registration Unit Public Office located at:
Department of Justice/NSDFARA Registration Unit175 N Street, NEConstitution Square, Building 3 - Room 1.204Washington, DC 20002
Hours of Operation:
Public Office: Monday - Friday 11:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m.Deliveries: Monday - Friday 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Send email to firstname.lastname@example.org
See the FARA contact information page for more details.
FARA Law Information22 U.S.C. § 611 et seq - United States Code
Title 28 C.F.R. Part 5 - Judicial Administration
John C. DemersAssistant Attorney General for National Security
Gregory Craig, Ex-Obama Aide, Is Indicted on Charges of Lying to Justice Dept. - The New York Times
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 14:45
Image The indictment of Gregory B. Craig stemmed from an investigation initiated by the office of the special counsel, Robert S. Mueller III. Credit Credit Charles Dharapak/Associated Press WASHINGTON '-- In an indictment that seized the attention of the capital's K Street lobbying corridor, Gregory B. Craig, a White House counsel in the Obama administration, was charged on Thursday with lying to the Justice Department and concealing information about work he did in 2012 for the government of Ukraine.
The indictment of Mr. Craig, 74, stemmed from an investigation initiated by the office of the special counsel, Robert S. Mueller III.
The charges represented a continuation '-- and an expansion '-- of a new focus on a long-neglected law governing foreign influence operations in the United States, which the Justice Department has begun prioritizing in part because of scrutiny related to Mr. Mueller's investigation.
Mr. Craig, in a video posted on YouTube on Thursday night, called the charges against him ''unprecedented and unjustified,'' and expressed confidence ''that both the judge and the jury will agree with me.''
[Read the indictment.]
The Foreign Agents Registration Act, or FARA, had been the basis for charges brought against several people who had been investigated by the special counsel. The 1938 law requires Americans to register with the Justice Department when they lobby or do public relations in the United States for foreign politicians, parties or governments.
Before Mr. Craig's indictment, the recent charges brought in cases initiated by Mr. Mueller had accused people of failing to disclose their lobbying work.
The charges against Mr. Craig, on the other hand, stem from public relations, rather than lobbying. While Mr. Craig was not charged with failing to register under the law, the indictment accuses him of lying to, and withholding information from, the Justice Department officials who oversee FARA in order to avoid registration.
Before the indictment, Mr. Craig's lawyers asserted that the case against their client was flimsy, pointing out that Mr. Mueller's team had referred it to federal prosecutors in Manhattan last year for potential prosecution related to foreign lobbying laws, but that they did not bring charges. Instead, the case was moved in January to Washington.
''Mr. Craig had no interest in misleading the FARA Unit because he had not done anything that required his registration,'' Mr. Craig's lawyers, William Taylor and William Murphy, said in a statement on Thursday, referring to the part of the Justice Department that oversees the law. ''That is what this trial will be all about.''
By Thursday afternoon, the indictment and its implications were a hot topic for Washington's lucrative lobbying and communications consulting industry.
The charges will prompt even more diligent review of possible compliance obligations by consultants who represent foreign clients, said Thomas J. Spulak, a partner at the King & Spalding law firm who advises on lobbying compliance.
''It's pretty significant,'' he said. ''It's not just trying to influence the government; it's trying to influence the American public.'' He added, of Mr. Craig's case, ''If they can establish the facts, then I think it's a pretty serious violation.''
Mr. Craig's indictment also attracted notice because he is the first person who made his name in Democratic Party politics to be charged in a case linked to the special counsel's investigation. An Ivy League-educated lawyer, Mr. Craig held prominent positions in the administrations of President Bill Clinton and President Barack Obama.
The charges ''undermine the narrative of President Trump and congressional Republicans that the Mueller probe was a Democratic witch hunt meant to bring down Trump and the G.O.P.,'' said Carl Tobias, a professor at the University of Richmond School of Law.
The indictment said Mr. Craig ''did not want to register as an agent for the government of Ukraine'' partly because he believed doing so would make it less likely that he and others at his firm at the time, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, would be appointed to federal government posts. Mr. Obama had put rules in place restricting the work that former lobbyists could do in his administration.
The indictment said Mr. Craig also wanted to hide the identity of the Ukrainian oligarch who paid $4 million to fund the overwhelming majority of the fees received by Skadden Arps for the Ukraine work.
In his YouTube video, Mr. Craig identified the oligarch as Viktor Pinchuk, a steel magnate who has portrayed himself as pro-Western, and who has donated millions to the Clinton Foundation, as well as $150,000 to Mr. Trump's since-shuttered charitable foundation.
Mr. Pinchuk's representatives have said that ''he had no connection to the project either professionally or personally'' and ''was not the source of any funds used to pay fees of Skadden in producing the report.''
The work was done on behalf of the government of Viktor F. Yanukovych, then the president of Ukraine, and consisted primarily of producing a report on the prosecution and jailing by Mr. Yanukovych's government of one of his rivals, the former Prime Minister Yulia V. Tymoshenko. The Skadden Arps team also agreed to train Ukrainian prosecutors handling matters related to the case.
The work was steered to Mr. Craig and his firm by Paul Manafort, who at the time was a political consultant earning tens of millions of dollars for his representation of Mr. Yanukovych. Mr. Manafort intended to use the report to quell Western criticism of Mr. Yanukovych.
Mr. Manafort, who went on to become Mr. Trump's campaign chairman in 2016, was sentenced last month to seven and a half years in prison on charges brought by Mr. Mueller's team related to obstruction of justice and violations of FARA, as well as banking and tax laws stemming from his work in Ukraine.
Mr. Craig is scheduled to be arraigned on Friday.
In his video statement, Mr. Craig said his team at Skadden Arps ''researched the requirements for registration under FARA and agreed that the law firm did not need to register.'' He also said that the report the team produced ''was critical of important aspects of the trial, which we found to be flawed.''
After the report was released, and Mr. Craig was quoted discussing it in an article in The New York Times, the Justice Department reached out to Skadden Arps to ask why the firm and its lawyers had not registered as foreign agents for the Ukrainian government.
The department initially concluded in 2013 that Skadden Arps was required to register. But it reversed itself the next year after Mr. Craig made the case that the law did not apply to his work on behalf of Ukraine.
After the initial determination, Mr. Craig told the Justice Department that he and Skadden Arps did not proactively reach out to news outlets to disseminate and promote the report. Rather, he claimed he distributed the report only ''in response to requests from the media,'' according to a letter he sent to the department at the time.
In the indictment, prosecutors presented evidence that Mr. Craig did reach out to The Times and was involved in the media rollout strategy for the report.
A spokeswoman for The Times said, ''To date, we have not received a subpoena in the investigation and have not provided information to the government.''
Mr. Craig left Skadden Arps last year as scrutiny of his work with Mr. Manafort escalated and after a former associate of the firm pleaded guilty to lying to investigators about his work on the effort.
Skadden Arps reached a settlement in January with the Justice Department that allowed the firm to avoid prosecution in the matter in exchange for an agreement to pay $4.6 million, to retroactively register its Ukraine work under FARA, to beef up its compliance processes and to cooperate with government investigations of the work on behalf of Ukraine.
Taken together, the indictment of Mr. Craig and the settlement with Skadden Arps suggest that the Justice Department is trying to ''make an example of this prominent lawyer and law firm so that parties receiving D.O.J. inquiries in the future will take them more seriously,'' said Matthew Sanderson, who advises clients on compliance with FARA and other lobbying laws for the firm Caplin & Drysdale.
''In the past, the department would send letters of inquiry to organizations that would receive only a cursory response or be disregarded altogether,'' he said. ''That, apparently, will no longer be tolerated.''
A version of this article appears in print on
, on Page
of the New York edition
with the headline:
Ex-Obama Aide Indicted in Case Linked to Mueller Report
. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe
Press Freedoms and the Case Against Julian Assange, Explained - The New York Times
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 14:42
Politics | Press Freedoms and the Case Against Julian Assange, Explained Image The case against the WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange could yet have implications for American press freedoms. Credit Credit Andy Rain/EPA, via Shutterstock WASHINGTON '-- Charges against Julian Assange, the founder and leader of WikiLeaks, that were unsealed on Thursday brought to a head a long-running debate about whether his actions could be construed as a crime and what prosecuting him would mean for American press freedoms.
Mr. Assange vaulted to global fame in 2010, when his anti-secrecy website began posting archives of secret American military and diplomatic documents leaked by Chelsea Manning, an Army intelligence analyst who had downloaded them from a classified computer network she worked on at her outpost in Iraq. His image became more complicated in 2016, when WikiLeaks published stolen Democratic emails that the Russian government had hacked as part of its covert operation to damage Hillary Clinton and help Donald J. Trump win the presidency.
Throughout that saga, national security and law enforcement officials in both the Obama and the Trump administrations have weighed whether they could charge Mr. Assange with a crime. That debate has raised concerns by press freedom advocates about what any precedent established by his case would mean for First Amendment rights and the future of investigative journalism in the United States.
Why does the case against Mr. Assange raise concerns about press freedoms?Mr. Assange is not a traditional journalist, but most of what he does at WikiLeaks is difficult to distinguish in a legally meaningful way from what traditional news organizations, like The New York Times, do every day: seek out and publish information that officials would prefer to be kept secret, including classified national security matters, and take steps to protect the confidentiality of sources.
In recent years, prosecutors have begun far more regularly charging officials with leaking information to reporters under the Espionage Act, a World War I-era law. It criminalizes the disclosure of potentially damaging national security secrets to someone not authorized to receive them. On its face, the Espionage Act could also be used to prosecute reporters who publish government secrets.
While many legal scholars believe that prosecuting reporters for doing their jobs would violate the First Amendment, the prospect has never been tested in court because the government has never charged a journalist under that law. The rumblings about prosecuting Mr. Assange raised the possibility that prosecutors could violate that norm and try to establish that publishing government secrets can be a crime.
Was Mr. Assange charged with publishing secrets?No. When the indictment was unsealed on Thursday, it showed that a grand jury had instead charged Mr. Assange with conspiring with Ms. Manning to illegally hack a government computer to obtain national security information.
Specifically, the indictment said, on March 8, 2010, Mr. Assange agreed to help Ms. Manning try to crack part of an encoded password that would have let her log onto a classified computer network under a user name that did not belong to her. Prosecutors also cited a chat log from two days later that they said indicated that Mr. Assange had taken steps to act on that conspiracy: He said he had ''no luck so far'' in trying to crack the password.
So can people concerned about press freedoms rest easy?Not quite. For now, the case significantly reduces such concerns because it is outside traditional investigative journalism to help sources try to break passcodes so they can illegally hack into government computers.
But some press freedom advocates say they remain concerned. For one thing, the Justice Department could file a superseding indictment, so there is no guarantee that Espionage Act charges will stay out of the case. Under extradition procedures, however, any additional charges would most likely have to come soon '-- before Britain decides whether to transfer custody of Mr. Assange.
For another, prosecutors cited details that expanded beyond a narrow focus on cracking the passcode and that sounded like typical activities of a journalist. For example, the indictment talks about efforts to conceal conversations by using a special chat service and deleting certain chat logs. It also says Mr. Assange took a step to help Ms. Manning send him the files, by making a special folder for her to upload files.
And it quotes a purported exchange midway through Ms. Manning's leaks in which she wrote, ''After this upload, that's all I really have got left,'' but Mr. Assange replied, ''Curious eyes never run dry in my experience.'' Several weeks later, according to the indictment, Ms. Manning copied and sent WikiLeaks the diplomatic cables.
The Justice Department's inclusion of those details as relevant to the case was cause for worry, said Jameel Jaffer, the executive director of the Knight First Amendment Institute at Columbia University.
''The indictment and the Justice Department's press release treat everyday journalistic practices as part of a criminal conspiracy,'' he said. ''Whether the government will be able to establish a violation of the hacking statute remains to be seen, but it's very troubling that the indictment sweeps in activities that are not just lawful but essential to press freedom '-- activities like cultivating sources, protecting sources' identities and communicating with sources securely.''
Could Mr. Assange be charged later in connection with Russia's election interference?It would not be easy.
The Espionage Act does not cover the disclosure of unclassified emails like the Democratic messages, so prosecutors would have to come up with a theory in which publishing them violated some other law. Even if they could find one, a 2001 Supreme Court ruling held that the First Amendment did not permit prosecutors to charge people with crimes for publishing or broadcasting information so long as they broke no law in acquiring it '-- even if their sources had done something illegal to obtain it.
No one has suggested that the Russians needed or had any help from Mr. Assange in hacking Democrats' emails. And Mr. Assange has denied knowing who his source was; at the time, Russian military intelligence officers created the fictitious online persona of a hacker calling himself Guccifer 2.0 to disseminate and call attention to the files, although evidence that it was most likely a front for Russian intelligence was broadly discussed.
What about the statute of limitations?Normally, the statute of limitations prevents prosecutors from charging people with a crime for actions that took place more than five years ago. However, a hacking provision cited in the indictment '-- intruding into a government computer to obtain national security secrets '-- has an eight-year limit. A grand jury returned the indictment of Mr. Assange on March 6, 2018, just before the eighth anniversary of the day that Mr. Assange is accused of entering into a conspiracy with Ms. Manning to violate that law.
There is an oddity: As part of the USA Patriot Act after the Sept. 11 attacks, Congress added that provision to a list of crimes that get an eight-year limit under a separate law titled ''extension of statute of limitation for certain terrorism offenses.'' While Mr. Assange's case involves national security, it is not about terrorism. The ''terrorism'' heading most likely makes no legal difference, however '-- just as prosecutors can use the words of the Espionage Act to charge leakers, not just spies.
Is a trial imminent?No. Mr. Assange is widely expected to fight extradition to the United States by arguing in British court that his prosecution is politically motivated. That fight and inevitable appeals could take years to play out.
Eileen Sullivan contributed reporting.
Follow Charlie Savage on Twitter: @charlie_savage.
A version of this article appears in print on
, on Page
of the New York edition
with the headline:
What the Charges Mean For U.S. Press Freedoms
. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe
Defensie schorst Marco Kroon na mishandeling van een politie-agent tijdens carnaval in Den Bosch | De Volkskrant
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 13:53
Marco Kroon tijdens de herdenking van de slachtoffers van de Japanse bezetting van voormalig Nederlands-Indi in de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Beeld ANPKroon werd volgens justitie op zondagavond 3 maart door agenten aangesproken vanwege wildplassen. Het OM verwijt hem dat hij vervolgens drie agenten onheus en op strafbare wijze heeft bejegend. 'Zo zou de militair een agent zijn geslachtsdeel hebben getoond. Ook zou hij zijn middelvinger hebben opgestoken naar een andere agent. Tot slot zou hij bij zijn aanhouding een agent een kopstoot hebben gegeven', aldus het Openbaar Ministerie in een verklaring vrijdag. Kroon wordt officieel vervolgd voor 'schennis van de eerbaarheid, belediging en eenvoudige mishandeling'.
Defensie heeft 'gezien de aard en de ernst van de beschuldigingen' besloten om 'het proces op te starten om majoor Kroon te schorsen', aldus een woordvoerder. De schorsing wordt Kroon vandaag door de Landmacht medegedeeld.
Zolang Kroon is geschorst, zal hij niet publiekelijk optreden in uniform en niet aanwezig zijn bij officile gelegenheden zoals dodenherdenking. Defensie vergoedt zijn advocaatkosten niet. Kroon werkt momenteel bij de Inspecteur der Krijgsmacht, waar hij zich vooral bezighoudt met veteranenzaken.
Vaker in opspraakMarco Kroon is een van de drie ridders die Nederland kent. Hij kreeg in 2009 de hoogste militaire onderscheiding voor moedig optreden en leidinggeven als officier bij vuurgevechten in Afghanistan. De Militaire Willems-Orde wordt slechts zeer zeldzaam uitgereikt; Kroon was de eerste die de medaille kreeg sinds Tweede Wereldoorlog. Inmiddels zijn ook commando Gijs Tuinman (2014) en Apache-piloot Roy de Ruiter (2018) geslagen tot ridder.
Hoewel de heldendaden van Kroon niet ter discussie staan, zit de Defensietop wel in zijn maag met de incidenten waarin Kroon telkens verzeild lijkt te raken. In 2010 stelde het Openbaar Ministerie onderzoek naar hem in wegens vermeend drugsbezit. Daarvan werd hij vrijgesproken. Hij moest wel een boete betalen voor het bezit van stroomstootwapens. Later raakte hij ook nog in opspraak door beledigende uitlatingen over het Koninklijk Huis en anekdotes over zijn seksleven tijdens interviews in de media.
In 2018 raakte Kroon ook in opspraak toen hij tien jaar na dato opeens opbiechtte dat hij tijdens een geheime missie in Afghanistan zou zijn gegijzeld, waarna hij zijn gijzelnemer zou hebben doodgeschoten. Hoewel hij dit incident meteen had moeten melden bij zijn leidinggevenden, besloot Kroon te zwijgen. Naar eigen zeggen 'om de operatie niet in gevaar te brengen'.
Een half jaar durend onderzoek van justitie leverde geen enkel bewijs op voor het verhaal van Kroon. Reden voor justitie om geen vervolging in te stellen. Binnen de defensietop is ernstige twijfel of Kroon zijn verhaal heeft verzonnen of aangedikt. Minister Ank Bijleveld van Defensie zei naar aanleiding van deze kwestie echter dat het 'te ver zou gaan' om hem te ontslaan.
Medaille kwijt?Een eventuele veroordeling voor mishandeling zou voor Kroon erg ongunstig kunnen uitpakken. Zo zou hij zijn Willems-Orde kunnen kwijtraken. Deze vergaande maatregel is mogelijk bij een opgelegde gevangenisstraf van ten minste (C)(C)n jaar, wat bij een vergrijp waarvan Kroon wordt verdacht niet heel waarschijnlijk is. Maar ook bij oneervol ontslag '' in dit geval aannemelijker '' zou Kroon de Willems-Orde moeten inleveren. Defensie wil 'het oordeel van de rechter afwachten om te bezien of aanvullende maatregelen nodig zijn', aldus een woordvoerder. Het is nog nooit eerder voorgekomen dat een ridder zijn Willems-Orde moest inleveren.
Wanneer Kroon wordt voorgeleid voor de militaire kamer in Arnhem is nog niet duidelijk. Als bewezen wordt dat Kroon inderdaad een kopstoot heeft uitgedeeld aan een agent, dan zal dit 'extra zwaar' worden meegewogen, zei een woordvoerder van het Openbaar Ministerie vorige maand.
LEES MEER OVER DE OMSTREDEN OORLOGSHELD MARCO KROON
Onderscheiden als oorlogsheld, maar steeds opnieuw in opspraak Het Openbaar Ministerie (OM) begon in januari 2018 een onderzoek naar een geweldsincident van Marco Kroon in Afghanistan in 2007. Vier vragen over de omstreden oorlogsheld, drager van de hoogste militaire onderscheiding van Nederland.
Fantast of oorlogsheld? Een reconstructie van Kroons missie, het incident en de twijfel Is Marco Kroon (47) een fantast die zijn blazoen wil oppoetsen met een verzonnen verhaal? Of lijdt de gedecoreerde oorlogsheld aan een posttraumatische stressstoornis ten gevolge van alles wat hij heeft meegemaakt? Antwoorden zijn er vooralsnog niet, maar voor zijn beweringen is geen greintje bewijs gevonden. Een reconstructie.
Hoe nu verder met Marco Kroon? De conclusie van justitie dat er geen bewijs is voor de bewering van Marco Kroon dat hij in 2007 in Afghanistan is ontvoerd, gemarteld en dat hij daarna zijn gijzelnemer heeft doodgeschoten, stelt Defensie voor een dilemma: hoe nu verder met de oud-commando?
Nipsey Hussle - Wikipedia
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 13:32
Eritrean American rapper
Ermias Joseph Asghedom (August 15, 1985 '' March 31, 2019), known professionally as Nipsey Hussle (often stylized as Nipsey Hu$$le), was an American rapper, songwriter, entrepreneur, and community activist from Los Angeles, California. Emerging from the West Coast hip hop scene in the mid-2000s, Hussle initially became known for his numerous mixtapes, including his Bullets Ain't Got No Name series, The Marathon, The Marathon Continues and Crenshaw, the last of which rapper Jay-Z bought 100 copies of for $100 each. After much delay, his debut studio album Victory Lap was released in February 2018 to critical acclaim and commercial success, and was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 61st Annual Grammy Awards in 2019.
On March 31, 2019, Hussle was fatally shot outside his store, Marathon Clothing, in South Los Angeles. Eric Holder, a 29-year-old man who had confronted Hussle earlier in the day, was arrested and charged with murder on April 2, 2019.
Early life Ermias Joseph Asghedom was born to Angelique Smith, an African-American woman, and Dawit Asghedom, an Eritrean immigrant on August 15, 1985. He was raised in the Crenshaw neighborhood of South Los Angeles, along with his brother, Samiel, and his sister, Samantha. Asghedom attended Hamilton High School in the nearby Castle Heights neighborhood, but dropped out before graduating. At the age of 14, Asghedom left home and joined the local Rollin 60's Neighborhood Crips, a sub-group of the larger Crips gang primarily based in his home neighborhood of Crenshaw. His stage name, a play on the name of comedian Nipsey Russell, originated as a nickname given to Asghedom by a childhood friend.
At the age of 19, Asghedom's father took both him and his brother Samiel on a trip to Eritrea, East Africa for three months in 2004. Asghedom credited the trip with inspiring him to become a community activist with an "entrepreneurial spirit".
Music career 2008''2010: Bullets Ain't Got No Name series Nipsey Hussle (left) with fellow rapper
Big Sean in 2009
In December 2005, Hussle independently released his first mixtape, Slauson Boy Volume 1, to moderate local success. His debut project helped to build a small regional fanbase on the west coast, and eventually led to Hussle being signed to Cinematic Music Group and Epic Records. In 2008, Hussle released the first two installments in his Bullets Ain't Got No Name series of mixtapes, which helped to bring Hussle's music to a larger audience. Nipsey's profile continued to grow into 2009, when he collaborated with Drake on the song "Killer", and also appeared, along with Snoop Dogg and Problem, on the song "Upside Down", from Snoop Dogg's 2009 album Malice n Wonderland. He also released the third instalment in Bullets Ain't Got No Name, as well as his commercial debut single, "Hussle in the House". Despite the song, which samples Kris Kross' 1992 single Jump, being well received by critics, it failed to make any impact on the charts.
After Epic underwent financial issues in 2010, Nipsey opted not to renew his contract and left the label, becoming independent in the process. Not long after going independent, Hussle appeared on the song "We Are the World 25 for Haiti", and was featured by XXL Magazine as one of its "Annual Freshman Top Ten", a selection of ten up-and-coming hip-hop artists to watch. XXL labeled him "Most Determined" of his class, and LA Weekly called him the "next big L.A. MC". Hussle was expected to release his debut album, South Central State of Mind, in October 2010. Prior to release, the album was supported by the single "Feelin' Myself" featuring Lloyd. While the production was set to be handled from J.R. Rotem, Scott Storch, Mr. Lee, Play-N-Skillz, Terrace Martin and 1500 or Nothin', the album was set to be featured with the guest appearances from Trey Songz, Jay Rock and Sean Kingston. Concurrently, he announced that he planned on releasing a mixtape with fellow rapper Jay Rock, titled Red and Blue Make Green. Following the release of a music video for "Feelin' Myself", the album was set for a December 21, 2010, release; however, both of these projects were eventually postponed indefinitely.
2010''2013: Leaving Epic Records and The Marathon series After leaving Epic, Nipsey founded his own record label, All Money In. On December 21, 2010, he released his first All Money In Records mixtape, titled The Marathon, which featured guest appearances from Kokane and MGMT. On November 1, 2011, Hussle released a sequel titled The Marathon Continues, which featured L.A. rappers YG and Dom Kennedy. On April 17, 2012, Hussle released a collaborative album with fellow rapper Blanco, Raw. The album featured guest appearances from YG, Mistah FAB, Yukmouth, B-Legit, Kokane and Freeway.
In May 2012, Nipsey released a single titled Proud of That, marking his first collaboration with Florida rapper Rick Ross. Nipsey was subsequently featured on Ross Maybach Music Group song "Fountain of Youth", which appears on the label's second album Self Made Vol. 2. The music video was released on October 1, 2012. Rumours began to circulate that Hussle would sign with Ross' label, and in December 2012, Hussle hinted at signing with Maybach Music Group/Warner Bros. Records, however, he also said that he was still be looking for the right label.
Hussle said that he would be releasing his third and final installment of The Marathon mixtape series with TM3: Victory Lap in 2013, after it was pushed back from its initial December 2012 release date. He also announced that he was planning on releasing a joint mixtape with a fellow West Coast rapper and frequent collaborator YG. Hussle performed at the 2013 Paid Dues festival on March 30, 2013 in California. After deciding against signing to a major label, due to a lack of creative freedom, he choose to make Victory Lap his debut album.
2013''2019: Crenshaw and Victory Lap Nipsey Hussle (front) performing with
TeeFlii in December 2013
Beginning in 2013, he released various songs from his upcoming mixtape Crenshaw, including the 9th Wonder produced track "Face the World", and a The Futuristics and 1500 or Nothin' produced track "Blessings". On August 6, 2013, Hussle announced that Victory Lap would now be released as an album, rather than a mixtape. Prior to the release of Victory Lap, Nipsey announced on September 16, 2013, that he would be releasing a new mixtape, Crenshaw (hosted by DJ Drama), on October 8, 2013. On September 24, 2013, he revealed the track list for Crenshaw, which contained guest appearances from Rick Ross, Dom Kennedy, Slim Thug, James Fauntleroy II, Z-Ro, Skeme and Sade, among others. The production on the mixtape was handled by The Futuristics, 1500 or Nothin', 9th Wonder, Mike Free, Ralo and Jiggy Hendrix, among others. He also released the "Crenshaw" documentary that day in promotion of the mixtape. On October 3, 2013, he released another trailer for the mixtape, and attracted attention when he revealed 1,000 hard copies of the mixtape would be sold for $100 each. Jay Z personally bought 100 copies. He reportedly sold out all 1,000 copies in less than 24 hours, effectively making $100,000.
Upon the release of Crenshaw, Hussle said that Victory Lap would be released in 2014. On November 20, 2013, Hussle confirmed that Victory Lap would feature the production from Ralo, 1500 or Nothin', The Futuristiks and DJ Mustard. He later confirmed more producers, including Don Cannon and DJ Khalil on the album. After the year went by with no new releases, Hussle released a new mixtape, Mailbox Money on New Years Eve 2014, again releasing 1000 hard copies for $100 each.
Nipsey made a number of guest appearances throughout 2015 and 2016, working with Jadakiss, Trae Tha Truth and YG. In 2016, he released another mixtape, titled Famous Lies and Unpopular Truth. He commented on the 2016 US presidential election by releasing the single "FDT" ("Fuck Donald Trump") with YG; the song was written about Hussle's positive experiences with Mexican immigrants in the United States, whom Trump had criticized.
After numerous delays, Hussle's debut studio album, Victory Lap, was released on February 16, 2018, debuting at #4 on the Billboard 200, selling 53,000 album equivalent units in its first week. The album was met with universal acclaim from critics, and numerous songs entered the Billboard Hot 100, including Double Up, Last Time I Checc'd and Dedication, marking Nipsey's debut on the chart as a lead artist.Victory Lap was also nominated for a Best Rap Album at the 61st Annual Grammy Awards in 2019, but lost out to Cardi B's Invasion of Privacy. Over 1 year after its release, the album reached a new peak of #2 on the Billboard 2000 in April 2019 after Hussle's murder on March 31. His single Racks in the Middle featuring Roddy Ricch and Hit-Boy also reached a new peak of #44 following his death.
Other ventures In October 2016, Steve Carless, the head of The Marathon Agency, founded with business partners Karen Civil and Jorge Peniche, revealed to Billboard that Nipsey had invested "like over six figures in the company" and described him as "kind of like our silent partner."
On June 17, 2017, Nipsey inaugurated the "Marathon Clothing" store, which he founded along with partners Carless, Civil, and his brother Samiel Asghedom.
Acting career In 2007, Hussle played a small role in Bone Thugs-n-Harmony's semi-autobiographical film I Tried, which was directed by Rich Newey. In 2010, he starred in the film Caged Animal, alongside Ving Rhames, Gillie Da Kid and Robert Patrick. In 2015, Hussle was featured in a cameo "The Sexy Getting Ready Song" in the pilot episode of Crazy Ex-Girlfriend, rapping two bars before abruptly stopping and commenting on Rebecca Bunch (Rachel Bloom)'s long grooming routine as "some nasty-ass patriarchal bullshit. You know what? I gotta go apologize to some bitches. I'm forever changed after what I just seen."
Personal life Hussle and actress Lauren London began dating in 2013. They had a child together, born on August 31, 2016. London has a child from a previous relationship with fellow rapper Lil Wayne, while Hussle has a daughter, Emani, from a previous relationship. He remained very involved in South Los Angeles with his businesses, charitable activities, and the homes of family and friends. The locations for a magazine shoot were in the neighborhood.
Death According to police sources, on March 31, 2019, Hussle was shot multiple times in the parking lot of his store, Marathon Clothing, in South Los Angeles at about 3:25 p.m. Hussle was hit five times in the torso and once in the head. Two others were wounded in the shooting. All three victims were transported to a hospital, where Hussle was pronounced dead at 3:55 p.m. He was 33 years old. Upon hearing the news, numerous celebrities offered their condolences on social media. Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti also offered his condolences to Nipsey's family.
Police have identified 29-year-old Eric Holder as a suspect. Investigators believe Holder was known to the rapper and that the shooting was possibly motivated by a personal matter. On April 2, 2019, Holder was apprehended by members of the Los Angeles Police Department.
In March, Hussle had contacted officials from the LAPD to arrange a meeting with him and Roc Nation about what they could do to help prevent gang violence in South Los Angeles. The meeting had been scheduled to take place on April 1, 2019. Hussle was murdered the day before. According to Los Angeles Police Commissioner Steve Soboroff, the meeting will still take place at a future date, in Hussle's honor.
In the wake of Hussle's death, a petition was started to rename the intersection of Slauson Avenue and Crenshaw Boulevard near Hussle's store Marathon Clothing to "Nipsey Hussle Square". On the day of his funeral, the council announced it was set to be renamed Ermias "Nipsey Hussle" Asghedom Square to honor him and his contributions to the neighborhood.
Hussle's memorial service was held on April 11 at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, with tickets given away free of charge. Following the service he was buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Southern California. A letter from former president Barack Obama was read which praised the rapper for his work in the community. "While most folks look at the Crenshaw neighborhood where he grew up and see only gangs, bullets, and despair, Nipsey saw potential," Obama wrote. 
Discography Nipsey Hussle in December 2013
The Marathon (2010)The Marathon Continues (2011)Crenshaw (2013)Mailbox Money (2014)Victory Lap (2018)Filmography YearTitleRoleNotes2007I Tried Little RickySupport role2010Love Chronicles: Secrets RevealedJankySupport role2010Caged AnimalRickyMain role2015Crazy Ex-GirlfriendHimselfEpisode: "Josh Just Happens to Live Here!"See also List of hip hop musiciansList of murdered hip hop musiciansReferences ^ Examiner-Coroner, Medical. "Los Angeles County Medical Examiner-Coroner". Archived from the original on April 3, 2019 . Retrieved April 5, 2019 . ^ a b "Nipsey Hussle Breaks Down His $10,000 Album Transaction With Jay Z: Watch Now". MTV News. ^ a b Eric Skelton. "The First Week Numbers for Nipsey Hussle's 'Victory Lap' Are In". Complex . Retrieved March 8, 2018 . ^ a b McQuaid, Ian. "Nipsey Hussle: Victory Lap review '' west coast rap at its finest". The Guardian . Retrieved March 13, 2018 . ^ a b Pearce, Sheldon (February 24, 2018). "Nipsey Hussle: Victory Lap Album Review". Pitchfork . Retrieved March 13, 2018 . ^ a b "Reviews for Victory Lap by Nipsey Hussle". Metacritic . Retrieved September 21, 2018 . ^ a b "Nipsey Hussle". GRAMMY.com. May 12, 2018 . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Rapper Nipsey Hussle killed in shooting outside his L.A. store". NBC News. March 31, 2019 . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Suspect in fatal shooting of rapper Nipsey Hussle captured in California, authorities say The Washington Post, April 2, 2019] ^ Fekadu, Mesfin; Dalton, Andrew (March 31, 2019). "Officials say rapper Nipsey Hussle shot and killed at 33". The Washington Post . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle's parents speak out and Lauren London vows to 'always represent for my king ' ". USA TODAY . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ Acevedo, Kai. "Nipsey Hussle's Sister Breaks Her Silence After Rapper's Death - XXL". XXL Mag . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle's Brother Was at His Side During Final Moments". Celebrity . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ Reid, Shaheem; Dukes, Rahman (October 19, 2009). "Nipsey Hussle Drops One More Mixtape Before Debut Album". Mixtape Daily. MTV News . Retrieved January 27, 2010 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Releases 'Crenshaw' Mixtape". Xxlmag.com. October 8, 2013 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Memorial Held At Hamilton High School" . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ Third Degree Burns Tv ð¬ (April 4, 2019). "2009 Nipsey" . Retrieved April 10, 2019 '' via YouTube. ^ "Interview: Nipsey Hussle Talks African Roots, Snoop Dogg Co-Sign, and Rappers Reppin' Gangs". Complex. March 31, 2010 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ djvlad (January 1, 2014). "Nipsey Hussle Details Decision to Join Rollin' 60s Crips" . Retrieved April 10, 2019 '' via YouTube. ^ Landrum, Jonathan; Dalton, Andrew (April 2, 2019). "Police Release Suspect Info in Nipsey Hussle Slaying". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ Houston, Naheem. "Nipsey Hussle Talks What His Real Name Means, Roots In Africa, New Album & More [VIDEO]". thebeatdfw.com. Interactive One, LLC . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ Jennings, Angel. "Nipsey Hussle had a vision for South L.A. It all started with a trip to Eritrea". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2019-04-08 . ^ Jennings, Angel; Kelley, Sonaiya (April 2, 2019). "Before his death in South L.A., Nipsey Hussle was trying to buy back his 'hood". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ Tchekmedyian, Laura Newberry, Richard Winton, Alene (April 1, 2019). "Nipsey Hussle gunned down in a South L.A. he helped build up. 'It's a sad day in L.A. ' ". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ "Slauson Boy, Vol.1 - Nipsey Hussle - Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ Next Out The West '' Nipsey Hussle Interview", Written by Diamond Bradley, Parl(C) Mag, Monday, February 1, 2010 ^ // Nipsey Hussle Interview (June 2008) // West Coast News Network. Dubcnn.com. Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ XXL Magazine September 2009 Issue ^ a b Frank, Allegra (April 2, 2019). "Rapper Nipsey Hussle's death put an inspiring life in the spotlight". Vox . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ "Bullets Ain't Got No Names Vol.1". HotNewHipHop . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ // Nipsey Hussle In Store at Regal Tenant. Dubcnn.com. Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ >> Snoop Dogg Reveals Tracklisting & Credits For Upcoming Malice N Wonderland Album. BallerStatus.com. Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ Nyren, Erin; Aswad, Jem (April 1, 2019). "Rapper Nipsey Hussle Dies After Shooting Outside L.A. Store". Variety . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Trent, Clark (April 1, 2019). "Snoop Dogg Hits Studio With Just Blaze & Nipsey Hussle For New Album". HipHopDX . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle - hussle in the house". HotNewHipHop . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ >> Nipsey Hussle, The Making of "We Are the World 2010". XXLmag.com (February 4, 2010). Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ >> XXcLusive: XXL's 10 Freshmen for '10 Cover Revealed Archived October 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. XXLmag.com (March 1, 2010). Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ Nipsey Hussle, Most Determined. Xxlmag.Com. Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ a b Tinsley, Justin (October 7, 2013). "It's Crunch Time For Nipsey Hussle". Blogs.laweekly.com . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ Reid, Shaheem (June 24, 2010). "Nipsey Hussle Reps L.A. New Class As 'Hottest Breakthrough MCs Of 2010' Candidate". MTV.com . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Wake N' Watch: Nipsey Hussle f/ Lloyd "Feelin' Myself" Music Video". Complex. August 31, 2010 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Talks Leaving Epic". Rapfix.mtv.com. December 23, 2010 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ Blanco, Alvin (April 16, 2011). "Nipsey Hussle Ready To 'Bounce Back Harder' With The Marathon". MTV.com . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "New Mixtape: Nipsey Hussle 'The Marathon ' ". Vibe. December 21, 2010 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ DamnAnthony (November 1, 2011). "New Mixtape: Nipsey Hussle 'The Marathon Continues ' ". Vibe . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Emmeline, Kim (June 28, 2013). "Nipsey Hussle & Blanco "Raw" Cover Art, Download & Album Stream". HipHopDx. Sharath Cherian . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hu$$le ft. Rick Ross '' Proud of That | Listen". Djbooth.net. May 7, 2012 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Recalls Recording "Fountain of Youth" for MMG Self Made 2". Xxlmag.com. August 10, 2012 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ Andy Bustard (October 1, 2012). "Stalley: 'Fountain of Youth' F. Rick Ross & Nipsey Hussle (Video) | Prefix". Prefixmag.com . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle and Warner Bros. Confirm Deal Without Confirming Deal". Xxlmag.com. December 6, 2012 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Pushes Back "TM3: Victory Lap" Mixtape". HotNewHipHop . Retrieved December 24, 2012 . ^ Harling, Danielle (February 7, 2013). "YG To Release Joint Mixtape With Nipsey Hussle Titled "Two Of America's Most Wanted" | Get The Latest Hip Hop News, Rap News & Hip Hop Album Sales". HipHop DX . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "2013 Paid Dues Lineup Revealed". Complex. January 24, 2013 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ Angel Diaz. "Interview: Nipsey Hussle Explains His Dispute with Complex, Going Indie, and "Crenshaw " ". Complex. ^ "Talking To Nipsey Hussle & 9th Wonder On "Face The World" & "TM3 " ". Hotnewhiphop.com . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Confirms "Victory Lap" As Album, Drops "Change Nothing" Record " ". Dubcnn.com . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Twitter / NipseyHussle: It ain't a tape no more it's". Twitter.com . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Playlist: Nipsey Hussle, Chief Keef, Kid Ink, Casey Veggies". Vibe. August 6, 2013 . Retrieved August 25, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Announces First Gangsta Grillz Mixtape". Xxlmag.com. September 16, 2013 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Takes You On A Ride Through His Hood, Reveals 'Crenshaw' Track List". Xxlmag.com. September 24, 2013 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Twitter / NipseyHussle: 5 days #CRENSHAW Free on". Twitter.com . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle '' Crenshaw (Mixtape Trailer)". 2dopeboyz. October 3, 2013 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Reportedly Makes $100,000 In One Night By Charging $100 For New Mixtape". Xxlmag.com. October 8, 2013 . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Explains How "Crenshaw" Came Together, Why He's Dropping It Before "Victory Lap " ". Hotnewhiphop.com . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Explains The 'Psychology' Behind Crenshaw '' RapFix Live". MTV. ^ "Nipsey Hussle Thinks Major Labels Don't Respect Talent". XXL Mag. ^ Boffard, Rob (January 20, 2015). "Meet Nipsey Hussle, the rapper who wants you to pay $1,000 for his album" . Retrieved April 10, 2019 '' via www.theguardian.com. ^ Walker, Angust (November 14, 2016). "Nipsey Hussle prepares Famous Lies and Unpopular Truth". Hotnewhiphop . Retrieved November 15, 2016 . ^ "'The Brave and Strong Survive, Child'" by Hua Hsu, The New Yorker, November 11, 2016 ^ "YG & Nipsey Hussle Discuss Their Anti-Donald Trump Track 'FDT' & Why 'Trump Is Not the Answer ' ". Billboard. April 1, 2016 . Retrieved November 16, 2016 . ^ Yeung, Neil Z. "Victory Lap - Nipsey Hussle | Release Info". AllMusic . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ a b "Nipsey Hu$$le Chart History". Billboard . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ "Karen Civil & Steve 'Steve-O' Carless Talk Consulting Firm Marathon Agency's 'Out-of-the-Box' Strategy". Billboard. October 28, 2018 . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Explains His Marathon Clothing 'Smart' Store on Crenshaw: 'The Goal Is to Be an Urban Sanrio ' ". Billboard. June 22, 2017 . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ >> Nipsey Hussle Speaks on Role in New Ving Rhames Movie. XXLmag.com (July 14, 2009). Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ Paine, Jake. (June 18, 2009) Ving Rhames Talks New Film, Nipsey Hussle,Gilly Da Kid aka GDK HipHopDX. Retrieved on 2011-09-16. ^ a b c Schomer, Stephanie (October 13, 2015). " ' Crazy Ex-Girlfriend' series premiere recap: Making the move to Crazy Town". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Kelly, Emma (April 1, 2019). "Nipsey Hussle's hilarious Crazy Ex-Girlfriend cameo remembered as rapper dies". Metro . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Twitter / NipseyHussle: Fresh outta c.on my way". Twitter.com . Retrieved October 14, 2013 . ^ "NIP HUSSLE THE GREAT on Twitter". Twitter. ^ "Lauren London Had a Low-Key Baby and People Are Confused". VH1 . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Jennings, Angel (April 5, 2019). "Nipsey Hussle 'was a protector.' His parents and girlfriend Lauren London speak out". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ Paul, Bryson (April 2, 2019). "OC Hip-Hop Community Mourns the Loss of Nipsey Hussle". OC Weekly . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . } ^ Real, Jose A. Del; Arango, Tim; Medina, Jennifer (April 11, 2019). "At Nipsey Hussle's Memorial, Los Angeles Comes Together to Mourn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved April 11, 2019 . ^ "Rapper Nipsey Hussle killed in South L.A. shooting; 2 others wounded". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Rapper Nipsey Hussle killed in shooting outside his L.A. store". NBC. March 31, 2019. ^ CNN, Christina Maxouris, Hollie Silverman and Sara Sidner. "Rapper Nipsey Hussle dead after a shooting near Los Angeles clothing store he is associated with". CNN . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ reports, From NBA Twitter and media. "NBA players mourn death of rapper Nipsey Hussle". NBA.com . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Nast, Cond(C). "Rihanna, Drake, Chance the Rapper, More Remember Nipsey Hussle". Pitchfork . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Paul, Bryson "Boom" (April 1, 2019). "R.I.P. Nipsey Hussle". L.A. Weekly . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ "Suspect identified in Nipsey Hussle's death". CNN . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ Ahmed, Shahan. "Suspect in Killing of Rapper Nipsey Hussle Identified". NBC Southern California . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ Blankstein, rew; Cisneros, Esmeralda; Ahmed, Shahan. "Rapper Nipsey Hussle Killed in Deadly Shooting". NBC Southern California . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Newberry, Richard Winton, Laura. "Deadly shooting of rapper Nipsey Hussle in South L.A. likely gang-related, source says". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Dillon, Nancy. "Nipsey Hussle shooting captured by surveillance video". nydailynews.com . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ "Police reportedly think rapper Nipsey Hussle knew his killer". theweek.com. April 1, 2019 . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ Puente, Richard Winton, Mark. "Nipsey Hussle likely knew his killer; police believe motive was personal, sources say". latimes.com . Retrieved April 2, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle suspect held in solitary confinement; Lauren London 'lost' without rapper". USA TODAY . Retrieved April 5, 2019 . ^ Griffith, Janelle (April 1, 2019). "Nipsey Hussle's planned meeting with L.A. police on gang violence to go on in his honor". NBC News . Retrieved April 3, 2019 . ^ Cosgrove, Jaclyn (April 9, 2019). "Crenshaw and Slauson intersection to be named in honor of Nipsey Hussle". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 10, 2019 . ^ Winton, Richard (April 10, 2019). "Nipsey Hussle memorial: LAPD and Nation of Islam will provide security". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2019-04-11 . ^ Murphy, Desiree; Bueno, Antoinette (April 11, 2019). "Nipsey Hussle Celebration of Life Memorial Service: Live Updates". Entertainment Tonight . Retrieved April 11, 2019 . ^ Trammell, Kendall (April 11, 2019). "Read Barack Obama's touching tribute to Nipsey Hussle". CNN . Retrieved 2019-04-12 . ^ "The Marathon". HotNewHipHop . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle - The Marathon Continues". HotNewHipHop . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ "Nipsey Hussle Explains The $100 Price Tag On The Crenshaw Mixtape". Okayplayer. October 17, 2013 . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ Boffard, Rob (January 20, 2015). "Meet Nipsey Hussle, the rapper who wants you to pay $1,000 for his album". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . ^ a b Ramos, Dino-Ray (March 31, 2019). "Rapper Nipsey Hussle Killed In South Los Angeles Shooting". Deadline . Retrieved April 1, 2019 . External links Media related to Nipsey Hussle at Wikimedia Commons
IMF approves $4.2bn loan for Ecuador | eNCA
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 13:09
WASHINGTON - The International Monetary Fund on Monday approved a $4.2-billion, three-year loan for Ecuador, part of a broader aid package to help support the government's economic reform program.
The Washington-based lender agreed to the terms of the financing late last month, and the final approval of the IMF board on Monday releases the first installment of $652-million.
READ: IMF won't bail out South Africa: Lagarde
IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde said the aid will support the government's efforts to shore up its finances, including a wage "realignment," gradual lowering of fuel subsidies, and reduction of public debt.
"The savings generated by these measures will allow for an increase in social assistance spending over the course of the program," Lagarde said in a statement, stressing that "Protecting the poor and most vulnerable segments in society is a key objective" of the program.
Quito is expected to receive another $6-billion from the Development Bank of Latin America, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank and the Latin American Reserve Fund.
WATCH: IMF's Lagarde says state capture inquiry good for SA
"The Ecuadoran authorities are implementing a comprehensive reform program aimed at modernizing the economy and paving the way for strong, sustained, and equitable growth," Lagarde said.
IMF performs periodic reviews of its loans to ensure governments are following through on its policy pledge and then releases funds in installments.
Israel's attempted Moon landing fails moments before touchdown - The Verge
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 11:37
A tiny robotic lander from Israel attempted to touch down on the Moon this afternoon, but it ultimately failed to stick the landing during its final descent to the surface. As it was firing its main engine to land on the ground, some kind of failure occurred, causing the engine to shut down. The mission team got the engine back online, but could not regain communication with the spacecraft, which means the lander likely crashed into the surface.
''We had a failure in the spacecraft,'' Opher Doron, head of Israel Aerospace Industry's space division, said during a live stream of the landing. ''We unfortunately have not managed to land successfully. We are the seventh country to orbit the Moon, and the fourth to reach the Moon's surface. It's a tremendous achievement up until now.''
''Well, we didn't make it, but we definitely tried.''
The vehicle that attempted the landing was called Beresheet, and it was the product of an Israeli group called SpaceIL. The organization had originally started developing the lander as part of the now-dead Google Lunar X Prize competition, a contest to send the first private vehicle to the Moon. The competition ultimately ended without a winner when none of the teams launched before the final deadline of March 31st, 2018. But SpaceIL pushed on with its mission, and it was able to launch Beresheet on top of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket this year.
Up until now, the mission had been proceeding smoothly. The Falcon 9 rocket deployed Beresheet into a wide orbit around Earth on February 21st, and the lander spent the last two months traveling out to the distance of the Moon. Then, last week, Beresheet entered lunar orbit in preparation for today's event. At around 3:10PM ET today, Beresheet reoriented itself and fired its main engine to start the landing process.
''We've passed the point of no return.''
''We've passed the point of no return; we're in the landing process,'' Doron said when the landing began. The firing slowed the vehicle down and took it out of orbit. All seemed fine at first. As it descended to the surface, Beresheet even sent a picture of the sequence back to Earth '-- a selfie with Israel's flag. It also sent back one final picture of the lunar surface before things turned south.
The engine firing was supposed to decrease the lander's speed from 3,700 miles per hour (6,000 kilometers per hour) to zero. But when the spacecraft was about 4 miles (7 kilometers) from the surface, Beresheet's engine inexplicably stopped firing. The mission team was able to reset the engine, but they lost communication with the spacecraft. The likeliest scenario is that the spacecraft came in too fast and created a new crater on the surface of the Moon.
If the landing had been successful, SpaceIL would have been the first to land a privately funded lander on the Moon's surface. Up until now, only three countries have ever landed on the Moon '-- the US, Russia, and China '-- and all of those vehicles were overseen and funded by governments. SpaceIL claims that it took $90 million to develop Beresheet, and only about $2 million of that budget came from the Israeli government. The rest of the project was mostly funded by two big investors: a South Africa-born Israeli entrepreneur named Morris Kahn and the Adelson Family Foundation, a charity based in Los Angeles that supports Israel.
But now, the title of ''first private lunar lander'' is still unclaimed, though SpaceIL says it is proud of how far it got. ''Well, we didn't make it, but we definitely tried,'' Kahn said during the live stream. ''And I think that the achievement of getting to where we got is really tremendous. I think we can be proud.''
''If at first you don't succeed, you try again.''
However, SpaceIL already insinuated that it might try to do another lunar landing in the future. ''If at first you don't succeed, you try again,'' Benjamin Netanyahu, the prime minister of Israel, said during the live stream. ''We will try again,'' he then said in Hebrew.
SpaceIL was also set to receive a bonus $1 million prize from the X Prize Foundation if it had successfully stuck the landing. However, heads of the foundation said they will still give the money to the nonprofit. ''They managed to touch the surface of the Moon, and that's what we were looking for in our 'Moonshot' award,'' Anousheh Ansari, the CEO of the X Prize Foundation, said in a tweeted video.
Though today's landing wasn't a success, there are still more private groups aiming to touch down on the Moon in the years ahead, many of which competed in the original Google Lunar X Prize competition. One startup, Astrobotic, hopes to set up a lunar delivery service, by transporting payloads to the Moon's surface. The company has already booked a launch for its first mission and it hopes to fly in early 2021. Japanese company ispace is also planning to send vehicles to the Moon in 2020 and 2021. The startup's ultimate goal is to mine the Moon for resources and set up a thriving settlement on the lunar surface.
''Many of these teams continue to develop their technologies,'' Ansari tells The Verge. ''It's not just about winning the prize. Maybe they started to win the prize but they continue for a lot more.''
Why Pop Culture Is Starting To Feel More Mysterious Than Ever
Fri, 12 Apr 2019 01:40
There was a time pop culture was more easily interpreted as something of a statement on the national mood, because the existence of fewer choices meant creators had to appeal to broader audiences. Of course there's probably always been some measure of a disconnect between Hollywood and the Heartland, but at least in the past we had widely shared media experiences beyond the Super Bowl, meaning it was easier to know what people were watching and how it was affecting us.
This seems to be playing out in late-night television, where hosts are carving out sizable cultural niches that wouldn't have drawn enough eyeballs in the days where viewership was measured in the double-digits, but works well enough now that audiences are splintered. I think it's also true in music, where album sales mean less, listeners are trading radio for streaming services, and artists build huge followings on social media.
''Old Town Road'' is the top song in the country right now; Billie Eilish has the top album. We still have decent metrics for measuring the popularity of music, but the waning importance of radio means listeners can scatter, and the gatekeepers have less control.
Does Eilish, for instance, enjoy the same level of celebrity someone of equal accomplishment would have had 15 years ago? I don't know. There are Soundcloud stars, Instagram stars, YouTube stars, Twitter stars, TikTok stars. Some artists, like Eilish and Lil Nas X, transition from success on a platform like Soundcloud to broader reach. But like Vine, TikTok has its own celebrities. So do YouTube and Instagram. We'll always have George Clooneys and Lady Gagas, but it almost feels like we might be lurching towards a future with fewer superstars and more stars.
We can still read the market a little more clearly in music, and on social media, but the enigma of streaming services illustrates these challenges well. The problem is this: At a time when we're both more able and more willing to concentrate in niches, we also have fewer metrics to understand what's actually happening in our culture.
Even Netflix's self-reported numbers on ''Birdbox'' didn't really tell us all that much without means of comparison, which is what makes television ratings worthwhile for culture critics as well as advertisers. In his recent review of ''Santa Clarita Diet,'' Daniel Fienberg of The Hollywood Reporter reflected helpfully on this dynamic:
One of the amusements of Netflix's mystery-driven algorithm is never quite being able to predict what below-the-radar offering is about to become a cultural touchstone '-- be it the latest star-free rom-com or tawdry true-crime documentary or Israeli domestic melodrama '-- and what A-list-driven, heavily promoted original is about to become culturally invisible.
I don't know that Santa Clarita Diet is completely culturally invisible. I'm certain, or certainly hopeful, that it has a dedicated audience. It's plausible that Santa Clarita Diet is actually a huge hit, because who would ever know with Netflix? I do know that the third Santa Clarita Diet season premiered this week and reviews are sparse (but also enthusiastic, which is what happens when a show reaches a point at which only the critics who like it are bothering to review). I also know that the 'Awards' page on the IMDb page for Santa Clarita Diet is limited to a lone nomination (though all praise to the WGA for recognizing series creator Victor Fresco's hilarious second season finale).
''Maybe Santa Clarita Diet is one of Netflix's stealth hits? '... Santa Clarita Diet isn't a stealth show,'' Fienberg wrote. ''It isn't some quirky, auteur-driven indie meant to be cherished by a tiny, elitist audience of critics like me. Though sometimes even shows in that niche can become invisible.''
We have absolutely no idea. People could be watching ''Santa Clarita Diet'' in similar numbers to something like ''It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia,'' or they could be completely ignoring it. The same goes for every show on Amazon, Hulu, and Netflix. We can see what people are chattering about on social media (hardly a representative sample), and where the companies are putting their money. But that's it. Not only do true ''cultural touchstones'' seem to be fewer and farther in between in the streaming era, we also have fewer tools to determine what they actually are.
Of course, we still have ratings and box office sales and follower counts and charts that tell us what's working. For now, at least. The democratization of media also has plenty of advantages. Rather than sitting through gentle political stylings of Jay Leno, liberal viewers can turn to Stephen Colbert, or Hasan Minhaj, or Samantha Bee, or Trevor Noah or even a podcast. Jimmy Fallon offers something different as well.
Conservative viewers with little interest in liberal comedy can catch up on ''Last Man Standing.'' Quirky shows that may have suffered the ''Arrested Development'' fate 15 years ago can build niches that make them worth investing in for streaming platforms.
But it also means there's more incentive for the creators of pop culture to carve us up by our differences rather than find ways to bring us together. It means we're sharing fewer cultural experiences beyond the process of logging onto Netflix or Spotify, after which the home screen is already customized. On top of all this, it means we're more and more in the dark about what's entertaining us, and why that matters. What does cultural impact look like in an era of proliferating niches, where the metrics are murky?
Copyright (C) 2019 The Federalist, a wholly independent division of FDRLST Media, All Rights Reserved.