Cover for No Agenda Show 1553: Ample Bosom
May 7th, 2023 • 3h 3m

1553: Ample Bosom


Every new episode of No Agenda is accompanied by a comprehensive list of shownotes curated by Adam while preparing for the show. Clips played by the hosts during the show can also be found here.

Another 20 month old who doesn't like screens BOTG
We did exactly the same thing that producer did with screens. Our son has no interest. Even when the tv is on for sports, he watches for a few mins then moves on.
Funny thing happened at a family party. My cousin was trying to get my son to play with a drawing app on his phone. I didn't interject because I wanted to see what my son did. He kept ignoring my cousin after 5 minutes of badgering him, gave a small cry and ran away from him to go play with the screen door (he had discovered how it works. Likes to take things apart)
My wife and i are planning to do the same thing with our daughter. I truly believe screens are impairing kids brain development. Their brains don't have to work when they're watching YouTube. Meanwhile, my son tries to figure out how everything works in the house. He helps put dishes away. And even knows how to feed our German shepherd (with some help of course).
He does notice that we're on the phone and we rely on it. One time i left the living room, my son ran after me to hand me my phone. So I'll be interested to hear your review on these minimalist phones so i can finally disconnect from this dopamine dumping bullcrap.
Thanks again for all you do
Buttegieg's connection to Mao and Marx
Karl Marx, father of Marxism, wrote about his evil ideas but never got see them implemented.
Antonio Gramsci, father of Cultural Marxism, wrote his Prison Notes while imprisoned by Mussolini. He too never get to see his ideas in action.
Mao Zedong, put both in practice. He carried out a bloody Marxist revolution to overthrow the Nationalist govt & establish his Communist regime. He then carried out a Cultural Rev. to destroy all traditional Chinese culture & institutions to replace them with his own Maoism.
Mao’s Cultural Rev is today’s Woke in America!
Look who introduced Gramsci to America?
Joseph Buttigieg, father of Pete Buttigieg!
Dudes named Ben not Helping Bud Lite
There are other consequences. I'm a network engineer at XXXand do support for XXX... got one of their tickets for a major outage... sent them chasing their tails.
Mark Rutte BOTG
Mark Rutte is the grandson of NSB collaborater Klaas Dilling. Klaas remodelled Holland together with the banks and Heidemij (which is now called Arcadis) by creating big farming with loans, Mark is using this leverage in the opposite way to chase out the farmers. No coincidence there.
MH17 was shot down in cooperation with the dutch government knowing this "war" on Ukraine was going to happen.
Its all arranged.
Classical — Veritas Preparatory School
Hi Adam!!
Thank you for covering the problems of our children being exposed to technology. We had always thought it was important that the private, Christian school we chose have computer integration in the classroom. God kept pointing us to a “classical” school which keeps technology at a minimum. I was hesitant, but you said something last month about kids not needing it and that may be the problem with the youth. It resonated with me and made me question why I thought this was so important for my kid to have in school.
In the open house, the headmaster had his grandfather’s schoolbook from a one room school house in Appalachia. He pulled out a 3rd grade grammar question that stumped the whole room. He also had a quote from C.S. Lewis about the dumbing down of man through public education. I knew I was in the right place.
He got accepted and we are so excited for our child to be taught in the old, traditional manner like our forefathers received.
Here is a link that explains classical education in case you want to do a deep dive. I thought listeners of NA may be looking for a technology-free alternative and to look for a classical school in their area.
Classical — Veritas Preparatory School
Ashley Wright
Gitmo Denmark: cancel culture Uncle Shrimp BOTG
Hey Adam,
So there's this guy on kids tv, Mads (Mes) Geertsen, character name Onkel Reje (Uncle Shrimp). This program has been on for ages. Remember watching it with my son when he was 3-4, so at least 10 years.
Kids humour is not very sophisticated. Neither is Danish humour to be honest: it's very tame and unsophisticated, apart from them loving word jokes and cultural references, which you only really get when you're a nativd speaker or have a command of the language and culture close to it.
It's not controversial stuff... I mean, the guy sings songs about farts and poop and stuff... And then in a parody of heavy metal he asked a crowd of kids whether they were ready to become satanists.
Seems some conservatives and Christians especially have taken issue with some things in it, and now the QAnon (allegedly) crowd in DK, with international support, have jumped on it as well. After the threats and other things, he has now reported in ill and for the time being live shows and new recordings are on hold.
Essentially, it seems a projection of American issues onto a Danish cultural icon
Kara and the Weimar Republic BOTG
Dear Adam:
I don't know if this is really show material as it definitely crosses into very sensitive territory, but I thought you might find it interesting. I could be giving Ms. Swisher to much credit, but it is possible she is more aware of the trans-maoist history related to the Weimar Republic than you might imagine.
Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute of Sexology was front and center for transgenderism at the beginning of it all in Berlin during Weimar. The craziest stories of depravity surrounding this establishment are not on the Wiki so who knows (Brothel for children, trans and etc.).It definitely led to their persecution. One of the first Nazi book burnings was the personal library of Hirschfeld.
Anyhow thanks for all you do.
Sustaining donor,
P.S. The 2nd published English use of the word 'racism' might also be attributed to Hirschfeld. Fun facts.
Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 – 14 May 1935) was a German physician and sexologist.
Hirschfeld was educated in philosophy, philology and medicine. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and World League for Sexual Reform. He based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg during the Weimar period. Historian Dustin Goltz characterized the committee as having carried out "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights".[2] He is regarded as one of the most influential sexologists of the twentieth century.[3]
Hirschfeld was targeted by Nazis for being Jewish and gay; he was beaten by völkisch activists in 1920, and in 1933 his Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was sacked and had its books burned by Nazis. He was forced into exile in France, where he died in 1935.[4]
My homeschooled daughter was convinced she hated her body and was a boy at 12 in 2020 BOTG
Thanks for covering the trans-maoist movement. My family was affected in 2020.
Our first signal was our daughter (12 at the time) saying she wanted to be a boy and use he/him pronouns on a Minecraft Homeschool server she had been on for several years and the midwest, faith-based principal giving me a call. My wife and I spoke to my daughter and she denied it was anything. We dismissed it as role playing which happened often on this server.
Several weeks later I was looking though the logs on our personal Minecraft server and found a king_erik user that logged in. I was asking my son if he invited them or do I need to implement a whitelist. My daughter ran up and said it was her. My wife looked through her electronics and found out she was talking with a group of San Diego kids on (a visual programming site for kids) that spun off from the Minecraft Homeschool server and they were encouraging her to not tell us and parents don’t understand. We cut off her electronics for summer and told her to never talk to that group again. I told her I loved her either way but it was too soon for her to know who she would fall in love with as she was just starting puberty.
Today she falls into tears when it is rarely comes up and says she wanted to believe it since she was getting so much attention and support from this group. She recently learned to sew and is making anime style dresses for herself and getting phone numbers from boys at homeschool dances so I'm hopeful she will find her true self.
No Agenda Show is nailing it per usual, thanks for your courage.
Word Usage: Children vs Kids BOTG
ITM, Adam.
Brief note to mentally bookmark for future side discussions & comments on NA:
"Kids" is slang for "children". Wouldn't you like to see this slang disappear? Here's why you probably should. There's a subliminal aspect to the slang that is a form of suggestive hypnosis-- that dehumanizes people. In any given dictionary the #1 definition of "kid" used to mean "a young goat". Now the #1 definition is "a child or young person".
When raising my children I took my g'ma's advice and referred to my son & daughter as "children" in conversations with people who call theirs "kids". It organically elevated and humanized the status of my son and daughter by way of natural comparison (read: Your offspring are goats, and mine are human). Not once did anyone comment on that. Not once! And my children are now 30 and 25.
I'd like to see a movement in broadcasting (and beyond) where people start humanizing children again. Young people are not goats. I know sociopaths, pedophiles, politicians, and the ghouls would love this to be the case, but young people are, in fact, children. They are human. And they are our future.
Mention this to JCD and see what he thinks?
Great Reset
LightPhone Review
Toilet Scroller
Pig Butchering text message scam - fake crypto exchange - years of work
Big Tech
AI is the new Blockchain
Google engineer, 31, jumps to his death from the 14th floor tech company's NYC headquarters | Daily Mail Online
Ukraine vs Russia
Ukraine vs Russia can still be a Wag The Dog War
Information Regarding the Ukraine War Endgame BOTG
Andrew from California
ITM Adam and John!
After listening to you two debate on weather the Ukraine War will end with a payout or escalation, I realized that I have information that may be of relevance.
In short, Congress is planting seeds to mobilize recently graduated military aged individuals into boots on the ground operations.
Context: The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) is a high school program designed to inform up and coming human resources about all the reasons why they should assimilate into the M.I.C. They familiarize students with the practice of military drill and general knowledge and the promise of entering their respective branch as an E-2 instead of E-1 if they choose to enlist. Instructors of such programs may also be more familiar with roots to commissioning as an officer and military career planning
I came to this conclusion after hearing from my old Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps Instructor about a concerning restructuring happening within the program across all branches. These changes took place right after this high profile sexual abuse case in my opinion being used as a distraction as Congress reorganized the program (igniting the 'we needs to do something!' crowd). The program was reorganized (paradoxically) to cut back requirements and boost the amount of units across the country. The main changes that I know about are as follows:
1. Regions being subdivided into smaller districts. The Army and Navy have made explicit aims to increase the number of units in the past and this seems to be part of that effort; bulking up the management apparatus.
2. Lowering of military service requirements to teach from 20 years to 6! Seems odd considering you would want to have more experienced instructors vetted by their extensive service to prevent sexual abuse.
3. Allowing ACTIVE DUTY military personnel to become JROTC instructors. The only reason I could see this being implemented is to allow for the shift of NCOs and officers into recruiting positions in JROTC unit with the aim of sending young Americans into the upcoming escalation that John predicts is ahead of us.
More info about changes can be seen in H.R.7776 - James M. Inhofe National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2023, Sec. 512, Sec 519A
I hope that this is just another pathetic attempt of the Pentagon and Congress trying to make up for their lack luster recruiting quotas and not the beginnings of mobilization. Love to you John and Adam and the rest of Gitmo nation!
Just war theory - Wikipedia
There is also a very famous book by a guy named Walzer called Just and Unjust Wars. It was written after Vietnam and used lots of examples from Vietnam and WW2.
Basically, there is Justice IN war and Justice AT war. So...WW2 was a Just War but dropping a nuke on a civilian city would be Unjust. However, Vietnam was considered an Unjust war that was largely fought justly. Notable exceptions would be things like the My Lei Massacre where an Unjust war was fought unjustly.
It is tied closely to Catholic Just War Doctrine. State Department types and the more wonkish DoD lawyers really get off on this topic. This is a topic of much debate.
More Just War Theory
I think that the prime minister of the Netherlands was referring to just war theory. It is something that history majors have to learn about land I’m sure that government leaders learn about it as well. One of the principles is that for a war to be just you must be fighting a defensive war, that is why they are putting so much emphasis on Russia being the aggressor. Another principle is that there must be a reasonable chance of success, so it would be unjust to get all of your citizens killed fighting off a larger aggressor. That is why the west keeps saying that we will be with Ukraine all of the way, its their only way of having a reasonable chance of success. There are multiple other principles of just war theory, if you look into just war theory it will explain some of the language that they use.
Just war theory, and war of aggression BOTG
I figure that others have written, but I wanted to share a few thoughts:
(1) in international law, the supreme crime is a "War of aggression" - that is, an unprovoked attack. Such was the primary charge against heads of Germany and Japan after WWII. Ironically, the U.S. attacked Japan first (via the embargo).
So, in U.S. State Dept. circles, the main talking point is "Russia bad, because Russia 2022 = Germany 1939; aggressor."
(2) Just War Theory is an idea from Christianity. The central question is "what would Jesus do", given that whole "turn the other cheek" line. So over the years, Christian/Catholic theology had to explain when and where passivism was NOT required. Hence the idea of "Just War"; when it is Okay to fight. The answer is, "when it is in self-defense."
(1) Nice discussion and guide of the legal principles and even a few court cases detailing ideas about wars of aggression,imposed%20by%20the%20international%20community.
(2) Wikipedia reference - not bad, hitting up the key names of theorists and event where legal claims were made.
(3) another Wikipedia page, noting significant treaties whereby states "promised" not to engage in wars of aggression.
Judicial deference and the future of regulation
Sun, 07 May 2023 22:02
Will Chevron deference'--where courts defer to reasonable agency interpretations of ambiguous statutes'--make it to its fortieth birthday in 2024? Commentators predicted the framework might fall in the Supreme Court's recently concluded term, some cheering and others fearing such an outcome. But the Court remained quiet on the case, as it has done repeatedly in recent years. This silence could be temporary, however, as the Court may soon decide to hear some cases that tee up the issue.
Agencies look like they are meeting this silence with silence (or a very soft voice about deference) and presumably will continue to do so. If agencies can't frame regulatory decisions as compelled by their statutes, they will presumably try to sell them as the best interpretation of the congressional instructions they were given. Agencies are not foolish; they will not tie their decisions' viability to a case the Court is no longer eager to embrace.
In this note, we discuss two big statutory interpretation cases from the past term where the Court could have relied on or rejected Chevron, examining how they fit into recent Court patterns in this area. We then turn to the potential implications for agency regulation by exploring agency practices through Brookings's Regulatory Tracker.
Hospital Reimbursement Rates at the CourtTwo Supreme Court cases this past term, American Hospital Association (AHA) v. Becerra and Becerra v. Empire Health Foundation, challenged whether the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) overstepped when promulgating rules that altered how it calculates reimbursement rates for certain hospitals. Technical? Yes, but given the current conservative makeup of the Supreme Court, many speculated that the Court could use one of these cases to overrule Chevron deference, as lower courts had relied on the case in reviewing the rules.1 Instead, Chevron was conspicuously absent from both rulings.
In AHA, the Court considered whether HHS has the authority to alter reimbursement rates for outpatient drugs covered under Medicare Part B for certain hospitals. Some hospitals participate in a government program that allows them to acquire these drugs directly from manufacturers, reducing the cost of these drugs by 20-50 percent. HHS reasoned that these hospitals should be reimbursed at a lesser rate.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 stipulated that HHS may set reimbursement rates for these hospitals in one of two ways: It may reimburse at the average sales price of the drug, or it may ''calculate and adjust'' the rate for each hospital by using survey data collected by the agency. From 2006 to 2017, HHS used the former method. In 2017, however, HHS reduced reimbursement rates for hospitals participating in the government program to 77.5 percent of the average sales price on the assumption that they had acquired the drug at reduced cost.
AHA sued HHS, and the Supreme Court, in a unanimous opinion written by Justice Kavanaugh, sided with the Association, reversing the decision of the D.C. Circuit. The Supreme Court stated that HHS lacked the underlying survey data that is required by the 2003 law to adjust the rate downward, stating that ''when enacting [the Medicare Modernization Act] in 2003, Congress was well aware that [certain] hospitals paid less for covered prescription drugs. '... Congress nonetheless did not see fit to differentiate [these] hospitals when requiring that reimbursement rates be uniform'' if the agency does not conduct a survey. In the Court's reading of the statute, there was no textual ambiguity, and apparently that meant there was no need to even enter into Chevron's analysis.
In Empire Health Foundation, the Court looked at whether HHS legally changed the method by which it reimburses hospitals serving a high proportion of low-income patients for Medicare Part A (inpatient care). Because hospitals with a higher proportion of low-income patients generally have higher expenses, HHS reimburses them with additional funds if they meet a certain threshold. One metric that helps determine the reimbursement rate is based on the proportion of those ''entitled'' to Medicare in the hospital who are also low-income.
In 2004, HHS enacted a rule that clarified ''entitled'' to mean all those who are eligible for the program (people over 65 and people with disabilities). The Empire Health Foundation sued, claiming that ''entitled'' should apply only to patients entitled to Medicare payment for their care in the hospital, which would not include those who may fit the eligibility criteria for Medicare but are not getting compensated by Medicare for their stay in the hospital. Because of its calculation of the ''Medicare fraction,'' HHS's rule generally, though not always, reduced the reimbursement funds paid to hospitals with low-income patients.
No direct reference to Chevron appeared in either opinion'--not even to describe rulings in the lower courts.
In a 5-4 decision authored by Justice Kagan, the Supreme Court took HHS's side, reversing the lower court and finding that ''entitled'' in Medicare law at large includes all those who are eligible for the program and that a different definition of the term here would conflict with how it is used elsewhere in the Medicare statute.
No direct reference to Chevron appeared in either opinion'--not even to describe rulings in the lower courts. In AHA, the Court had this to say about the agency's interpretation: ''We must hesitate to adopt an interpretation that would eviscerate such significant aspects of the statutory text. '... In sum, after employing the traditional tools of statutory interpretation, we do not agree with HHS's interpretation of the statute.''
In Empire Health Foundation, the Court acknowledged that the ''ordinary meaning of the fraction descriptions, as is obvious to any ordinary reader, does not exactly leap off the page.'' But it posited that when the statute is read by specialists, ''the fraction descriptions disclose a surprisingly clear meaning'--the one chosen by HHS. The text and context support the agency's reading: HHS has interpreted the words in those provisions to mean just what they mean throughout the Medicare statute,'' and '''entitled to [Part A] benefits' means qualifying for those benefits, and nothing more.'' (The dissent, written by Justice Kavanaugh, concluded: ''In my view, HHS's 2004 interpretation is not the best reading of this statutory reimbursement provision.'')
Where's Waldo (Chevron)?Chevron deference, the fundamental principle established in a landmark 1984 Supreme Court case that upholds reasonable agency interpretations of ambiguous statutes Congress has tasked the agency with implementing, took some time to generate a fanbase. In Professor Thomas Merrill's recounting of Chevron's rise, Department of Justice lawyers, who used the case in defending agency actions, and the D.C. Circuit played critical roles in turning Chevron into a cornerstone of American administrative law. By the 1990s, according to Merrill, the Court was using the framework'--at the first step determining whether Congress has spoken directly to the issue and if not, at the second step, assessing whether the agency's interpretation was permissible'--in more than half of its statutory cases involving agencies.
To be clear, the agency does not always win under Chevron. Critically, courts can find that the statute unambiguously bars the agency's interpretation, without ever considering deference. For instance, a decade after Chevron, in MCI Telecommunications Corp. v. AT&T Co., the Court held that the Section 203 of the Communications Act, which allows the FCC to ''modify any requirement,'' barred the agency from excusing MCI from filing tariffs. In a comprehensive study of court of appeals' decisions that applied Chevron from 2003 to 2013, 30 percent were resolved at the first step. Agencies won only 39 percent of these cases.
After a sixteen-year honeymoon phase, the Court began to limit Chevron's scope significantly in 2000. Though the Court maintained that the framework still applied in many cases of ambiguous statutory language, even with prior court interpretations, the justices largely restricted deference to agencies that had reached their interpretations in more formal proceedings. More recently, the Court also placed regulations that pertain to so-called ''major questions'' of ''vast economic and political significance'' outside of agency reach in the absence of clear congressional commands.
Even with what remains, these days the jeers often seem louder than the cheers. In 2016, House Republicans passed the Separation of Powers Restoration Act, which would bar courts from deferring to agency interpretations (but would allow courts to come to the same interpretation on their own).2 In the same year, then-Judge Gorsuch lambasted Chevron, arguing that it ''permit[s] executive bureaucracies to swallow huge amounts of core judicial and legislative power and concentrate federal power in a way that seems more than a little difficult to square with the Constitution of the framers' design.'' He continues to call for Chevron's demise, along with Justice Thomas, who has called the premise of Chevron deference ''fiction.''
But the Court at large was still committed to Chevron in 2016. In Cuozzo Speed Technologies, LLC v. Lee, the Court deferred to the Patent and Trademark Office's (PTO) interpretation of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act that permitted the agency to issue a binding regulation about its patent review process: ''The upshot is, whether we look at statutory language alone, or that language in context of the statute's purpose, we find an express delegation of rulemaking authority, a 'gap' that rules might fill, and 'ambiguity' in respect to the boundaries of that gap. '... see Chevron.'' In its Step Two analysis, the Court found that the PTO's regulation deserved deference as ''a reasonable exercise of its rulemaking authority.''
Since then, however, the Court has often given Chevron the cold shoulder. The two HHS cases this past term fit well with this hands-off approach. Sometimes, the Court has declined to apply Chevron because the parties didn't ask it to use the deference framework. In HollyFrontier Cheyenne Refining, LLC v. Renewable Fuels Association, for example, the Court ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could give certain small refineries a break from its renewable fuel program's mandates under the relevant statute. The Trump administration's Department of Justice declined to rely on Chevron to defend its interpretation, unlike the Obama administration, and so the Court (in an opinion by Justice Gorsuch) ''decline[d] to consider whether any deference might be due [the agency's] regulation.''
Even when the government has sought Chevron's coverage since Cuozzo Speed Technologies, the Court has often found the statute clear on the disputed issue, for instance, in a case about the ''stop-time rule'' in immigration. This is the first step of Chevron, which has long been used to resolve disputes. But here the framework is being cited. Similarly, in AHA and Empire Health Foundation, the government argued that its interpretation deserved deference under Chevron but claimed it did not need such deference to win.
Most recently, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives asked the D.C. Circuit to uphold its Trump-era rule banning bump stocks as a type of ''machine gun.'' The agency requested that the court ignore Chevron and instead determine if the rule represented the agency's ''best interpretation of the statute'' (even though the rule itself invoked Chevron). Last week, the court ruled in the agency's favor on ''best interpretation'' grounds.
Will Agencies Talk in the Silence?So, given the Supreme Court's increasingly chilly orientation to Chevron, what's an agency to do in issuing rules? Before the Court's silence on the matter, agencies presumably saw Chevron deference as an important tool to use in writing regulations as they almost always won in the lower courts if the court made it to the second step of the framework'--from 2003 to 2013, one study pegged the win rate at nearly 94 percent (for the 70 percent of cases that made it past the first step), looking at cases that applied the case. Now, it appears agencies may be giving Chevron shorter shrift.
Of the 51 major rules and other actions by federal agencies in Biden's term appearing in the Brookings Regulatory Tracker, five invoke Chevron in defending agency action. Of these five, four concern the environment, while one addresses sex discrimination in schools. In addition, one HHS rule reinstating federal funding to Title X abortion clinics cited Chevron in the proposed rule but omitted it in the final rule, which was published in the fall of 2021, at the same time the Supreme Court began its last term. (Because Chevron is omitted from the most recent version of this rule, the rule is not included in our count.)
While the full effects on regulation of Chevron's precarious state are still unknown, agencies will presumably be more skittish in their actions in the future.
A closer look at the language used in Biden-era rules reveals that the way in which Chevron is discussed by agencies may be changing. Take the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Department of the Interior as an example. Early on in the Biden administration, FWS, in a rulemaking, revoked an earlier Trump-era rule that limited protections for migratory birds. When it did so, FWS did not rely on Chevron (so it is not included in the five). Its only mention of the case came when summarizing a comment from the rulemaking process. That comment stated: ''The Service's interpretation of the MBTA [Migratory Bird Treaty Act] is not entitled to Chevron deference'' because Chevron deference is ''unconstitutional.'' Interestingly, FWS addressed this comment in the final rule by avoiding Chevron: ''The Service is revoking the January 7 rule because it does not represent the best interpretation of the [relevant statute], whether the operative statutory language is plain or ambiguous. We do not opine here on the constitutionality of Chevron deference. Any concerns about whether the case giving rise to the concept of Chevron deference was correctly decided are both outside the Service's jurisdiction under the [relevant statute] and, more to the point, not directly relevant to our decision to revoke the [Trump-era] rule.''
Other recent FWS rules have also omitted Chevron, including a 2021 rule redefining the word ''habitat'' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to expand the lands protected by the Act. This silence on Chevron is a far cry from earlier FWS practice. In 2007, during the Bush administration, FWS issued a rule on grizzly bears in Yellowstone under the ESA that explicitly relied on Chevron in defending its action. Specifically, the ESA requires a species to be added to the endangered list if it ''is in danger of extinction throughout a significant portion of its range.'' In its rule, FWS stated, ''where there is ambiguity in a statute, as with the meaning of 'significant,' the agency charged with administering the statute, in this case the Service, has broad discretion to resolve the ambiguity and give meaning to the term.'' The rule went on to quote Chevron directly.
Based on these rules, FWS's stance on Chevron seems to have changed. The agency has moved from relying on Chevron for ''broad discretion'' in defining certain phrases in statutes to claiming it is making the ''best interpretation'' of a statute and refusing to say if Chevron is constitutional. We cannot know for sure if this change is a direct result of Chevron's uncertain future, but FWS's recent reticence on Chevron's constitutionality is wise agency practice given the current Court's likelihood of relying on this ''best interpretation'' reasoning (or ''clear interpretation'' reasoning) rather than Chevron deference in the future.
Of course, FWS is only one data point, but a comparison of how some Biden administration rules have invoked Chevron to how some early Obama administration rules invoked the case point to a similar trend. One Obama-era EPA rule outright stated: ''Our legal basis for this rule is our interpretation of [the statute] under the familiar Chevron two-step framework for interpreting administrative statutes.''3 Another Obama-era EPA rule stipulated that relevant statutory language ''is ambiguous, and EPA may interpret it in any reasonable manner. See Chevron.'' Still other Obama-era rules, including one by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and one by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, also explicitly cited Chevron. All four of these rules were promulgated within the first eighteen months of the Obama administration.
By contrast, four of those five Biden-era rules from the Brookings Regulatory Tracker that invoke Chevron are less explicit. The only rule in the Brookings tracker that relies meaningfully on Chevron deference is a proposed rule expanding which waters are considered ''waters of the United States'' and therefore protected under the Clean Water Act. Chevron may play a bigger role here because the rule overturns a Trump-era rule that also cited Chevron deference.
The other four Biden administration rules are quieter about the case. In a rule setting corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for model year 2024-2026 vehicles, the Department of Transportation cites Chevron to partly explain why the agency is reconsidering standards previously promulgated, but it buries the case in the ''other considerations'' section of its rule. Another CAFE standards rule as well as EPA's rule phasing down hydrofluorocarbons each only mention Chevron in extended responses to comments in the final rule, with no mention of Chevron in the initial proposed versions of these two rules.
The final Biden rule to mention Chevron is the Department of Education's proposed rule expanding Title IX protections covering sex discrimination in schools. In this proposed rule, the Department cites Chevron to explain the inclusion of pregnant women as a protected group'--a narrow part of the broader rule included under the ''other relevant statutes'' section. In all four of these rules, Chevron is hidden in the text, mentioned almost as an afterthought.
While our analysis of the language deployed by relevant rules is not comprehensive, it does suggest that agencies could be shying away from explicitly citing Chevron. Perhaps most telling are other major actions by this administration that do not cite the case at all. While the EPA did mention Chevron in a few actions, it ignored the case in most of the actions in the Tracker. As noted above, most agencies in the Regulatory Tracker have ignored Chevron entirely. For example, the Securities and Exchange Commission did not cite the case in its controversial proposed rule on mandated climate-related disclosures. In earlier times, invoking it would be a sensible response to critics accusing the agency of overstepping its authority. But now, the agency presumably sees reliance on the case as a signal of vulnerability.
While the full effects on regulation of Chevron's precarious state are still unknown, agencies will presumably be more skittish in their actions in the future, avoiding less compelling interpretations of their operating statutes, possibly limiting their power, and leading to policies with reduced social welfare or economic outcomes. This shift is likely to satisfy Chevron's critics to some degree while opening up the conversation about the scope of agency authority in the context of their statutes. In addition to these more tangible effects, the political effects of agencies hesitating in interpreting their statutes are still unknown.
Will the Silence End?The dog didn't bite this term. But the Court could reject Chevron deference (or limit it even further) in the years to come. Indeed, at the end of the past term, the Court kept two cert petitions which could again provide opportunities to take aim at the doctrine: Aposhian v. Garland and Buffington v. McDonough. In the first, which the Court initially distributed for consideration last November, the petitioners ask the Court to bar Chevron deference in criminal cases; in the second, the petitioners argue that Chevron deference would be inappropriate ''without first considering the pro-veteran canon of construction.''
For now, at least, the silence continues.Anne Joseph O'Connell is an appointed senior fellow of the Administrative Conference of the United States, an independent federal agency dedicated to improving regulatory procedures. The authors did not receive financial support from any firm or person for this article or from any firm or person with a financial or political interest in this article. Other than the aforementioned, the authors are not currently an officer, director, or board member of any organization with a financial or political interest in this article.
The Brookings Institution is financed through the support of a diverse array of foundations, corporations, governments, individuals, as well as an endowment. A list of donors can be found in our annual reports published online here. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions in this report are solely those of its author(s) and are not influenced by any donation.
Ministry of truhtiness
White House Unveils Rules Targeting Journalists Who Refuse To Be ‘Professional’
The letter requires reporters to submit their physical address, a statement saying they have accessed the White House in the last six months and cover the White House “on a regular basis,” as well as proof of “accreditation by a press gallery in either the Supreme Court, U.S. Senate or U.S. House of Representatives.”
Reporters will also have to state they have the willingness “to submit to any necessary investigation by the U.S. Secret Service to determine eligibility for access to the White House complex, where Secret Service will determine eligibility based on whether the applicant presents a potential risk to the safety or security of the President, the Vice President, or the White House complex.”
The guidelines include a provision stating that journalists who have access to the White House maintain a “professional manner,” and not impede “events or briefings” on campus. Violators face the possibility of suspension.
Climate Change
California’s Income Tax on Electricity - WSJ
The income-based charges are drawing attention as utilities last month submitted rate-design proposals to the commission. Pacific Gas & Electric floated charging customers fixed fees ranging from $15 a month for those earning less than $28,000 annually, up to $92 a month for those making $180,000 or more.
These fixed charges would be in addition to “volumetric rates” that customers pay for each kilowatt hour of power they consume. Volumetric rates cover the price of electricity generation, distribution and transmission. But in California they also include subsidies for low-income households, rooftop solar customers, EV chargers and energy efficiency programs. Democrats have shifted this spending to utilities so politicians can spend more on social welfare and public-union salaries.
The result is that California’s electric rates have surged over the last decade to an average of 26.5 cents a kWh—more than twice as much as in neighboring states—even though the marginal cost of generating power has remained relatively stable at three to four cents a kWh. California rates can exceed 60 cents a kWh during peak hours.
War on Guns
Child Operated Firearm NY Law
Prohibits persons, firms or corporations engaged in the retail business of selling firearms from selling, delivering or transferring child operated firearms; defines "child operated firearm" to mean a pistol or revolver manufactured 1 year after the effective date of these provisions which does not contain a childproofing device or mechanism incorporated into the design of such pistol or revolver to effectively preclude an average 5 year old from firing same; makes violations a class A misdemeanor.
Charging the parents is UNCONSTITUTIONAL! BOTG
Dear AC,
I am listening to the show, JCD mentioned that it would be good to charge parents of under-age children who commit harms, like school shootings.
There is a SIMPLE reason why parents are not routinely arrested in America, it is unconstitutional to CHARGE any family member (parent or child) of a crime for the actions of their relative.
See Article I, section 9 (Congress may not) and section 10 (States may not), pass a Bill of Attainder.
A bill of attainder declares a family member an OUTLAW for the acts of another. Such was typically imposed against children relatives of those accused of treason.
Because it works as a punishment based on the "sins of the father", such violates the most fundamental tenets of common law and due process. So ... tell JCD that if he wants to be incarcerated for the acts of Theodore-able (the Dummy), he should move to England.
Big Pharma
Michael Moore announces end of Traverse City Film Festival after nearly 20 years -
rief history: Michael Moore has a home in Northern Michigan. His love of this area inspired him, (years ago), to successfully revive a shuttered movie theater in downtown Traverse City, MI. The approach was very community minded and inclusive. In the end, it greatly contributed to the revival of the declining downtown area.
Fast forward to today and we have something quite different happening with Michael Moore, his theater and the film festival. They are shutting down the film festival after being give a $1 Million grant to keep it going. The theater will remain open. Still, what is the $1 million being used for if the film festival is shutting down?
I know you appreciate getting links so here it is.
That headline should read: Take the Money and Run Michael Moore!
Sidebar: Post jab era, you could not attend a movie at the State Theater in Traverse City Michigan without proof of vaccination.
Here’s the sign posted at the theater entrance from May 29, 2022. That’s right. 2022! Insanity!
Prime Time Takedown
War on Weed
FedNow Technical Summary BOTG
Good afternoon, Adam,
The US central bank currently settles USD and eligible book-entry securities over the Fedwire protocol/service. It is ancient, but reliable. FedNow is merely an updated protocol/service that uses the ISO20022 specification. ISO20022 is also the basis of the transition from SWIFT MT (ISO 15022) to MX (ISO 20022).
I don't see any malicious aspect or downside to this. If/when the Fed rolls out a CBDC, it would easily be supported by ISO20022 but isn't inherent to the FedNow protocol.
This change to FedNow will reduce risk in cross-border settlements by allowing 24/7 USD settlement against stateside banks, removing the lag when settling bilateral FX deals. I think there's not a lot to worry about here.
Not a shill. I just feel for people in this industry who have to deal with these clunky ancient obtuse protocols.
California's Income Tax on Electricity - WSJ
Sun, 07 May 2023 16:58
Another Golden State first: a graduated tax on lighting your home.
Climate policies are driving up California electric rates to the point that progressives say they are discouraging the non-affluent from buying electric vehicles and appliances. Now Democrats plan to double down on their policy distortions by charging electric customers based on income.
Democrats snuck this second progressive income tax into a budget trailer bill last year that was ostensibly aimed at boosting grid reliability. The new law authorizes the Public Utilities Commission to restructure electric rates by imposing...
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Climate policies are driving up California electric rates to the point that progressives say they are discouraging the non-affluent from buying electric vehicles and appliances. Now Democrats plan to double down on their policy distortions by charging electric customers based on income.
Democrats snuck this second progressive income tax into a budget trailer bill last year that was ostensibly aimed at boosting grid reliability. The new law authorizes the Public Utilities Commission to restructure electric rates by imposing a fixed charge on an income-graduated basis. No other investor-owned utilities in the country link electricity costs to income.
The income-based charges are drawing attention as utilities last month submitted rate-design proposals to the commission. Pacific Gas & Electric floated charging customers fixed fees ranging from $15 a month for those earning less than $28,000 annually, up to $92 a month for those making $180,000 or more.
These fixed charges would be in addition to ''volumetric rates'' that customers pay for each kilowatt hour of power they consume. Volumetric rates cover the price of electricity generation, distribution and transmission. But in California they also include subsidies for low-income households, rooftop solar customers, EV chargers and energy efficiency programs. Democrats have shifted this spending to utilities so politicians can spend more on social welfare and public-union salaries.
The result is that California's electric rates have surged over the last decade to an average of 26.5 cents a kWh'--more than twice as much as in neighboring states'--even though the marginal cost of generating power has remained relatively stable at three to four cents a kWh. California rates can exceed 60 cents a kWh during peak hours.
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California's electric rates are currently both regressive and progressive. Middle- and higher-income folks subsidize discounts for lower-income customers. However, lower- and middle-income households also subsidize the affluent with solar panels and electric vehicles.
Progressives say this Rube Goldberg system of cross-subsidies is making it more expensive for lower- and middle-income folks to shift to electric vehicles, heat pumps and stoves to meet the state's climate goals. Depending on the time of day, it can be more expensive to fuel an electric car than a gas-powered one.
Thus they want to impose this de facto graduated income tax to light up your home. This is another form of income redistribution, as well as a new tax ratchet to raise money to finance their climate agenda. While lower rates for some consumers may make it cheaper to go electric, they will also reduce the incentive to conserve power and increase the strain on the grid amid a shortfall of reliable electricity.
Utilities will have to spend more to procure power and upgrade their systems to handle the increased load from EVs and electric appliances. Income-based electric charges will invariably rise, as income tax rates always do in Sacramento. The very rich will cope, but the middle class will get soaked, as they always do.
New Wind Energy Power Line Between UK and Netherlands Announced
Sun, 07 May 2023 16:35
A new power line that will connect offshore wind farms between the UK and the Netherlands will deliver enough electricity to ''power more homes than Manchester and Birmingham combined,'' according to the UK government.
On Monday, the government said LionLink will be the ''world's largest multi-use electricity power line'' and claimed it will boost UK energy supplies with ''enough to power 1.8 million homes.''
However net-zero critics called the move ''risky'' as countries may not always have the capacity to export electricity themselves.
LionLink will connect the two countries to each other and to offshore wind farms in the North Sea and is due to be operational by the early 2030s, the government said.
The government also signed an agreement on renewable energy cooperation with EU and North Seas countries. The initiative is expected to support UK targets to increase offshore wind five-fold to 50 gigawatts by 2030.
The UK currently sends and receives electricity through cables that link to countries like France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
Secretary of State for Energy Security and Net Zero Grant Shapps arrives for a Cabinet meeting at 10 Downing Street, London, on March 15, 2023. (Jordan Pettitt/PA Media)Cross-Border ElectricityThe cross-border electricity line will be the second of its kind in the world, with the first being built by Germany and Denmark.
The government claimed it will be able to carry more than four times the amount of electricity as its predecessor'--1.8 gigawatts compared with 0.4 gigawatts'--making it ''the largest of its kind in terms of capacity anywhere in the world.''
Secretary of State for Energy Security and Net Zero Grant Shapps said: ''Today's historic deal with the Netherlands connects our two countries together through this exciting feat of innovation and engineering'--the largest of its kind in the world which will provide enough electricity for more homes than in Manchester and Birmingham combined.
''Together with the strong ties we have with our northern European neighbours united today at the North Sea Summit, we are bolstering our energy security and sending a strong signal to Putin's Russia that the days of his dominance over global power markets are well and truly over.''
LionLink will be developed by National Grid Ventures and TenneT.
'Risky'Net Zero Watch Director Benny Peiser told The Epoch Times that being reliant on another country's renewable energy was a ''risky policy.''
Net Zero Watch is a think tank that scrutinises climate and decarbonisation policies.
''The idea that Holland has the capacity to export electricity when they are struggling to power their own country is just laughable,'' he said.
Holland still has a price cap that applies for gas, electricity, and district heating for households to help with the energy crisis. Last year, the Dutch government said that it expected to spend about 23.5 billion euros (£20.8 billion) on this.
Peiser noted that Britain is already quite dependent on energy imports from Norway, a country that has previously warned it may need to cut power exports to other countries.
He said that to be reliant on importing electricity from countries that have their own electricity problems ''is a very, very risky thing to do.''
He added that during periods of low or no wind, these countries will have to provide enough electricity for themselves and will have no spare capacity.
A view of the Eemmeerdijk Wind Park in Zeewolde, Flevoland Province, Netherlands, on Jan. 13, 2013. (Floris Oosterveld/Flickr, CC BY 2.0)According to a report by Copernicus, the Earth Observation component of the European Union's space programme, in 2021 parts of northwestern and central Europe experienced some of the lowest annual average wind speeds since at least 1979.
It added that low winds especially during prolonged periods known as ''wind droughts'' can have ''increasingly important socio-economic implications through reducing or inhibiting wind power generation.''
''It's not only making electricity more expensive, obviously, because we're talking here about renewable energy which is more expensive, costs haven't come down, but it is a real threat to energy security as well,'' said Peiser.
''You cannot rely on these interconnectors in a situation that is dominated by renewables when every European country will be struggling to power their own nations and their own economy,'' he added.
Ben Pile, co-founder of Climate Debate, told The Epoch Times by email that ''i nterconnectors are no substitute for generating capacity, and they presuppose that a surplus will exist, on one or other side.''
''But since the European Union is on the same path to absurd and undemocratic energy policy as the UK, this surplus is increasingly unlikely to exist, '' he said.
Pile said that he believed the demand for power ''will also increase on both sides of the interconnector as policies also require the electrification of heat and transport.''
''Interconnectors do nothing more than serve as extremely expensive monuments to the government's failure to take energy seriously. The 1.8 million homes that the government claim will be served by this new project are more likely to be let down by its false promise,'' he added.
Surplus of Wind-Generated ElectricityIn a statement, the Netherlands' climate and energy minister Rob Jetten said: ''With the North Sea becoming the largest supplier of green electricity for the Netherlands and large parts of Europe, we are ready to expand the interconnection between the two countries.
''LionLink provides close to two gigawatts of electricity to both countries, enough to power two million households,'' he said.
Jetten said that this new connection ''further boosts energy security and energy independence in Europe.''
''Close collaboration on offshore wind energy and interconnection amongst the North Sea countries is imperative.
''So in case there is a surplus of wind-generated electricity, it can be shared instantly to locations with a shortage of power, and vice versa,'' he added.
The Epoch Times contacted the UK government for comment.
Florida Passes Bill Making It a Felony for Doctors to Perform Gender-Transition Surgery on Minors
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:49
Florida's ban on gender transition procedures for minors has gone into effect, with Republican lawmakers in the state pushing for further restrictions.
The new measure by the Florida Board of Medicine prohibits the use of puberty blockers, hormone therapies, or surgeries for the treatment of gender dysphoria for anyone under 18 years old. However, those who were already receiving gender-affirming treatment before the new rule can continue to do so, but they cannot undergo sex reassignment surgeries.
GOP lawmakers are also advancing a bill through the Florida Senate that would make it a felony to provide such care to minors and ban state funds from covering such care for adults. Governor Ron DeSantis defended the new rule after President Biden criticized it, calling it ''close to sinful.''
''It's just terrible what they're doing,'' Biden told ''The Daily Show'' earlier this week. ''It's not like, you know, a kid wakes up one morning and says, 'You know, I decided I wanted to become a man,' or 'I want to become a woman' '... I mean, what are they thinking about here?''
''It's cruel,'' the President added.
DeSantis hit back at the president, tweeting: ''It is not 'sinful' to prohibit the mutilation of minors. It is not acceptable for the federal government to mandate that procedures like sex change operations be allowed for kids.''
Florida's law comes after the Board of Medicine and the Florida Board of Osteopathic Medicine announced in November that they would approved the new ban. Board of Medicine member and pediatric anesthesiologist, Dr. Hector Vila, referred to ''hundreds of studies'' that were reviewed before the decision was made. Vila argued that the ''overwhelming data does not support'' the use of puberty blockers and hormone therapy.
''This board is not against research; it is not against care for transgender children,'' Vila said.
Chairman of the Florida Board of Medicine Scot Ackerman echoed the statement: ''What the board has sought to do is protect our children from therapies that have irreversible harm '... So it's a very limited set of therapies that have been restricted, but this board still wants these patients cared for, absolutely,'' according to Orlando Weekly.
Several other states across the US are following in Florida's footsteps by approving similar measures. Kentucky recently passed a new bill, overwhelmingly backed by GOP legislators, to ban gender-transitions for minors. The bill also includes provisions allowing teachers to refuse to use a student's preferred pronouns and banning schools from discussing sexual orientation or gender identity with students of any age. Supporters argue that such measures aim to protect children from undergoing gender-affirming treatments that they may later regret as adults. ''We're talking about removing healthy body parts that you cannot put back on,'' said GOP Sen. Lindsey Tichenor. ''I've seen the pictures. It's horrifying.''
Mississippi's Republican Governor Tate Reeves has also signed a bill into law that prohibits gender transitions or sexual reassignment surgery for anyone under 18. Additionally, Republican governors in South Dakota and Utah have signed similar bans on gender-affirming care this year.
Florida Governor Ron DeSantis is expected to sign the bill banning gender reassignment surgery on children into law.
Follow Kyle Becker on Twitter @kylenabecker.
New York Budget Deal Includes Ban On Gas Stoves in New Residential Construction
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:46
Energy & Environment
New York's budget deal includes a ban on gas stoves in new residential construction. Christian Britschgi | 5.3.2023 4:40 PM
Richard Simpson/
The government actually is coming for your gas stove.
New York's new state budget includes a provision banning gas stoves in new residential construction. CNN reports that only electric stoves will be allowed in buildings under seven stories by 2026 and taller buildings by 2029.
The policy is the latest successful attack on an appliance used and cherished by millions of Americans.
Berkeley, California, was the first city to ban gas stoves in new buildings in 2019. A handful of other California cities have since followed suit. New York City adopted a local-level ban at the end of 2021. It goes into effect next year for smaller buildings.
Those are all pretty blue places, whose populations generally took the new bans with grace and good humor. When Consumer Product Safety Commission member Richard Trumka Jr. suggested this ban could be adopted nationwide, gas stove owners everywhere flipped out.
In response to the backlash, Sen. Chuck Schumer (D''N.Y.) assured everyone that government gas-grabbing was a MAGA conspiracy theory. Mainstream media fact-checkers said much the same thing. In the senator's state, at least, the conspiracists did have something to worry about.
Supporters of gas stove bans argue that the gas needed to fuel them is bad for the climate and that the emissions they produce within the home are bad for your health.
Steve Everley, writing in National Review in January, covered several flaws in the most recent studies finding serious health impacts from gas stoves. Experimental studies that found links between gas stoves and child asthma used airtight rooms without ventilation. The author of another much-touted meta-analysis finding a link between gas stoves and child asthma said their study "does not assume or estimate a causal relationship." Masses of earlier studies, Everley notes, have found no health impacts from gas stoves.
In the short-term, mandated electrification of appliances is probably worse for the climate. On-site use of gas stoves and furnaces uses almost all the energy in the gas. Generating electricity from gas and then using that electricity to power appliances is much less efficient. Of New York's 10 largest power plants, for instance, five are powered by natural gas.
Another reason to oppose gas stove bans is that people like their gas stoves.
"Most home chefs'--and pretty much all professional chefs'--will tell you that electric stoves take a long time to heat up and are far less responsive when changing heat levels. Induction stoves, which are actually quite fast to heat up, require different types of cookware and kitchen thermometers, in addition to being a lot more expensive than electric stoves," wrote Reason's Liz Wolfe earlier this year.
Despite spreading bans, there is some hope for gas stove enthusiasts. Trumka's comments saw Republicans and Democrats in Congress propose legislation to protect the appliances from a federal ban.
A recent federal appeals court case also struck down Berkeley's ban because federal appliance regulations preempted it. That decision was highly technical, however, and likely leaves other avenues for gas stove bans to be passed at the state and local levels.
In the Empire State, it's too little, too late for lovers of gas stoves.
NEXT: A 'Congestion' Charge on Just Ubers and Lyfts Won't Improve Congestion
Energy & EnvironmentNanny StateNew YorkNatural Gas
Just war theory - Wikipedia
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:37
"Just war" redirects here. For the 1996 science fiction novel, see
Just War (novel).
The just war theory (Latin: bellum iustum)[1][2] is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics which is studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers. The purpose of the doctrine is to ensure that a war is morally justifiable through a series of criteria, all of which must be met for a war to be considered just. The criteria are split into two groups: jus ad bellum ("right to go to war") and jus in bello ("right conduct in war"). The first group of criteria concerns the morality of going to war, and the second group of criteria concerns the moral conduct within war.[3] There have been calls for the inclusion of a third category of just war theory (jus post bellum) dealing with the morality of post-war settlement and reconstruction. The just war theory postulates the belief that war, while it is terrible but less so with the right conduct, is not always the worst option. Important responsibilities, undesirable outcomes, or preventable atrocities may justify war.[3]
Opponents of the just war theory may either be inclined to a stricter pacifist standard (proposing that there has never been nor can there ever be a justifiable basis for war) or they may be inclined toward a more permissive nationalist standard (proposing that a war need only to serve a nation's interests to be justifiable). In many cases, philosophers state that individuals do not need to be plagued by a guilty conscience if they are required to fight. A few philosophers ennoble the virtues of the soldier while they also declare their apprehensions for war itself.[4] A few, such as Rousseau, argue for insurrection against oppressive rule.
The historical aspect, or the "just war tradition", deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. The just war tradition also considers the writings of various philosophers and lawyers through history, and examines both their philosophical visions of war's ethical limits and whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare.[5]
Origins Edit Ancient Egypt Edit A 2017 study found that the just war tradition can be traced as far back as to Ancient Egypt.[6] Egyptian ethics of war usually centered on three main ideas, these including the cosmological role of Egypt, the pharaoh as a divine office and executor of the will of the gods, and the superiority of the Egyptian state and population over all other states and peoples. Egyptian political theology held that the pharaoh had the exclusive legitimacy in justly initiating a war, usually claimed to carry out the will of the gods. Senusret I, in the Twelfth Dynasty, claimed, "I was nursed to be a conqueror...his [Atum's] son and his protector, he gave me to conquer what he conquered." Later pharaohs also considered their sonship of the god Amun-Re as granting them absolute ability to declare war on the deity's behalf. Pharaohs often visited temples prior to initiating campaigns, where the pharaoh was believed to receive their commands of war from the deities. For example, Kamose claimed that "I went north because I was strong (enough) to attack the Asiatics through the command of Amon, the just of counsels." A stele erected by Thutmose III at the Temple of Amun at Karnak "provides an unequivocal statement of the pharaoh's divine mandate to wage war on his enemies." As the period of the New Kingdom progressed and Egypt heightened its territorial ambition, so did the invocation of just war aid the justification of these efforts. The universal principle of Maat, signifying order and justice, was central to the Egyptian notion of just war and its ability to guarantee Egypt virtually no limits on what it could take, do, or use to guarantee the ambitions of the state.[6]
Confucian Edit Chinese philosophy produced a massive body of work on warfare, much of it during the Zhou dynasty, especially the Warring States era. War was justified only as a last resort and only by the rightful sovereign; however, questioning the decision of the emperor concerning the necessity of a military action was not permissible. The success of a military campaign was sufficient proof that the campaign had been righteous.[7]
Japan did not develop its own doctrine of just war but between the 5th and the 7th centuries drew heavily from Chinese philosophy, and especially Confucian views. As part of the Japanese campaign to take the northeastern island Honshu, Japanese military action was portrayed as an effort to "pacify" the Emishi people, who were likened to "bandits" and "wild-hearted wolf cubs" and accused of invading Japan's frontier lands.[7]
India Edit The Indian Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, offers the first written discussions of a "just war" (dharma-yuddha or "righteous war"). In it, one of five ruling brothers (Pandavas) asks if the suffering caused by war can ever be justified. A long discussion then ensues between the siblings, establishing criteria like proportionality (chariots cannot attack cavalry, only other chariots; no attacking people in distress), just means (no poisoned or barbed arrows), just cause (no attacking out of rage), and fair treatment of captives and the wounded.[8]
In Sikhism, the term dharamyudh describes a war that is fought for just, righteous or religious reasons, especially in defence of one's own beliefs. Though some core tenets in the Sikh religion are understood to emphasise peace and nonviolence, especially before the 1606 execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal emperor Jahangir,[9] military force may be justified if all peaceful means to settle a conflict have been exhausted, thus resulting in a dharamyudh.[10]
Ancient Greece and Rome Edit The notion of just war in Europe originates and is developed first in ancient Greece and then in the Roman Empire.[11][12][13]
It was Aristotle who first introduced the concept and terminology to the Hellenic world that called war a last resort requiring conduct that would allow the restoration of peace. Aristotle argues that the cultivation of a military is necessary and good for the purpose of self-defense, not for conquering: "The proper object of practising military training is not in order that men may enslave those who do not deserve slavery, but in order that first they may themselves avoid becoming enslaved to others" (Politics, Book 7).[14]
In ancient Rome, a "just cause" for war might include the necessity of repelling an invasion, or retaliation for pillaging or a breach of treaty.[15] War was always potentially nefas ("wrong, forbidden"), and risked religious pollution and divine disfavor.[16] A "just war" (bellum iustum) thus required a ritualized declaration by the fetial priests.[17] More broadly, conventions of war and treaty-making were part of the ius gentium, the "law of nations", the customary moral obligations regarded as innate and universal to human beings.[18]
Muslim teaching of Jihad Edit "Jihad" is an Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim.[19][20][21][22] In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God's guidance, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, proselytizing, or efforts toward the moral betterment of the Muslim community (Ummah),[19][20][23][24] though it is most frequently associated with war.[22][25] In classical Islamic law (sharia), the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers,[20][21] while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare.[26][27] In Sufi circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad.[23][28][21] The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by various insurgent Islamic extremist, militant Islamist, and terrorist individuals and organizations whose ideology is, purportedly, based on the Islamic notion of jihad.[23][25][29][30]
The word jihad appears frequently in the Qur'an with and without military connotations,[31] often in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)",[32][33] conveying a sense of self-exertion. They[who? ] developed an elaborate set of rules pertaining to jihad, including prohibitions on harming those who are not engaged in combat.[35][36]In the modern era, the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance and instead given rise to an ideological and political discourse.[23][26] While modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized the defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory.[26][30]
Jihad is classified into inner ("greater") jihad, which involves a struggle against one's own base impulses, and external ("lesser") jihad, which is further subdivided into jihad of the pen/tongue (debate or persuasion) and jihad of the sword.[23][28] Most Western writers consider external jihad to have primacy over inner jihad in the Islamic tradition, while much of contemporary Muslim opinion favors the opposite view.
The sense of jihad as armed resistance was first used in the context of persecution faced by Muslims, as when Muhammad was at Mecca, when the community had two choices: emigration (hijra) or jihad. In Twelver Shi'a Islam, jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion.[39] A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid (plural: mujahideen). The term jihad is often rendered in English as "Holy War",[40][41][42] although this translation is controversial.[43][44] Today, the word jihad is often used without religious connotations, like the English crusade.[19][20]
Christian views Edit Christian theory of the Just War begins around the time of Augustine of Hippo[45] The Just War theory, with some amendments, is still used by Christians today as a guide to whether or not a war can be justified.War may be necessary and right, even though it may not be good. In the case of a country that has been invaded by an occupying force, war may be the only way to restore justice. [46]
Saint Augustine Edit Saint Augustine held that individuals should not resort immediately to violence, but God has given the sword to government for a good reason (based upon Romans 13:4). In Contra Faustum Manichaeum book 22 sections 69''76, Augustine argues that Christians, as part of a government, need not be ashamed of protecting peace and punishing wickedness when they are forced to do so by a government. Augustine asserted that was a personal and philosophical stance: "What is here required is not a bodily action, but an inward disposition. The sacred seat of virtue is the heart."[47]
While not breaking down the conditions necessary for war to be just, Augustine nonetheless originated the very phrase itself in his work The City of God:
But, say they, the wise man will wage Just Wars. As if he would not all the rather lament the necessity of just wars, if he remembers that he is a man; for if they were not just he would not wage them, and would therefore be delivered from all wars.[48]
Saint Thomas Aquinas Edit The just war theory by Thomas Aquinas has had a lasting impact on later generations of thinkers and was part of an emerging consensus in Medieval Europe on just war.[49] In the 13th century Aquinas reflected in detail on peace and war. Aquinas was a Dominican friar and contemplated the teachings of the Bible on peace and war in combination with ideas from Aristotle, Plato, Saint Augustine and other philosophers whose writings are part of the Western canon. Aquinas' views on war drew heavily on the Decretum Gratiani, a book the Italian monk Gratian had compiled with passages from the Bible. After its publication in the 12th century, the Decretum Gratiani had been republished with commentary from Pope Innocent IV and the Dominican friar Raymond of Penafort. Other significant influences on Aquinas just war theory were Alexander of Hales and Henry of Segusio.[50]
In Summa Theologica Aquinas asserted that it is not always a sin to wage war, and he set out criteria for a just war. According to Aquinas, three requirements must be met. Firstly, the war must be waged upon the command of a rightful sovereign. Secondly, the war needs to be waged for just cause, on account of some wrong the attacked have committed. Thirdly, warriors must have the right intent, namely to promote good and to avoid evil.[51][52] Aquinas came to the conclusion that a just war could be offensive and that injustice should not be tolerated so as to avoid war. Nevertheless, Aquinas argued that violence must only be used as a last resort. On the battlefield, violence was only justified to the extent it was necessary. Soldiers needed to avoid cruelty and a just war was limited by the conduct of just combatants. Aquinas argued that it was only in the pursuit of justice, that the good intention of a moral act could justify negative consequences, including the killing of the innocent during a war.[53]
First World War Edit At the beginning of the First World War, a group of theologians in Germany published a manifesto that sought to justify the actions of the German government. At the British government's request, Randall Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury, took the lead in collaborating with a large number of other religious leaders, including some with whom he had differed in the past, to write a rebuttal of the Germans' contentions. Both German and British theologians based themselves on the just war theory, each group seeking to prove that it applied to the war waged by its own side.[54]
Contemporary Catholic doctrine Edit The just war doctrine of the Catholic Church found in the 1992 Catechism of the Catholic Church, in paragraph 2309, lists four strict conditions for "legitimate defense by military force:"[55][56]
The damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave and certain.All other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective.there must be serious prospects of success.The use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated.The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church elaborates on the just war doctrine in paragraphs 500 to 501:[57]
If this responsibility justifies the possession of sufficient means to exercise this right to defense, States still have the obligation to do everything possible "to ensure that the conditions of peace exist, not only within their own territory but throughout the world". It is important to remember that "it is one thing to wage a war of self-defense; it is quite another to seek to impose domination on another nation. The possession of war potential does not justify the use of force for political or military objectives. Nor does the mere fact that war has unfortunately broken out mean that all is fair between the warring parties".[citation needed ]
The Charter of the United Nations intends to preserve future generations from war with a prohibition against force to resolve disputes between States. Like most philosophy, it permits legitimate defense and measures to maintain peace. In every case, the charter requires that self-defense must respect the traditional limits of necessity and proportionality. Therefore, engaging in a preventive war without clear proof that an attack is imminent cannot fail to raise serious moral and juridical questions. International legitimacy for the use of armed force, on the basis of rigorous assessment and with well-founded motivations, can only be given by the decision of a competent body that identifies specific situations as threats to peace and authorizes an intrusion into the sphere of autonomy usually reserved to a State.[citation needed ]
Pope John Paul II in an address to a group of soldiers said the following:[58]
Peace, as taught by Sacred Scripture and the experience of men itself, is more than just the absence of war. And the Christian is aware that on earth a human society that is completely and always peaceful is, unfortunately, an utopia and that the ideologies which present it as easily attainable only nourish vain hopes. The cause of peace will not go forward by denying the possibility and the obligation to defend it.
Russian Orthodox Church Edit The War and Peace section in the Basis of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church is crucial for understanding the Russian Orthodox Church's attitude towards war. The document offers criteria of distinguishing between an aggressive war, which is unacceptable, and a justified war, attributing the highest moral and sacred value of military acts of bravery to a true believer who participates in a justified war. Additionally, the document considers the just war criteria as developed in Western Christianity to be eligible for Russian Orthodoxy; therefore, the justified war theory in Western theology is also applicable to the Russian Orthodox Church.[59]
In the same document, it is stated that wars have accompanied human history since the fall of man, and according to the gospel, they will continue to accompany it. While recognizing war as evil, the Russian Orthodox Church does not prohibit its members from participating in hostilities if there is the security of their neighbours and the restoration of trampled justice at stake. War is considered to be necessary but undesirable. It is also stated that the Russian Orthodox Church has had profound respect for soldiers who gave their lives to protect the life and security of their neighbours.[60]
Just war tradition Edit The just war theory, propounded by the medieval Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas, was developed further by legal scholars in the context of international law. Cardinal Cajetan, the jurist Francisco de Vitoria, the two Jesuit priests Luis de Molina and Francisco Surez, as well as the humanist Hugo Grotius and the lawyer Luigi Taparelli were most influential in the formation of a just war tradition. The just war tradition, which was well established by the 19th century, found its practical application in the Hague Peace Conferences (1899 and 1907) and in the founding of the League of Nations in 1920. After the United States Congress declared war on Germany in 1917, Cardinal James Gibbons issued a letter that all Catholics were to support the war[61] because "Our Lord Jesus Christ does not stand for peace at any price... If by Pacifism is meant the teaching that the use of force is never justifiable, then, however well meant, it is mistaken, and it is hurtful to the life of our country."[62]
Armed conflicts such as the Spanish Civil War, World War II and the Cold War were, as a matter of course, judged according to the norms (as established in Aquinas' just war theory) by philosophers such as Jacques Maritain, Elizabeth Anscombe and John Finnis.[49]
The first work dedicated specifically to just war was the 15th-century sermon De bellis justis of Stanisław of Skarbimierz (1360''1431), who justified war by the Kingdom of Poland against the Teutonic Knights.[63] Francisco de Vitoria criticized the conquest of America by the Spanish conquistadors on the basis of just-war theory.[64] With Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius, just war theory was replaced by international law theory, codified as a set of rules, which today still encompass the points commonly debated, with some modifications.[65]
Just-war theorists combine a moral abhorrence towards war with a readiness to accept that war may sometimes be necessary. The criteria of the just-war tradition act as an aid in determining whether resorting to arms is morally permissible. Just-war theories aim "to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces"; they attempt "to conceive of how the use of arms might be restrained, made more humane, and ultimately directed towards the aim of establishing lasting peace and justice".[66]
The just war tradition addresses the morality of the use of force in two parts: when it is right to resort to armed force (the concern of jus ad bellum) and what is acceptable in using such force (the concern of jus in bello).[67]
In 1869 the Russian military theorist Genrikh Antonovich Leer theorized on the advantages and potential benefits of war.[68]
The Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin defined only three types of just war.[69]
But picture to yourselves a slave-owner who owned 100 slaves warring against a slave-owner who owned 200 slaves for a more "just" distribution of slaves. Clearly, the application of the term "defensive" war, or war "for the defense of the fatherland" in such a case would be historically false, and in practice would be sheer deception of the common people, of philistines, of ignorant people, by the astute slaveowners. Precisely in this way are the present-day imperialist bourgeoisie deceiving the peoples by means of "national ideology" and the term "defense of the fatherland" in the present war between slave-owners for fortifying and strengthening slavery.[70]
The anarcho-capitalist scholar Murray Rothbard (1926-1995) stated that "a just war exists when a people tries to ward off the threat of coercive domination by another people, or to overthrow an already-existing domination. A war is unjust, on the other hand, when a people try to impose domination on another people or try to retain an already-existing coercive rule over them."[71]
Jonathan Riley-Smith writes:
The consensus among Christians on the use of violence has changed radically since the crusades were fought. The just war theory prevailing for most of the last two centuries'--that violence is an evil that can, in certain situations, be condoned as the lesser of evils'--is relatively young. Although it has inherited some elements (the criteria of legitimate authority, just cause, right intention) from the older war theory that first evolved around AD 400, it has rejected two premises that underpinned all medieval just wars, including crusades: first, that violence could be employed on behalf of Christ's intentions for mankind and could even be directly authorized by him; and second, that it was a morally neutral force that drew whatever ethical coloring it had from the intentions of the perpetrators.[72]
Criteria Edit The just war theory has two sets of criteria, the first establishing jus ad bellum (the right to go to war),and the second establishing jus in bello (right conduct within war).[73]
Jus ad bellum Edit Competent authorityOnly duly constituted public authorities may wage war. "A just war must be initiated by a political authority within a political system that allows distinctions of justice. Dictatorships (e.g. Hitler's Regime) or deceptive military actions (e.g. the 1968 US bombing of Cambodia) are typically considered as violations of this criterion. The importance of this condition is key. Plainly, we cannot have a genuine process of judging a just war within a system that represses the process of genuine justice. A just war must be initiated by a political authority within a political system that allows distinctions of justice".[74]Jus in bello Edit Once war has begun, just war theory (jus in bello) also directs how combatants are to act or should act.[citation needed ]
Ending a war: Jus post bellum Edit In recent years, some theorists, such as Gary Bass, Louis Iasiello and Brian Orend, have proposed a third category within the just war theory. Jus post bellum concerns justice after a war, including peace treaties, reconstruction, environmental remediation, war crimes trials, and war reparations. Jus post bellum has been added to deal with the fact that some hostile actions may take place outside a traditional battlefield. Jus post bellum governs the justice of war termination and peace agreements, as well as the prosecution of war criminals, and publicly labelled terrorists. The idea has largely been added to help decide what to do if there are prisoners that have been taken during battle. It is, through government labelling and public opinion, that people use jus post bellum to justify the pursuit of labelled terrorist for the safety of the government's state in a modern context. The actual fault lies with the aggressor and so by being the aggressor, they forfeit their rights for honourable treatment by their actions. That theory is used to justify the actions taken by anyone fighting in a war to treat prisoners outside of war.[75]
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ISSN 1573-0255. ^ a b c Wael B. Hallaq (2009). SharÄ'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). pp. 334''38. ^ Peters, Rudolph (2015). Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . De Gruyter Mouton. p. 124. doi:10.1515/9783110824858. ISBN 9783110824858. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016 . Retrieved 24 January 2017 '' via De Gruyter. ^ a b Rudolph Peters (2005). "Jihad". In Lindsay Jones (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 7 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference. p. 4917. ^ Cook, David (2015) [2005]. "Radical Islam and Contemporary Jihad Theory". Understanding Jihad (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 93''127. ISBN 9780520287327. JSTOR 10.1525/j.ctv1xxt55.10. LCCN 2015010201. ^ a b Jalal, Ayesha (2009). "Islam Subverted? Jihad as Terrorism". Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 239''240. doi:10.4159/9780674039070-007. ISBN 9780674039070. S2CID 152941120. ^ Al-Dawoody 2011, p. 56 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAl-Dawoody2011 (help) : Seventeen derivatives of jihād occur altogether forty-one times in eleven Meccan texts and thirty Medinan ones, with the following five meanings: striving because of religious belief (21), war (12), non-Muslim parents exerting pressure, that is, jihād, to make their children abandon Islam (2), solemn oaths (5), and physical strength (1). ^ Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice . ABC-CLIO. p. 87. ISBN 978-0313360251 . Retrieved 5 January 2011 . ^ Josef W. Meri, ed. (2005). "Medieval Islamic Civilization". Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415966900. , Jihad, p. 419. ^ Bernard Lewis (27 September 2001). "Jihad vs. Crusade". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016 . Retrieved 4 August 2016 . ^ Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (2011). "Parity of Muslim and Western Concepts of Just War". The Muslim World. 101 (3): 416. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2011.01384.x. ISSN 1478-1913. In classical Muslim doctrine on war, likewise, genuine non-combatants are not to be harmed. These include women, minors, servants and slaves who do not take part in the fighting, the blind, monks, hermits, the aged, those physically unable to fight, the insane, the delirious, farmers who do not fight, traders, merchants, and contractors. The main criterion distinguishing combatants from non-combatants is that the latter do not fight and do not contribute to the war effort. ^ "Part 2: Islamic Practices". Archived from the original on 7 September 2014 . Retrieved 27 August 2014 . ^ Lloyd Steffen, Lloyd (2007). Holy War, Just War: Exploring the Moral Meaning of Religious Violence. Rowman& Littlefield. p. 221. ISBN 978-1461637394. ^ cf., e.g., "Libya's Gaddafi urges 'holy war' against Switzerland". BBC News. 26 February 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010 . Retrieved 27 March 2010 . ^ Rudolph F. Peters, Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam (Brill, 1977), p. 3 ^ Crone, Patricia (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh University Press. p. 363. ISBN 0-7486-2194-6. OCLC 61176687. ^ Khaled Abou El Fadl stresses that the Islamic theological tradition did not have a notion of "Holy war" (in Arabic al-harb al-muqaddasa), which is not an expression used by the Quranic text or Muslim theologians. He further states that in Islamic theology, war is never holy; it is either justified or not. He then writes that the Quran does not use the word jihad to refer to warfare or fighting; such acts are referred to as qital. Source: Abou El Fadl, Khaled (23 January 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 222. ISBN 978-0061189036. ^ Christians and War: Augustine of Hippo and the "Just War theory" Archived 28 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine ^ "What is a just war?". BBC . Retrieved 11 May 2020 . ^ Robert L. Holmes. "A Time For War?". . Retrieved 25 April 2015 . ^ "City of God". Archived from the original on 25 July 2013 . Retrieved 25 April 2015 . ^ a b Gregory M. Reichberg (2017). Thomas Aquinas on War and Peace. Cambridge University Press. p. viii. ISBN 9781107019904. ^ Gregory M. Reichberg (2017). Thomas Aquinas on War and Peace. Cambridge University Press. p. vii. ISBN 9781107019904. ^ Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. pp. pt. II, sec. 2, q. 40, a. 1. ^ Seth Lazar; Helen Frowe, eds. (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780199943418. ^ Seth Lazar; Helen Frowe, eds. (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War. Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 9780199943418. ^ Mews, Stuart. "Davidson, Randall Thomas, Baron Davidson of Lambeth (1848''1930), Archbishop of Canterbury", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2011. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church (2 ed.). Liberia Editrice Vaticana. 2000. ISBN 1574551108. ^ "Just-War Theory, Catholic Morality, And The Response To International Terrorism" . Retrieved 11 May 2020 . ^ "Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church" . Retrieved 25 April 2015 . ^ Saunders, William. "The Church's Just War Theory". Catholic Education Resource Center . Retrieved 10 May 2020 . ^ Knorre, Boris; Zygmont, Aleksei (2019). " 'Militant Piety in 21st-Century Orthodox Christianity: Return to Classical Traditions or Formation of a New Theology of War?". Religions. 11: 2. doi:10.3390/rel11010002 . Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ "Social Concepts, Chapter VIII". Archived from the original on 9 June 2020 . Retrieved 10 May 2020 . ^ John Dear (23 February 2010). "Ben Salmon and the Army of Peace". National Catholic Reporter. ^ C. T. Bridgeman (1962). A History of the Parish of Trinity Church in the City of New York: The rectorship of Dr. William Thomas Manning 1908 to 1921. p. 256. ^ David, Saul (1 October 2009). "Ethics of War". The Encyclopedia of War from Ancient Egypt to Iraq. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-4053-4778-5. ^ Victor M. Salas Jr. (2012). "Francisco de Vitoria on the Ius Gentium and the American Indios" (PDF) . Ave Maria Law Review. ^ Gutman R, Rieff D. Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company; 1999 ^ "". . Retrieved 16 March 2010 . ^ "Home > Publications >". 1 September 1998. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009 . Retrieved 16 March 2010 . ^ Genrikh Antonovich Leer (1869). Opyt kritiko-istoricheskogo issledovaniya zakonov isskusstva vedeniya voyny ОÐыт кÑитико-истоÑическоÐ"о иссÐ>>едования законов искусства ведения войны [Critico-historical research into the laws of the art of the conduct of war]. p. 1ff. ISBN 9785458055901. ^ Wollenberg, Erich. "Just Wars in the Light of Marxism". Marxists Internet Archive. ^ Lenin, Vladimir. "Socialism and War, ch. 1". Marxists Internet Archive. ^ Murray N. Rothbard. "Just War". . Retrieved 26 June 2019 . ^ Smith, Jonathan R. "Rethinking the Crusades". Catholic Education Resource Center. Archived from the original on 23 July 2001. ^ Childress, James F. (1978). "Just-War Theories: The Bases, Interrelations, Priorities, and Functions of Their Criteria" (PDF) . Theological Studies. 39 (3): 427''445. doi:10.1177/004056397803900302. S2CID 159493143. ^ "Just War Theory". Archived from the original on 7 September 2013 . Retrieved 25 April 2015 . ^ Thom Brooks (October 2012). Studies in Moral philosophy: Just War Theory. Brill. p. 187. ISBN 978-9004228504. Further reading Edit Benson, Richard. "The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View", The Tidings (2006). Showing the Catholic view in three points, including John Paul II's position concerning war.Blattberg, Charles. Taking War Seriously. A critique of just war theory.Brough, Michael W., John W. Lango, Harry van der Linden, eds., Rethinking the Just War Tradition (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2007). Discusses the contemporary relevance of just war theory. Offers an annotated bibliography of current writings on just war theory.Brunsletter, D., & D. O'Driscoll, Just war thinkers from Cicero to the 21st century (Routledge, 2017).Butler, Paul (2002''2003). "By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law" . UCLA Law Review. 50: 721 '' via HeinOnline. Churchman, David. "Just War Theory Across Time and Culture" in Oliver Richmond, and Gzim Visoka, eds. The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies (2022), David. Why we fight: the origins, nature, and management of human conflict (University Press of America, 2013) online.Crawford, Neta. "Just War Theory and the US Countertenor War", Perspectives on Politics 1(1), 2003. onlineElshtain, Jean Bethke, ed. Just war theory (NYU Press, 1992) online.Evans, Mark (editor) Just War Theory: A Reappraisal (Edinburgh University Press, 2005)Fotion, Nicholas. War and Ethics (London, New York: Continuum, 2007). ISBN 0-8264-9260-6. A defence of an updated form of just war theory.Heindel, Max. The Rosicrucian Philosophy in Questions and Answers '' Volume II (The Philosophy of War, World War I reference, ed. 1918), ISBN 0-911274-90-1 (Describing a philosophy of war and just war concepts from the point of view of his Rosicrucian Fellowship)Gutbrod, Hans. Assembling the Moral Puzzle '' Just War Tradition and Karabakh ("Global Policy Journal", February 2021); illustrates how the just war theory can offer a comprehensive assessment of the 2020 conflict around Nagorno-Karabakh.Gutbrod, Hans. Russia's Recent Invasion of Ukraine and Just War Theory ("Global Policy Journal", March 2022); applies the concept to Russia's February 2022 invasion of Ukraine.Kelsay, John; Lo, PC; and Morkevicius, Valerie, "Comparative Ethics of War: Islamic, Chinese and Hindu Perspectives," McCain Conference, Stockdale Center, United States Naval Academy, 2011.Khawaja, Irfan. Review of Larry May, War Crimes and Just War, in Democratiya 10, ([1]), an extended critique of just war theory.Lazar, Seth (Spring 2020). "War". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. MacDonald, David Roberts. Padre E. C. Crosse and 'the Devonshire Epitaph': The Astonishing Story of One Man at the Battle of the Somme (with Antecedents to Today's 'Just War' Dialogue), 2007 Cloverdale Books, South Bend. ISBN 978-1-929569-45-8McMahan, Jeff. "Just Cause for War," Ethics and International Affairs, 2005.Njera, Luna. "Myth and Prophecy in Juan Gin(C)s de Sepºlveda's Crusading "Exhortaci"n" Archived 11 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, in Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies, 35:1 (2011). Discusses Sepºlveda's theories of war in relation to the war against the Ottoman Turks.Nardin, Terry, ed. The ethics of war and peace: Religious and secular perspectives (Princeton University Press, 1998) onlineO'Donovan, Oliver. The Just War Revisited (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).Ramsey, Paul. The Just War (New York: Scribners, 1969).Steinhoff, Uwe. On the Ethics of War and Terrorism (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007). Covers the basics and some of the most controversial current debates.v. Starck, Christian (Ed.). Kann es heute noch gerechte Kriege geben? (G¶ttingen: Wallstein-Verlag, 2008). ISBN 9783835302617Walzer, Michael. Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations, 4th ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1977). ISBN 0-465-03707-0Walzer, Michael. Arguing about War, (Yale University Press, 2004). ISBN 978-0-300-10978-8External links Edit "Just war theory". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Just War Theory Archived 7 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine Oregon State UniversityText of Cicero's Just War Theory in De OfficiisCatholic Teaching Concerning Just War at Catholicism.orgA Catholic Petition based on the Just War DoctrineJeff McMahon, Rethinking the 'Just War,' Part 1, New York TimesAmerican Solidarity Party '' New 3rd Party which applies Just War Theory in foreign policy"Just War" In Our Time, BBC Radio 4 discussion with John Keane and Niall Ferguson (3 June 1999)
Romanian Nationalists Rage in Brussels Against '15-Minute' Urban Bill | Balkan Insight
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:31
Nationalistic party leader insists draft bill to modernise Romanian urban centres will limit people's free movement from one district to another '' a claim supporters dismiss as a conspiracy theory.
The leader of the nationalist Alliance for the Union of Romanians AUR, George Simion, protesting in Brussels against a new law on uirban planning in Romania. Video capture from Simion`s live video on Facebook
Supporters of Romania's nationalistic Alliance for the Union of Romanians, AUR, protested in Brussels against a draft law on the efficient urbanisation of Romanian cities, claiming it will limit people's freedom of movement.
The protest staged in front of the European Commission relates to a draft bill in Romania generically called ''the 15-minute city'', based on the concept of Colombian urban planner Carlos Moreno, a professor at the Sorbonne in Paris.
The concept assumes that people should be able to get within about 15 minutes' walk or cycle to the places they need every day, such as schools, shops, markets, doctors or work.
For this to be possible, governments should provide the necessary infrastructure and build new neighbourhoods according to certain models.
The bill is currently before Romania's Chamber of Deputies for approval by specialist committees. Parliament's other chamber, the Senate, already adopted it in the first reading in February.
If Romania's parliament passes the bill, it will have implications for the future construction of urban centres according to specific rules and for the restructuring of existing ones.
The most affected construction expansion is the capital, Bucharest, which is struggling with dense traffic and a lack of road infrastructure. Bucharest has meanwhile blocked the Zonal Urban Plan, PUZ, for more than two years, preventing specific large-scale constructions.
The vice-president of the Romanian Order of Architects, Bogdan Andrei Fezi, quoted by Pro TV, has defended the new concept.
''Around 1900, garden city projects developed self-sufficient neighbourhoods. They were repeated in Europe, Milan, Valencia, Asia, and America '' because it had a fundamental purpose. We all know what problems there are in big cities, especially in Bucharest,'' he said.
However, AUR leader George Simion, who headed the protest in Brussels, claims the future law will limit the movements of residents of neighbourhoods to those areas where they live. He says those travelling outside those areas will need to have permits.
Right-wingers in other countries have also piled into the 15-minute concept, calling it authoritarian and socialistic.
A populist politician, Simion is known for spreading conspiracy theories. Many of the narratives he uses to draw on Russian propaganda.
Artwork of Jesus surrounded by hot daddies has bigots raging
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:29
Lesbian photographer Elisabeth Ohlson known for reflecting visual minorities in her photos. (Elisabeth Ohlson)
An artwork depicting Jesus surrounded by leather-clad muscle daddies, displayed in a corridor of the European Parliament building, has sent right-wing EU officials into a red-faced rage.
It's been branded ''vulgar'', ''disrespectful'' and ''blasphemous'' by right-wing politicians from Italy and Poland, with one describing Jesus' stern-looking pals as ''sadomasochistic slaves''.
The artist says the work depicts Jesus ''loving LGBTQ+ rights''.
The images, by Swedish lesbian photographer Elisabeth Ohlson, are being displayed in a side corridor of the building in Brussels as part of a cultural exhibition hosted by left-wing politicians from across Europe.
Threats to close down the exhibition or remove photos deemed controversial have been made, Ohlson revealed on Instagram on Wednesday (3 May).
Among the politicians voicing outrage was Maria Veronica Rossi, an MEP from Italy's right-wing populist Lega Nord party, who told the Times: ''It represents Jesus surrounded by apostles dressed as sadomasochistic slaves.''
Her Lega colleague and Italy's deputy prime minister, Matteo Salvini, took to Facebook to slam the image with a caption alongside the photo that said: ''Art? No just vulgarity and dissect.''
Many people have commented under Salvini's post, condemning him, with one stating: ''Shame on you.''
Responding to critics, Ohlson said: ''I would say that there should be more understanding because there are a lot of pictures of Jesus with heterosexuals, millions, billions of paintings [by] famous artists, but this is just one picture of Jesus loving LGBTQ+ rights. One picture should not be so scary for them.''
An exhibition at the EU Parliament featuring an LGBT Jesus (in the background) has sparked protests from MEPs who say it is 'blasphemous and disrespectful'. Here is how the artist, Elisabeth Ohlson, responded to the critics.
'-- Pietro Guastamacchia (@ilpiotr) May 2, 2023The exhibition features several thought-provoking pieces, including one image that shows a soldier with his foot on a women's shoulder as he kicks a boat out to sea.
Malin Bj¶rk, an MEP for the Swedish Left Party, said of negative reactions: ''This confirms right-wing nationalist and conservative views when it comes to Christianity and LGBTI people.
''We will stand up for our LBGTI siblings.''
The exhibition is due to run until the end of this week and is only accessible to those working in the parliament or who are granted special accreditation to visit.
Ohlson frequently portrays LGBTQ+ people in her photography. In 2019, the Church of Sweden decided to remove her LGBTQ-inclusive altar piece, Paradise, after realising that some of the imagery could be interpreted as anti-trans.
At the time, the Church was criticised over the painting, which shows a trans woman in a tree holding a snake, associated with Satan in the Bible.
EU news: Brussels set for revolt as Netherlands plans to shut farms over EU laws | World | News |
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:24
Government is 'failing to support' British farmers says Tim FarronDutch farmers are in for a shock as their government has announced it will shut down between 2,000 and 3,000 farms across the country to cut on nitrogen levels as required under EU climate rules. According to an early draft of the plan, farmers will receive 120 percent of their farms' value.
Christianne van der Wal, nitrogen minister, told MPs on Friday: "There is no better offer coming."
But the move is set to infuriate farmers across the country amid already-strained relations between industry leaders and Mark Rutte's government.
Dutch farmers are the world's second-biggest exporters by value after the United States.
In order to adhere to climate change policies, dictated by the EU's Habitats Directive, by the European Court of Justice in 2019 and enhanced by the EU's Green Deal, Dutch farmers are facing hard decisions.
Emissions of phosphates and nitrogen from packed herds mean the country is almost surpassing the margins permitted by the EU regulations.
READ MORE: Russian POW baffled over Ukraine's 'anger' at Moscow
The Dutch government is closing down up to 3000 farms (Image: Getty)
Dutch farmers already protested in September over the plans (Image: Getty)
'NATO's door is open': Ukraine's huge boost as allies rally behind support for membershipUkraine has received a huge boost after NATO and its allies reaffirmed their commitment to the war-torn country one day becoming a member of the world's largest defence alliance.
What does it mean for Russia's invasion of Ukraine? Find out HERE.
A document leaked in September revealed that the Dutch government was thinking of buying out farmers in a compulsory manner.
The plans were dismissed by the government as a "last resort scenario" but they sparked controversy among the industry and now seem to be confirmed.
Dutch farmers blamed the government over the conundrum, arguing it is on the lookout to buy cheap land.
But Nexit enthusiasts are also increasingly pointing the finger at the EU.
Nexit campaigner Gabriel van de Bloemfontein told, the government is planning to use the land to buy new houses, strong of the "excuse" it can use thanks to EU regulations.
The EU expert said: "The Dutch government pretends to protect our nature by expropriating our farmers who have lived generations on their lands and who have provided for our food security for so long, while on the other hand our political elites welcome record numbers of asylum seekers to our country in 2022.
"They have found an excuse, namely reducing nitrogen emissions, so that houses can be build on these lands, inevitably for newcomers.
"As if the nitrogen emissions would disappear in this way. They just fool the public. Most Dutch people are sick and tired of our government's extreme left policies.
"It's no surprise that their seats have almost halved in the polls, and a party (PVV) that is in favour of leaving the EU and actually listens to what the normal people want is on top of the polls.
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"The roots of this problem, like many of our issues, are in the EU. Because of Natura 2000, which is EU law, our government justifies expropriating our farmers, to 'protect nature'.
"If we left the EU, we wouldn't have to abide by these rules that destroy the lives of ordinary hard-working Dutch citizens."
Sjaak van der Tak, the chairman of Farmers' lobby group LTO Nederland, said: ''Of course it is positive that a good voluntary stop scheme is being promised. But the stayers who are central to us will have many additional restrictions imposed.''
State of America's Libraries Report 2023 | News and Press Center
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:55
In 2022, the global COVID-19 pandemic entered its third year; political, economic and digital divides grew; and book challenges and bans surged across the country. ALA's Office for Intellectual Freedom tracked a record 1,269 book challenges, the highest number of demands to ban books reported since they began compiling data about censorship in libraries. But despite all these challenges, libraries thrived, pivoting to offer new and updated services to their communities. Adaptation and innovation shined in 2022, proving that there truly is ''more to the story'' at libraries.
2023 State of America's Libraries Report (PDF)
Over half of 2022's most challenged books have LGBTQ themes
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:53
As the nation's culture wars rage on in classrooms and libraries, attempts to ban books have reached a record high, and titles with LGBTQ themes remain top targets.
In its annual book censorship report, the American Library Association documented 1,269 challenges to more than 2,500 books in 2022, the highest number of attempted book bans since the association began tracking such efforts in 2001. It was a 75% jump from 2021, which held the previous record.
Of the 13 books that made the ALA's list of ''Most Challenged Books'' last year, seven titles '-- including three of the top four '-- were challenged for having LGBTQ content, the association found.
Deborah Caldwell-Stone, director of the American Library Association's Office for Intellectual Freedom, said the LGBTQ-heavy list ''sends a message of exclusion.''
''It's a way of telling young gay and transgender persons that they don't belong in school, that they don't belong to the community,'' she said. ''It sends a message to the LGBTQ community as a whole that they're not considered full citizens with full rights to participate in community institutions like the library.''
The ALA reported that, prior to 2020, the ''vast majority'' of challenges against books were made by individuals who sought to restrict access to a single book their child was reading. But the group found that 90% of last year's challenges were directed at multiple books and nearly a fifth of them were made by ''political/religious groups.''
The association cited this finding as ''evidence of a growing, well-organized, conservative political movement, the goals of which include removing books about race, history, gender identity, sexuality, and reproductive health from America's public and school libraries that do not meet their approval.''
A display of banned books at a Barnes & Noble book in Pittsford, N.Y., in September. Ted Shaffrey / APIn recent years, conservative lawmakers and activists have rallied around limiting LGBTQ issues being taught in schools, queer symbolism from being displayed in classrooms and transgender athletes from participating in school sports.
Just last week, the Florida Board of Education approved Gov. Ron DeSantis' request to expand the state's so-called Don't Say Gay law '-- which restricts the instruction of sexual orientation and gender identity in the state's public schools '-- to all grades. Previously, the law only explicitly applied to children in kindergarten through third grade.
Last year's most challenged book was the award-winning memoir ''Gender Queer,'' which also topped the ALA's 2021 list of most banned books.
The illustrated memoir '-- which chronicles nonbinary author Maia Kobabe's journey of self-identity '-- has faced unparalleled pushback from school boards and conservative activists around the country in recent years.
"When a book is removed from a library, or a library defunded, it impoverishes the whole community. Books can provide us with reflections of ourselves and windows into other's experiences," Kobabe said in an email. "I know Gender Queer has been both of these for different readers '' many of whom have reached out to me in hundreds of messages over the years."
In a previous interview with NBC News, Kobabe acknowledged that parts of their memoir may not be appropriate for elementary school children. However, the author said the book's straightforward accounts could be used to show readers an experience growing up outside of cisgender and heterosexual norms.
''It's very hard to hear people say, 'This book is not appropriate to young people,' when it's like, I was a young person for whom this book would have been not only appropriate, but so, so necessary,'' Kobabe said. ''There are a lot of people who are questioning their gender, questioning their sexuality and having a real hard time finding honest accounts of somebody else on the same journey. There are people for whom this is vital and for whom this could maybe even be lifesaving.''
Other titles at the top of the 2022 list include George M. Johnson's ''All Boys Aren't Blue,'' Toni Morrison's ''The Bluest Eye,'' Mike Curato's ''Flamer,'' John Green's ''Looking for Alaska'' and Stephen Chbosky's ''The Perks of Being a Wallflower.''
Caldwell-Stone said that the group of books '-- as with all books '-- should remain on shelves without ''fear or favor.''
''Everyone is entitled to find books that reflect their interests, their experiences, their backgrounds, their identities on the shelves of a publicly funded library that's there to serve everyone,'' she said.
White House Unveils Rules Targeting Journalists Who Refuse To Be 'Professional'
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:52
The White House released new requirements Friday outlining which journalists are allowed in the briefing room and presidential events, and warning about unprofessional behavior.
The new rules require journalists to submit a letter to gain access to the White House grounds with information about their employment, mandating that reporters work for ''an organization whose principal business is news dissemination.''
The rule change comes as the administration has been facing repeated outbursts in the briefing room from reporters like Simon Ateba, and comes days after World Press Freedom Day. Journalists have called out White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre for not giving fair representation in the briefing room and the Biden administration has faced criticism from the press corps over unfair access to White House events.
All current ''hard passes,'' which are used to gain access to the White House grounds and press briefings, will expire July 31.
The letter requires reporters to submit their physical address, a statement saying they have accessed the White House in the last six months and cover the White House ''on a regular basis,'' as well as proof of ''accreditation by a press gallery in either the Supreme Court, U.S. Senate or U.S. House of Representatives.''
Reporters will also have to state they have the willingness ''to submit to any necessary investigation by the U.S. Secret Service to determine eligibility for access to the White House complex, where Secret Service will determine eligibility based on whether the applicant presents a potential risk to the safety or security of the President, the Vice President, or the White House complex.''
The guidelines include a provision stating that journalists who have access to the White House maintain a ''professional manner,'' and not impede ''events or briefings'' on campus. Violators face the possibility of suspension.
Today News Africa reporter Simon Ateba (C) interrupts as White House Press Secretary Karine Jean-Pierre (not pictured), begins the daily press briefing in the Brady Press Briefing Room of the White House in Washington, DC, March 20, 2023. (Photo by SAUL LOEB / AFP) (Photo by SAUL LOEB/AFP via Getty Images)
''The White House expects that all hard pass holders will act in a professional manner while on White House grounds by respecting their colleagues, White House employees, and guests; observing stated restrictions on access to areas of the White House or credentialed events; and not impeding events or briefings on campus. Absent security concerns involving the United States Secret Service or other exigent circumstances, the White House will provide a written warning to you if your conduct violates these expectations. Subsequent violations may lead to the suspension or revocation of your hard pass , following notice and an opportunity to respond,'' the guidance states.
The Trump administration attempted to temporarily ban several reporters who had confrontations with administration staff. A federal appeals court ruled that journalist Brian Karem, who shared a heated exchange with Sebastian Gorka, did not have ''fair notice'' to have his credentials revoked.
Ateba, who interrupted several White House press briefings after not being called on for months, claimed the new rules stemming from the White House are due to his ''presence.''
''While I don't feel upset that the White House is making changes due to my presence, it is ironic that these modifications come shortly after President Biden declared that journalism is not a crime on World Press Freedom Day. It appears that if you excel at your job, both the WHCA and the White House may work together to target you. This situation exacerbates the public's lack of trust in the media and politicians in Washington,'' Ateba told the Daily Caller.
The White House did not immediately respond to the Caller about why they are making the changes to pass requirements at this time, but an official told the New York Post the rule change had been in the works ''for more than a year'' and is a product of ''feedback of journalists covering the White House.''
''As we return to these prior criteria, which help ensure hard passes are in the hands of reporters who need regular access to campus as part of their duties, we are providing a nearly 3-month window for reporters to turn in their applications and reach out with any questions. The criteria will apply evenly to everyone,'' the official said, according to the Post.
"Not My King": Anti-Monarchy Protesters Arrested During UK Coronation
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:35
The arrests came just days after UK police forces were granted new anti-protest powers.
London: UK police drew condemnation Saturday after arresting leading members of the anti-monarchy group Republic as they prepared to protest along the procession route for the coronation of King Charles III.
London's Metropolitan Police force detained six organisers from the pressure group and seized hundreds of their placards, Republic said.
Republic chief executive Graham Smith was among those detained near Trafalgar Square, before the group had a chance to wave the signs declaring "Not my king".
"The whole core team of Republic is still being detained," the group said on Twitter some seven hours after the arrests and well after the coronation ceremony. "Is this democracy?"
The Met tweeted that four people were held "on suspicion of conspiracy to cause public nuisance".
"We seized lock-on devices," it added, referring to newly outlawed contraptions used by demonstrators to attach themselves to each other, an object or the ground.
But the detentions prompted swift criticism from Human Rights Watch, which called the arrests "incredibly alarming".
"This is something you would expect to see in Moscow, not London," the rights organisation's UK director, Yasmine Ahmed, said in a statement.
"Peaceful protests allow individuals to hold those in power to account -- something the UK government seems increasingly averse to."
The arrests came just days after UK police forces were controversially granted new anti-protest powers by the government following years of disruptive demonstrations by environmental activists.
It expands protest-related offences to include locking-on and carrying lock-on devices, extends police stop and search powers, and allows for new court orders to prevent people from attending demonstrations.
Separately on Saturday, at least 19 members of Just Stop Oil were also arrested in central London, the environmental campaign group said in a statement.
An AFP reporter saw several activists being handcuffed by police on The Mall, the processional route from Buckingham Palace.
"Their intention was only to display T-shirts and flags. This is a massive authoritarian overreach," Just Stop Oil said, claiming that none of those arrested had "glue, paint or any plans to disrupt the coronation".
"New policing laws mean we're now living in a dystopian nightmare -- this disgraceful overreach is what you'd expect in Pyongyang, North Korea, not Westminster."
Reports said other protesters were detained, including a man allegedly held in St James's Park for carrying a megaphone.
"It could scare the horses," a police officer at the scene said, according to a Sky News television reporter present.
Amnesty International's chief executive Sacha Deshmukh said: "We need to see what details emerge around these incidents, but merely being in possession of a megaphone or carrying placards should never be grounds for a police arrest."
Republic, which wants Britain's constitutional monarchy replaced by an elected head of state, had been vocal about its protest plans, but Smith said this week that they had no plans to disrupt the procession.
Republic's director Harry Stratton, 30, said activists were carrying placards near Trafalgar Square when around 20 officers stopped and searched them.
"Graham and our volunteers asked why and they said 'we will find that out'," Stratton said. "After that they arrested them, saying 'we are seizing all these placards'."
A camera crew from the group Alliance of European Republican Movements asked a senior police officer why they were being held.
"They're under arrest. End of," the officer replied, according to footage posted on Twitter.
The Met, which this week had vowed "low tolerance for any disruption", tweeted that officers made "a number of arrests" as part of its "significant police operation".
Dubbed "Golden Orb", it deployed 11,500 officers on Saturday as well as facial-recognition technology that civil liberties organisations branded "authoritarian".
The detentions infuriated the scores of other demonstrators who rallied near The Mall as well as in Trafalgar Square.
"This bill is all so wrong so, yeah, I don't feel like celebrating anything today," Eva Smeeth, 19, told AFP, holding a placard bearing the slogan "abolish the monarchy not the right to protest".
(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)
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Google engineer, 31, jumps to his death from the 14th floor tech company's NYC headquarters | Daily Mail Online
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:12
A Google engineer, 31, jumped to his death from the 14th floor of the company's New York City headquarters The man, who has not been publicly identified, was found on the ground on the 15th Street side of the building around 11.30pm By Alyssa Guzman For Dailymail.Com
Published: 09:53 EDT, 5 May 2023 | Updated: 10:47 EDT, 5 May 2023
A Google engineer, 31, jumped to his death from the 14th floor of the company's New York City headquarters.
The man, who has not been publicly identified, was found on the ground on the 15th Street side of the building around 11.30pm on Thursday.
Police received multiple phone calls about the incident and authorities said he was found unconscious. He was rushed to Bellevue Hospital, where he was later pronounced dead.
Officers found handprints on the 14th-floor ledge, where an open-air terrace is located, sources told the New York Post.
There was no suicide note left behind, according to the Post.
A Google engineer, 31, has jumped to his death from the 14th floor of the company's New York City headquarters (pictured) has contacted Google for comment.
This is the second Google employee to reportedly take their own life as fellow coworker Jacob Pratt, 33, was found dead inside his apartment on February 16.
Pratt appeared to have hanged himself, an NYPD source told the New York Post.
According to his LinkedIn, Pratt was a partnership leader at the company and had been for a year and a half. He started at Google as an agency manager in May 2019.
'His interests in advertising and technology lead him to a dream job as an accounting manager at Google in Manhattan,' his obituary said.
Their deaths came shortly after Google laid off roughly 12,000 of its global workforce. It is unclear if face a job threat.
Google's parent company Alphabet axed 12,000 jobs in the latest savage round of white collar layoffs sweeping across the tech sector.
The man, who has not been publicly identified, was found laying on the ground on the 15th Street side of the building around 11.30pm on Thursday. Police were seen actively working
He was found unconscious and was rushed to Bellevue Hospital, where he was later pronounced dead
Sundar Pichai, Alphabet's CEO, said the losses affect teams across the company including recruiting and some corporate functions, as well as some engineering and products teams.
The mass reduction comes just days after rival Microsoft Corp said it would lay off 10,000 workers, and Amazon started to fire its 18,000 workers as the 'richcession' rips through the world's biggest firms in recent months.
The most in-demand workers right now are blue collar employees, while white-collar workers have seen major job losses in the last year.
The phenomenon has been dubbed 'richcession' by those in the field.
If you are experiencing suicidal thoughts or actions, please call the National Suicide Hotline at 988.
Tennis Legend Martina Navratilova: ''Women's Sports Is NOT THE PLACE for Trans Athletes'' '' Summit News
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:05
A London University has been criticised for removing the word 'woman' from it's maternity policy and declaring that maternity, as well as the menopause, applies to ''all genders''.
The University of the Arts London (UAL) implemented the wording in its policies a year ago, but the move has attracted attention since the institution began virtue signalling about it on social media and its own website.
University of the Arts London Vice Chancellor James Purnell wrote in a LinkedIn post in October 2022, ''At UAL, we are introducing equal parental leave. Every new parent will be entitled to six months at full pay,'' adding ''It is fair to every kind of parent, of whatever gender or sex, or sexual orientation, whether adopting or not.''
In a further press release, the University noted that it's maternity and menopause policies apply ''irrespective of gender, sexual orientation or how people become parents.''
The policy itself states, ''we wish to affirm in our use of language in this letter that not all pregnant people are women and thereby acknowledge trans, non-binary, gender-queer and gender fluid pregnant people and parents.''
In updated menopause policies, the university notes that it ''may also be experienced by colleagues who do not identify as female.''
''UAL recognizes that menopause may also be experienced by colleagues who do not identify as female, so this guidance and support content is intended to support anyone experiencing menopause, regardless of their gender identity,'' the university asserts.
For every ounce of hormonal suffering, bleeding, pain, severe illness during pregnancies, emergency c-sections to save me and my babies' lives, peri-menopausal symptoms that I have gone through as a woman' mean to tell me that you are now just offering up the same
'-- SIJK (@irwosina) May 4, 20232' someone because they say they are a woman? Enough is enough. We women need to fight back for the rights that universities like this are giving away so frivolously.
'-- SIJK (@irwosina) May 4, 2023Conservative MP Jonathan Gullis charged that UAL has abandoned ''basic biology.''
''It is disturbing that a university does not understand the basics of biology'... I hope [it] will stop this pathetic woke nonsense,'' Gullis commented.
Toby Young, the director of the think tank Free Speech Union, told the Daily Mail that the university ''has become so pickled in woke gobbledegook it's becoming a bit of a joke. I hope it can correct course before it goes bankrupt.''
Young added that ''Nearly all these institutions are publicly funded, yet all the polling indicates the public are overwhelmingly opposed to this nonsense.''
''Nearly all these institutions are publicly funded, yet all the polling indicates the public are overwhelmingly opposed to this nonsense.'' University accused of 'woke gobbledegook' after cutting the word 'woman' from maternity leave policy | Daily Mail
'-- Toby Young (@toadmeister) May 4, 2023As we have previously highlighted, Britain's National Health Service has also been accused of 'erasing' women, after it removed all references to women from an online advice section about the menopause, and altered its guidance pages on ovarian cancer, removing instances of the word ''women'' in a move they claimed was intended to be more ''inclusive'' toward trans, non-binary and intersex people.
Additionally, a Freedom of Information Act request revealed last year that just 29 of the 124 NHS hospitals in England with maternity units still exclusively use the words ''woman'' or ''mother'' to refer to pregnancy, while all the others include terms such as ''birthing people'' or ''pregnant people.''
The NHS was previously accused of over-diagnosing sex change treatment for children over fears of being branded ''transphobic,'' and has since appeared to change track, warning that gender confusion in kids ''may be a transient phase, particularly for pre-pubertal children.''
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Penny Mordaunt's paedo brother sentenced for sending sick pics to kids at the same time as MP gives address in Commons | The Sun
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:04
PERV SNARED Published : 17:08, 8 Sep 2022 Updated : 18:22, 8 Sep 2022 PENNY Mordaunt's brother escaped jail today after he admitted sexual activity with an undercover cop posing online as a 14-year old girl.
Edward Mordaunt, 44, was sentenced to six months in prison, suspended for two years, at the very moment his elder sister, and Liz Truss's new Leader of the House of Commons, made a statement in Parliament.
Edward Mordaunt leaves court this afternoon after his sentencing Credit: Ben LackMordaunt downloaded a social media messaging app and entered a chat forum called UK Teens Are Cool before sending private texts to other users in February.
He created a profile for 'Eddie F' and adopted the username ALevelsinLeeds before first exchanging messages with a police officer posing as a 12-year-old.
He told her he was a 42-year-old man and in one message wrote: ''Oh wow, you are a little cutie aren't you?''
The judge said in court: ''As a result of the job performed by your sibling, who is a member of Parliament, it is said the way the CPS has approached your case is somewhat different to that of other offenders.
''I don't believe that has merit.
''I sit here daily and view many of the cases to enter the court.
"As far as I can see your case has not been dealt with in anyway inappropriately or significantly different to any other defendant charged with a similar offence.''
The court heard Mordaunt said he worked in finance, was married and asked her to send him a video to verify her identity before telling her he loved her accent, Leeds Crown Court was told.
The chartered surveyor logged on again at the end of April and began messaging what he thought was a 14-year-old girl called Elle who was, in fact, another undercover cop.
Katherine Robinson, prosecuting, said: ''In her profile picture she was wearing a white shirt and dark tie depicting a school uniform.
''The officer again used the forum UK Teens For Chat and engaged the members in a chat about school.
''Mordaunt sent a request to private message Elle and was accepted. The defendant identified he was an adult male and over the next three weeks engaged on numerous occasions.''
He told her she was ''sexy'' and made him ''hot'' and suggested meeting up to ''get her off'' - before offering to set up a sugar baby account for her.
MP'S PAEDO BROTHERMordaunt sent photos and videos to the undercover cop of his penis and told her he was deleting the Kik app on a daily basis because he was married.
Ms Robinson added: ''He says he shouldn't be speaking to her and says it is wrong for him to speak to someone of her age.
''He says he hopes he won't get into trouble and says he has the hots for her before asking if she has done anything with a guy before - indicating full sex.
''The conversations end in May and the defendant is arrested and interviewed."
You said you wanted to take her away somewhere
Judge Guy Kearl Mordaunt pleaded guilty to engaging in sexual activity with a child at a previous Magistrates' Court hearing in relation to the 14-year-old.
The prosecution offered no evidence following his chats with the cop posing as a 12-year-old because the messages exchanged were not of a sexual nature.
Recorder of Leeds, Judge Guy Kearl, said: ''You sent images and clips and made comments of a sexual nature and discussed meeting in person.
''You continued to flirt and flatter the person you thought was a 14-year-old. You agreed to meet with her to help her engage in sexual behaviour.
''You agreed to drive to Sunderland to meet her and provide her with money.
''No doubt intended as an encouragement.
''You told her you thought she was sexy and made you hot. You said you wanted to take her away somewhere.
''You asked her to lie to find the time to go with you.
''Whilst you have or had marital differences which may have contributed to your offending behaviour there is also a link to your sexual interest and sexual interaction towards teenage females.''
PERV SNAREDThe judge said he had no previous convictions but was a well educated man with a degree and a masters who had since been sacked by a firm of chartered surveyors.
Sentencing him to a suspended six month sentence he ordered Mordaunt to carry out 150 hours of community service.
He also addressed claims that Mordaunt had been dealt with ''unusually'' swiftly by the Crown Prosecution Service after his initial arrest before suggesting he had deliberately been ''less than frank'' with the police.
The Judge ordered Mordaunt - described as being at a medium risk of reoffending - to observe a seven year sexual harm prevention order before telling him that if he returned to court he would be sent straight to prison.
Penny Mordaunt talking in Parliament as her brother was sentenced 3
Edward Mordaunt, 44, was sentenced to six months in prison, suspended for two years Credit: PA:Press Association
Why was Penny Mordaunt involved in the coronation ceremony? | Lifestyle | Independent TV
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:04
On an already historic day for the United Kingdom, Penny Mordaunt made history becoming the first woman to present the Jewelled Sword of Offering to King Charles during his coronation.
As Lord President of the Privy Council, Penny Mordaunt was tasked with bringing to King Charles the priceless sword made for George IV's 1821 coronation.
During a part of the royal ceremony, Penny Mordaunt retrieved the sword from the Dean of Westminster and exchanged it for the redemption money, contained in a decorated satchel.
Finally, she drew the sword and carried it without its sheath before the monarch for the rest of the service effectively becoming a central part of the historic royal ceremony.
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Overemployed - Work Two Remote Jobs, Reach Financial Freedom
Sun, 07 May 2023 12:57
Overemployed is a community of professionals looking to work two remote jobs, earn extra income, and achieve financial freedom. Be free from office politics and layoffs. Instead, improve your mental health and negotiate a severance. Join us.
Latest ArticlesHow much money is enough to live a happier life working multiple remote jobs? Learn the three simple ways to be a happier 'OE' practitioner. ['...]
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Why Are You Here? To Learn How to Work Two Remote Jobs At The Same TimeLet's admit it. You're intrigued. Why not make more money while having job security? Learn how I got started.
Oh, darn those screen savers!Recommend reading the ideal two-job candidate and why tech before going any further. If you're already in tech, then you know layoffs, like pooping, happens '' you're gonna get laid off. Why not go on the offensive and work two remote jobs at once? Finally, turn your job search into a team sport, follow our repeatable process which reduces the time required to land high-paying remote jobs. See how your job search meets tech sales '' automate your job search while targeting curated top remote companies with the guidance of your own Overemployed sherpa.
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Fear Of The Unknown Holding You BackI love what this Reddit user has to say about the fear (lighted edited for readability).
Batmanbury '' Software Engineer
This topic of working two full-time remote jobs interests me, as I'm sure it also interests others who claim those doing two jobs should be worried. Even though I haven't managed to swing two full-time remote jobs, I'd be lying if I haven't thought about it. I mostly do contract work on the side because I've some free time. I suspect there's a mix of opinions for a variety of reasons:
Fear being caughtThink it's ''wrong''Signed non-competes barring two jobs, so think others shouldn't try it eitherHave a very busy job already and can't imagine doing two jobsWant to work two jobs but can't stomach the risks, so neither should othersI'd really like to learn more about the day-to-day situation:
How did you think about doing two jobs when you first started?What strategies have you developed to keep things running smoothly on both ends?Has any coworkers or boss at either of the full-time jobs found out and did they care?Have you ever considered changing jobs but then decided against a certain role because it'd be too much work and you wouldn't be able to pull this off anymore?Are you overestimating tasks so you could manage expectations? Or, is task estimation not a normal part of your workflows?Are You Still Reading? You're Ready To Work Two Remote Jobs At OnceIt's OK that these questions are flying through your head. Start planning. Ask the community.
Let me be upfront. Everyone's situation and risk tolerance are different. For those tired of working under the yoke of layoffs and promises of promotions, the two-job hustle is for you. Having two jobs gives you the income security to take risks and achieve the outcomes you desire. In many ways, Overemployed is a counterculture movement and American Dream, except now globally available and accessible.
In addition to the added financial security, having two jobs will sharpen your technical and professional acumen, making you more valuable in the gig economy later on. All of this is to say, the pros outweigh the cons, especially for inexperienced and mid-career professionals. What's the worst that could happen? Ok, so you get fired and need to look for another job. Oh wait, you're already a pro at landing remote jobs!
Pros And Cons To Working Two Remote JobsFirst, make sure you've got the self-discipline and communications skills to handle two full-time remote jobs, including being a master in setting low expectations. Else, burnouts will happen. Second, you'll need to accept average-to-above average performance in one job (the one you consider your primary job) and mediocre-to-subpar performance in the other job. Over the long term, this may have implications for your career and professional network. If you want to sit in the C-suite, then you should focus on one job and be a superstar. But if you don't care about a potentially unhappy boss or workplace politics, then this path is for you '' a double income and early financial freedom.
Working Two Remote Jobs Seasonally For 3-6 MonthsFor those considering working two jobs in short stints between jobs, you should be fine. There's a small unknown risk of how your next employer would perceive your hustle '' assuming you had to list both employers on your resume or else there would be too much of a gap. The good news is there are many explanations, like being a leave of absence for education or military service. For all we know, you could be on an extended severance package that kept you on the payroll. The list of excuses is endless. If pressed, you can tell the truth '' you wanted to tie up some loose ends at the old job before resigning, and there wasn't any conflict of interests. In the end, I don't think your next employer would care, not unless you were aiming higher up in the career ladder close to the C-suite.
Working Two Remote Jobs Over 12 MonthsFor those planning to do two jobs long-term (bless you), such as rotating jobs but constantly have two full-time jobs at any given time, then you should list on your resume only the jobs that were sequential to each other so as to avoid unnecessary scrutiny into your over-employment.
Working Two Remote Jobs To Raise Seed MoneyFinally, for those using the two-job hustle as fundraising for your business, then all the power to you. If you're successful, chances are you won't go back to being employed again any time soon. But when you do, it'd be so long ago that no one would care you worked two jobs at the same time.
Commit To A New Lifestyle '' Forever Work From HomeI'll say it again, everyone's situation is different. You need knowledge (often trade secrets) to smartly navigate working two jobs at the same time. Overemployed helps you make clear decisions and accomplish life goals. But more than anything else, we're building a community to give the man the middle finger for screwing us over when the layoff Grinch shows up. Power to the little people!
Live long and prosper 🖖
Classical '-- Veritas Preparatory School
Sun, 07 May 2023 00:47
What is Classical Education? Classical education, or liberal arts education, is perhaps the greatest inheritance of Western culture.At its core, education is deciding and passing on the way we should live to the next generation. Classical education believes that a respect (piety) for our parents and culture is essential to deep learning, and that learning how to love, feel, and think rightly is the essence of the right way to live. Through all that we do, students are trained in the ''arts of freedom'' or the liberal arts. Both the verbal arts - grammar, logic, and rhetoric - and the mathematical arts - arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy - lead the learner to contemplate God through the study of philosophy and theology. Ultimately, we pray that the fully-trained, graduating students have been discipled to love and imitate God and His works, which are good, true, and beautiful, and to scorn and desire to set to rights all that is amiss in themselves and our fallen world.
The Abolition of Man by C.S. Lewis- The best concise criticism of ''data-based'' and deconstructionist modern education, Lewis sets out to show how traditional education trains up real humans, instead of ''men without chests.''
The Trivium by Sister Miriam Joseph '' This book is an essential reference for all of us as teachers and parents in classical schools. Sister Joseph lays out not only what the verbal arts are, but also gives a condensed reference of the arts in action, including a helpful primer of grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
Desiring the Kingdom by James K. Smith '' Smith argues that human beings are primarily ''loving'' creatures rather than "thinking" ones, meaning any true education has to re-orient and re-order the desires of our hearts if we are to truly be transformed. He follows Socrates and Augustine in this line of thinking that humane education is primarily the task of bringing right order to the disordered soul and mind. We must learn to love what is True and desire the Creator whose Beauty and Goodness flows out into His creation.
Range by David Epstein and In Defense of a Liberal Education by Fareed Zakaria - These two works together paint a picture of the value of a broad, classical education in a world that is increasingly specializing younger and younger. Whether in school, sports, career, or music, there is an increasing pressure to go narrow and deep instead of broad with range. At Veritas we believe that a well-rounded and diverse classical education in the liberal arts and sciences allows students invaluable ''sampling time'' when young to learn more who God has gifted them to be.
FDA Issues Emergency Warning for 500,000 COVID Tests
Sat, 06 May 2023 15:33
The FDA issued a warning to consumers on Thursday to stop using a certain COVID-19 at-home test due to the potential for bacterial contamination in the product's liquid solution.
In a bulletin, the FDA warned consumers and medical care providers ''to stop using and toss out certain lots of recalled SD Biosensor, Inc. Pilot COVID-19 At-Home Tests, distributed by Roche Diagnostics.''
The agency said it has ''significant concerns of bacterial contamination'' in the liquid solution that comes with the kit. ''Direct contact with the contaminated liquid solution may pose safety concerns and the bacterial contamination could impact the performance of the test,'' the FDA said, issuing a ''do no use'' warning to users.
The FDA said that the product could be contaminated by Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Serratia bacterial species. Infection from those types of bacteria could cause illness in individuals with weakened immune systems or those who have direct exposure to the contaminated liquid test solution via misuse, accidental spills, or ''standard handling'' of the product.
Aside from developing an infection, the contaminated products may also produce ''false-negative'' or ''false-positive'' antigen test results, the FDA said, which could lead to a variety of problems. For example, according to the FDA, a false-negative test could result in an individual seeking treatment for COVID-19.
SD Biosensor has initiated the recall for the at-home tests to certain retailers across the United States, according to the FDA announcement.
Some 500,000 tests were distributed through CVS Pharmacy as well as about 16,000 tests that were sent via Amazon. It's not clear how many were sold to consumers, the FDA said, adding that it is ''working with Roche'' to determine the number.
Recall Notice '' SD Biosensor, Inc. Requests Discontinuation of Use and Disposal of Specific Pilot' COVID-19 At-Home Tests in the United States Due to Microbial Contamination in the Liquid Buffer Solution
'-- U.S. FDA Recalls (@FDArecalls) May 5, 2023
''Importantly, none of the impacted lots were distributed through '' Free at-home COVID-19 tests or as part of other federal testing programs,'' the agency said. ''If you received your tests through the distribution or as part of other federal testing programs, they are not subject to this safety communication or product recall.''
Roche RespondsRoche, in a statement, said that the recalled test kits can be identified by the lot number on the product's outer packaging. A list of affected lot numbers is available on Roche's website.
It also issued a warning to consumers on what to do'--and what not to do'--with the recalled kits.
''Dispose of the entire test kit in the household trash,'' it advised. ''Do not pour the liquid down the drain.''
The company then warned that ''direct exposure to the liquid in the tube through misuse or spillage could potentially lead to serious illness.'' However, no such illnesses have been reported, the statement said.
''If the liquid in the tube contacts your skin and eyes, flush with large amounts of water and if irritation persists, seek medical attention,'' the company added. ''Individuals performing the self-test may run the risk of direct contact with the contaminated liquid in the tube,'' Roche also said.
It added: ''The liquid is contained in an individual, ready-to-use, pre-filled and sealed tube, but a user may inadvertently come in direct contact with the contaminated liquid during opening the tube or handling of the open tube or while performing the test.''
Evie Baik, a spokesperson for SD Biosensor, told CBS News that the contamination may have come from raw materials from one of their suppliers. The spokesman didn't elaborate.
''To date, no such illness has been reported, and to date, no impact on performance has been confirmed,'' Baik said.
The FDA said it is now reviewing the SD Biosensor test kit recall and is working to classify the recall risk. The agency will now work with SD Biosensor to assess the company's actions to address the reason for bacterial contamination and to figure out how to resolve the incident.
According to Roche's website and the FDA, the kit was approved via the FDA's emergency use authorization process but hasn't been fully cleared or approved by the federal regulator.
Dutch farmers could be paid to close their livestock farms under new scheme | Euronews
Sat, 06 May 2023 14:24
The EU has approved a '‚¬1.5 billion scheme to buy out Dutch farmers and reduce nitrogen emissions.
The EU has approved plans for the Dutch government to buy out farmers.
The scheme is part of the Netherlands' plan to drastically slash nitrogen emissions, a major source of which is livestock farms.
Farmers in the Netherlands have been staging protests over emissions reduction targets since October 2019.
Nearly '‚¬1.5 billion will be used to compensate farmers who voluntarily close farms located near nature reserves. Some 3,000 farms are expected to be eligible.
The Dutch ruling coalition wants to cut emissions, predominantly nitrogen oxide and ammonia, by 50 per cent nationwide by 2030.
Why does the Netherlands want to close down farms?Despite its small size, the Netherlands is the world's second-biggest exporter of agricultural products by value behind the US.
Dutch agricultural exports were worth '‚¬122.3 billion last year, according to the national statistics office.
Intensive farming has left the small nation with higher nitrogen oxide levels than EU regulations allow. These emissions worsen climate change and can harm biodiversity.
In recent years, government proposals to cut nitrogen emissions have included reducing livestock numbers by a third. Some farmers feared they would face compulsory buyouts to achieve this goal.
The recently approved voluntary strategy involves buying up and halting work at farms responsible for large-scale emissions of nitrogen.
On Tuesday (2 May), the country received confirmation from the European Commission that the plans are permissible under state aid rules.
''The schemes will improve the environment conditions in those areas and will promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly production in the livestock sector, without unduly distorting competition,'' said Margrethe Vestager, Executive Vice-President in charge of competition policy, in a statement approving the aid.
What do farmers think about the buyout scheme?Agricultural organisation LTO said buyouts must be ''designed in such a way that they really offer farmers who stop voluntarily the opportunity to properly end their business.''
The organisation also called for ''transition schemes'' that would allow farmers to reduce nitrogen emissions using methods such as technical innovation or switching to other agricultural activities.
''This is the only way farmers can make an informed and well-considered decision about their future,'' LTO said.
A pro-agriculture political party won Dutch provincial elections in March, underscoring the depth of discontent among farmers fuelled by the nitrogen reduction plans. The Dutch central government has tasked provincial legislatures with formulating and implementing exact proposals to reduce nitrogen emissions.
Farmers held several large demonstrations, blocking highways and supermarket warehouses last year to protest the reforms that they cast as an existential threat to their way of life.
The demonstrations have also spread to neighbouring Belgium, where hundreds of farmers drove their tractors into downtown Brussels last month to protest plans to cut nitrogen pollution.
How 'peer contagion' plays into the rise of teens transitioning
Sat, 06 May 2023 14:19
In the last decade, diagnosis of ''gender dysphoria'' '-- severe discomfort in one's biological sex '-- has exploded across the West.
Between 2016 and 2017, the number of gender surgeries for natal females in the US quadrupled; in the UK, the rates of gender dysphoria for teenage girls are up 4,400 percent over the previous decade. An ailment that typically began in early childhood, and overwhelmingly afflicted males, suddenly has a new dominant demographic: teenage girls.
In 2016, Brown University public health researcher Lisa Littman was scrolling through social media when she noticed that a group of teen girls from her small town in Rhode Island '-- all from the same friend group '-- had come out as transgender.
Intrigued by the statistical unlikelihood, Littman began to study the phenomenon and, in 2018, published the results. She hypothesized that transgender identification had become one more peer contagion among adolescent females. Anxiety-ridden, middle-class girls who once engaged in cutting or anorexia were now wearing ''binders'' (breast-compressing undergarments), taking testosterone and undergoing voluntary double mastectomies
I have interviewed over four dozen families whose teen daughters became caught in this current. Their stories follow a pattern: A girl never expresses any discomfort with her biological sex until puberty, when anxiety and depression descend. The girl struggles to make friends. She immerses in social media and discovers transgender gurus. Or her school holds an assembly celebrating gender journeys, or hosts a Gay-Straight Alliance club pushing gender ideology. At first, she tries out a new name and pronouns. Her school encourages her, keeping all this a secret from her parents. Then, she wants more.
So many women were once ''tomboys,'' as I was '-- inhabiting femininity itchily, like the floral dress your mother made you wear. But ''tomboy'' doesn't exist anymore, as any teenage girl will tell you. In its place is an endless litany of gender categories, from ''agender'' to ''non-binary,'' ''gender fluid'' to ''trans.'' Imperfectly feminine girls are encouraged to consider their options.
As author J.K. Rowling recently wrote in a blog post that caused an uproar (but had many women nodding their heads): ''If I'd found community and sympathy online that I couldn't find in my immediate environment [as a teen], I believe I could have been persuaded to turn myself into the son my father had openly said he'd have preferred.''
I've spent the last year meeting transgender adults, trans-identifying teens and their parents, as well as experts in gender dysphoria, gender therapists, public school teachers, gender surgeons, endocrinologists and detransitioners '-- young women who medically transitioned to the opposite sex, only to regret it.
Between 2016 and 2017, the number of gender surgeries for females transitioning to males in the US quadrupled. Getty ImagesWhile studies of detransitioners are only now being done, and numbers are hard to obtain, the ''detrans'' group on Reddit has nearly 13,000 members.
One detransitioner, Desmond, said her use of testosterone brought on severe uterine pain and necessitated a hysterectomy. ''No one really helped me at that point,'' she said. ''They were so easy to the pushing of hormones, of putting the thought of surgery in my head, of 'Yes, this will make you happier, this will make your life easier, this will get rid of your depression, this will help you become your true self' rather than treating it as a way of escaping myself before really coming to terms and finding my true self again.''
Our culture has both made womanhood less appealing and also greased the skids toward social and medical transition for confused teens in genuine pain. Public schools peddle gender ideology with a fervor that would make a preacher blush. Transgender social-media gurus tout the euphoria testosterone produces, and Planned Parenthood is one of the largest suppliers of testosterone '-- and they do apprise of the risks, but on an ''informed consent'' basis. (Meaning, no therapist note is required and you leave the clinic with a very serious drug based essentially on the patient's self-diagnosis.) Hundreds of plastic surgeons are happy to offer medically unnecessary double-mastectomies to girls as young as 16 without so much as a therapist's note.
Teens today spend far less time in person with friends than any previous generation. Most of their social life occurs online, where feelings of inadequacy run wild and the challenge of making and keeping ''friends'' never lets up. One of the surest ways to win friends and followers is by declaring a glamorous new gender identity, and so they do. Anything to feel lonely no more.
But for many of these girls, the new identity provides no cure. The distress that catalyzed their gender journeys remains. There is no hack for adolescence. We push and scream through its blinding confusion because there is no choice but to grow up.
Abigail Shrier is the author of ''Irreversible Damage: The Transgender Craze Seducing Our Daughters'' (Regnery), out Tuesday.
EU approves controversial Dutch farm buy-out plan to meet climate goals
Sat, 06 May 2023 14:12
The Netherlands has been given the go-ahead to start buying out thousands of farmers' businesses in a bid to meet the European Union mandate on climate goals.
Under the '‚¬1.47 billion (£1.3 billion) plan, entire farms located near nature reserves could be purchased by the government, with hundreds more farmers compensated for voluntarily closing their operations.
It forms part of the Hague's wider strategy for slashing nitrogen emissions in half by 2030 to comply with EU targets.
On Tuesday, the European Commission approved the Dutch government's proposals under the bloc's state aid rules.
Brussels ruled that the buy-outs would not give farmers who receive them an unfair leg-up against international competitors on the Single Market and thus violate EU regulations.
Justifying the move earlier this year, Christianne van der Wal, minister of nature and nitrogen policy, said that the Netherlands had to cut nitrogen emissions from farms to build new housing and produce green energy.
''There will first have to be nitrogen cuts before there is room for new development such as new houses and sustainable energy investments. It is our economic lockdown,'' she said. ''My message is not the message [farmers] want to hear.''
She has previously described the scheme as ''wildly attractive''.
Farmers operating near nature conservation areas will be offered 120 per cent of the value of their company if they agree to close their operations and promise not to restart elsewhere in the country or within the EU.
About 3,000 farmers who are considered among the country's highest polluting have been identified under the scheme.
Dairy, pig and poultry farmers will be offered 100 per cent of their company's value if they agree to close under a similar programme.
Protests from farmersDutch farmers have been on a collision course with the government for more than a year, while it grappled with the consequences of forcing its lucrative agricultural industry to cut emissions.
Protests against the climate-change targets have often turned violent, with manure and blazing hay bales used to block highways and supermarket distribution centres, leading to empty shelves on numerous occasions.
In March, Mark Rutte, the long-serving prime minister, received a major defeat in the regional elections as a farmers' protest party scored a victory.
At risk of being undercutDespite its small size, The Netherlands is one of the world's agricultural powerhouses, being only second to the United States as a food producer and agricultural exporter.
Its farmers have argued that the new climate change rules placed them at risk of being undercut by cheap foreign imports.
They also complained that agriculture was being unfairly targeted compared with other polluting sectors such as transport.
The Dutch government has earmarked '‚¬25 billion (£22 billion) to tackle nitrogen emissions, including compulsory buyouts and payments for reducing livestock numbers.
The courts have blocked an increasing number of construction projects designed to ease the country's housing crisis until nitrogen levels have been reduced.
'Improve the environment'Brussels decided the Dutch plan did not amount to a breach of the bloc's state aid rules, which have been significantly loosened as a result of the interventions made by European governments during the coronavirus pandemic.
Margrethe Vestager, a vice-president of the European Commission, said the plan would lead to the ''voluntary closure'' of those farms most responsible for nitrogen emissions.
''The schemes will improve the environment conditions in those areas, and will promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly production in the livestock sector, without unduly distorting competition,'' she said.
The EU's approval of the scheme, which runs until February 2028, will last as long as Dutch farmers agree to a ''definitive'' closure of their operations.
The exact conditions for the buyout scheme will be published by the end of the month, with the government also exploring targeting other industries amid uproar from farmers.
Michael Moore announces end of Traverse City Film Festival after nearly 20 years -
Sat, 06 May 2023 14:00
NewsPublished: May. 03, 2023, 9:54 a.m.Michael Moore sits in his seat on stage during the live filming of MSNBC's All In America: Michael Moore in Trump Country at Factory Two on Tuesday, Sept. 11, 2018 in Flint. (Kaiti Sullivan | Kaiti Sullivan,
TRAVERSE CITY, MI -- The curtain has closed on the Traverse City Film Festival after nearly 20 years.
Festival founder and Oscar-winning filmmaker Michael Moore announced the decision to end the festival Tuesday night in an email sent to supporters of the festival. Moore said that even though last year's festival was ''one of our best festivals ever'' it was time to put an end to the yearly event.
''We've decided, after much heartfelt discussion, that it's best to close this era of the film fest now while we're ahead, no longer in debt, and go out on top with many years of fond memories that we will all collectively cherish for the rest of our lives,'' Moore wrote.
The decision to end the festival was made by the TCFF board which Moore said unanimously voted in support of shutting down the festival. Moore said the members -- which according to the TCFF website include actors Jeff Daniels and Terry George, musician Tom Morello and filmmaker Mark Cousins -- will now shift to work on other projects that ''are necessary for the times we find ourselves in.''
However, Moore went on to say the TCFF will continue to focus on supporting two of the theaters used in the festival, the State Theater and Bijou by the Bay.
''We will redouble our efforts and focus our attention on building back a post-pandemic audience and continue to provide great movies at these beautiful venues 365 days a year '-- creating, in essence, a permanent 'year-round TCFF,''' Moore wrote.
The TCFF began in 2005 and ran yearly with the exception of 2020 and 2021 when the festival was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2021, the festival received a $1 million grant to restart the yearly event as part of a government program to help entertainment venues coming out of the pandemic.
'Forget Chicago!' Reader's Digest suggests this 'underrated' Michigan city instead
Barge stuck in Grand Traverse Bay for nearly two years finally floats
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Andrew Huberman: Smartphones Lower Your Sperm Count
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:54
Home Health Want Kids? Stop Putting Your Phone Here
Andrew Huberman says electromagnetic radiation from your device can lower your sperm count.
It's not hard to see why Andrew Huberman's podcast Huberman Lab has racked up over two million YouTube subscribers. The neuroscientist and Stanford University professor has a knack for distilling complex health issues into easy-to-understand, no-nonsense advice that can help you live a longer, higher-quality life.
We happen to be all about that pursuit over here at The Edge , which is why he try to stay plugged into Huberman's guidance.
On Tuesday, Huberman posted a teaser video for his latest Huberman Lab episode, which is all about both male and female fertility. But in particular, when it comes to dudes, he backs up a widespread belief that the cell phone warming up your pants may do harm to your overall fertility level.
''You might have heard that carrying your phone in your pocket can reduce your testosterone levels and your sperm count. And guess what? That is true,'' Huberman says in the video.
Huberman points to meta-analyses suggesting that this isn't simply an old wives' tale. The scientific literature clearly indicates that a smartphone left in a pants pocket may disrupt male hormones, along with fertility, he says.
Why does this matter? As Huberman notes, even if you're not actively trying to have kids, ''optimizing for fertility is the best way to optimize for vitality and longevity.'' In other words, the more fertile you are, the greater the likelihood that you're better off generally, too.
So what's the takeaway? Huberman isn't unrealistic enough to think you'll be ditching your smartphone, or any cell phone, for good.
But he has some sensible pointers: If you're a man, and especially if you're trying to conceive, avoid putting your cell phone in your front pocket. And hey, it is winter, so you might be better off sliding that internet-connected device into a jacket pocket for quick referencing, anyway.
Ideally, Huberman says, you should keep your smartphone ''as far away from your body as possible,'' including even when the Wi-Fi or cell signal are turned off. That's because the heat coming off the phone, while it might be so minor that you don't even notice it, can reduce sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm quality'--and it may even be the culprit behind dropping testosterone levels. Reports from the National Library of Medicine and the Environmental Working Group have emphasized that there is a link in research between electromagnetic radiation (EMR), such as from a phone, and lower male fertility.
''If you've been carrying your phone in your front pocket for some years now, don't despair,'' Huberman adds on a positive note. ''The negative effects are likely reversible over time.''
Can dairy cows help fight climate change? The answer may surprise some
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:50
for the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy
Hard-working farmers tend to the land and their herds every day to produce fresh, nutrient-dense dairy foods to fuel our bodies and support healthy immune systems.
Dairy farmers have made progress towards lowering emissions and conserving natural resources. As the climate crisis worsens and the world's population grows, U.S. dairy has accelerated its efforts '' setting ambitious environmental goals, initiating partnerships, funding research pilots and championing new practices and technologies.
Lori Captain, executive vice president of global sustainability, recently answered some questions including where the dairy industry is headed, what makes a cow's stomach so incredible, and why some people are starting to ''see dairy differently.''
1. To begin, for those who may be unaware of U.S. dairy's sustainability efforts, what should they know about your work to-date?
In 2008, the U.S. dairy industry was the first in the food agricultural sector to conduct a full lifecycle assessment (LCA) at a national scale. That LCA, which focused on fluid milk, estimated that U.S. dairy accounts for approximately 2 percent of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In recent decades, thanks to innovative farming and feed production practices, the environmental impact of producing a gallon of milk in 2017 required 30 percent less water, 21 percent less land and a 19 percent smaller carbon footprint than it did in 2007.1 That's equivalent to the amount of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere by half a million acres of U.S. forest.
Still, we know we can do more. In 2020, we set aggressive goals to collectively achieve GHG neutrality, optimize water use and improve water quality by 2050.
2. How exactly does a dairy cow emit GHGs?
Dairy cows emit methane in two ways, the first of which is directly from their mouths. Enteric methane is produced in the cow's stomach through the digestion process and is released into the atmosphere through silent burps.
The second source is manure. Methane from manure can be generated under certain conditions, such as during storage, before it can be further used for fertilizing crops.
3. What are farmers doing to minimize the impact of cow burps?
Before I answer that question, it's worth noting that we often call dairy cows ''the original recyclers'' because up to one-third of a dairy cow's diet comes from byproducts. Think about the different types of waste generated from places like bakeries, breweries and other food manufacturers '' almond hulls, cottonseeds, citrus pulp and peel and corn grain '' these are all delicious additions to a dairy cow's daily feed. So, in essence, dairy cows are taking foods we can't eat, which would otherwise cause methane emissions in landfills, and converting them into something we can eat '' milk and other dairy products.
The reason they're capable of this is due to their stomach's rumen ecosystem, putting the cow in a specialized class of mammals when it comes to digesting abilities. Yet amid the recycling benefits, the methane emitted by silently burping cows is one of the biggest, most complex sustainability issues for dairy, especially since it's part of the animal's natural digestive process.
To mitigate this, we're doing research to identify and improve technologies like additives and genetic traits. In fact, a lot of progress has been made with feed additives, which can improve digestibility and by some estimations, could reduce methane emissions by as much as 30 percent in the coming years. We're also encouraged by research into technologies like sensors, robots and artificial intelligence to monitor emissions.
4. If dairy's sustainability challenge is so complex, should people just stop eating and drinking dairy products altogether?
A recent modeling study explored this exact question '' what would happen if we did away with dairy farms and dairy cows altogether? It turns out, what amounts to minimal environmental gain would come at significant expense to human health and nutrition.
For example, the study showed reallocating land currently used for dairy cow feed to grow fruits and vegetables resulted in a 9.9 percent increase in GHG emissions and reduced supply of calcium, vitamins D and B12, riboflavin and alpha-linolenic acid.
Dairy foods are arguably one of the most affordable and accessible sources of high-quality protein and other essential nutrients. Americans get more than half their calcium and vitamin D from milk, cheese and yogurt2, and research shows it's not easy to obtain those essential nutrients from other food sources unless you eat more, increasing calorie intake and the amount of money you'll spend.
5. Is it true that dairy farms can turn manure into renewable energy?
It's true, cow manure can be turned into useful energy '' we call it cow power! Micro-organisms break down organic materials like cow manure or food waste and capture energy in a process called anerobic digestion. It happens in a digester '' a closed tank where there's no oxygen. There, bacteria break down the cow manure and food waste, creating biogas, which can then be used for electricity, heat, compressed natural gas and even vehicle fuel.
6. Can biogas really help power vehicles?
Yes, in fact, on Bar 20 Dairy in Kerman, California, a digester captures methane from their 7,000-cow herd and converts it into renewable electricity via fuel cells. Through a partnership with BMW North America, the combustion-free, dairy-derived electricity is transmitted via the utility grid to power electric vehicles. The methane emission reductions at the farm, combined with the renewable energy generation, result in emissions reductions equivalent to providing clean power to more than 17,000 electric vehicles per year.
7. How does U.S. dairy collaborate with others on its environmental priorities?
Partnerships help fuel our environmental progress '' no one industry, sector or company can tackle the climate challenge alone.
In one example, major customers like Nestl(C) and Starbucks are partnering with dairy farms to demonstrate feasibility and long-term viability of technologies and practices for U.S. dairy farms of all sizes and geographies that can significantly reduce GHG emissions and improve water use and quality while increasing and diversifying farmer revenue.
We know there's not a single, perfect solution, but what we do know is dairy foods are an important part of a healthy, sustainable future. That's why our industry is so determined to continue producing dairy foods responsibly while nourishing and supporting vibrant communities for generations to come.
Learn more about the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy and how the dairy community is making strides toward a sustainable future.
1 Capper JL, Cady RA. J Anim Sci. 2020 Jan 1.
2 National Dairy Council, NHANES 2015-2018.
US Debt Crisis: Paul Krugman Says $1 Trillion Coin Isn't Inflationary
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:49
The US could mint a platinum coin to solve the debt crisis without worsening inflation, Paul Krugman said. The top economist said the inflationary effects of the coin would be offset by the Fed selling bonds. "But as I said, people who really should know better constantly get this wrong, and imagine that the coin would be inflationary." Loading Something is loading.
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A $1 trillion platinum coin could prevent the US government from defaulting on its debt without making inflation worse, according to Nobel laureate Paul Krugman.
The idea behind the coin is for the Treasury use its authority to mint platinum coins and create one with a face value of $1 trillion that gets deposited at a Federal Reserve account to pay bills while lawmakers remain deadlocked on lifting the debt ceiling.
Some economists have criticized a $1 trillion coin as "unworkable" and an unrealistic solution that could worsen inflation.
"But it wouldn't be that at all," Krugman said in a Twitter thread on Wednesday. "The Fed would surely sterilize any impact on the monetary base by selling off some of its huge portfolio of US debt," he said, suggesting the Fed would likely sell $1 trillion worth of government bonds.
Meanwhile, the projected deadline for the US debt default is ticking closer, with no signs of progress on a deal to lift it. On Monday, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said the government could run out of money and trigger an economic crisis as soon as June 1.
For his part, Krugman thinks the government is more likely to issue "premium bonds" to avoid default than mint a $1 trillion coin.
"But as I said, people who really should know better constantly get this wrong, and imagine that the coin would be inflationary," he tweeted.
He also acknowledged claims that Fed Chairman Jerome Powell wouldn't accept a $1 trillion coil or that the Supreme Court would block the issuance of premium bonds.
"But my guess is that nobody wants to be the guy who destroys the world economy," he added.
Kayleigh McEnany Taking Over Tucker Carlson's Fox News Time Slot Next Week
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:38
Former White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany will take over the time slot formerly occupied by the ''Tucker Carlson Tonight'' show on Fox News from next week.
McEnany, who co-hosts the ''Outnumbered'' program, will anchor the 8''9 p.m. ET replacement show currently branded ''Fox News Tonight'' for at least a week, becoming the third interim host after the Rupert Murdoch-owned cable channel announced last month it and Carlson had parted ways.
''I am honored to share that I will be hosting Fox News Tonight '... at 8pm ET all next week (5/8-5/12)!'' McEnany wrote on Twitter Thursday evening. ''Set your DVR [digital video recorder],'' she added.
''Please join me next week as we dig into the state of politics, media, culture, and faith in America!'' the on-air commentator who previously served under President Donald Trump concluded.
McEnany will fill in the time slot as a temporary anchor until a permanent replacement is found. The program has been presented by anchors Brian Kilmeade and Lawrence Jones so far.
Kilmeade, who co-hosts ''Fox & Friends,'' was the first replacement during the week Carlson suddenly departed from the network. Kilmeade's show reported a subsequent drop in primetime ratings.
For all of March, Carlson's show averaged above 3 million viewers per program, while about 2.5 million watched Kilmeade's first show on April 24. However, the figure ultimately dropped to about 1.3 million on April 28, according to Nielsen ratings. Jones, meanwhile, drew 1.55 million'--more than Kilmeade's second show, but not by much.
McEnany is a Harvard Law School graduate who worked for Trump's campaign and the Republican National Committee. She joined Fox News as an on-air commentator in March 2021, soon after Trump left office in January.
Then-President Donald Trump and White House Press Secretary Kayleigh McEnany walk toward members of the press in Washington, Sept. 15, 2020. (Alex Wong/Getty Images)Soon after joining the network, McEnany was named a co-host of the hour-long daytime show ''Outnumbered.'' According to Nielson Media Research cited by Fox News, the program is the most popular cable news program in its 12 p.m. ET time slot. The show features regular female panelists and a rotating male guest.
Before co-hosting ''Outnumbered,'' McEnany also provided political analysis and insight during appearances on programs including ''Fox & Friends,'' ''America Reports,'' and ''The Five.''
Meanwhile, the nightly Fox programs hosted by Sean Hannity, Laura Ingraham, and Jesse Watters took hits to their respective ratings in the past week. ''Gutfeld,'' hosted by Greg Gutfeld, was the only Fox News primetime show that saw an increase, according to the ratings.
When asked about Fox News' ratings drop, a spokesperson told The Epoch Times last week that ''Fox News is leading cable news in primetime and today day (Wednesday, April 24) with viewers and A25-54,'' referring to the age demographic coveted by advertisers.
''For more than 21 years, Fox News Channel has been cable news' most-watched network in all categories with more Democrats, Independents and Republicans now tuning in than either CNN or MSNBC,'' the company said in a statement about its ratings. ''Attracting more than 50 percent of the cable news viewing audience with the top 12 programs in cable news, Fox News' powerhouse team of journalists, analysts and opinion hosts are trusted more by viewers than any other news source.''
Carlson has yet to give public indications about why he left Fox News. The ''Tucker Carlson Tonight'' frontman appeared in a two-minute video posted on his personal Twitter page that lambasted the state of the news media in general, drawing tens of millions of views.
Jack Phillips contributed to this report.
From NTD News
Liberal university urged to fire fake Native American professor '-- RT World News
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:37
Anthropology lecturer Elizabeth Hoover admitted to lying about her heritage for ''material benefits''
A University of California at Berkeley anthropologist has apologized for falsely claiming to be of indigenous descent, stating that she did so to access funding and academic opportunities that would have been off limits to a white professor. Despite the apology, other academics now want her sacked.
In a letter posted to her personal website on Monday, Elizabeth Hoover admitted that she was ''a white person who has incorrectly identified as Native my whole life.'' Hoover said that she had been told growing up that she was descended from Mohawk and Mi'kmaq Indians, but chose not to seek out ''documented connection to these communities.''
Hired as an associate professor in 2000, Hoover continued to pretend she was Native American. In her letter, she explained that in a liberal university like Berkeley, this allowed her into ''programs or funding opportunities that were identity-related,'' and granted her ''academic fellowships, opportunities, and material benefits'' that she wouldn't have received as a white woman.
In her lengthy apology letter, Hoover said that her lies ''hurt Native people who have been my friends, colleagues, students, and family, both directly through fractured trust and through activating historical harms.''
Hoover researched her genealogy last year and discovered no connection to the tribes that she claimed. In a letter last October, the Los Angeles Times reported, she stated that she would no longer ''claim to be a scholar of Mohawk / Mi'kmaq descent.'' That announcement led to a letter signed by 375 academics and Native American spokespeople calling on her to apologize and ''come out as white,'' which she finally did on Monday.
She did not, however, offer to resign from her position which according to salary tracking site Glassdoor earns her up to $228,000 per year.
Some of her fellow academics took issue with this. Desi Small-Rodriguez, an assistant professor of sociology and American Indian studies at UCLA, wrote in a tweet that the university should fire her for ''professional misconduct, research ethics violations, [and] harming Native students & colleagues.''
Hoover is neither the first nor the most famous white American to masquerade as a racial minority. Former US Senator Elizabeth Warren claimed Cherokee ancestry while teaching at Harvard in the early 1990s, and listed herself as an ''American Indian'' while practicing law in Texas in the 1980s. However, amid relentless mockery from US President Donald Trump in 2018, Warren took a DNA test that revealed she was only 1/1,024th Native.
Three years earlier, Rachel Dolezal, a white woman, resigned as an African Studies lecturer and president of a National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) chapter in Washington when her parents publicly stated that she was pretending to be black.
Magnus Hirschfeld - Wikipedia
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:32
German physician and sexologist (1868''1935)
Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 '' 14 May 1935) was a German physician and sexologist.
Hirschfeld was educated in philosophy, philology and medicine. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and World League for Sexual Reform. He based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg during the Weimar period. Historian Dustin Goltz characterized the committee as having carried out "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights".[2] He is regarded as one of the most influential sexologists of the twentieth century.[3]
Hirschfeld was targeted by Nazis for being Jewish and gay; he was beaten by v¶lkisch activists in 1920, and in 1933 his Institut f¼r Sexualwissenschaft was sacked and had its books burned by Nazis. He was forced into exile in France, where he died in 1935.[4]
Early life [ edit ] Hirschfeld was born in Kolberg in Pomerania (since 1945 Kołobrzeg in Poland),[5] in an Ashkenazi Jewish family, the son of highly regarded physician and Senior Medical Officer Hermann Hirschfeld. As a youth he attended Kolberg Cathedral School, which at the time was a Protestant school.[6][7] In 1887''1888, he studied philosophy and philology in Breslau, and then from 1888 to 1892 medicine in StraŸburg, Munich, Heidelberg, and Berlin. In 1892, he earned his medical degree.
After his studies, he traveled through the United States for eight months, visiting the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and living from the proceeds of his writing for German journals. During his time in Chicago, Hirschfeld became involved with the homosexual subculture in that city. Struck by the essential similarities between the homosexual subcultures of Chicago and Berlin, Hirschfeld first developed his theory about the universality of homosexuality around the world, as he researched in books and newspaper articles about the existence of gay subcultures in Rio de Janeiro, Tangier, and Tokyo. Then he started a naturopathic practice in Magdeburg; in 1896, he moved his practice to Berlin-Charlottenburg.
Hirschfeld became interested in gay rights because many of his gay patients took their own lives. In the German language, the word for suicide is Selbstmord ('self-murder'), which carried more judgmental and condemnatory connotations than its English language equivalent, making the subject of suicide a taboo in 19th century Germany.
In particular, Hirschfeld cited the story of one of his patients as a reason for his gay rights activism: a young army officer suffering from depression who killed himself in 1896, leaving behind a suicide note saying that despite his best efforts, he could not end his desires for other men, and so had ended his life out of his guilt and shame. In his suicide note, the officer wrote that he lacked the "strength" to tell his parents the "truth", and spoke of his shame of "that which nearly strangled my heart". The officer could not even bring himself to use the word "homosexuality", which he instead conspicuously referred to as "that" in his note. However, the officer mentioned at the end of his suicide note: "The thought that you [Hirschfeld] could contribute a future when the German fatherland will think of us in more just terms sweetens the hour of my death." Hirschfeld had been treating the officer for depression in 1895''1896, and the use of the term "us" led to speculation that a relationship existed between the two. However, the officer's use of Sie, the formal German word for you, instead of the informal Du, suggests Hirschfeld's relationship with his patient was strictly professional.
At the same time, Hirschfeld was greatly affected by the trial of Oscar Wilde, which he often referred to in his writings. Hirschfeld was struck by the number of his gay patients who had Suizidalnarben ('scars left by suicide attempts'), and often found himself trying to give his patients a reason to live.
Sexual rights activism [ edit ] Scientific-Humanitarian Committee [ edit ] Hirschfeld (center) with Bernhard Schapiro and
Li Shiu Tong (also known as Tao Li), c. 1930
Magnus Hirschfeld found a balance between practicing medicine and writing about his findings. Between 1 May''15 October 1896, the GroŸe Berliner Gewerbeausstellung ('Great Business Exhibition of Berlin') took place, which featured nine "human zoos" where people from Germany's colonies in New Guinea and Africa were put on display for the visitors to gawk at. Such exhibitions of colonial peoples were common at industrial fairs, and later after Qingdao, the Mariana Islands, and the Caroline Islands became part of the German empire, Chinese, Chamorros, and Micronesians joined the Africans and New Guineans displayed in the "human zoos". Hirschfeld, who was keenly interested in sexuality in other cultures, visited the GroŸe Berliner Gewerbeausstellung and subsequently other exhibitions to inquire of the people in the "human zoos" via interpreters about the status of sexuality in their cultures. It was in 1896, after talking to the people displayed in the "human zoos" at the GroŸe Berliner Gewerbeausstellung , that Hirschfeld began writing what became his 1914 book Die Homosexualit¤t des Mannes und des Weibes ( ' The Homosexuality of Men and Women ' ), an attempt to comprehensively survey homosexuality around the world, as part of an effort to prove that homosexuality occurred in every culture. In the book, Hirschfeld found that many homosexuals considered England to be the country with the highest rate of homosexuality.[18]
After several years as a general practitioner in Magdeburg, in 1896 he issued a pamphlet, Sappho and Socrates, on homosexual love (under the pseudonym Th. Ramien). In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr (1850''1905), the lawyer Eduard Oberg[19] (1858''1917), and the writer Franz Joseph von B¼low[20] (1861''1915). The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that, since 1871, had criminalized homosexuality. They argued that the law encouraged blackmail. The motto of the committee, "Justice through science", reflected Hirschfeld's belief that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate social hostility toward homosexuals.[21]
Within the group, some of the members rejected Hirschfeld's (and Ulrichs's) view that male homosexuals are, by nature, effeminate. Benedict Friedlaender and some others left the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and formed another group, the Bund f¼r m¤nnliche Kultur or 'Union for Male Culture', which did not exist long. It argued that male''male love is an aspect of virile manliness, rather than a special condition.
Under Hirschfeld's leadership, the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee gathered 6000 signatures from prominent Germans on a petition to overturn Paragraph 175.[22] Signatories included Albert Einstein, Hermann Hesse, K¤the Kollwitz, Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Rainer Maria Rilke, August Bebel, Max Brod, Karl Kautsky, Stefan Zweig, Gerhart Hauptmann, Martin Buber, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, and Eduard Bernstein.
The bill was brought before the Reichstag in 1898, but was supported only by a minority from the Social Democratic Party of Germany. August Bebel, a friend of Hirschfeld from his university days, agreed to sponsor the attempt to repeal Paragraph 175. Hirschfeld considered what would, in a later era, be described as "outing": forcing out of the closet some of the prominent and secretly homosexual lawmakers who had remained silent on the bill. He arranged for the bill to be reintroduced and, in the 1920s, it made some progress until the takeover of the Nazi Party ended all hope for any such reform.
As part of his efforts to counter popular prejudice, Hirschfeld spoke out about the taboo subject of suicide and was the first to present statistical evidence that homosexuals were more likely to commit suicide or attempt suicide than heterosexuals. Hirschfeld prepared questionnaires that gay men could answer anonymously about homosexuality and suicide. Collating his results, Hirschfeld estimated that 3 out of every 100 gays committed suicide every year, that a quarter of gays had attempted suicide at some point in their lives and that the other three-quarters had had suicidal thoughts at some point. He used his evidence to argue that, under current social conditions in Germany, life was literally unbearable for homosexuals.
A figure frequently mentioned by Hirschfeld to illustrate the "hell experienced by homosexuals" was Oscar Wilde, who was a well-known author in Germany, and whose trials in 1895 had been extensively covered by the German press. Hirschfeld visited Cambridge University in 1905 to meet Wilde's son, Vyvyan Holland, who had changed his surname to avoid being associated with his father. Hirschfeld noted "the name Wilde" has, since his trial, sounded like "an indecent word, which causes homosexuals to blush with shame, women to avert their eyes, and normal men to be outraged". During his visit to Britain, Hirschfeld was invited to a secret ceremony in the English countryside where a "group of beautiful, young, male students" from Cambridge gathered together wearing Wilde's prison number, C33, as a way of symbolically linking his fate to theirs, to read out aloud Wilde's poem "The Ballad of Reading Gaol". Hirschfeld found the reading of "The Ballad of Reading Gaol" to be "markersch¼tternd " (shaken to the core of one's being, i.e. something that is emotionally devastating), going on to write that the poem reading was "the most earth-shattering outcry that has ever been voiced by a downtrodden soul about its own torture and that of humanity". By the end of the reading of "The Ballad of Reading Gaol", Hirshfeld felt "quiet joy" as he was convinced that, despite the way that Wilde's life had been ruined, something good would eventually come of it.
Feminism [ edit ] In 1905, Hirschfeld joined the Bund f¼r Mutterschutz ('League for the Protection of Mothers'), the feminist organization founded by Helene St¶cker. He campaigned for the decriminalisation of abortion, and against policies that banned female teachers and civil servants from marrying or having children.[further explanation needed ] Both Hirschfeld and St¶cker believed that there was a close connection between the causes of gay rights and women's rights, and St¶cker was much involved in the campaign to repeal Paragraph 175 while Hirschfeld campaigned for the repeal of Paragraph 218, which had banned abortion. From 1909 to 1912, St¶cker, Hirschfeld, Hedwig Dohm, and others successfully campaigned against an extension to Paragraph 175 which would have criminalised female homosexuality.[27]
In 1906, Hirschfeld was asked as a doctor to examine a prisoner in Neum¼nster to see if he was suffering from "severe nervous disturbances caused by a combination of malaria, blackwater fever, and congenital sexual anomaly". The man, a former soldier and a veteran of what Hirschfeld called the Hereroaufstand ('Herero revolt') in German Southwest Africa (modern Namibia) appeared to be suffering from what would now be considered post-traumatic stress disorder, saying that he had done terrible things in Southwest Africa, and could no longer live with himself. In 1904, the Herero and Namaqua peoples who had been steadily pushed off their land to make way for German settlers, had revolted, causing Kaiser Wilhelm II to dispatch General Lothar von Trotha to wage a "war of annihilation" to exterminate the Herero and Namaqua in what has since become known as the Herero and Namaqua genocide. The genocide came to widespread attention when the SPD leader August Bebel criticized the government on the floor of the Reichstag , saying the government did not have the right to exterminate the Herero just because they were Black. Hirschfeld did not mention his diagnosis of the prisoner, nor he did mention in detail the source of the prisoner's guilt about his actions in Southwest Africa; the German scholar Heike Bauer criticized him for his seeming unwillingness to see the connection between the Herero genocide and the prisoner's guilt, which had caused him to engage in a petty crime wave.
Hirschfeld's position, that homosexuality was normal and natural, made him a highly controversial figure at the time, involving him in vigorous debates with other academics, who regarded homosexuality as unnatural and wrong. One of Hirschfeld's leading critics was Austrian Baron Christian von Ehrenfels, who advocated radical changes to society and sexuality to combat the supposed "Yellow Peril", and saw Hirschfeld's theories as a challenge to his view of sexuality. Ehrenfels argued that there were a few "biologically degenerate" homosexuals who lured otherwise "healthy boys" into their lifestyle, making homosexuality into a choice and a wrong one at that time.
African anthropology [ edit ] Poster advertising Sarah Baartman
At the same time, Hirschfeld became involved in a debate with a number of anthropologists about the supposed existence of the Hottentottensch¼rze ('Hottentot apron'), namely the belief that the Khoekoe (known to Westerners as Hottentots) women of southern Africa had abnormally enlarged labia, which made them inclined toward lesbianism. Hirschfeld argued there was no evidence that the Khoekoe women had abnormally large labia, whose supposed existence had fascinated so many Western anthropologists at the time, and that, other than being Black, the bodies of Khoekoe women were no different from German women. One Khoekoe woman, Sarah Baartman, the "Hottentot Venus", did have relatively large buttocks and labia, compared to Northern European women, and had been exhibited at a freak show in Europe in the early 19th century, which was the origin of this belief about the Khoikhoi women. Hirschfeld wrote: "The differences appear minimal compared to what is shared" between Khoekoe and German women. Turning the argument of the anthropologists on their head, Hirschfeld argued that, if same-sex relationships were common among Khoekoe women, and if the bodies of Khoekoe women were essentially the same as Western women, then Western women must have the same tendencies. Hirschfeld's theories about a spectrum of sexuality existing in all of the world's cultures implicitly undercut the binary theories about the differences between various races that was the basis of the claim of white supremacy. However, Bauer wrote that Hirschfeld's theories about the universality of homosexuality paid little attention to cultural contexts, and criticized him for his remarks that Hausa women in Nigeria were well known for their lesbian tendencies and would have been executed for their sapphic acts before British rule, as assuming that imperialism was always good for the colonized.
Eulenburg affair [ edit ] Hirschfeld played a prominent role in the Harden''Eulenburg affair of 1906''09, which became the most widely publicized sex scandal in Imperial Germany. During the libel trial in 1907, when General Kuno von Moltke sued the journalist Maximilian Harden, after the latter had run an article accusing Moltke of having a homosexual relationship with the politically powerful Prince Philipp von Eulenburg, who was the Kaiser's best friend, Hirschfeld testified for Harden. In his role as an expert witness, Hirschfeld testified that Moltke was gay and, thus, what Harden had written was true.[33] Hirschfeld '' who wanted to make homosexuality legal in Germany '' believed that proving Army officers like Moltke were gay would help his case for legalization. He also testified that he believed there was nothing wrong with Moltke.[33]
Most notably, Hirschfeld testified that "homosexuality was part of the plan of nature and creation just like normal love."[34] Hirschfeld's testimony caused outrage all over Germany. The Vossische Zeitung newspaper condemned Hirschfeld in an editorial as "a freak who acted for freaks in the name of pseudoscience".[33] The M¼nchener Neuesten Nachrichten newspaper declared in an editorial: "Dr. Hirschfeld makes public propaganda under the cover of science, which does nothing but poison our people. Real science should fight against this!"[33] A notable witness at the trial was Lilly von Elbe, former wife of Moltke, who testified that her husband had only had sex with her twice in their entire marriage.[35] Elbe spoke with remarkable openness for the period of her sexual desires and her frustration with a husband who was only interested in having sex with Eulenburg.[36] Elbe's testimony was marked by moments of low comedy when it emerged that she had taken to attacking Moltke with a frying pan in vain attempts to make him have sex with her.[37] The fact that General von Moltke was unable to defend himself from his wife's attacks was taken as proof that he was deficient in his masculinity, which many saw as confirming his homosexuality. At the time, the subject of female sexuality was taboo, and Elbe's testimony was controversial, with many saying that Elbe must be mentally ill because of her willingness to acknowledge her sexuality.[38] Letters to the newspapers at the time, from both men and women, overwhelmingly condemned Elbe for her "disgusting" testimony concerning her sexuality.[38] As an expert witness, Hirschfeld also testified that female sexuality was natural, and Elbe was just a normal woman who was in no way mentally ill.[33] After the jury ruled in favor of Harden, Judge Hugo Isenbiel was enraged by the jury's decision, which he saw as expressing approval for Hirschfeld. He overturned the verdict under the grounds that homosexuals "have the morals of dogs", and insisted that this verdict could not be allowed to stand.[33]
After the verdict was overturned, a second trial found Harden guilty of libel.[33] At the second trial, Hirschfeld again testified as an expert witness, but this time, he was much less certain than he had been at the first trial about Moltke's homosexuality.[39] Hirschfeld testified that Moltke and Eulenburg had an "intimate" friendship that was homoerotic in nature but not sexual, as he had testified at the first trial.[39] Hirschfeld also testified that, though he still believed female sexuality was normal, Elbe was suffering from hysteria caused by a lack of sex, and so the court should discount her stories about a sexual relationship between Moltke and Eulenburg.[39] Hirschfeld had been threatened by the Prussian government with having his medical license revoked if he testified as an expert witness again along the same lines that he had at the first trial, and possibly prosecuted for violating Paragraph 175.[39] The trial was a libel suit against Harden by Moltke, but much of the testimony had concerned Eulenburg, whose status as the best friend of Wilhelm II meant that the scandal threatened to involve the Kaiser.[39] Moreover, far from precipitating increased tolerance as Hirschfeld had expected, the scandal led to a major homophobic and anti-Semitic backlash, and Hirschfeld's biographer Elena Mancini speculated that Hirschfeld wanted to bring to an end an affair that was hindering rather helping the cause for gay rights.[39]
Because Eulenburg was a prominent anti-Semite and Hirschfeld was a Jew, during the affair, the v¶lkisch movement came out in support of Eulenburg, whom they portrayed as an Aryan heterosexual, framed by false allegations of homosexuality by Hirschfeld and Harden.[40] Various v¶lkisch leaders, most notably the radical anti-Semitic journalist Theodor Fritsch, used the Eulenburg affair as a chance to "settle the accounts" with the Jews. As a gay Jew, Hirschfeld was relentlessly vilified by the v¶lkisch newspapers.[41] Outside Hirschfeld's house in Berlin, posters were affixed by v¶lkisch activists, which read "Dr. Hirschfeld A Public Danger: The Jews are Our Undoing!".[39] In Nazi Germany, the official interpretation of the Eulenburg affair was that Eulenburg was a straight Aryan whose career was destroyed by false claims of being gay by Jews like Hirschfeld.[40] After the scandal had ended, Hirschfeld concluded that, far from helping the gay rights movement as he had hoped, the ensuing backlash set the movement back.[42] The conclusion drawn by the German government was the opposite of the one that Hirschfeld wanted; the fact that prominent men like General von Moltke and Eulenburg were gay did not lead the government to repeal Paragraph 175 as Hirschfeld had hoped and, instead, the government decided that Paragraph 175 was being enforced with insufficient vigor, leading to a crackdown on homosexuals that was unprecedented and would not be exceeded until the Nazi era.[36]
World War I [ edit ] In 1914, Hirschfeld was swept up by the national enthusiasm for the Burgfrieden ('peace within a castle under siege'), as the sense of national solidarity was known where almost all Germans rallied to the Fatherland.[43] Initially pro-war, Hirschfeld started to turn against the war in 1915, moving toward a pacifist position.[44] In his 1915 pamphlet, Warum Hassen uns die V¶lker? ('Why do other nations hate us?'), Hirschfeld answered his own question by arguing that it was the greatness of Germany that excited envy from other nations, especially Great Britain, and so had supposedly caused them to come together to destroy the Reich . Hirschfeld accused Britain of starting the war in 1914 "out of envy at the development and size of the German Empire". Warum Hassen uns die V¶lker? was characterized by a chauvinist and ultra-nationalist tone, together with a crass Anglophobia that has often embarrassed Hirschfeld's modern admirers such as Charlotte Wolff, who called the pamphlet a "perversion of the values which Hirschfeld had always stood for".
As a Jewish homosexual, Hirschfeld was acutely aware that many Germans did not consider him to be a "proper" German, or even a German at all; so, he reasoned that taking an ultra-patriotic stance might break down prejudices by showing that German Jews and/or homosexuals could also be good, patriotic Germans, rallying to the cry of the Fatherland. By 1916, Hirschfeld was writing pacifist pamphlets, calling for an immediate end to the war.[44] In his 1916 pamphlet Kriegspsychologisches ( ' The Psychology of War ' ), Hirschfeld was far more critical of the war than he had been in 1915, emphasizing the suffering and trauma caused by it. He also expressed the opinion that nobody wanted to take responsibility for the war because its horrors were "superhuman in size". He declared that "it is not enough that the war ends with peace; it must end with reconciliation". In late 1918, Hirschfeld together with his sister, Franziska Mann, co-wrote a pamphlet Was jede Frau vom Wahlrecht wissen muŸ! ( ' What every woman needs to know about the right to vote! ' ) hailing the November Revolution for granting German women the right to vote and announced the "eyes of the world are now resting on German women".
Interwar period [ edit ] In 1920, Hirschfeld was badly beaten by a group of v¶lkisch activists who attacked him on the street; he was initially declared dead when the police arrived. In 1921, Hirschfeld organised the First Congress for Sexual Reform, which led to the formation of the World League for Sexual Reform. Congresses were held in Copenhagen (1928), London (1929), Vienna (1930), and Brno (1932).
Hirschfeld was both quoted and caricatured in the press as a vociferous expert on sexual matters; during his 1931 tour of the United States, the Hearst newspaper chain dubbed him "the Einstein of Sex". He identified as a campaigner and a scientist, investigating and cataloging many varieties of sexuality, not just homosexuality. He developed a system which categorised 64 possible types of sexual intermediary, ranging from masculine, heterosexual male to feminine, homosexual male, including those he described under the term transvestite (German: Transvestit), which he coined in 1910, and those he described under the term transsexuals, a term he coined in 1923.[50] He also made a distinction between transsexualism and intersexuality.[50][51]At this time, Hirschfeld and the Institute for Sexual Sciences issued a number of transvestite passes to trans people in order to prevent them from being harassed by the police.[52][53]
Anders als die Andern [ edit ] Hirschfeld co-wrote and acted in the 1919 film Anders als die Andern ( ' Different From the Others ' ), in which Conrad Veidt played one of the first homosexual characters ever written for cinema. The film had a specific gay rights law reform agenda; after Veidt's character is blackmailed by a male prostitute, he eventually comes out rather than continuing to make the blackmail payments. His career is destroyed and he is driven to suicide.
Hirschfeld played himself in Anders als die Andern , where the title cards have him say: "The persecution of homosexuals belongs to the same sad chapter of history in which the persecutions of witches and heretics is inscribed... Only with the French Revolution did a complete change come about. Everywhere where the Code Napol(C)on was introduced, the laws against homosexuals were repealed, for they were considered a violation of the rights of the individual... In Germany, however, despite more than fifty years of scientific research, legal discrimination against homosexuals continues unabated... May justice soon prevail over injustice in this area, science conquer superstition, love achieve victory over hatred!"
In May 1919, when the film premiered in Berlin, the First World War was still a very fresh memory and German conservatives, who already hated Hirschfeld, seized upon his Francophile speech in the film praising France for legalizing homosexuality in 1792 as evidence that gay rights were "un-German".
At the end of the film, when the protagonist Paul K¶rner commits suicide, his lover Kurt is planning on killing himself, when Hirschfeld appears to tell him: "If you want to honor the memory of your dead friend, you must not take your own life, but instead preserve it to change the prejudices whose victim '' one of the countless many '' this dead man was. That is the task of the living I assign you. Just as Zola struggled on behalf of a man who innocently languished in prison, what matters now is to restore honor and justice to the many thousands before us, with us, and after us. Through knowledge to justice!" The reference to ‰mile Zola's role in the Dreyfus affair was intended to draw a parallel between homophobia and anti-Semitism, while Hirschfeld's repeated use of the word "us" was an implied admission of his own homosexuality.
The anti-suicide message of Anders als die Andern reflected Hirschfeld's interest in the subject of the high suicide rate among homosexuals, and was intended to give hope to gay audiences. The film ends with Hirschfeld opening a copy of the penal code of the Reich and striking out Paragraph 175 with a giant X.
Institut f¼r Sexualwissenschaft [ edit ] Under the more liberal atmosphere of the newly founded Weimar Republic, Hirschfeld purchased a villa not far from the Reichstag building in Berlin for his new Institut f¼r Sexualwissenschaft ('Institute of Sexual Research'), which opened on 6 July 1919. In Germany, the Reich government made laws, but the L¤nder governments enforced the laws, meaning it was up to the L¤nder governments to enforce Paragraph 175. Until the November Revolution of 1918, Prussia had a three-class voting system that effectively disfranchised most ordinary people, and allowed the Junker s to dominate Prussia. After the November Revolution, universal suffrage came to Prussia, which became a stronghold of the Social Democrats. The SPD believed in repealing Paragraph 175, and the Social Democratic Prussian government headed by Otto Braun ordered the Prussian police not to enforce Paragraph 175, making Prussia into a haven for homosexuals all over Germany.
The Institute housed Hirschfeld's immense archives and library on sexuality and provided educational services and medical consultations; the clinical staff included psychiatrists Felix Abraham and Arthur Kronfeld, gynecologist Ludwig Levy-Lenz, dermatologist and endocrinologist Bernhard Schapiro, and dermatologist Friedrich Wertheim.[56] The institute also housed the Museum of Sex, an educational resource for the public, which is reported to have been visited by school classes. Hirschfeld himself lived at the Institution on the second floor with his partner, Karl Giese, together with his sister Recha Tobias (1857''1942).[58] Giese and Hirschfeld were a well-known couple in the gay scene in Berlin where Hirschfeld was popularly known as Tante Magnesia . Tante ('aunt') was a German slang expression for a gay man but did not mean, as some claim, that Hirschfeld himself cross-dressed.
People from around Europe and beyond came to the institute to gain a clearer understanding of their sexuality. Christopher Isherwood writes about his and W. H. Auden's visit in his book Christopher and His Kind; they were calling on Francis Turville-Petre, a friend of Isherwood's who was an active member of the Scientific Humanitarian Committee. Other celebrated visitors included German novelist and playwright Gerhart Hauptmann, German artist Christian Schad, French writers Ren(C) Crevel and Andr(C) Gide, Russian director Sergei Eisenstein, and American poet Elsa Gidlow.[56]
In addition, a number of noted individuals lived for longer or shorter periods of time in the various rooms available for rent or as free accommodations in the Institute complex. Among the residents were Isherwood and Turville-Petre; literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin; actress and dancer Anita Berber; Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch; Willi M¼nzenberg, a member of the German Parliament and a press officer for the Communist Party of Germany; Dora Richter, one of the first transgender patients to receive sex reassignment surgery at the institute, and Lili Elbe.[56] Richter had been previously arrested for cross-dressing and discharged from the military. At the suggestion of a close friend, she later came to the institute for help. Hirschfeld had coined the term transvestite in 1910 to describe what today would be called transgender people, and the institution became a haven for transgender people, where Hirschfeld offered them shelter from abuse, performed surgeries, and gave otherwise unemployable transgender people jobs, albeit of a menial type, mostly as "maids".
The Institute and Hirschfeld's work are depicted in Rosa von Praunheim's feature film Der Einstein des Sex (The Einstein of Sex, Germany, 1999; English subtitled version available). Although inspired by Hirschfeld's life, the film is fictional. It contains invented characters and incidents and attributes motives and sentiments to Hirschfeld and others on the basis of little or no historical evidence. Hirschfeld biographer Ralf Dose notes, for instance, that "the figure of 'Dorchen' in Rosa von Praunheim's film The Einstein of Sex is complete fiction."[56]
World tour [ edit ] In March 1930, the Social Democratic chancellor Hermann M¼ller was overthrown by the intrigues of General Kurt von Schleicher. "Presidential" governments, responsible only to the President Paul von Hindenburg, pushed German politics in a more right-wing, authoritarian direction. In 1929, the M¼ller government had come very close to repealing Paragraph 175, when the Reichstag justice committee voted to repeal Paragraph 175. However, the M¼ller government fell before it could submit the repeal motion to the floor of the Reichstag . Under the rule of Chancellor Heinrich Br¼ning and his successor, Franz von Papen, the state became increasingly hostile toward gay rights campaigners such as Hirschfeld, who began to spend more time abroad. Quite apart from the increased homophobia, Hirschfeld also became involved in a bitter debate within the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, as the repeal bill championed by M¼ller also made homosexual prostitution illegal, which badly divided the committee. Hirschfeld had always argued that "what is natural cannot be immoral" and, since homosexuality was in his view natural, it should be legal. Connecting the question of the legality of homosexuality to the legality of prostitution was a blurring of the issue, since these were different matters. Br¼ning, a conservative Catholic on the right-wing of the Zentrum party, who replaced M¼ller in March 1930, was openly hostile toward gay rights and the fall of M¼ller ended the possibility of repealing Paragraph 175.
America and a "straight turn" [ edit ] In 1930, Hirschfeld predicted that there would be no future for people like himself in Germany, and he would have to move abroad. In November 1930, Hirschfeld arrived in New York City, ostensibly on a speaking tour about sex, but in fact to see if it was possible for him to settle in the United States. Significantly, in his speeches on this American tour, Hirschfeld, when speaking in German, called for the legalization of homosexuality, but when speaking in English did not mention the subject of homosexuality, instead urging Americans to be more open-minded about heterosexual sex. The New York Times described Hirschfeld as having come to America to "study the marriage question", while the German-language New Yorker Volkszeitung newspaper described Hirschfeld as wanting to "discuss love's natural turns" '' the phrase "love's natural turns" was Hirschfeld's way of presenting his theory that there was a wide spectrum of human sexuality, all of which were "natural". Hirschfeld realized that most Americans did not want to hear about his theory of homosexuality as natural. Aware of a strong xenophobic tendency in the United States, where foreigners seen as troublemakers were unwelcome, Hirschfeld tailored his message to American tastes.
In an interview with the Germanophile American journalist George Sylvester Viereck for the Milwaukee Sentinel done in late November 1930 that epitomised his "straight turn" in America, Hirschfeld was presented as a sex expert whose knowledge could improve the sex lives of married American couples. The Milwaukee Sentinel was part of the newspaper chain owned by William Randolph Hearst, which initially promoted Hirschfeld in America, reflecting the old adage that "sex sells". In the interview with Viereck, Hirschfeld was presented as the wise "European expert on romantic love" who had come to teach heterosexual American men how to enjoy sex, claiming there was a close connection between sexual and emotional intimacy. Clearly intending to flatter the egos of a heterosexual American male audience, Hirschfeld praised the drive and ambition of American men, who were so successful at business, but stated that American men needed to divert some of their energy to their sex lives. Hirschfeld added, he had seen signs that American men were now starting to develop their "romantic sides" as European men had long since done, and he had come to the United States to teach American men how to love their women properly. When Viereck objected that the U.S. was in the middle of the Great Depression, Hirschfeld replied he was certain that United States would soon recover, thanks to the relentless drive of American men.
Ad for a speech "Postponed" to Sunday, 18 January 1931, at the "Dil-Pickle Club" on State Street, Chicago
At least part of the reason for his "straight turn" was financial; a Dutch firm had been marketing Titus Pearls (Titus-Perlen ) pills, which were presented in Europe as a cure for "scattered nerves" and in the United States as an aphrodisiac, and had been using Hirschfeld's endorsement to help with advertising campaign there. Most Americans knew of Hirschfeld only as a "world-known authority on sex" who had endorsed the Titus Pearls pills, which were alleged to improve orgasms for both men and women. Since Hirschfeld's books never sold well, the money he was paid for endorsing the Titus Pearls pills were a major source of income for him, which he was to lose in 1933 when the manufacturer of the pills ceased using his endorsement in order to stay in the German market. In a second interview with Viereck in February 1931, Hirschfeld was presented by him as the "Einstein of Sex", which was again part of the marketing effort of Hirschfeld's "straight turn" in America. At times, Hirschfeld returned to his European message, when he planned to deliver a talk at the bohemian Dill Pickle Club in Chicago on "homosexuality with beautiful revealing pictures", which was banned by the city as indecent. In San Francisco, Hirschfeld visited San Quentin prison to meet Thomas Mooney, whose belief in his innocence he proclaimed to the press afterward, and asked for his release. Unfortunately for Hirschfeld, the Hearst newspapers, which specialized in taking a sensationalist, right-wing, populist line on the news, dug up his statements in Germany calling for gay rights, causing a sudden shift in tone from more or less friendly to hostile, effectively ending any chance of Hirschfeld being allowed to stay in the United States.
Asia [ edit ] After his American tour, Hirschfeld went to Asia in February 1931. Hirschfeld had been invited to Japan by Keizō Dohi, a German-educated Japanese doctor who spoke fluent German and who worked at Hirschfeld's institute for a time in the 1920s. In Japan, Hirchfeld again tailored his speeches to local tastes, saying nothing about gay rights, and merely argued that a greater frankness about sexual matters would prevent venereal diseases. Hirschfeld sought out an old friend, S. Iwaya, a Japanese doctor who lived in Berlin in 1900''02 and who joined the Scientific-Humanitarian committee during his time there. Iwaya took Hirschfeld to the Meiji-za to introduce him to the Kabuki theater. Hirschfeld become interested in the Kabuki theater, where the female characters are played by men. One of the Kabuki actors, speaking to Hirschfeld via Iwaya, who served as the translator, was most insistent about asking him if he really looked like a woman on stage and was he effeminate enough as an actor. Hirschfeld noted that no one in Japan looked down on Kabuki actors who played female characters; on the contrary, they were popular figures with the public. Hirschfeld also met a number of Japanese feminists, such as Shidzue Katō and Fusae Ichikawa, whom he praised for their efforts to give Japanese women the right to vote. This greatly annoyed the Japanese government, which did not appreciate a foreigner criticizing the denial of female suffrage. Shortly before leaving Tokyo for China, Hirschfeld expressed the hope that his host and translator, Wilhelm Grundert, the director of the German''Japanese Cultural Institute, be made a professor at a German university. Grundert joined the Nazi Party in 1933 and, in 1936, was made a professor of Japanese studies at the University of Hamburg and, in 1938, become the chancellor of Hamburg university, all the while denouncing his former friend Hirschfeld as a "pervert". In Shanghai, Hirschfeld began a relationship with a 23-year-old Chinese man studying sexology, Li Shiu Tong (also known by his nickname Tao Li), who remained his partner for the rest of his life. Hirschfeld promised Tao that he would introduce him to German culture, saying he wanted to take him to a "Bavarian beer hall" to show him how German men drank. Tao's parents, who knew about their son's sexual orientation and accepted his relationship with Hirschfeld, threw a farewell party when the two left China, with Tao's father expressing the hope that his son would become the "Hirschfeld of China".
After staying in the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia), where Hirschfeld caused an uproar by speech comparing Dutch imperialism to slavery, Hirschfeld arrived in India in September 1931. In Allahabad, Hirschfeld met Jawaharlal Nehru and gave speeches supporting the Indian independence movement, stating "it is one of the biggest injustices in the world that one of the oldest civilized nations... cannot rule independently". However, Hirschfeld's Indian speeches were mainly concerned with attacking the 1927 book Mother India by the white supremacist American author Katherine Mayo, where she painted an unflattering picture of sexuality in India as brutal and perverted, as "England-friendly propaganda". As Mayo's book had caused much controversy in India, Hirschfeld's speeches defending Indians against her accusations were well received. Hirschfeld, who was fluent in English, made a point of quoting from the articles written by W. T. Stead in The Pall Mall Gazette in 1885, exposing rampant child prostitution in London as proving that sexuality in Britain could also be brutal and perverted: a matter which, he noted, did not interest Mayo in the slightest. Hirschfeld was very interested in the subject of Indian sexuality or, as he called it, "the Indian art of love". Hirschfeld's main guide to India was Girindrasekhar Bose and, in general, Hirschfeld's contacts were limited to the English-speaking Indian elite, as he did not speak Hindi or any other Indian languages. While staying in Patna, Hirschfeld drew up a will naming Tao as his main beneficiary and asking Tao, if he should die, to take his ashes to be buried at the Institute for Sexual Research in Berlin.
Africa and the Middle East [ edit ] In Egypt, where Hirschfeld and Tao traveled to next, arriving in November 1931, Hirschfeld wrote "to the Arabs... homoerotic love practice is something natural and that Mohammad could not change this attitude". In Cairo, Hirschfeld and Tao met the Egyptian feminist leader Huda Sha'arawi-who stopped wearing the Muslim veil in 1923 and popularized going unveiled which, for Hirschfeld, illustrated how gender roles could change. In a rebuke to Western notions of superiority, Hirschfeld wrote "the average ethical and intellectual levels of the Egyptians was equal to that of the European nations". Hirschfeld's visit to the Palestine Mandate (present-day Palestine and Israel) marked one of the few times when he publicly referred to his Jewishness saying, as a Jew, it was greatly moving to visit Jerusalem. Hirschfeld was not a religious Jew, stating that Gottesfurcht ('fear of God', i.e. religious belief) was irrational, but that he did feel a certain sentimental attachment to Palestine. In general, Hirschfeld was supportive of Zionism, but expressed concern about what he regarded as certain chauvinist tendencies in the Zionist movement and he deplored the adoption of Hebrew as the lingua franca saying, if only the Jews of Palestine spoke German rather than Hebrew, he would have stayed. In March 1932, Hirschfeld arrived in Athens, where he told journalists that, regardless of whether Hindenburg or Hitler won the presidential election that month, he probably would not return to Germany, as both men were equally homophobic.
Later life and exile [ edit ] On 10 May 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works by
leftists and other authors which they considered "un-German", including thousands of books that were looted from the library of Hirschfeld's
Institut f¼r Sexualwissenschaft
On 20 July 1932, the Chancellor Franz von Papen carried out a coup that deposed the Braun government in Prussia, and appointed himself the Reich commissioner for the state. A conservative Catholic who had long been a vocal critic of homosexuality, Papen ordered the Prussian police to start enforcing Paragraph 175 and to crack down in general on "sexual immorality" in Prussia.[84] The Institut f¼r Sexualwissenschaft remained open, but under Papen's rule, the police began to harass people associated with it.
On 30 January 1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as chancellor. Less than four months after the Nazis took power, Hirschfeld's Institute was sacked. On the morning of 6 May, a group of university students belonging to the National Socialist Student League stormed the institution, shouting "Brenne Hirschfeld! " ('Burn Hirschfeld!') and began to beat up its staff and smash up the premises. In the afternoon, the SA came to the institute, carrying out a more systematic attack, removing all volumes from the library and storing them for a book-burning event which was to be held four days later. In the evening, the Berlin police arrived at the institution and announced that it was closed forever.
By the time of the book burning, Hirschfeld had long since left Germany for a speaking tour that took him around the world; he never returned to Germany. In March 1932, he stopped briefly in Athens, spent several weeks in Vienna and then settled in Zurich, Switzerland, in August 1932.[86] While he was there, he worked on a book that recounted his experiences and observations while he was on his world tour and it was published in 1933 as Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (Brugg, Switzerland: B¶zberg-Verlag, 1933). It was published in an English translation in the United States under the title Men and Women: The World Journey of a Sexologist (New York City: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1935) and in England under the title Women East and West: Impressions of a Sex Expert (London: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1935).
Hirschfeld stayed near Germany, hoping that he would be able to return to Berlin if the country's political situation improved. With the Nazi regime's unequivocal rise to power coinciding with the completion of his work on his tour book, he decided to go into exile in France. On his 65th birthday, 14 May 1933, Hirschfeld arrived in Paris, where he lived in a luxury apartment building on 24 Avenue Charles Floquet, facing the Champ de Mars.[86] Hirschfeld lived with Li and Giese. In 1934, Giese was involved in a dispute by a swimming pool that Hirschfeld called "trifling", but it led French authorities to expel him. Giese's fate left Hirschfeld very depressed.
A year-and-a-half after arriving in France, in November 1934, Hirschfeld moved south to Nice, a seaside resort on the Mediterranean coast. He lived in a luxurious apartment building with a view of the sea across an enormous garden on the Promenade des Anglais.[88] Throughout his stay in France, he continued researching, writing, campaigning and working to establish a French successor to his lost institute in Berlin.[86] Hirschfeld's sister, Recha Tobias, did not leave Germany and died in the Theresienstadt Ghetto on 28 September 1942 (the cause of death entered in her death certificate was "heart weakness").[58][89]
While in France, Hirschfeld finished a book that he had been writing during his world tour, Rassismus (Racism). It was published posthumously in English in 1938. Hirschfeld wrote that the purpose of the book was to explore "the racial theory which underlines the doctrine of racial war", saying that he himself was "numbered among the many thousands who have fallen victim to the practical realization of this theory."
Unlike many who saw the v¶lkisch ideology of the Nazi regime as an aberration and a retrogression from modernity, Hirschfeld insisted that it had deep roots, going back to the German Enlightenment in the 18th century, and it was a part of modernity rather than an aberration from it. He added that, in the 19th century, an ideology that divided all of humanity into biologically different races '' white, black, yellow, brown, and red '' as devised by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach '' served as a way of turning prejudices into a "universal truth", apparently validated by science. In turn, Hirschfeld held the view that this pseudoscientific way of dividing humanity was the basis of Western thinking about modernity, with whites being praised as the "civilized" race in contrast to the other races, which were dismissed for their "barbarism"; such thinking was used to justify white supremacy.
In this way, he argued that the v¶lkisch racism of the National Socialist regime was only an extreme variant of prejudices that were held throughout the Western world, and the differences between Nazi ideology and the racism that was practiced in other nations were differences in degree rather than differences in kind. Hirschfeld argued against this way of seeing the world, writing "if it were practical, we should certainly do well to eradicate the use of the word 'race' as far as subdivisions of the human species are concerned; or if we do use it in this way, to put it into quote marks to show it is questionable".
The last of Hirschfeld's books to be published during his lifetime, L'Ame et l'amour, psychologie sexologique [The Human Spirit and Love: Sexological Psychology] (Paris: Gallimard, 1935), was published in French in late April 1935;[92] it was his only book that was never published in a German-language edition. In the book's preface, he described his hopes for his new life in France:
In search of sanctuary, I have found my way to that country, the nobility of whose traditions, and whose ever-present charm, have already been as balm to my soul. I shall be glad and grateful if I can spend some few years of peace and repose in France and Paris, and still more grateful to be enabled to repay the hospitality accorded to me, by making available those abundant stores of knowledge acquired throughout my career.[93]
Death [ edit ] Gloria Mansions I, 63 Promenade des Anglais, Nice, the apartment complex where Magnus Hirschfeld died on 14 May 1935
On his 67th birthday, 14 May 1935, Hirschfeld died of a heart attack in his apartment at the Gloria Mansions I building at 63 Promenade des Anglais in Nice.[88] His body was cremated, and the ashes interred in a simple tomb in the Caucade Cemetery in Nice.[86] The upright headstone in gray granite is inset with a bronze bas-relief portrait of Hirschfeld in profile by German sculptor and decorative artist Arnold Zadikow (1884''1943), who like Hirschfeld was a native of the town of Kolberg. The slab covering the tomb is engraved with Hirschfeld's Latin motto, "Per Scientiam ad Justitiam " ("through science to justice").[56][94] The Caucade Cemetery is likewise the location of the grave of surgeon and sexual-rejuvenation proponent Serge Voronoff, whose work Hirschfeld had discussed in his own publications.
Hirschfeld's grave at
Caucade Cemetery in
Nice with the inscription
Per Scientiam ad Justitiam
('through science to justice')
On 14 May 2010, to mark the 75th anniversary of Hirschfeld's death, a French national organization, the M(C)morial de la D(C)portation Homosexuelle (MDH), in partnership with the new LGBT Community Center of Nice (Centre LGBT C´te d'Azur ), organized a formal delegation to the cemetery. Speakers recalled Hirschfeld's life and work and laid a large bouquet of pink flowers on his tomb; the ribbon on the bouquet was inscribed "Au pionnier de nos causes. Le MDH et le Centre LGBT " ('To the pioneer of our causes. The MDH and the LGBT Center').[95]
Legacy [ edit ] According to Shtetl, Hirschfeld's "radical ideas changed the way Germans thought about sexuality."[96] American Henry Gerber, attached to the Allied Army of Occupation following World War I, became impressed by Hirschfeld and absorbed many of the doctor's ideas. Upon his return to the United States, Gerber was inspired to form the short-lived Chicago-based Society for Human Rights in 1924, the first known gay rights organization in the nation.[97] In turn, a partner of one of the former members of the Society communicated the existence of the society to Los Angeles resident Harry Hay in 1929; Hay would go on to help establish the Mattachine Society in 1950, the first national homosexual rights organization to operate for many years in the United States.
In 1979, the National LGBT Federation established the Hirschfeld Centre, Ireland's second gay and lesbian community centre. Although badly damaged by a 1987 fire, the centre continued to house the Gay Community News magazine until 1997.[98]
In 1982, a group of German researchers and activists founded the Magnus Hirschfeld Society (German: Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft e.V.) in West Berlin, in anticipation of the approaching 50th anniversary of the destruction of Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science. Ten years later, the society established a Berlin-based center for research on the history of sexology.[99] Since the late 20th century, researchers associated with the Magnus Hirschfeld Society have succeeded in tracking down previously dispersed and lost records and artifacts of Hirschfeld's life and work. They have brought together many of these materials at the society's archives in Berlin.[100][101] At an exhibition at the Schwules Museum in Berlin from 7 December 2011 to 31 March 2012, the society publicly displayed a selection of these collections for the first time.[102]
The German Society for Social-Scientific Sexuality Research established the Magnus Hirschfeld Medal in 1990. The Society awards the Medal in two categories, contributions to sexual research and contributions to sexual reform.
The Hirschfeld Eddy Foundation, established in Germany in 2007, is named for Hirschfeld and lesbian activist FannyAnn Eddy.
In August 2011, after 30 years of advocacy by the Magnus Hirschfeld Society and other associations and individuals, the Federal Cabinet of Germany granted 10 million euros to establish the Magnus Hirschfeld National Foundation (Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld ), a foundation to support research and education about the life and work of Magnus Hirschfeld, the Nazi persecution of homosexuals, German LGBT culture and community, and ways to counteract prejudice against LGBT people; the Federal Ministry of Justice (Germany) was expected to contribute an additional 5 million euros, bringing the initial endowment of the foundation to a total of 15 million euros.[103][104][105]
Hirschfeld's tomb in the Caucade Cemetery in Nice, France, photographed the day before the 75th anniversary of his death
Portrayals in popular culture [ edit ] Magnus Hirschfeld has been portrayed in a number of works of popular culture both during his lifetime and subsequently. Following is a sampling of genres and titles:
Podcasts [ edit ] Season 4 episode 2 of the podcast Making Gay History is about Hirschfeld.[106]
Caricature [ edit ] Hirschfeld was a frequent target of caricatures in the popular press during his lifetime. Historian James Steakley reproduces several examples in his German-language book Die Freunde des Kaisers. Die Eulenburg-Aff¤re im Spiegel zeitgen¶ssischer Karikaturen (Hamburg: M¤nnerschwarmSkript, 2004). Additional examples appear in the French-language book Derri¨re "lui" (L'Homosexualit(C) en Allemagne) (Paris: E. Bernard, [1908]) by John Grand-Carteret [fr] .
Film and television [ edit ] Different from the Others (Germany, 1919); directed by Richard Oswald; cowritten by Oswald and Magnus Hirschfeld. Hirschfeld appears in a cameo playing himself. Karl Giese, the young man who subsequently became Hirschfeld's lover, also had a part in the film.Race d'Ep: Un Si¨cle d'Images de l'Homosexualit(C) (France, 1979); directed by Lionel Soukaz; cowritten by Soukaz and Guy Hocquenghem; released in the United States under the title The Homosexual Century. An experimental film portraying 100 years of homosexual history in four episodes, one of which focuses on Hirschfeld and his work. French gay writer Pierre Hahn played the role of Hirschfeld.[107][108][109]Desire: Sexuality in Germany, 1910''1945 (United Kingdom, 1989); directed by Stuart Marshall. A feature-length documentary tracing the emergence of the homosexual subculture and the homosexual emancipation movement in pre-World War II Germany '' and their destruction by the Nazi regime.[110] According to film historian Robin Wood, Marshall "treats the burning of Hirschfeld's library and the closing of his Institute of Sexual Science as the film's... central moment...."[111]A segment on Hirschfeld appears in episode 19 of Real Sex, first shown on HBO on 7 February 1998.The Einstein of Sex (Germany, 1999); directed by Rosa von Praunheim. A fictional biopic inspired by Hirschfeld's life and work.Paragraph 175 (US, 2000); directed by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman. A feature-length documentary on the persecution of homosexuals during the Nazi regime. The first part of the film provides a brief overview of the history of the homosexual emancipation movement in Germany from the late 19th century through the early 1930s, with Hirschfeld and his work prominently featured.[111]Several episodes of the second season of the Amazon television series Transparent (U.S., 2014''2019) include a portrayal of Hirschfeld and his institute. Hirschfeld was portrayed by Bradley Whitford.Fiction [ edit ] U.S. first edition of Robert Hichens,
That Which Is Hidden (Doubleday, Doran, 1940).
Robert Hichens (1939). That Which Is Hidden (London: Cassell & Company). U.S. Edition: New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1940. The novel opens with the protagonist visiting the tomb of a famed Austrian sex expert, Dr. R. Ellendorf, in a cemetery in Nice. At the tomb, he meets the late doctor's prot(C)g(C), a Chinese student named Kho Ling. The character of Ling refers to the memory of his mentor at numerous points in the novel. From the description of the settings and the characters, Ellendorf clearly was inspired by Hirschfeld, and Ling by Hirschfeld's last partner and heir, Li Shiu Tong (Tao Li).[112]Arno Schmidt (1970). Zettels Traum (Frankfurt-am-Main: S. Fischer Verlag). Hirschfeld is quoted often in this novel about sexuality.Nicolas Verdan (2011). Le Patient du docteur Hirschfeld (Orbe, Switzerland: Bernard Campiche). A French-language spy thriller inspired by the sacking of Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science by the Nazis.Works [ edit ] Was muss das Volk vom dritten Geschlecht wissen!, 1901
Hirschfeld's works are listed in the following bibliography, which is extensive but not comprehensive:
Steakley, James D. The Writings of Magnus Hirschfeld: A Bibliography. Toronto: Canadian Gay Archives, 1985.The following have been translated into English:
The Objective Diagnosis of Homosexuality. Translated by M. Lombardi-Nash (1899; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2023).Urnish People: Causes and Nature of Uranism. Translated by M. Lombardi-Nash (1903; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2022).What Unites and Divides the Human Race? Translated by M. Lombardi-Nash (1919; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2020).Why Do Nations Hate Us? A Reflection on the Psychology of War. Translated by M. Lombardi-Nash (1915; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2020).Memoir: Celebrating 25 Years of the First LGBT Organization (1897''1923). Translation of Von Einst bis Jetzt by M. Lombardi-Nash (1923; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2019).Paragraph 175 of the Imperial Penal Code Book: The Homosexual Question Judged by Contemporaries. Translated by M. Lombardi-Nash (1898; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2020).My Trial for Obscenity. Translated by M. Lombardi-Nash. (1904; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2021).Annual Reports of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (1900''1903): The World's First Successful LGBT Organization. Translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash (1901-1903; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2021).Annual Reports of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (1904''1905): The World's First Successful LGBT Organization. Translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash (1905; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2022).Annual Reports of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (1906''1908): The World's First Successful LGBT Organization. Translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash (1908; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2022).Sappho and Socrates: How Does One Explain the Love of Men and Women to Persons of Their Own Sex? Translated by Michael Lombardi-Nash. (1896; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts, 2019).Transvestites: The Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress. Translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash (1910; Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991).With Max Tilke, The Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress: Illustrated Part: Supplement to Transvestites. Translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash (1912; Jacksonville, FL: Urania Manuscripts 2022).The Homosexuality of Men and Women. Translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash. 2nd ed. (1920; Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2000).The Sexual History of the World War (1930), New York City, Panurge Press, 1934; significantly abridged translation and adaptation of the original German edition: Sittengeschichte des Weltkrieges, 2 vols., Verlag f¼r Sexualwissenschaft, Schneider & Co., Leipzig & Vienna, 1930. The plates from the German edition are not included in the Panurge Press translation, but a small sampling appear in a separately issued portfolio, Illustrated Supplement to The Sexual History of the World War, New York City, Panurge Press, n.d.Men and Women: The World Journey of a Sexologist (1933); translated by O. P. Green (New York City: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1935).Sex in Human Relationships, London, John Lane The Bodley Head, 1935; translated from the French volume L'Ame et l'amour, psychologie sexologique (Paris: Gallimard, 1935) by John Rodker.Racism (1938), translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. This denunciation of racial discrimination was not influential at the time, although it seems prophetic in retrospect.[113]Autobiographical [ edit ] Hirschfeld, Magnus. Von einst bis jetzt: Geschichte einer homosexuellen Bewegung 1897''1922 . Schriftenreihe der Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft Nr. 1. Berlin: Rosa Winkel, 1986. (Reprint of a series of articles by Hirschfeld originally published in Die Freundschaft , 1920''21.)M.H. [Magnus Hirschfeld], "Hirschfeld, Magnus (Autobiographical Sketch)", in Victor Robinson (ed.), Encyclopaedia Sexualis , New York City: Dingwall-Rock, 1936, pp. 317''321.Hirschfeld, Magnus. Testament. Heft II ; introduced and annotated by Ralf Dose. Berlin: Hentrich und Hentrich Verlag, 2013. (Critical edition of the only surviving volume of Hirschfeld's personal journal.)See also [ edit ] Harry Benjamin, an associate of Hirschfeld who brought his theories to the United StatesDer Eigene : world's first gay journal, Berlin, 1896''1932First homosexual movementList of sex therapistsWilli Pape, a famous cabaret performer who appeared in Hirschfeld's 1912 book on transvestitesReferences [ edit ] ^ David A. Gerstner, Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture (2006, ISBN 1136761810), page 374 ^ Goltz, Dustin (2008). "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Movements", In Lind, Amy; Brzuzy, Stephanie (eds.). Battleground: Women, Gender, and Sexuality: Volume 2, pp. 291 ff. Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-313-34039-0 ^ Sigusch, Volkmar (2012). "The Sexologist Albert Moll '' between Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld". Medical History. 56 (2): 184''200. doi:10.1017/mdh.2011.32. ISSN 2048-8343. PMC 3381530 . PMID 23002292. ^ "The great hunt for the world's first LGBTQ archive". History. 28 June 2022 . Retrieved 9 February 2023 . ^ Russell, Paul (2002). The Gay 100. Kensington Books. p. 15. ISBN 0-7582-0100-1. ^ Magnus Hirschfeld: The Origins of the Gay Liberation Movement. NYU Press. 11 April 2014. ISBN 9781583674383. ^ Aus der Geschichte des Colberger Lyceums. C. F. Post. 1867. ^ Hirschfeld, M.; Lombardi-Nash, M.A.; Bullough, V.L. (2000). The Homosexuality of Men and Women. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-705-5 . Retrieved 2 February 2023 . ^ Heinrich Gerhard Eduard Oberg (1858''1917) ^ Franz Vollrath Carl Wilhelm Joseph von B¼low (1861''1915) ^ Sengoopta, Chandak (1998). "Glandular Politics: Experimental Biology, Clinical Medicine, and Homosexual Emancipation in Fin-de-Siecle Central Europe". Isis. 89 (3): 445''473. doi:10.1086/384073. ISSN 0021-1753. JSTOR 237142. PMID 9798339. S2CID 19788523. ^ "Henry Gerber: Ahead of his time". The Washington Blade. 3 October 2013 . Retrieved 13 May 2021 . ...Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld founded the gay organization Wissenschaftlich-humanit¤res Komitee (Scientific-Humanitarian Committee). Its first action was to draft a petition against Paragraph 175 with 6,000 signatures of prominent people in the arts, politics and the medical profession; it failed to have any effect. ^ Elena Mancini, Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, p. 25 ^ a b c d e f g Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 p. 100 ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 p. 128. ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 p. 103. ^ a b Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 pp. 103''104 ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 p. 104 ^ a b Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 pp. 103''105. ^ a b c d e f g Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 p. 101. ^ a b Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 p. 169 ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 pp. 169''170 ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 p. 139 ^ Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 p. 111 ^ a b Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 p. 112 ^ a b K¶llen, Thomas (April 2016). "Intersexuality and Trans-Identities within the Diversity Management Discourse". Sexual Orientation and Transgender Issues in Organizations: Global Perspectives on LGBT Workforce Diversity. pp. 1''20. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-29623-4_1. ISBN 978-3-319-29621-0 . Retrieved 21 May 2021 . ^ "Magnus Hirschfeld and Transgender People". Transgender Map. 13 May 2019 . Retrieved 21 May 2021 . ^ Gershon, Livia (18 November 2018). "Gender Identity in Weimar Germany". JSTOR Daily . Retrieved 19 July 2019 . ^ Frost, Natasha (2 November 2017). "The Early 20th-Century ID Cards That Kept Trans People Safe From Harassment". Atlas Obscura . Retrieved 19 July 2019 . ^ a b c d e Ralf Dose, Magnus Hirschfeld: The Origins of the Gay Liberation Movement (New York City: Monthly Review Press, 2014); ISBN 978-1-58367-437-6. ^ a b "Pamtn­k Terez­n". 21 November 2013 . Retrieved 27 April 2020 . ^ Marhoefer, Laurie Sex and the Weimar Republic: German Homosexual Emancipation and the Rise of the Nazis, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015 pp. 185''187. ^ a b c d Charlotte Wolff, Magnus Hirschfeld: A Portrait of a Pioneer in Sexology (London: Quartet Books, 1986). ISBN 0-7043-2569-1 ^ a b Hans P. Soetaert & Donald W. McLeod, "Un Lion en hiver: Les Derniers jours de Magnus Hirschfeld Nice (1934''1935)" in G(C)rard Koskovich (ed.), Magnus Hirschfeld (1868''1935): Un Pionnier du mouvement homosexuel confront(C) au nazisme (Paris: M(C)morial de la D(C)portation Homosexuelle, 2010). ^ "| Database of digitised documents | Holocaust". . Retrieved 27 April 2020 . ^ G(C)rard Koskovich, "Des Dates cl(C)s de la vie de Magnus Hirschfeld", in Koskovich (ed.), Magnus Hirschfeld (1868''1935). ^ Magnus Hirschfeld, Sex in Human Relationships (London: John Lane The Bodley Head, 1936), pp. xix''xx; translated from the original French edition by John Rodker. ^ Donald W. McLeod & Hans P. Soetaert, "'Il regarde la mer et pense son id(C)al': Die letzten Tage von Magnus Hirschfeld in Nizza, 1934''1935"; Mitteilungen der Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft , no. 45 (July 2010): pp. 14''33. ^ Fr(C)d(C)ric Maurice, "Magnus Hirschfeld, vedette posthume du festival 'Espoirs de Mai' Nice,'" Tª (16 May 2010). ^ Blum, Steven (31 January 2014). "Berlin's Einstein Of Sex". Shtetl. Montreal. ^ Bullough, p. 25 ^ "Our History". Archived from the original on 3 November 2013 . Retrieved 2 November 2013 . ^ Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft (n.d.), "Short information about the society", Magnus Hirschfeld Society website; retrieved 2011-29-10. ^ Dose, Ralf (18 June 2012). "Thirty Years of Collecting Our History, or How to Find Treasure Troves"; LGBT ALMS Blog; retrieved 3 July 2012. ^ McLeod, Donald W. (2 July 2012). "Serendipity and the Papers of Magnus Hirschfeld: The Case of Ernst Maass"; LGBT ALMS Blog; retrieved 3 July 2012. ^ Litwinschuh, J¶rg (30 November 2011). "Schwules Museum presents 'Hirschfeld Finds'"; website of the Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld; retrieved 2012-07-02. ^ Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft E.V. (31 August 2011). Untitled press release. ^ For background on the campaign to establish the foundation, see "Aktionsb¼ndnis Magnus-Hirschfeld-Stiftung" (in German) on the website of the Magnus Hirschfeld Society. ^ Litwinschuh, J¶rg (30 November 2011). "Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation established"; website of the Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld; retrieved 2 July 2012. ^ "Season Four". Making Gay History. 24 November 2018 . Retrieved 27 April 2020 . ^ Murray, Raymond (1994). Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video (Philadelphia: TLA Publications), p. 430. ^ "The Homosexual Century"; IMDb. ^ Sibalis, Michael (2001). "Hahn, Pierre (1936''81)", in Robert Aldrich & Gary Wotherspoon (eds.), Who's Who in Contemporary Gay & Lesbian History From World War II to the Present Day (London & New York: Routledge), pages 175f. ^ Marshall, Stuart (1991). "The Contemporary Political Use of Gay History: The Third Reich", in Bad Object Choices (eds.), How Do I Look? Queer Film and Video (Seattle, Bay Press). ^ a b Wood, Robin (2002). "Gays and the Holocaust: Two Documentaries", in Shelley Hornstein & Florence Jacobowitz, Image and Remembrance: Representation and the Holocaust (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press). ^ Bauer, J. Edgar (2006''11). "Magnus Hirschfeld: Panhumanism and the Sexual Cultures of Asia"; Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context, No. 14; see note 71. ^ Dose, Ralf (2014). Magnus Hirschfeld : the origins of the gay liberation movement. p. 10. ISBN 978-1583674390. Further reading [ edit ] Biographies [ edit ] Bauer, J. Edgar. "On Behalf of Hermaphrodites and Mongrels: Refocusing the Reception of Magnus Hirschfeld's Critical Thought on Sexuality and Race." Journal of homosexuality (2019): 1-25. onlineBauer, Heike (2017). The Hirschfeld Archives: Violence, Death, and Modern Queer Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. doi:10.17613/M6M20D. ISBN 978-1439914335 . Retrieved 8 July 2018 . Domeier, Norman: "Magnus Hirschfeld", in: 1914''1918 online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universit¤t Berlin, Berlin 2016-04-07. doi:10.15463/ie1418.10887.Dose, Ralf. Magnus Hirschfeld: Deutscher, Jude, Weltb¼rger . Teetz: Hentrich und Hentrich, 2005. (in German) Dose, Ralf. Magnus Hirschfeld: The Origins of the Gay Liberation Movement. New York City: Monthly Review Press, 2014; revised and expanded edition of Dose's 2005 German-language biography.Herzer, Manfred. Magnus Hirschfeld: Leben und Werk eines j¼dischen, schwulen und sozialistischen Sexologen . 2nd edition. Hamburg: M¤nnerschwarm, 2001. (in German) Koskovich, G(C)rard (ed.). Magnus Hirschfeld (1868''1935). Un pionnier du mouvement homosexuel confront(C) au nazisme . Paris: M(C)morial de la D(C)portation Homosexuelle, 2010. (in French) Kotowski, Elke-Vera & Julius H. Schoeps (eds.). Der Sexualreformer Magnus Hirschfeld. Ein Leben im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft . Berlin: Bebra, 2004. (in German) Leng, Kirsten. "Magnus Hirschfeld's Meanings: Analysing Biography and the Politics of Representation." German History 35.1 (2017): 96''116.Mancini, Elena. Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.Steakley, James. "Per scientiam ad justitiam : Magnus Hirschfeld and the Sexual Politics of Innate Homosexuality", in Science and Homosexualities, ed. Vernon A. Rosario. New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 133''54.Wolff, Charlotte. Magnus Hirschfeld: A Portrait of a Pioneer in Sexology. London: Quartet, 1986.Others [ edit ] Beachy, Robert. Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014.Blasius, Mark & Shane Phelan (eds.) We Are Everywhere: A Historical Source Book of Gay and Lesbian Politics. New York: Routledge, 1997. See chapter: "The Emergence of a Gay and Lesbian Political Culture in Germany".Bullough, Vern L. (2002). Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York, Harrington Park Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-193-9.Dickinson, Edward Ross (May 2002). "Sex, Masculinity, and the "Yellow Peril": Christian von Ehrenfels' Program for a Revision of the European Sexual Order, 1902''1910". German Studies Review. 25 (2): 255''284. doi:10.2307/1432992. ISSN 0149-7952. JSTOR 1432992. PMID 20373550. Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland, 1990.Friedman, Sara, "Projecting Fears and Hopes: Gay Rights on the German Screen after World War I", Blog of the Journal of the History of Ideas, 28 May 2019.Gordon, Mel. Voluptuous Panic: The Erotic World of Weimar Berlin. Los Angeles: Feral House, 2000.Grau, G¼nter (ed.) Hidden Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany, 1933''45. New York: Routledge, 1995.Grossman, Atina. Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Reform, 1920''1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.Haeberle E.J. " Re-print of Die Sexualitaet des Mannes und des Weibes , with commentary by E.J. Haeberle. De Gruyter, 1984, ISBN 3110101300Haeberle E.J. Anf¤nge der Sexualwissenschaft , De Gruyter, 1983. ISBN 3110099322Haeberle E.J. "The birth of Sexology". World Association for Sexology, 1983.Lauritsen, John and Thorstad, David. The Early Homosexual Rights Movement, 1864''1935. 2nd rev. edition. Novato, CA: Times Change Press, 1995.Marhoefer, Laurie (October 2011). "Degeneration, Sexual Freedom, and the Politics of the Weimar Republic, 1918''1933". German Studies Review. 34 (3): 529''549. ISSN 0149-7952. Steakley, James D. The Homosexual Emancipation Movement in Germany. New York: Arno, 1975.Steakley, James (1999). "Cinema and Censorship in the Weimar Republic: The Case of Anders als Die Andern". Film History. 11 (2): 181''203. ISSN 0149-7952. Steakley, James, "Anders als die Andern:" Ein Film und seine Geschichte . Hamburg: M¤nnerschwarm Verlag 2007. (review by Dirk Naguschewski in HSozKult, 2008)Marhoefer, Laurie (4 May 2022). Racism and the Making of Gay Rights: A sexologist, his student, and the empire of queer love. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1487505813. External links [ edit ] Biography (in German) on the web site of the Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld (Magnus Hirschfeld National Foundation), BerlinMagnus Hirschfeld '' Leben und Werk (in German) Biographical information on the web site of the Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft (Magnus Hirschfeld Society), BerlinMagnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft: Online Exhibit on the Institute for Sexual ScienceWorks by Magnus Hirschfeld at Faded Page (Canada)Works by or about Magnus Hirschfeld at Internet ArchiveWorks by Magnus Hirschfeld at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Massive 'ocean' discovered towards Earth's core | New Scientist
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:18
Blue lagoon: this crystal of blue ringwoodite is being crushed in a lab experiment. The orange circles are regions that have had their water squeezed out of them
(Image: Steve Jacobsen/Northwestern University)
A reservoir of water three times the volume of all the oceans has been discovered deep beneath the Earth's surface. The finding could help explain where Earth's seas came from.
The water is hidden inside a blue rock called ringwoodite that lies 700 kilometres underground in the mantle, the layer of hot rock between Earth's surface and its core.
The huge size of the reservoir throws new light on the origin of Earth's water. Some geologists think water arrived in comets as they struck the planet, but the new discovery supports an alternative idea that the oceans gradually oozed out of the interior of the early Earth.
''It's good evidence the Earth's water came from within,'' says Steven Jacobsen of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. The hidden water could also act as a buffer for the oceans on the surface, explaining why they have stayed the same size for millions of years.
Pinging the planetJacobsen's team used 2000 seismometers to study the seismic waves generated by more than 500 earthquakes. These waves move throughout Earth's interior, including the core, and can be detected at the surface. ''They make the Earth ring like a bell for days afterwards,'' says Jacobsen.
By measuring the speed of the waves at different depths, the team could figure out which types of rocks the waves were passing through. The water layer revealed itself because the waves slowed down, as it takes them longer to get through soggy rock than dry rock.
''We should be grateful for this deep reservoir''
Jacobsen worked out in advance what would happen to the waves if water-containing ringwoodite was present. He grew ringwoodite in his lab, and exposed samples of it to massive pressures and temperatures matching those at 700 kilometres down.
Sure enough, they found signs of wet ringwoodite in the transition zone 700 kilometres down, which divides the upper and lower regions of the mantle. At that depth, the pressures and temperatures are just right to squeeze the water out of the ringwoodite. ''It's rock with water along the boundaries between the grains, almost as if they're sweating,'' says Jacobsen.
Damp down thereJacobsen's finding supports a recent study by Graham Pearson of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. Pearson studied a diamond from the transition zone that had been carried to the surface in a volcano, and found that it contained water-bearing ringwoodite, the first strong evidence that there was lots of water in the transition zone (Nature,
''Since our initial report of hydrous ringwoodite, we've found another ringwoodite crystal, also containing water, so the evidence is now very strong,'' says Pearson.
So far, Jacobsen only has evidence that the watery rock sits beneath the US. He now wants to find out if it wraps around the entire planet.
''We should be grateful for this deep reservoir,'' says Jacobsen. ''If it wasn't there, it would be on the surface of the Earth, and mountain tops would be the only land poking out.''
Journal reference: Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1253358
Like this? Read Weird wet worlds: Why Earth is lucky to have oceans
Chinese organized crime groups infiltrate Oklahoma's marijuana industry, engage in human trafficking: report | The Post Millennial |
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:16
Chinese criminal gangs are turning
Oklahoma into a violent crime hub as they take advantage of cheap land and relaxed growing requirements, according to authorities.
The state now has 6,300 licensed marijuana grow farms, but almost half of them are under investigation by the Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics for possible links to illegal black market sales,
NewsNation reports.
Recently, one operation in Ottaway County was raided and authorities seized over 26,000 plants and 900 pounds of processed
marijuana, with an estimated street value of $24 million.
These illegal operations also appear to be linked to human trafficking and prostitution on a large scale, with Jian Lin and Jianfa Zhou arrested for running an illegal grow operation and sex trafficking undocumented Asian women.
Despite the dangers, Oklahoma's legal marijuana operations continue to thrive, with dispensaries and grow houses sprouting up across the state since medical marijuana was legalized in 2018.
However, illegal growers remain, and they are causing headaches for law enforcement, as the proceeds from their black market operations are funneled back to the criminal organizations involved in homicides, terrorism, extortion, arson, and murder, according to the Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics spokesperson, Mark Woodward.
Senator James Lankford, R-Okla., warns that Chinese criminal organizations are buying up land in the state and using it to produce illegal drugs.
This has led to the widespread exploitation of labor, including human trafficking, and is also funding other illegal activities that are putting people at risk across the United States.
To address the problem, Lankford is pushing for the SOIL Act, which would limit and provide oversight on foreign countries buying land in Oklahoma.
If the problem is not tackled, Oklahoma could become the epicenter of marijuana distribution across the country, Lankford warns.
Moving Umbrel node to new hardware - Support and Troubleshooting - Umbrel Community
Sat, 06 May 2023 10:38
Matrox August 6, 2021, 10:32am #1 Hi Umbrel community,
I have been running my Umbrel node without issues on a VM running on a HDD and am looking now at upgrading to a new VM running on an SSD.
I would like to move my Umbrel node i.e. the nodes unique name and all its history & reputation (as viewable on 1ML) along with the full btc balance and also all the lightning channels and there balances (not closing them) onto the new hardware that I have.
I want to confirm if this is the correct way to go about this:
Is it simply just build the new VM on the SSD (I'll make sure the old VM is shutdown) then enter the seed phrase as per the instructions here umbrel/ at master · getumbrel/umbrel · GitHub and as per the comments it will ''restore the user's settings and Lightning network channel data.''
If this is not the case, then how can I make sure I keep my lightning channels & keep the history and my unique node name as per 1ML?
Thanks again for all your time & help regarding this.
1 Like
Matrox August 8, 2021, 10:58am #2 Hmm as no comments I'm assuming that the restore will just restore everything including channel data yeah etc?
mayank August 8, 2021, 1:20pm #3 Do you have the entire Umbrel installation directory on an HDD? If so, for VMs it's far more easier and straightforward to just copy the whole Umbrel directory to the new SSD, and then do sudo ./scripts/start in it. Umbrel should then continue work without any downtime, hiccups or recovery required.
Matrox August 8, 2021, 3:14pm #4 Yes I have the whole Umbrel dir, this is most excellent so I'll try this and advise if I have any issues.
Thank you for your help good sir.
Matrox August 16, 2021, 12:18pm #5 Just a follow up that I now have the added the SSD drive to the VM, copied over all the Umbrel data from the HDD to the new SSD and simply ran the ./scripts/start and it fired up without a hitch
If anyone has any questions or queries let me know and thanks again for all your help.
1 Like
I need to reset the seed phrase. I want reset the personal data. Command : ssh -t umbrel@umbrel.local ''sudo systemctl stop umbrel-startup && sudo rm -rf ~/umbrel/lnd/!(lnd.conf) && sudo rm ~/umbrel/db/user.json && sudo rm ~/umbrel/db/umbrel-seed/seed && sudo systemctl start umbrel-startup'' does not work for me on Mac osx'...I get an error - -bash: !: event not foundDo you know a simple wat to do it'...without touching the SSD with the whole BTC system ?
Matrox August 20, 2021, 7:46am #7 Hmm what I'd probably do is copy everything in the bitcoin dir (so you have the full blockchain copy and don't have to redownload it) then nuke the rest in the umbrel dir. Download & install umbrel again (should provide a new seed phase) then move the bitcoin dir over.
Did you ever go through with this and what did you do?
Matrox November 1, 2021, 12:41pm #9 Yes as mentioned here: Do you have the entire Umbrel installation directory on an HDD? If so, for VMs it's far more easier and straightforward to just copy the whole Umbrel directory to the new SSD, and then do sudo ./scripts/start in it. Umbrel should then continue work without any downtime, hiccups or recovery required.
And my VM was converted to the new SSD with no issues Just a follow up that I now have the added the SSD drive to the VM, copied over all the Umbrel data from the HDD to the new SSD and simply ran the ./scripts/start and it fired up without a hitch If anyone has any questions or queries let me know and thanks again for all your help.
1 Like
Thanks! It seems deceptively simple'...
Did you seriously just copy the entire /umbrel folder from one machine to another then just start it up?
Did the new machine/ VM have Umbrel installed or was copying that folder all that was needed?
1 Like
Matrox November 2, 2021, 12:53am #11 Yeah so the way I had setup the VM was that OS was installed on a M2 drive and I had everything Umbrel related (including btc chain) on the HDD, it was literary just copy Umbrel contents onto the SSD and then run the script and it picked up where it had left off.
Carlos August 6, 2022, 8:14am #12 Woud this method work with Umbrel 0.5 on a raspberry pi?
1 Like
Guide to transfer from Raspberry Pi to Laptop running Ubuntu : r/getumbrel
Sat, 06 May 2023 10:26
Hi All
Right now, I am running a lightning node on a Raspberry Pi 4 with 4GB of ram.
I am looking to transfer my node to an old laptop that will have Umbrel running on Ubuntu.
Does anyone know of a good tutorial on how to safely do this so I dont lose my channels or get them force closed?
I know I could just close all my channels first, but I have over 50 channels with balanced liquidity and dont want to pay the costs.
Joe Martin Music |
Fri, 05 May 2023 15:07
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Germany makes shock admission on Covid-19 mask mandate '-- RT World News
Fri, 05 May 2023 14:47
Berlin says it still does not know if the measure had any effect on containing the pandemic
It is unclear if mandatory face masks had any positive effect on fighting the Covid-19 pandemic, Germany's Health Ministry admitted on Thursday. The measure could not be assessed independently from other steps taken by the government, including the lockdowns, the ministry told Bundestag Vice President Wolfgang Kubicki in response to a request for comment.
''Overall, the effectiveness of individual measures (e.g. mask requirements) cannot be assessed in isolation,'' the ministry's statement read, as quoted by the tabloid Bild. Kubicki blasted the response on his Facebook page as an attempt by the ministry to avoid responsibility on the issue.
''The ministry's claim that it is not possible to check the effectiveness of the mask requirements independently of other measures is wrong and [is] an attempt to avoid an effectiveness test required under the constitution,'' the high-ranking MP representing the business-friendly Free Democratic Party (FDP) wrote.
According to Bild, the Health Ministry insisted that the mask mandate's effectiveness had been proven back in 2020, but only in connection with other far-reaching measures such as school closures and lockdowns.
The ministry is now led by a Social Democrat, Karl Lauterbach, who became known during the pandemic as a strong proponent of strict lockdowns and harsh restrictions.
The Bundestag's vice president also criticized Germany's health watchdog, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), saying it has not done its job properly. The agency has not studied the effects of the mask mandate, Kubicki wrote, adding that ''after more than three years and '... hundreds of studies paid for with tax money, we have to draw a conclusion: the result of the RKI work is disastrous.''
Masks were made compulsory for all Germans in April 2020, roughly about a month after Germany officially declared a Covid-19 epidemic within its borders. The regulation was dropped two years later, in April 2022. Two German states, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Hamburg, then made use of the so-called 'hotspot regulation' to extend the mask mandate in those areas.
According to Kubicki, the government's entire Covid-19 policy should now be reviewed by the parliament. He also called for the RKI to be made ''more independent'' from the Health Ministry.
Germany has faced several scandals linked to the protective masks the government purchased as part of its strategy to fight Covid-19. The Health Ministry was first accused of overpaying for mask supplies that were provided by a company where the husband of then-Health Minister Jens Spahn worked.
Spahn also later landed in hot water for considering distributing faulty masks bought from China to the disabled and homeless.
Tucker Carlson floats plan to host alternative GOP debate in post-Fox future - The Washington Post
Fri, 05 May 2023 13:26
Lesser-known cable channels are itching to build a new brand around him. Industry experts think he could make a mint in podcasting.
But Tucker Carlson '-- who was fired by Fox News last week at the height of his popularity and influence in right-wing punditry '-- has aspirations of moving into a larger role that doesn't limit him to a single medium, according to people familiar with his thinking. And he is willing to walk away from some of the millions that Fox is contractually obligated to pay him, if that would give him the flexibility to have a prominent voice in the 2024 election cycle.
Most ambitiously, Carlson wants to moderate his own GOP candidate forum, outside of the usual strictures of the Republican National Committee debate system. The idea, which he has discussed with Donald Trump, the front-runner for the party nomination, would test his vaunted sway over conservative politics. And it would take a jab at his former employer '-- Fox is hosting the first official primary debate, which Trump has threatened not to attend '-- if he can manage to make his grandest plan happen.
Ultimately, Carlson is scrambling to try to avoid the fate of other once-towering former Fox News personalities, who in exile from the network have found lucrative gigs but nothing like their former positions of influence.
''If I'm sitting in his seat right now, I'm plotting really my own media company, how I want to build it,'' said Joel Cheatwood, a former Fox News and CNN executive who helped found with Glenn Beck after his forced departure from Fox News in 2011. ''Whether you like him or not, there are very few individual brands out there that you can almost guarantee an incredibly significant following from day one.''
Carlson's Fox contract reportedly runs through the end of 2024, which would limit his options, though a source close to Carlson said he might accept less money than he is owed to be able to get back into the media game before then. Hollywood lawyer Bryan Freedman, who is representing Carlson, did not respond to a message asking about his contractual status.
What Tucker Carlson said about Trump in private texts vs. on Fox News
Among the smaller broadcasters that have approached Carlson are the faith-based Trinity Broadcasting Network and the far-right One America News Network. OAN's founder and chief executive, Robert Herring Sr., fulsomely praised Carlson as having ''the largest and most passionate audience in cable news,'' adding that the company has ''made our interest clear.''
A stronger pitch has come from Newsmax, the conservative media company that has seen a prime-time ratings surge this past week at the same time Fox was losing viewers from Carlson's old time slot.
Newsmax CEO Christopher Ruddy approached Carlson and his associates with a wide-ranging proposal that, in the words of one person familiar with the pitch, would involve ''rebranding Newsmax under Tucker's name.'' Carlson and his advisers are intrigued by the idea of his own media company, and taking over an existing one would be easier than building from the ground up '-- though any possible deal would boil down to unresolved questions of money and editorial control.
And Cheatwood speculated that Carlson would diminish his own brand by signing on with a smaller media company. ''I just don't think he needs it,'' he added. ''He's just so much bigger than they are.''
Many in conservative corners of the digital media world have assumed that Carlson '-- a polarizing personality whose disparaging comments about immigrants, defense of the Jan. 6 insurrectionists and dabbling in paranoid white-nationalist theories during his years on Fox would make him toxic for mainstream media companies '-- will strike out with his own podcast or streaming show.
In a video posted to Twitter on April 26, news anchor Tucker Carlson spoke publicly for the first time since his exit from Fox News earlier in the week. (Video: Reuters)
''He could do very well and find an audience immediately, and he could earn a good living and never have to leave his home studio,'' said Ken LaCorte, a former digital-side executive for Fox News.
In 2020, Carlson's team explored the idea of launching a podcast as a ''joint venture of sorts'' with his then-employers at Fox, according to a text message exchange made public in a recent defamation lawsuit against the network. And since his firing, his team has fielded inquiries from potential podcast partners.
But Carlson doesn't want to just be a podcaster, people in his circle say. He wants to produce documentaries and host live events as well.
Twitter has also emerged as an area of intrigue for Carlson. That's where he went to issue his first public comments after his dismissal, and his team was impressed by the number of views amassed by the video, according to people familiar with their thinking.
Carlson has not had any recent conversations with Twitter or its political-provocateur new owner, Elon Musk; but shortly before he left Fox, he had a briefing from Twitter tech staff about new features for subscriptions and other ways for content creators to make money from the platform.
Beck praised the Twitter video, in which Carlson claimed that television news shuts off legitimate debate. ''You see what he's setting up here? He's setting up a different kind of show, a show where he takes big issues and he debates them,'' Beck said last week on his own show. ''That's where he's headed.'' (Beck, who pivoted to digital video after being forced out of Fox, has already offered Carlson a job.)
Carlson and his team have discussed the possibility of moderating a candidate forum outside of the traditional protocols surrounding the GOP primary debate system, according to two people familiar with the considerations. These people said the setup '-- as well as Carlson's availability to take on that kind of role, given the noncompete constraints of his contract with Fox '-- remain unclear. But Carlson has personally expressed enthusiasm about the idea, according to people familiar with his comments. At least one major candidate '-- Trump '-- has told Carlson he's interested, according to a person familiar with the exchange.
The former Fox host's interest in a debate is said to stem in part from its potential to loosen the Republican National Committee's grip on the process, as well as to challenge the role traditionally played by the major television networks. ''He could go straight to the candidates, stream it live, invite the networks but maintain control over the process,'' said one person familiar with the discussions, speaking on the condition of anonymity to preserve relationships.
Carlson has been approached in recent days by candidates as well as Republican fundraisers about appearing on the campaign trail but is interested in maintaining a more independent posture, according to people with knowledge of his views. A role moderating a debate or delivering analysis about the contest is seen as a way to influence the process without becoming an arm of a particular campaign.
But the main holdup in Carlson's post-Fox future is his contract status, which could limit his options until his deal with the network runs out. ''Fame is a depreciating asset, and Tucker in nine months of relative radio silence would not be nearly as powerful as Tucker is now,'' LaCorte said.
''Tucker's too gifted a writer and host not to put those talents to use every day,'' said Vince Coglianese, a friend of Carlson who serves as editorial director for the publication he co-founded, the Daily Caller. ''I don't know what format he'll end up in, but I'm confident he'll be a massive success '-- which will be good for the country. Anything that breaks the corporate stranglehold on our debates is a huge win.''
While Carlson gave no specifics into his plans in the video he posted on Twitter, he ended it with three words that suggested he's not planning to recede from the spotlight: ''See you soon.''
'Premeditated and admitted lie': Intel pros slam Biden laptop letter after bombshell revelation | Just The News
Fri, 05 May 2023 13:23
The Facts Inside Our Reporter's NotebookIn a rare and candid email exchange between two former CIA bosses, Michael Morell told John Brennan in October 2020 that he was organizing a letter of 51 intel experts claiming the emergence of the Hunter Biden laptop was a Russian influence operation because he wanted to give Joe Biden's campaign a "talking point to push back on" Donald Trump during the last presidential debate of the 2020 election, according to documents obtained by Just the News.
Brennan, who served as CIA director under President Barack Obama, willingly agreed to sign the letter after being told of its political intentions. "Ok, Michael, add my name to the list," Brennan wrote Morell on Oct. 19. 2020. "Good initiative. Thanks for asking me to sign on."
You can read that email here:
The email exchange provides damning new proof supporting House Judiciary Committee Chairman Jim Jordan's explosive revelation last week that the now-infamous intelligence letter '-- which was portrayed by news media, fact checkers and Big Tech as an independent and organic initiative by security experts '-- was in fact a political effort by U.S. spies instigated and assisted by Biden's campaign in an effort to influence the 2020 election.
Intelligence professionals reacted swiftly to the news Wednesday night, saying the revelation that two former CIA chiefs used their professional credentials to influence the 2020 election was troubling.
"This wasn't a 'talking point' to toss back at Trump, it was a premeditated and admitted lie to the American people designed specifically to deceive and hide the truth," retired FBI intelligence chief Kevin Brock told Just the News. "And for what? To help elect a politician? What a steep and sad cost to the soul for such a meager goal."
Morell testified to Jordan's committee that a conversation he had with current Secretary of State Antony Blinken, then a Biden campaign adviser, "triggered" his effort to organize the letter, that his intention was to help Biden win the election and that the Biden campaign provided assistance spreading the letter to news media.
Blinken has since tried to minimize his role in the letter, insisting it wasn't his idea. But he has not denied having the conversation with Morell or sending a subsequent email to the former CIA boss containing a USA Today article that provided the key passage in the letter claiming the laptop was possible Russian disinformation.
That claim proved untrue. The FBI had the laptop since December 2019, and U.S. intelligence had no evidence the laptop was a Russian disinformation operation, officials have admitted.
The new email to Brennan obtained by Just the News shows Morell had a more specific intention to help Joe Biden and his campaign to discredit the laptop during the final presidential debate.
"Trying to give the campaign, particularly during the debate on Thursday, a talking point to push back on Trump on this issue," Morell wrote Brennan.
The email also shows at least one signatory of the letter, Brennan, knew of the political intentions of the project before adding his name to it.
The email also reveals some of the other experts whom Morell was trying to get to sign the letter, including former CIA Director Leon Panetta, former Homeland Security Chief Jeh Johnson, current Deputy Attorney General Lisa Monaco and former National Security Agency Director Mike Rogers.
Some, like Panetta, signed the letter, while others, like Rogers, did not.
Former CIA Moscow station chief Daniel Hoffman recently revealed he was approached and asked to sign the letter but chose not to sign because he knew of no intelligence or evidence to back up its claims
Former Assistant Secretary of State Robert "Bobby" Charles, a former Naval Intelligence officer, told Just the News that the belated revelation that the 2020 letter was a political operation and not a intelligence warning would cause even greater distrust among Americans of their intelligence community, a trust already tarnished by the discredited Russia collusion probe an election earlier.
"The notion that you would just somehow overnight gather 51 intelligence officers to attest to something that was uncorroborated and turns out to be utterly untrue leads you to the question: Why and how did those intelligence officers '-- most of whom were all Democrats '-- why did they step up and do that?" said Charles, now the national spokesman for the conservative senior group AMAC.
"And what these emails seem to be showing us is that it was a coordinated effort to damage the Republican and to defend and to support the Democrat," he added. "And that is a scourge on those particular individuals' reputations. It's also a scourge on the campaign of Joe Biden."
Former FBI agent and whistleblower Kyle Seraphin said some intelligence leaders have become increasingly politically brazen because there has been no significant consequence for people who were found to have committed wrongdoing in earlier controversies like the discredited Russia collusion narrative.
"I think it's arrogance,'' he said. "And I think it's the arrogance that we've seen from the people who are in the upper reaches of whether the FBI or any other part of the intelligence community. They don't see anyone falling on this stuff. You know, they're able to retire, they're able to walk away from it without any shame, they go get high paid corporate jobs when it ends."
Ukraine Is Using Cardboard Drones From Australia: Details
Fri, 05 May 2023 04:23
Some paper planes may be deadly.
Australia-based SYPAQ Systems is sending low-cost drones made out of cardboard to Ukrainian forces. The Corvo Precision Payload Delivery System (PPDS) drones come flat-packed and can launch, fly up to 75 miles, and land by themselves.
''PPDS is an Australian capability that will help the Ukrainian people defend their country, and is proof of the world-leading autonomous systems capabilities in Australian industry,'' said SYPAQ CEO Amanda Holt. ''This capability is the result of an innovation journey with Army and the Defence Innovation Hub, and demonstrates the importance of collaboration between Defence and industry on capability development.''
More From Popular Mechanics
Expendable DronesThe Corvo PPDS is an expendable drone intended to deliver supplies and equipment into areas traditional logistics capabilities cannot reach. Following feedback from the Ukrainian military, the system has also been adapted for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions.
The PPDS is part of a growing wave of expendable drones. Lockheed Martin is working on expendable drone wingmen that would team up with the U.S. Air Force manned fighters. The company hopes to get the drones ready quickly so they would be available if a war breaks out with China. A Lochkheed concept video shows an F-35 flying alongside a variety of drones, including one with a flying wing shape similar to the B-21.
Special operators are also getting into the expendable drone game. The U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command is buying MQ-9B SkyGuardian remotely piloted aircraft to test out the idea of expendable drones. The SkyGuardians, made by General Atomics, would deploy the smaller drones at a safe distance from enemy air defenses.
''We're very excited to continue our great partnership with AFSOC well into the future,'' said David R. Alexander, president of General Atomics. ''MQ-9B is the ideal platform for inserting air-launched effects into potentially hostile environments. The MQ-9B's combination of range, endurance, reduced manpower footprint, and overall flexibility will make it a true centerpiece of AFSOC's future family of advanced UAS systems.''
Drones Over UkraineDrones have become an integral part of the war in Ukraine. Ukrainian forces regularly employ drones to target both personnel and vehicles. Many of the drones used in the conflict are off-the shelf-models that have been customized to carry grenades. Long-range strikes against targets deep inside Russia have also been carried out recently by Ukranian drones.
Russia has also been using drones, many of which have been supplied by Iran. The U.S. recently announced sanctions against Iranian companies supplying drones to Russia.
''Iran's well-documented proliferation of UAVs and conventional weapons to its proxies continues to undermine both regional security and global stability,'' Brian Nelson, the undersecretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at the U.S. Treasury, said in a statement.
Science and Technology Journalist
Sascha Brodsky, a freelance journalist based in New York City and a graduate of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs, writes about many aspects of technology including personal technology, AI, and virtual reality. His work has appeared in The New York Times, The Atlantic, The Guardian, and many other publications. In his spare time, he enjoys cycling and hiking.
Subway Killing of Jordan Neely Stuns, and Divides, New Yorkers - The New York Times
Fri, 05 May 2023 04:00
After a homeless man was killed on the subway, New Yorkers and elected officials are mourning his death and debating how the city should address mental health and public safety.
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Mayor Eric Adams has asked for patience as law enforcement officials investigate the death of Jordan Neely at the hands of another subway rider. Other Democratic leaders have criticized his response as too tame, calling the death a ''murder'' and a ''lynching.'' Credit... Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times May 4, 2023 Updated 9:54 p.m. ET
Almost as soon as the video of one subway rider choking another to death began to ricochet across the internet, the killing came to signify more than the tragic death of one man.
For many New Yorkers, the choking of the 30-year-old homeless man, Jordan Neely, was a heinous act of public violence to be swiftly prosecuted, and represented a failure by the city to care for people with serious mental illness. Many others who lamented the killing nonetheless saw it as a reaction to fears about public safety in New York and the subway system in particular.
And some New Yorkers wrestled with conflicting feelings: their own worries about crime and aggression in the city and their conviction that the rider had gone too far and should be charged with a crime.
Video The death of Jordan Neely, after another rider put him in a chokehold, spurred advocates for the homeless, city officials and others to call for an arrest. Credit Credit... Paul Martinka Now, as prosecutors continue to investigate the circumstances of Mr. Neely's death, the case has become a political Rorschach test, dividing the city along long-simmering fault lines.
Mayor Eric Adams and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, two of the city's most prominent Democrats, criticized each other's response in an uncommonly tense exchange. The death of another Black man in a chokehold '-- this time at the hands of a civilian '-- prompted sharp comments from Adrienne Adams, the City Council speaker, over racism in the legal system.
Image Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez said Mr. Adams had sunk to ''a new low'' in not responding more strongly to Mr. Neely's death. Credit... Kenny Holston/The New York Times And in a city where disturbing subway encounters are a fact of life, many wrestled with uncomfortable questions about how they might respond when faced with a person who is both frightening other riders and obviously in crisis.
The debate over how best to help people with mental illness is taking place in cities across the nation and has been particularly vexing in liberal cities like New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles, where homelessness and mental illness soared during the pandemic and people in dire need are often in plain sight on park benches and subway trains.
These cities have sought out innovative solutions to assist those with mental illness '-- pouring money into housing programs, street teams and community centers '-- and have also cleared subway homeless encampments, and weighed harsher tactics.
In the wake of Mr. Neely's death, the debate has become especially heated. After Ms. Ocasio-Cortez wrote on Twitter that Mr. Neely had been ''murdered'' and another left-leaning official, Brad Lander, the city comptroller, called his attacker a ''vigilante,'' Mr. Adams called their comments irresponsible in an interview on CNN on Wednesday night.
Mr. Adams, a former transit police officer in his second year as mayor, said on Thursday that he would wait to weigh in until the police and the prosectors had investigated what happened.
''There are many layers to this,'' he said at an unrelated news conference. ''Let the process follow its course.''
On the F train in Manhattan on Monday, Mr. Neely, a subway performer and dancer who also had a history of mental illness and erratic behavior, had been yelling at passengers, saying he was hungry and thirsty, but also at one point that he was ready to die, according to one witness.
There is no indication that he was violent or that he made any direct threats.
But one of the train's riders, a former marine who has not been identified by officials, approached Mr. Neely, put him in a chokehold, and held him until he became limp.
It does not appear that any riders intervened to help Mr. Neely; at least two other riders appeared to help pin him down. Mr. Neely was later pronounced dead at a hospital in Greenwich Village. Law enforcement officials are still investigating the incident and have not yet decided whether to charge the man.
Asked what New Yorkers should do in a similar situation, Mr. Adams focused on Mr. Neely's presence on the train, and did not discourage people from seeking to restrain someone.
Image Mr. Neely was removed from the train at the Broadway-Lafayette Street station and taken to a hospital, where he was pronounced dead. Credit... Paul Martinka ''We need to be extremely clear that from Day 1 of this administration, I focused on: We cannot have people with severe emotional illnesses on our subway system,'' he said.
Every New Yorker has a story of witnessing an outburst or a violent episode on the subway and struggling over how to respond: To confront or flee; to intervene when two riders are at odds; to call for a police officer, or to look away.
Many have grown worried about safety on the subway after experiencing violence or reading about it in the news. Others are so accustomed to conflict that they ignore it.
On Thursday at the Broadway-Lafayette station in Manhattan, where Mr. Neely was removed from the train and taken to a hospital, David Alexander, 45, a superintendent who lives in Manhattan, said that he avoided volatile subway riders and would not risk intervening himself.
''If I see something happen, I get up and go to the next car,'' he said, adding: ''You don't get involved '-- you could end up hurt, you could end up killed.''
Rahnuma Tarannum, 25, a data analyst who lives in Brooklyn, said that she felt so unsafe on the subway that she carried pepper spray. Though it is unclear if there were police officers nearby or on the train, Ms. Tarannum said that while she deeply regretted Mr. Neely's death, the incident supported her belief that the police need to be doing more.
''Because police are not doing their job, that's why the citizens of New York are taking the law into their hands,'' she said. ''Somebody has to do something.''
Mr. Adams and Gov. Kathy Hochul have vowed to make the subway safer after a series of violent episodes, including stabbings and fatal shoves, that have often involved homeless people attacking others. Homeless people are also frequently the victims of violent crimes.
Crime rose on the subway during the pandemic, but the subway is less dangerous now than in the 1980s and 1990s, when there were more than two dozen murders in a single year. There were 10 murders on the subway last year, compared with about two murders per year, on average, in the five years before the pandemic.
The number of major felony crimes from January to March 2023 was 8 percent lower than in the same time period in 2022, according to the M.T.A.
Mr. Neely's killing reminded many New Yorkers of the shooting of four Black teenagers on a subway train in 1984 by Bernhard Goetz, a man who believed he was being robbed and was acquitted of attempted murder.
Ms. Ocasio-Cortez, a democratic socialist who represents Queens and the Bronx, referenced the mayor's contentious budget cuts to schools, libraries and social services when she said that Mr. Adams had sunk to a ''new low'' in his response to Mr. Neely's death.
The mayor's mention of mental health services was ''especially rich'' coming from an administration that is ''trying to cut the very services that could have helped him,'' Ms. Ocasio-Cortez said.
Ms. Hochul, for her part, said that there should be consequences for the man who choked Mr. Neely and that ''his family deserves justice.''
The city's public advocate, Jumaane Williams, and the Rev. Al Sharpton, the civil rights leader, have called for charges against the man who used the chokehold. Maurice Mitchell, director of the Working Families Party, criticized leaders for refusing to call Mr. Neely's death ''what it is: a modern-day public lynching.''
Image Jumaane Williams, the New York City public advocate, called for charges against the man who choked Mr. Neely. Credit... Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times Protesters crowded onto the subway platform at the Broadway-Lafayette station on Wednesday, chanting ''housing not cops!'' More protests were planned on Thursday night and Friday, including one in front of the office of Alvin L. Bragg, the Manhattan district attorney.
Charlton D'souza, president of Passengers United, an advocacy organization for transit riders, said that comments by politicians inflamed tensions and failed to address the core feeling of most subway riders who just ''want to get to their destination safely.'' His organization has called for adding 400 social workers to the city's subway system.
Politicians need to ''ride the system,'' he said. ''See what's happening.''
For New Yorkers who spend time in the subway, the incident felt hauntingly familiar, and many felt torn over how to think about it. Kari Jonsson, 23, who works in health care and lives in the East Village, said she felt safe on the subway and that Mr. Neely's death was a travesty. ''There's no excuse,'' she said.
Maria Casta±o, 64, an interior designer who lives in Brooklyn, said she viewed the man who choked Mr. Neely as a hero and Mr. Neely as the recipient of justice.
''I feel sorry for the man, but he was acting threatening,'' she said.
Karim Walker, 41, often rode the trains when he was homeless for a year and a half. He encouraged New Yorkers who see a person in crisis on a train to help by calling for emergency services.
''We're all wired to do fight or flight, but approach the situation with as much impartiality as possible,'' said Mr. Walker.
Image Subway riders grappled with a mix of reactions to the killing of Mr. Neely by another passenger. Credit... Dakota Santiago for The New York Times Dana Rubinstein and Nate Schweber contributed reporting.
VIDEO - Open Forum, Part 2 | May 7, 2023 |
Sun, 07 May 2023 16:16
May 7, 2023 | Part Of Washington Journal 05/07/2023 Washington Journal2023-05-07T08:48:01-04:00 Viewers commented on news of the day.Viewers commented on news of the day.
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VIDEO - Richard Dreyfuss slams Oscars new diversity standards
Sun, 07 May 2023 14:49
Hollywood's new diversity rules are making one actor sick.
Legendary actor Richard Dreyfuss condemned the inclusivity changes that will be implemented for next year's Oscars, saying the new standards ''make me vomit.''
''This is an art form. It's also a form of commerce, and it makes money. But it's an art,'' Dreyfuss said on PBS' ''Firing Line with Margaret Hoover.'' ''And no one should be telling me as an artist that I have to give in to the latest, most current idea of what morality is.''
Dreyfuss, who famously played Matt Hooper in the 1975 horror film ''Jaws,'' claimed the standards were legislating people's feelings.
''What are we risking? Are we really risking hurting people's feelings? You can't legislate that. And'' you have to let life be life. And I'm sorry, I don't think that there is a minority or a majority in the country that has to be catered to like that,'' Dreyfuss added.
Starting in 2024, a film has to meet certain diversity and inclusion standards in four different categories set out by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to be considered for ''Best Picture'' at the Oscars.
Richard Dreyfuss condemned the inclusivity changes that will be implemented for next year's Oscars. Firing Line with Margaret Hoover Dreyfuss, who famously played Matt Hooper (left) in the 1975 horror film ''Jaws,'' claimed the standards were legislating people's feelings. Getty ImagesThe categories, each pertaining to different aspects of a movie's production, would require new diversity measures to be met through ''On-screen Representation,'' ''Creative Leadership and Project Team,'' ''Industry Access and Opportunities,'' and ''Audience Advancement.''
''On-screen Representation'' is classified as at least one lead character from an underrepresented racial or ethnic group, having at least 30 percent of secondary roles be from two underrepresented groups or the main storyline has to focus on an underrepresented group.
According to the Academy, underrepresented groups include women, people of color, people who identify as LGBTQ+ or people with disabilities, and the new standards are meant to encourage diversity on and off the screen.
Starting at next year's Oscars, movies will have to meet certain diversity standards to even be considered for an Academy Award. Getty ImagesDreyfuss, who won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1977 for his role in ''The Goodbye Girl,'' defended Laurence Olivier in Shakespeare's Othello, a Moorish military commander, which he played in blackface.
''(Olivier) did it in 1965. And he did it in blackface. And he played a black man brilliantly,'' Dreyfuss said.
''Am I being told that I will never have a chance to play a black man? Is someone else being told that if they're not Jewish, they shouldn't play the Merchant of Venice? Are we crazy? Do we not know that art is art? This is so patronizing. It's so thoughtless, and treating people like children.''
Dreyfuss won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1977 for his role in ''The Goodbye Girl.'' Bettmann ArchiveDreyfuss suggested movies should remain focused on the reality of the story instead of manipulating it to meet a standard of who's in it.
''I once worked for a guy who was making a film about the gangsters of the thirties,'' Dreyfuss recalled. ''I said, 'Why did you change this incident and that incident from the reality? Because the reality was so much more interesting than what you created. And by changing it you made it simple and smaller.''
''I totally believe that you can make a great film or a great painting or a great opera out of the truth first. And try that first. And then if you can't do it, then make up some nonsense. But don't'' don't tell me you can't do that, that history isn't that interesting.
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VIDEO - Moment Catholic woman is arrested for a second time for silently praying outside abortion clinic | Daily Mail Online
Sun, 07 May 2023 13:33
This is the moment police told a Catholic woman that 'praying is an offence' as she was arrested a second time outside an abortion clinic just weeks after being acquitted for the same offence.
Video shared online shows Isabel Vaughan-Spruce, director of anti-abortion group March for Life UK, being arrested outside the BPAS Robert Clinic in Kings Norton, Birmingham.
Officers ask Ms Vaughan-Spruce to 'step outside the exclusion zone' that exists around the clinic. However, she tells officers that she is 'not protesting' and 'not engaging in any of the activities prohibited'.
Police respond: 'But you've said you're engaging in prayer, which is the offence', to which she replies: 'Silent prayer.'
Video shared online shows Isabel Vaughan-Spruce, director of anti-abortion group March for Life UK, being arrested outside the BPAS Robert Clinic in Kings Norton, Birmingham
Officers ask Ms Vaughan-Spruce to 'step outside the exclusion zone' that exists around the clinic. However, she tells officers that she is 'not protesting' and 'not engaging in any of the activities prohibited'
The officer then says, 'No, but you were still engaging in prayer. It is an offence', to which Ms Vaughan-Spruce answered: 'I disagree.'
She was then arrested by six officers.
In a statement through her legal representatives, ADF UK, Ms Vaughan-Spruce said: 'Only three weeks ago, it was made clear by the court that my silent prayers were not a crime.
'And yet, again, I have been arrested and treated as a criminal for having the exact same thoughts in my head, in the same location.
'The ambiguity of laws that limit free expression and thought - even in peaceful, consensual conversation or in silent, internal prayer - leads to abject confusion, to the detriment of important fundamental rights. Nobody should be criminalised for their thoughts.'
Map showing the boundary of the exclusion zone (highlighted red) around the BPAS Robert Clinic in Kings Norton, Birmingham
General view of the BPAS Robert Clinic in King Norton, Birmingham
Ms Vaughan-Spruce was confronted by police when she was standing on the street outside the BPAS Robert Clinic in Kings Norton, Birmingham, on December 6
Isabel Vaughan-Spruce (right) pictured outside Birmingham Magistrates' Court with Father Sean Gough last month
According to ADF UK, a charity committed to protecting freedom of expression that has campaigned against the buffer zones - areas around clinics cordoned off from anti-abortion campaigners - Ms Vaughan-Spruce has been subject to bail conditions prohibiting her from going near the abortion facility.
What are PSPOs and how do they stop protests around abortion centres?Public Spaces Protection Orders (PSPOs) are designed to allow local councils to prevent anti-social behaviour.
Councils were given the power to enforce them in 2014 through section 59 of the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act.
The authority lists the activity that is banned within a particular geographical area, with a £100 initial fine rising to £1,000 if it goes to court.
MPs have also introduced buffer zones around abortion clinics following an amendment to the Public Order Bill.
This makes it an offence to intimidate or harass anyone within 150 metres of the buildings.
Anyone found guilty of breaching the zone to intimidate, threaten or persuade women will face a fine or six months' imprisonment, increasing to two years for repeat offences.
The law change came out over concerns about councils being sued by anti-abortion campaigners challenging PSPOs.
West Midlands Police confirmed a 45-year-old woman had been arrested on suspicion of breaching a public space protection order (PSPO) yesterday, following complaints from members of the public.
They said: 'The woman was advised to leave the area, and refused, before being issued with a fixed penalty notice. When she refused to leave again, she was arrested.
'She has now been bailed while statements are taken from residents and people working in the area.'
The force added: 'This order was put in place by a court, following a joint application from West Midlands Police and Birmingham City Council, to protect women from harassment by any means if they are seeking a medical procedure or advice at an abortion clinic.
'It is our role to enforce the PSPO and reassure those it was designed to protect.'
The arrest comes just weeks after she was found not guilty by Birmingham Magistrates Court for silently praying outside the BPAS Robert Clinic in Kings Norton, Birmingham, on December 6.
Her arrest sparked a fierce debate, with supporters saying she was effectively arrested for 'thoughtcrime', a term which ADF UK used - but she was cleared of all charges.
Following her not guilty verdict, Ms Vaughan-Spruce said in a statement outside court: 'I'm glad I've been vindicated of any wrongdoing. But I should never have been arrested for my thoughts and treated like a criminal simply for silently praying on a public street.'
Buffer zones make it an offence to intimidate or harass anyone within 150 metres of an abortion clinic and were introduced as an amendment to the Public Order Bill last year.
The exclusion zones are areas around clinics where abortion-specific harassment such a displaying graphic signs, following and filming women and repeatedly approaching women and doctors is not allowed.
The UK's first buffer zone was introduced around an abortion clinic in Ealing, west London, in 2018.
Buffer zones have been hailed by pro-choice campaigners as an important step towards de-stigmatising abortion and preventing the harassment of those who attend abortion clinics.
However, critics see them as an attack on freedom of expression.
MPs are set to debate today on the rollout of buffer zones across England and Wales.
VIDEO - Mysterious Sounds Happening Across America... - YouTube
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VIDEO - (6) Dr. Jebra Faushay on Twitter: "Do you hear it?" / Twitter
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Gh°§' R¯ªr R¥¯°' : @JebraFaushay No, I heard it, too. But was it because you said it that way, and I was influenced? Idk... it's creepy.
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VIDEO - All-In with Chamath, Jason, Sacks & Friedberg: E127: Presidential Candidate Robert F. Kennedy Jr. in conversation with the Besties on Apple Podcasts
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May 6, 2023 | Part Of Washington Journal 05/06/2023 Washington Journal2023-05-06T08:45:19-04:00 Viewers commented on the news of the day.Viewers commented on the news of the day.
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VIDEO - FINGERSTOONARMY (@toonarmybadboy)'s videos with original sound - FINGERSTOONARMY | TikTok
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VIDEO - Survivor of Mao's revolution warns about Biden's China policies - YouTube
Sat, 06 May 2023 13:45
VIDEO - Race vs Class: The Same Ideology That Erased Freedom in China Is Taking Over America | The Beau Show - YouTube
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VIDEO - (20) Jorge Ventura Media on Twitter: "Chinese organized crime taking over rural Oklahoma , buying thousands of acres of land and turning them into illegal marijuana farms with links to sex and labor trafficking , prostitution rings and homicides -
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:16
Jorge Ventura Media : Chinese organized crime taking over rural Oklahoma , buying thousands of acres of land and turning them into illega'...
Thu May 04 01:33:41 +0000 2023
Annie McGee : @VenturaReport @Michael_Yon @NewsNation @AmazingBughead
Sat May 06 11:42:35 +0000 2023
Rob Lee : @VenturaReport @MayraFlores2022 @NewsNation Why are they allowed to buy land in America?
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John Dale : @VenturaReport @NewsNation @govkristinoem @RepDustyJohnson I could grow all the cannabis I need for a year using ar'...
Sat May 06 07:33:55 +0000 2023
Tru Justice : @VenturaReport @Amer1stHunter @NewsNation Remove it and plant food crops and graze land for cattle,chickens, pigs,etc.
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VIDEO - Reverse ATMs Converting cash into debit cards. (See description for how to fight cashless stores)
Sat, 06 May 2023 12:14
Don't let them take our cash away. Use cash every chance you get. Don't let them off the hook this easy. Fight back. If a business does not allow you to pay cash, they are violating the law.
It says quite plainly on every "note" that is good for all debts public and private. It says it is legal tender. If your cash is refused they are the ones acting Illegally. They are counting on people being too ignorant to know the businesses are the ones breaking the law. If they will not accept your cash for payment then the debt is "discharged" and you can take your food, drink, lawnmower, groceries, boob job, pedicure or whatever and leave. Businesses do not get to decide what is considered valid payment in commerce. You have "tendered payment" in commerce. That is what you are required by law to do. Businesses, states and local governments don't get to change the law.
Learn your rights or you will have none. Don't tell me it does not work, I have done it twice this year already. Two free meals so far, no repercussions. If they call the cops take out your cash and offer to pay in front of the cop and show them what it plainly says on our fake cash notes. Teach the donut patrol the law, someone sure as hell needs to. They have no grounds to keep you from taking whatever goods and services you have used/attempted to purchase. If they do, take them to small claims court.
You ARE NOT A THIEF. YOU HAVE NOT STOLEN ANYTHING. THEY WON'T ALLOW YOU TO PAY. VERY SIMPLE. Use this to your advantage and stand your ground. I stayed in a Condo for 5 months for free in 2018 once because they broke the lease and refused 3 attempts at valid payment. CHING! They took me to court and the judge threw out my eviction. BAM! Keep in mind I had video of and recordings of my attempts to pay my rent.
Look at it this way. Everything is a contract. When you are purchasing a good or service, you are entering into a contract (this is absolutely correct under the laws of commerce). You have agreed to pay for whatever you take or use. If the refuse to accept your VALID TENDER OF PAYMENT. You are free from liability. The debt is "discharged". Done deal.
The theft and robbery they talk of is the theft of your "cash" and freedom. And they are nice enough to charge you a fee to screw you. WAKE THE HELL UP PEOPLE. Don't get me started on the germ bullshit.
There is not a valid law anywhere that a business cannot accept cash if it is challenged in court that fact will stand. Challenge them in FEDERAL COURT. Cities and States that are making these so called laws are violating Federal Law. Go after them in the correct venue so you can prevail. Don't put up with this crap. It will not take much push back for this to stop. More from the satanic controlled clown world:I would hire this dude - People are pushing back against the nonsense.
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I wonder if this is how the 'black eyed babies' get created?
This one made me laugh and almost barf at the same time. New terminology alert ðŸ"🤮ðŸ†ðŸ†ðŸ¤ðŸŒ
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00:00 / 00:00
Hmm I wonder what changed after 2007 #social #socialmedia #teenagegirls #teens #girls #genderdysphoria #socialcontagion #trend #trending #fypシ #viralvideo #viral_video #viraltiktok original sound - Sometimes the truth hurts
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VIDEO - Lord Bebo on Twitter: "''Look I'm not gonna speak to Julian Assange'' '... 2 seconds later '... ''(Biden) talked about the freedom of the press and how important it is to protect journalists, because it is part of our democracy'' -> This hypo
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Lord Bebo : ''Look I'm not gonna speak to Julian Assange'''... 2 seconds later '...''(Biden) talked about the freedom of the press and'...
Wed May 03 21:44:53 +0000 2023
Henry D : @MyLordBebo I think we would get a better answer from ChapGPT. Even the earliest version would do.
Fri May 05 12:32:25 +0000 2023

Clips & Documents

All Clips
ABC - GMA Weekend - James Longman - coronation concert Lionel Richie and Winnie the Pooh.mp3
ABC - GMA Weekend - Janai Norman Lama Hasan - the royal rift.mp3
ABC - Marcus Moore - Russian-US on the verge of an open armed conflict Wagner Group on its way out.mp3
ABC - Marcus Moore - Ukraines air force has claimed to have downed a Russian hypersonic missile - prove it.mp3
Adidas faces investor unrest - WION.mp3
AJ - Serbia second mass shooting.mp3
Anne Applebaum - on Pivot -1- Ending the War.mp3
Anne Applebaum - on Pivot -2- DC doesn't want Ukraine to win too much.mp3
BBC Report - not my king.mp3
Best of Coronation Supercut 1 min.mp3
Border Sheriff explains the 1500 border troops.mp3
CBS - Norah ODonnell - CDC director Rochelle Walensky stepping down WHO ended global emergency phase of pandemic.mp3
CBS - Norah ODonnell - CDC director Rochelle Walensky stepping down WHO ended global emergency phase of pandemic.mp3
CBS - Norah ODonnell - CDC director Rochelle Walensky stepping down WHO ended global emergency phase of pandemic.mp3
CBS - Norah ODonnell - Harlan Crow paid tuition for Thomas grandnephew and bought his mothers home.mp3
CBS - Norah ODonnell - Ozempic has put Jenny Craig out of business.mp3
CBS - Norah ODonnell - White House denies role in alleged Russia drone attack.mp3
Chicago Gay Bars stop selling Bud Lite.mp3
China spying new angle ntd.mp3
Chinese organized crime taking over rural Oklahoma.mp3
CLaire Daley EMP rant pro china.mp3
CNN - coronation symbolism.mp3
Com[petition Bill NPR.mp3
CPAN Call Republican - Nordstream pipeline.mp3
CPAN Call Republican - Why H2A instead of Americans.mp3
East Palenstine Update.mp3
Fauci GOF 2008.mp3
Florida punchout story ntd.mp3
Gas Stoves Theory TRUE Supercut.mp3
Gas Stoves Conspiracy Theory Supercut.mp3
Histerical Flub GB News King Charles III Coronation.mp3
ISO Do better.mp3
ISO mind the gap.mp3
ISO Rats.mp3
John Edwards supercut.mp3
Kennedy Jr on bio weapons.mp3
KJP on freedom of press NOT for Julian Assange.mp3
KJP on freedom of press NOT for Julian Assange.mp3
KJP on freedom of press NOT for Julian Assange.mp3
Nations report card.mp3
Navy Drag recruiter NTD.mp3
NBC Asks Biden Why Not At Coronation.mp3
NBC MTP - Chuck Todd - AI bad.mp3
NPRNews 05-07-2023 9AM Ukraine Patriot.mp3
PBS News Hour - Geoff Bennett Geoffrey Hinton godfather of AI - worries about what AI could eventually lead to if unchecked [1].mp3
PBS News Hour - Geoff Bennett Geoffrey Hinton godfather of AI - worries about what AI could eventually lead to if unchecked [2].mp3
PBS News Hour - Geoff Bennett Geoffrey Hinton godfather of AI - worries about what AI could eventually lead to if unchecked [3].mp3
Reality Check Africa 3.mp3
Reality Check Africa and China.mp3
Reality Check Africa policy.mp3
Teacher Sues Scool over trans and parents.mp3
The 11th Hour with Stephanie Ruhle - Joe Biden cant remember doubling the debt as VP.mp3
The 11th Hour with Stephanie Ruhle - Joe Bidens brand new ad for president features Kamala Harris 10 times then Stephanie laughs in his face.mp3
The end of gas in NYC.mp3
The Rachel Maddow Show - nazi flare for the anti lgbtq legeislators in ohio.mp3
The View - schooling each other on Antifa.mp3
TOCK bitch.mp3
TOCK dinner is for whitey.mp3
Trump deposition on E Jean Carroll rape case.mp3
Trump want change of venue lead in clip.mp3
Turno Tax.mp3
UKK Elections ntd.mp3
Wagner group guy is irked ntd.mp3
WWWP Bob Pitman.mp3
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