788: Mental Defectives

Adam Curry & John C. Dvorak

3h 6m
January 7th, 2016
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Executive Producers: Sir C-Nonymous

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SCIENCE!
Brain games like Lumosity are snake oil. Don't waste your money. - Vox
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 15:03
Americans are hooked on brain-boosting apps. Your father or grandmother might buy programs like Lumosity in the hopes that its appealing marketing claims will be realized: Just a few minutes of puzzle solving each day will make you smarter, boost your memory, and stave off conditions like dementia and Alzheimer's. Altogether, consumers now spend $1 billion every year on brain games.
The problem with these programs: They're a load of hooey. For years, researchers have looked into brain games and found that they simply don't have the real-world benefits they purport to.
Now the federal government's starting to crack down. On Tuesday, the Federal Trade Commission announced that Lumos Labs, the developer of the "brain training" program Lumosity, will pay out $2 million to settle deceptive advertising charges. (Read the complaint here.)
Lumosity "preyed on consumers' fears about age-related cognitive decline, suggesting their games could stave off memory loss, dementia, and even Alzheimer's disease," said Jessica Rich, director of the FTC's Bureau of Consumer Protection, in a statement. "But Lumosity simply did not have the science to back up its ads."
There's little evidence that "brain games" actually workMany brain training programs broadly promise to work like this: Play their specially designed games for a few minutes several times per week and see amazing results, like better school and sport performance, better memory, and even improved recovery from illnesses such as stroke and traumatic brain injury.
The evidence tells another story, however. Take, for instance, this particularly telling study: Researchers at Florida State University assigned undergraduates to play either Lumosity or the video game Portal 2 for eight hours. At the end, the Portal 2 group outperformed the Lumosity group on cognitive tests. The Lumosity players, meanwhile, "showed no gains on any measure."
When independent researchers tried to replicate an early study that suggested Lumosity might actually boost memory and IQ, they failed to find any effect. The lackluster results square with a 2013 systematic review of the literature, which concluded that memory training programs have not been shown to make concrete improvements on memory, intelligence, or cognitive ability.
This is no secret to the neuroscience community. In 2014, a group of nearly 70 researchers spoke out against brain games: "To date, there is little evidence that playing brain games improves underlying broad cognitive abilities, or that it enables one to better navigate a complex realm of everyday life," they wrote.
Instead of buying a brain game this season, consider going for a walk. Unlike brain games, researchers have found evidence that regular exercise can lead to cognitive improvements. Those improvements are generally modest, to be clear '-- but that's better than the non-boost you get from a brain game. And it's free.
FTC Hits Lumosity With Fine for Deceptive Brain Health Ads | WIRED
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 12:14
You've probably seen or heard ads for the brain training app Lumosity boasting that its games were designed by neuroscientists and were scientifically proven to help stave off Alzheimer's as well as improve real-world cognitive performance. Well, you won't be seeing those ads anymore. Lumosity maker Lumo Labs are now banned from making such claims as the result of a multimillion-dollar settlement with the Federal Trade Commission, the agency said today.
Launched in 2007, Lumosity offers over 50 different games designed to improve cognitive skills such as attention and memory. You can play some of the games for free; Lumo Labs sells access to the full suite of games, which can be played either on the web or via mobile apps, for $5 to $15 per month. Although Lumosity wasn't the first to offer ''brain training'' games to the public, it became the most famous thanks in large part to an aggressive advertising campaign touting its effectiveness at everything from boosting grades to improving athletic performance. The problem is, according to the FTC, those claims aren't actually backed up by science.
The company failed to disclose that many of its testimonials were solicited as part of a contest that offered winners prizes such as iPads or a free trip to San Francisco.
The FTC's complaint alleges that Lumo Ads misled customers with false or deceptive advertising, and that the company had failed to disclose that many of its testimonials had been solicited as part of a contest that offered winners prizes such as iPads, lifetime subscriptions to Lumosity, or a free trip to San Francisco.
Lumo Labs and its employees and representatives are now banned from making claims that Lumosity and related products improve academic or athletic performance, stave off dementia or other cognitive disorders, or treat other conditions such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) until the company can back those claims with ''competent and reliable scientific evidence.''
The order defines competent and reliable scientific evidence as clinical testing conducted by qualified researchers with adequate controls ''considered in light of the entire body of relevant and reliable scientific evidence.''
As part of the settlement, the FTC fined Lumo Labs $50 million but is suspending all but $2 million of that fine because the company probably couldn't pay. (Lumo Labs did not respond to WIRED's request for comment.) The company must also notify all current Lumo Labs subscribers of the FTC's order and provide them with a link to an easy way to unsubscribe from the service.
Go Back to Top. Skip To: Start of Article.Yelp dodged another legal bullet last week when a federal judge in San Francisco threw out the latest lawsuit against the company. This time around, shareholders claimed that Yelp had artificially inflated its share values by exaggerating the reliability of its reviews.
Judge Jon Tigar dismissed the case, saying that reasonable investors would understand that not all of Yelp's reviews are authentic, Reuters reports. In particular, the judge pointed to Yelp's admission that its screening technology is imperfect. Judge Tigar had already dismissed a previous version of the case in April.
Many small business owners have claimed that they've been plagued by negative reviews after declining to advertise on Yelp. The allegations have haunted Yelp for years, but so far, none of them has resulted in a successful lawsuit against the company. Yelp has always maintained that it does not manipulate reviews based on advertising relationships or any other financial arrangement, But the company used to allow advertisers to highlight a ''favorite review'' atop its listing, which could effectively push negative reviews further down the page.
A group of small businesses filed a suit against Yelp in 2010, claiming that the company's ad sales practices amounted to extortion. But an appeals court threw the case out last year, arguing that the plaintiffs had failed to prove that Yelp had fabricated negative reviews and that the company's strategy of allowing advertisers to re-prioritize reviews is ''hard bargaining'' but not extortion. Yelp stopped offering the ''favorite review'' option to advertisers after the lawsuit was filed.
The latest suit was prompted by a Wall Street Journal story published in April 2014 that revealed the Federal Trade Commission had received 2,046 complaints about Yelp. The FTC ultimately closed its investigation without taking any action, according to a company blog post last January. After the Wall Street Journal story ran, Yelp's stock dropped 18 percent.
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Oregon Oathers
You cannot be both militia and terrorist
Reaching 6 Million Black Americans Each Month, TheGrio.com is Now Independently Owned and Growing
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 03:39
Co-founder of theGrio.com, David A. Wilson
In 2009, we launched theGrio in partnership with NBCUniversal, which allowed us to quickly grow our brand and audience. TheGrio is now a black-owned media property at scale, which allows us to appeal to our audience in a more trustworthy and authentic way
New York, NY (PRWEB)November 04, 2015
Original founders David A. Wilson and Dan Woolsey have seen traffic skyrocket since purchasing theGrio.com back from NBCUniversal. The website was originally launched in 2009 and sold to NBCUniversal in 2010. Wilson and Woolsey now serve as Executive Editor and Director of Operations, respectively. Now upon its return to being black-owned media, theGrio.com is dedicated to super-serving the needs of its progressive African-American and Millennial audience.
Switching back to independent status has dramatically increased theGrio.com's web traffic. As part of NBC News, theGrio.com attracted between 1.5M and 2.2M monthly unique users. The new, independently run theGrio.com now attracts between 4.5M and 7M monthly unique users.
Advertisers looking for a dynamic way to connect with the African-American community have a valuable tool in theGrio.com. A leading digital content site for urban news and entertainment, theGrio enjoys editorial partnerships with leading media brands. The site also enjoys a strong mobile presence with 57% of its visitors accessing the site via a mobile device. Furthermore, 64% of visitors have an advanced degree and an annual income over $50,000.
New CRO Todd Brown joins the team from Johnson Publishing where he headed up revenue strategy for Ebony and Jet. As Chief Revenue Officer and EVP of Johnson, he was also responsible for monetizing all assets from digital, social, mobile, print, and licensing. Brown brings over 33 years of knowledge, management, and relationships to TheGrio, and his participation will ensure that the site will successfully migrate from the entrepreneurial phase to professional management.
Brown recently noted, ''TheGrio is perfectly positioned to be the homepage for the AA audience on social, mobile and digital. We represent the most brand-friendly environment to connect with our coveted audience and through vetted storytelling, engage across news, politics, entertainment, health care, travel, sports, education, finance, and employment categories.''
Co-founder Wilson commented that theGrio.com is now uniquely positioned to meet the needs of the African-American community, stating, ''In 2009, we launched theGrio in partnership with NBCUniversal, which allowed us to quickly grow our brand and audience. TheGrio is now a black-owned media property at scale, which allows us to appeal to our audience in a more trustworthy and authentic way.''
About TheGrio.com:
TheGrio.com is a daily news and opinion platform dedicated to delivering news, stories and information to a progressive African-American audience in a range of categories including news, opinion, entertainment, sports, living, health and politics. TheGrio's media kit can be downloaded at http://thegrio.com/advertise
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Response to Oregon Militia Standoff Reveals Stark Double Standards
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 14:25
If you depend on the corporate media for your news, you may not have heard that 150 gun-toting militia are claiming U.S. government property for themselves. Social media users observing the media's response to the armed takeover of a federal building by right-wing militia over the weekend are pointing out obvious double standards in how the media is treating white, right-wing militia members compared to black protesters.
Since taking over the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge building southeast of Burns, Oregon, militia members led by Ammon Bundy, son of notorious Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy, have made their intent clear to turn the building into a refuge for so-called ''patriots'' who wish to ignore federal government laws and regulations.
The occupation began after a protest in Burns against the re-sentencing of Dwight and Steven Hammond, who are facing 5 years in prison over setting fire to over 100 acres of federal property between 2001 and 2006. The armed occupiers have threatened to fire upon law enforcement officers and federal officials who attempt to re-take the building, saying they aren't afraid to die for their cause.
The occupation has, at the time of this writing, gone largely unnoticed by the major media networks. While the burning of a CVS in predominantly-black Baltimore during the Freddie Gray protests received wall-to-wall coverage on almost all of the networks, and while nearly every media outlet in the country covered the burning of the QuikTrip store in Ferguson that was burned following the non-indictment of Darren Wilson for killing Mike Brown, the lack of coverage of an armed, white, right-wing mob forcefully taking over federal property seems like an afterthought to most of the corporate-owned TV networks.
Investigative reporter Jeremy Scahill pointed out the obvious double-standard on Twitter. Other journalists took part, along with activists pointing out the careful language the media uses to differentiate between black and white people with guns.
The militia members have called on other ''patriots'' to join the occupation, and to bring weapons.
Tom Cahill is a writer for US Uncut based in the Pacific Northwest. He specializes in coverage of political, economic, and environmental news. You can contact Tom via email at tom.v.cahill@gmail.com.
OREGON OATHERS-Where there's smoke | TSLN.com
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 08:48
The story could be the plot for a western-style soap opera.
The latest scene involved two ranchers being sentenced to five years in federal prison for inadvertantly burning about 140 acres of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) rangeland in two separate fires. That is an area big enough to feed about three cow-calf pairs for a year in that neck of the woods.
''I call it 'as the sagebrush burns,''' said Erin Maupin, a former BLM range technician and watershed specialist and rancher in the area, of the long history involving the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), special interest groups and the cattle ranchers on the Steens Mountain of Oregon.
Dwight Hammond, 73 and son Steven Hamond, 46, admitted in a 2012 court case to lighting two different fires. Both fires started on Hammonds' private property.
The Harney County ranchers are paying the BLM $400,000 for the costs of fighting fires the BLM claims they set.
''The jury convicted both of the Hammonds of using fire to destroy federal property for a 2001 arson known as the Hardie-Hammond Fire, located in the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and Protection Area,'' said a Department of Justice news release.
''The jury also convicted Steven Hammond of using fire to destroy federal property regarding a 2006 arson known as the Krumbo Butte Fire located in the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge and Steen Mountain Cooperative Management and Protection Area. An August lightening storm started numerous fires and a burn ban was in effect while BLM firefighters fought those fires. Despite the ban, without permission or notification to BLM, Steven Hammond started several ''back fires'' in an attempt to save the ranch's winter feed. The fires burned onto public land and were seen by the BLM firefighters camped nearby. The firefighters took steps to ensure their safety and reported the arsons,'' continued the DOJ release.
The two men were sentenced to prison in 2012. Steven served eleven months and Dwight three.
The men were charged with nine counts, including conspiracy, using aerial surveillance of sites they intended to burn, and burned, attempting to destroy vehicles and other property with fire, and more. Dwight and Steve were found guilty of two counts '' the two fires they readily admitted to starting on their own property.
In order to draw the original court case to a close, the two men, in a plea deal, agreed that they would not appeal the 2012 sentence.
The Department of Justice news release said arson on federal land carries a five-year mandatory minimum sentence. Judge Michael Hogan, however, did not give the two men the minimum sentence called for under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, saying it would have been ''grossly disproportionate'' to the crime. He added that a longer sentence would not meet any idea he has of justice and that he didn't believe congress intended that act to be applied in cases like the Hammond one. A longer sentence than the few months he gave them would ''shock his conscience'' he said.
The Department of Justice appealed for a full sentence.
The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed to a review of the case and District Chief Judge Ann Aiken went ahead with a full sentence '' five years in federal prison for both men, minus time already spent.
The fires
The first fire, in 2001, was a planned burn on Hammonds' own property to reduce juniper trees that have become invasive in that part of the country. That fire burned outside the Hammonds' private property line and took in 138 acres of unfenced BLM land before the Hammonds got it put out. No BLM firefighters were needed to help extinguish the fire and no fences were damaged.
''They called and got permission to light the fire,'' Dwight's wife, Susan, said, adding that was customary for ranchers conducting range management burns '' a common practice in the area.
''We usually called the interagency fire outfit '' a main dispatch '' to be sure someone wasn't in the way or that weather wouldn't be a problem.'' Susan said her son Steven was told that the BLM was conducting a burn of their own somewhere in the region the same day, and that they believed there would be no problem with the Hammonds going ahead with their planned fire. The court transcript includes a recording from that phone conversation.
In cross-examination of a prosecution witness, the court transcript also includes an admission from Mr. Ward, a range conservationist, that the 2001 fire improved the rangeland conditions on the BLM property.
Maupin, who resigned from the BLM in 1999, said that collaborative burns between private ranchers and the BLM had become popular in the late 1990s because local university extension researchers were recommending it as a means to manage invasive juniper that steal water from grass and other cover.
''Juniper encroachment had become an issue on the forefront and was starting to come to a head. We were trying to figure out how to deal with it on a large scale,'' said Maupin, whose family neighbored the Hammonds for a couple of years.
''In 1999, the BLM started to try to do large scale burn projects. We started to be successful on the Steens Mountain especially when we started to do it on a large watershed scale as opposed to trying to follow property lines.''
Because private and federal land is intermingled, collaborative burns were much more effective than individual burns that would cover a smaller area, Maupin said.
Maupin said prescribed burns to manage juniper were common in the late 1990s and early 2000s, best done late in the fall when the days are cooler.
Prescribed burns on federal land in their area have all but stopped due to pressure from special interest groups, Maupin said. As a result, wildfires now burn much hotter due to a ''ladder'' of material on the ground '' grass, brush and trees.
''The fires now burn really hot and they sterilize the ground. Then you have a weed patch that comes back.''
Maupin said planned burning in cooler weather like the Hammonds chose to do improves the quality of the forage, and makes for better sage grouse habitat by removing juniper trees that suck up water and house raptors '' a sage grouse predator.
Susan said the second fire, in 2006, was a backfire started by Steven to protect their property from lightning fires.
''There was fire all around them that was going to burn our house and all of our trees and everything. The opportunity to set a back-fire was there and it was very successful. It saved a bunch of land from burning,'' she remembers.
The BLM asserts that one acre of federal land was burned by the Hammonds' backfire and Susan says determining which fire burned which land is ''a joke'' because fire burned from every direction.
Neighbor Ruthie Danielson also remembers that evening and agrees. ''Lightning strikes were everywhere, fires were going off,'' she said.
Charges
The Hammonds were charged with nine counts in the original court case.
The BLM accused the Hammonds of several 2006 fires, including a large one known as the Granddad, which blazed about 46,000 acres.
According to the 2012 sentencing document, the jury found the men innocent or were deadlocked on all but two counts '' the two fires the men admitted to starting '' burning a total of about 140 acres.
Judge Hogen dismissed testimony from a disgruntled grandson who testified that the 2001 fire endangered his life and that of local hunters, saying the boy was very young and referencing a feud that may have influenced the testimony.
''Well, the damage was juniper trees and sagebrush, and there might have been a hundred dollars,'' he added.
More to the story?
During her tenure as a full time BLM employee from 1997-1999, Maupin recalls other fires accidentally spilling over onto BLM land, but only the Hammonds have been charged, arrested and sentenced, she said. Ranchers might be burning invasive species or maybe weeds in the ditch. ''They would call and the BLM would go and help put it out and it was not a big deal.''
On the flip side, Maupin remembers numerous times that BLM-lit fires jumped to private land. Neighbors lost significant numbers of cattle in more than one BLM fire that escaped intended containment lines and quickly swallowed up large amounts of private land. To her knowledge, no ranchers have been compensated for lost livestock or other loss of property such as fences.
Gary Miller, who ranches near Frenchglen, about 35 miles from the Hammonds' hometown, said that in 2012, the BLM lit numerous backfires that ended up burning his private land, BLM permit and killing about 65 cows.
A YouTube video named BLM Working at Burning Frenchglen-July 10, 2012 shows ''back burn'' fires allegedly lit by BLM personnel that are upwind of the main fire, including around Gary Miller's corrals. The fire that appeared ready to die down several times, eventually burned around 160,000 acres, Miller said.
Bill Wilber, a Harney County rancher, said five lightening strikes on July 13, 2014, merged to create a fire on Bartlett Mountain. The fire flew through his private ground, burned a BLM allotment and killed 39 cows and calves.
While the fire could have been contained and stopped, BLM restrictions prevent local firefighting efforts like building a fireline, so only after taking in 397,000 acres did the fire finally stop when it came up against a series of roads.
The issue isn't limited to Oregon. In 2013, two South Dakota prescribed burns started by the U.S. Forest Service--over the objections of area landowners-- blew out of control, burning thousands of acres of federal and private land. Ranchers that suffered property damage from the Pautre fire in Perkins County, South Dakota filed extensive tort claims in accordance with federal requirements, but will receive no compensation because USDA found the U.S. Forest Service not responsible for that fire.
Why the Hammonds?
''The story is like an onion, you just keep peeling back the layers,'' Maupin said.
In an effort to stave off what they feared was a pending Clinton/Babbitt monument designation in 2000, a group of ranchers on the scenic Steens Mountain worked with Oregon Representative Greg Walden, a Republican, to draft and enact the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and Protection Act that would prevent such a deed. The ranchers agreed to work with special interest ''environmental'' groups like the aggressive Oregon Natural Desert Association and others to protect the higher-than 10,000-foot peak.
A number of ranchers at the top of the mountain traded their BLM permits and private property for land on the valley floor, allowing Congress to create a 170,000 acre wilderness in 2000, with almost 100,000 acres being ''cow-free.''
''The last holdouts on that cow-free wilderness are the Hammonds,'' said Maupin. Though some still have BLM grazing permits, the Hammonds are the last private landowners in the area.
''It's become more and more obvious over the years that the BLM and the wildlife refuge want that ranch. It would tie in with what they have,'' said Rusty Inglis, an area rancher and retired U.S. Forest Service employee.
The Hammonds also lost their ability to water cattle on one BLM permit when refuge personnel drained a watering hole that the Hammonds had always used.
Maupin said the government scientists and resource managers working ''on the ground'' supported the Hammonds' use of the water but that the high level bureaucrats backed special interest anti-grazing groups. ''There is a huge disconnect between employees on the ground and the decision-makers.'' She said that divide builds tension between ranchers and federal agencies.
In the Hammonds' plea agreement in the 2012 trial, the BLM obtained the first right of refusal should the family have to sell their private land, Maupin added.
The Maupins themselves had a small lease that also bordered the ''cow-free wilderness'' and the Oregon Natural Desert Association was ''relentless in their pursuit to have us off, in order to expand the cow-free wilderness,'' Maupin said. The group would criticize the ranchers' water usage, causing them to pipe water to their cattle, which in turn instigated more complaints from the group.
Eventually the Maupins sold their permit and moved.
But the Hammonds remained.
Steve and Dwight Hammond will turn themselves in for their prison sentences in early January, Susan said.
The family has sold cattle. Their BLM permit has not been renewed for two years, leaving them unable to use a large amount of intermingled private land.
The family is in the ''last challenge'' to re-obtain their grazing permit. ''I don't know what happens after that,'' Susan said. ''We have done everything according to their rules and regulations and there is no reason that they should not give us back our permit. We don't understand how a federal land management agency can 'take' personal private property (checkerboarded with BLM land) in this manner.
''We've been fighting it for five years. We don't want to destroy people as we are fighting it even if it is a BLM employee,'' she said, ''They live in our community and they have families. We respect that.'' The situation could get even more ugly but ''it's not going to be our fault,'' she said.
''The Hammond family is not arsonists. They are number one, top notch. They know their land management,'' said Inglis, who spent 34 years with the USFS and now ranches about 40 miles from the Hammonds and is unique in the area, operating strictly on private land.
Inglis, president of his county Farm Bureau and a member of the Oregon Cattlemen's Association said both groups are working to help gain media attention for the Hammond case. The state Farm Bureau group gathered signatures online for a petition to show widespread support for the family. ''Enough is enough,'' Inglis said. ''We are not in Nazi Germany. We are in the United States of America.''
The five-year prison sentence sets a worrisome precedent for area ranchers, Maupin said.
''Now the sky is the limit. It doesn't have to be fire, it can be trespass with cattle.''
Another precedent '' one for fire that burns beyond expectations '' should apply to everyone, including federal employees, Maupin points out.
The People
Maupin talked about the Hammonds helping her and her husband with ranch work like hauling cattle and lending portable panels, not expecting repayment. Wilber recalled them hauling 4-H calves to the fair for neighbors and Inglis said Dwight once offered to lend him money because he thought he needed help. ''Here's a guy with $400,000 in fines and legal bills I can't imagine, worrying about my welfare,'' said Inglis.
''I think that's the biggest point of all of this '' how can you prosecute people as terrorists when they aren't a terrorist?''
Property rights attorney Karen Budd-Falen from Cheyenne, Wyoming, agrees.
''What totally amazes me is what these guys did '' they burned 140 acres. If you compare that to the EPA spill in Colorado, it amazes me that nothing will happen to those EPA employees. You have cities down there with no drinking water. The Hammonds didn't do anything like that,'' Budd-Falen said.
''It's going to get worse before it gets better,'' said Maupin.
The BLM deferred all questions to the Department of Justice, who shared their official news release but did not respond to emailed questions as of print time.
War on Guns
As Obama Issues Executive Orders, Gun Stocks Explode
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 16:55
Stocks for two major gunmakers skyrocketed as President Obama unveiled a long-awaited series of executive orders intended to reduce gun violence.
Gunmaker Smith & Wesson's stock price closed at $25.86, higher than at any point in 2015. A year ago, on January 7th, 2015, it closed at just $9.93.
Sturm, Ruger & Co.'s price reached $65.54, the highest it has been since August 2015.
The increase in stock prices reflects the expectation that gun sales will surge again. Gun sales skyrocketed after the Sandy Hook massacre on fears the federal government would crack down on gun ownership.
The Interceptrecently reported that gun manufacturers and retailers, talking to investors, said they expect sales to rise after massacres. ''You can see after a tragedy, there's also a lot of buying,'' Jeff Buchanan, the chief financial officer of Smith & Wesson, told investors.
The FBI recorded a ''record number of firearms background checks'' in 2015 hitting a pace of roughly 44 checks a minute. The peak day for background checks was Black Friday, with 185,345 checks.
Smith & Wesson also raised its revenue and earnings guidance on Tuesday, announcing ''that the sell-through rate of its products at distribution has been stronger than originally anticipated,'' reducing distributor inventories even as the high number of background checks, ''an indicator of consumer purchases, reflected strong growth versus December 2014.''
Republican presidential candidates are among those stoking fears of gun control.
''Pretty soon you won't be able to get guns,'' warned GOP presidential frontrunner Donald Trump during an appearance on CNN this week. Ted Cruz, hot on Trump's heels in polling, engineered a list-building pitch on his website featuring a helmet-clad Obama coming for people's guns.
In reality, Obama's executive orders are fairly modest and lack anything remotely like the kind of sweeping gun bans that have been talked up by the political right.
''This is it, really?'' exclaimed NRA lobbyist Jennifer Baker to the New York Times. ''This is what they've been hyping for how long now? This is the proposal they've spent seven years putting together? They're not really doing anything.''
Top photo: Page on tedcruz.org website.
War on Crazy
Why Do We Fear Mental Illness?
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 14:21
This week, thanks in part to a $15 million appropriation from Congress, the National Council for Behavioral Health launched a campaign aimed at training a million people in recognizing when someone, be it a stranger or a person they know, is experiencing a mental health or substance abuse emergency -- and then what to do about it. Think of it as CPR training for mental distress.
This initiative is important, and necessary, because when it comes to mental illness, helping is, unfortunately, not our natural response. Instead, according to the NCBH, most people shy away from or avoid someone experiencing a mental health emergency. They think whatever the person is going through is "personal," or that "it's a family matter." Often, they're afraid to intervene or get too close. And so they don't.
And yet it's hard to imagine this same sort of reaction in other health contexts: witnessing someone slip and fall while crossing a busy street, for instance, or seeing someone have a heart attack or faint in a bookstore and passing by without stopping to help or make sure he or she is okay.
"Family matter" or not, the same instinct to avoid the topic of mental illness in fact also prevents many families whose lives have been impacted by it from talking about it, as if it were shameful and not genetically unavoidable. Maybe it's a teenage daughter with an eating disorder or the suicide of a parent. The less we talk about mental illness, though, the more "other" it becomes. And the less we're able or willing to offer those in the midst of it. Our fear increases.
Certainly, the conversation surrounding gun control and mental illness, in which certain right-leaning politicians place the blame for incidents of gun violence on the mentally ill, has not helped encourage people to talk about their own mental illness or to lend a hand to those in emotional crisis. Donald Trump's recent "Meet the Press" declaration that gun violence is "....a mental illness problem.... You have people that are mentally ill and they're going to come through the cracks and they're going to do things that people will not even believe are possible" squarely, irresponsibly, placed nearly all the blame for gun violence on the mentally ill.
And yet, this argument is not only flawed -- it's been widely reported that the vast majority of gun violence is, in fact, committed by people who are not mentally ill -- but also part of the problem. No wonder people are afraid. What's more, stigmatizing mental illness in such a way -- making it something dangerous, something to fear -- will continue to isolate those suffering and prevent them from getting the help they need. A 2013 study out of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health confirmed this, saying that efforts to imply that all, or even most, incidents of gun violence are at the hands of the mentally ill only serves to increase the stigma directed towards those who suffer.
The NCBH's "Be 1 in a Million" campaign is aiming to lessen the stigma, for one thing, while also calling on citizens to step in where a lack of resources has left many without adequate attention or care. The campaign expands on the organization's Mental Health First Aid program that has already trained 500,000 people, including First Lady Michelle Obama, in learning to recognize and respond to the signs of mental distress, using tools that include assessment, listening, reassuring, encouraging, and supporting to intervene when someone who is actively suicidal, in the midst of a panic attack, or experiencing symptoms of PTSD. It aims to help people recognize signs of addiction or depression or disordered eating in others, and then how and when to encourage those suffering to get help. Most of all, it aims to help people overcome their fear of getting involved. These are steps that can and will save lives -- of the mentally ill, but also, likely, of many others.
As a NCBH rep told the Washington Post, "The truth of the matter is that you are more likely to encounter someone who is experiencing a behavioral health condition or crisis" than someone facing a physical emergency. It's true: Every year, one in four Americans will suffer from a mental illness or addiction. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in this country. And far too many people suffer in silence: Of the nearly 62 million Americans who suffer from mental illness in any given year, just over a third had been to see a mental health professional within the previous year.
The underreported side of the story is that there's much hope available to those who suffer. We know that, although often debilitating, mental illness needn't be a lifetime disability. Many, many people suffering from mental illness, including those who have experienced psychosis and hallucinations or who have lived through suicidal moments or even attempts, go on to live successful, productive lives. All we need to do is let them. Because it's not helping the mentally ill that we should fear. It's what happens if we don't.
Obama Wants to 'Remove the Stigma' of Mental Illness While Expanding the List of Former Patients Barred From Owning Guns - Hit & Run : Reason.com
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 19:55
White HouseAmong other things, the gun-related "executive actions" that President Obama is announcing today aim to "increase mental health treatment and reporting to the background check system." To put it another way, the president wants to encourage more people with mental problems to seek professional help while increasing the likelihood that doing so will result in the permanent loss of their Second Amendment rights. Those two goals may prove hard to reconcile.
The Obama administration is proposing "a new $500 million investment to increase access to mental health care," saying, "We must continue to remove the stigma around mental illness and its treatment'--and make sure that these individuals and their families know they are not alone." At the same time, it is reinforcing that stigma by assuming that people forced to undergo psychiatric treatment can never be trusted with a gun. Obama wants to beef up the federal government's list of "people prohibited from possessing a gun for specific mental health reasons." Those reasons include court-ordered psychiatric treatment, even when the justification is protecting a purportedly suicidal person from himself.
A federal appeals court cast doubt on the constitutionality of that policy in a 2014 case involving a 73-year-old man who was barred from buying a gun because he had been forced to undergo psychiatric treatment decades before after an emotionally devastating divorce. His daughters were concerned that he might be suicidal, and a court ruled that he posed a threat to himself. Since then, he has not experienced any more bouts of depression. A psychologist who evaluated him in 2012 found no evidence of mental illness and concluded that the 1985 incident "appeared to be a brief reactive depressive episode in response to his wife divorcing him." Yet under 18 USC 922(g)(4), that one incident barred him from ever owning a gun.
Obama also wants the government's database to include people who receive disability benefits from the Social Security Administration and are deemed "unable to manage those benefits because of their mental impairment." In practice, that could mean that any recipient assisted by a fiduciary (a.k.a. representative payee) would lose his Second Amendment rights, even though the fact that someone needs help with financial matters does not necessarily mean he is incapable of being a responsible gun owner. As with mental health treatment, such a policy could discourage SSDI recipients who need help from asking for it, since they could lose their guns as a result.
Critics of New York's SAFE Act, which requires mental health professionals to report anyone they deem "likely to engage in conduct that will cause serious harm to self or others," have raised similar concerns. "The threshold for reporting is so low," a Queens psychiatrist toldThe New York Times in 2014, "that it essentially advertises that psychiatrists are mandatory reporters for anybody who expresses any kind of dangerousness." In practice, since the county officials who review such reports have little incentive to second-guess them, clinicians have the power to disarm any patient they think might be a danger to himself or others, which is not exactly conducive to trust or candor.
Jacob Sullum is a senior editor at Reason magazine and a nationally syndicated columnist.
Live Updates: What the President is Doing to Keep Guns Out of the Wrong Hands | whitehouse.gov
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 03:49
Watch President Obama Share the Steps He's Taking to Reduce Gun Violence:''We know that we can't stop every act of violence. But what if we tried to stop even one?''
Columbine. Blacksburg. Newtown. Aurora. Tucson. Oak Creek. Charleston. San Bernardino.
Too many communities across the country are still suffering from the heartbreaking consequences of a gun in the wrong hands. In the past decade, more than 100,000 people have died as a result of gun violence. Many of these crimes were committed by people who never should have been able to purchase a gun in the first place.
Sympathy is not enough to stop gun violence. Congress has repeatedly failed to take action, blocking commonsense reforms supported by the vast majority of the American people '' including gun owners themselves.
The President has a responsibility to do everything in his power to reduce gun violence. This week, he will.
#StopGunViolence: Key Moments from Today's Powerful Remarks
For every family who has had a loved one taken by a bullet from a gun, it's time to act to #StopGunViolence.
More than 30,000 Americans die from gun violence every year.
Here's more about what he's doing:
Gun Violence in America: By the Numbers
More than 4 millionNumber of American victims of assaults, robberies, and other crimes involving a gun in the last decade
More than 30,000Number of gun deaths in America each year
More than 20,000Number of children under 18 killed by firearms over the last decade
More than 20,000Number of Americans who commit suicide with a firearm each year
466Number of law enforcement officers shot and killed by felons over the last decade
3Number of days after which a gun dealer can sell a gun to an individual if a background check is not yet complete
Get the full breakdown of the numbers on gun violence in the U.S here.
The President's Actions to Reduce Gun ViolenceSo President Obama is taking executive action to reduce gun violence. Here's what his actions are designed to do:
Keep guns out of the wrong hands through background checksThe Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is making clear that it doesn't matter where you conduct your business'--from a store, at gun shows, or over the Internet: If you're in the business of selling firearms, you must get a license and conduct background checks.ATF is finalizing a rule to require background checks for people trying to buy some of the most dangerous weapons and other items through a trust, corporation, or other legal entity.Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch has sent a letter to States highlighting the importance of receiving complete criminal history records and criminal dispositions, information on persons disqualified because of a mental illness, and qualifying crimes of domestic violence.The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is overhauling the background check system to make it more effective and efficient. The envisioned improvements include processing background checks 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and improving notification of local authorities when certain prohibited persons unlawfully attempt to buy a gun. The FBI will hire more than 230 additional examiners and other staff to help process these background checks.Make our communities safer from gun violenceThe Attorney General convened a call with U.S. Attorneys around the country to direct federal prosecutors to continue to focus on smart and effective enforcement of our gun laws.The President's FY2017 budget will include funding for 200 new ATF agents and investigators to help enforce our gun laws.ATF has established an Internet Investigation Center to track illegal online firearms trafficking and is dedicating $4 million and additional personnel to enhance the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network.ATF is finalizing a rule to ensure that dealers who ship firearms notify law enforcement if their guns are lost or stolen in transit.The Attorney General issued a memo encouraging every U.S. Attorney's Office to renew domestic violence outreach efforts.Increase mental health treatment and reporting to the background check systemThe Administration is proposing a new $500 million investment to increase access to mental health care.The Social Security Administration has indicated that it will begin the rulemaking process to include information in the background check system about beneficiaries who are prohibited from possessing a firearm for mental health reasons.The Department of Health and Human Services is finalizing a rule to remove unnecessary legal barriers preventing States from reporting relevant information about people prohibited from possessing a gun for specific mental health reasons.Shape the future of gun safety technologyThe President has directed the Departments of Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security to conduct or sponsor research into gun safety technologyThe President has also directed the departments to review the availability of smart gun technology on a regular basis, and to explore potential ways to further its use and development to more broadly improve gun safety.Take an in-depth look at the President's latest actions here.
A Father's Call to Action: Mark Barden -- father of one of the young children killed at Sandy Hook Elementary in 2012, introduced the President at today's events. He also shared an email message reflecting on the life of his son Daniel and the actions we can take to honor him:
We called him the custodian of all living things.
If an ant had crawled its way into our kitchen, he'd gently pick it up and carry it out outside to rejoin its family. If he saw a classmate sitting alone, he'd be the first to provide company and comfort. At 7 years old, he cared, he listened, and he loved more deeply than many adults I know.
On December 14, 2012, he was killed by a man with a gun. My son Daniel was one of the 26 lives taken from us at the hands of a mass shooter at Sandy Hook Elementary School.
Since that day, President Obama promised us that he would use every tool available to him to spare another family the overwhelming pain of losing a child in such a horrific way.
Today, he is taking additional steps to reduce gun violence.
Read his full message here.
A Moment from Today: President Barack Obama tears up as he delivers remarks to announce steps that the administration is taking to reduce gun violence, in the East Room of the White House, Jan. 5, 2016. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)
Memorandum -- Promoting Smart Gun Technology | whitehouse.gov
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 03:50
MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
THE ATTORNEY GENERAL
THE SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY
SUBJECT: Promoting Smart Gun Technology
For more than 20 years, the Federal Government has worked to keep guns out of the wrong hands through background checks. This critical effort in addressing gun violence has prevented more than two million prohibited firearms purchases from being completed. But tens of thousands of people are still injured or killed by firearms every year -- in many cases by guns that were sold legally but then stolen, misused, or discharged accidentally. Developing and promoting technology that would help prevent these tragedies is an urgent priority.
In 2013, I directed the Department of Justice to review the availability and most effective use of new gun safety technologies, such as devices requiring a scan of the owner's fingerprint before a gun can fire. In its report, the Department made clear that technological advancements in this area could help reduce accidental deaths and the use of stolen guns in criminal activities.
Millions of dollars have already been invested to support research into a broad range of concepts for improving gun safety. We must all do our part to continue to advance this research and encourage its practical application, and it is possible to do so in a way that makes the public safer and is consistent with the Second Amendment. The Federal Government has a unique opportunity to do so, as it is the single largest purchaser of firearms in the country. Therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the following:
Section 1. Research and Development. The Department of Defense, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Homeland Security (departments) shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by law, conduct or sponsor research into gun safety technology that would reduce the frequency of accidental discharge or unauthorized use of firearms, and improve the tracing of lost or stolen guns. Not later than 90 days after the date of this memorandum, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall prepare jointly a report outlining a research and development strategy designed to expedite the real-world deployment of such technology for use in practice.
Sec. 2. Department Consideration of New Technology. The departments shall, to the extent permitted by law, regularly (a) review the availability of the technology described in section 1, and (b) explore potential ways to further its use and development to more broadly improve gun safety. In connection with these efforts, the departments shall consult with other agencies that acquire firearms and take appropriate steps to consider whether including such technology in specifications for acquisition of firearms would be consistent with operational needs.
Sec. 3. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
the authority granted by law to a department or agency, or the head thereof; orthe functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. (b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
Sec. 4. Publication. The Attorney General is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
BARACK OBAMA
Good bullet points ''Obama leans on tech in gun control action -- FCW
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 17:01
Law enforcement
Obama leans on tech in gun control actionBy Mark RockwellJan 05, 2016President Barack Obama has issued executive actions that would improve federal background check databases and support technologies to make guns more secure.
President Barack Obama's effort to deliver what he called common-sense gun control with a series of executive actions features significant IT components.
Improvements to computerized background checks for gun buyers would close the gap in a two-tiered system in which "dangerous people [are] playing by a different set of rules," he said. Online sales or private sales at gun shows often skirt the established system, he added.
In Jan. 5 remarks in the East Room of the White House, Obama said the improvements would push the "outdated background check system into the 21st century."
The measures would strengthen and speed federal background database checks with the help of the U.S. Digital Service, tap new background database sources and support technologies to make guns more secure.
FBI has partnered with USDS to modernize its National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), housed at the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services Division facility in Clarksburg, W.Va.
According to a White House statement, the goal is to process background checks within three days. Under the current system, gun dealers can complete a sale if a background check through NICS comes back clean or if the process takes more than three days to complete.
Improvements under the FBI and USDS collaboration include processing background checks from gun sellers 24 hours a day, seven days a week, which would improve response times and more quickly notify local authorities when a potential buyer's background check raises concerns. The FBI's website states that NICS is currently available 17 hours a day, seven days a week, except Christmas.
In addition, the White House directed the FBI to hire more than 230 additional examiners and other employees to help process the background reviews.
Obama also wants to add some key mental health data to the reviews. On Jan. 4, the Department of Health and Human Services modified the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule to permit health care providers to disclose the identities of mentally ill patients to the FBI's NICS. The rule stipulates, however, that no diagnostic or other personally identifiable information on an individual would be included in the disclosure, except that he or she is subject to the "federal mental health prohibitor" that bars gun ownership.
To track illegal online firearms trafficking, the White House said the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives has established an Internet Investigations Center staffed by federal agents, legal experts and investigators. According to the White House, that team has already identified and prosecuted a number of traffickers who use the "dark net" to illegally buy and sell firearms.
ATF has also dedicated $4 million and additional personnel to augment its National Integrated Ballistic Information Network, the database that tracks ballistic evidence.
Republican lawmakers quickly denounced the executive actions and pledged to battle the measures in court and deny funding for them in the next appropriations cycle.
Sen. Tom Cotton (R-Ark.) said the actions "purposely seek to blur legal lines and intimidate individuals from exercising their right to buy or sell a firearm." He added that criminals and people with mental illnesses "will not be deterred by speeches or presidential memos" from obtaining firearms.
Along with improvements to the databases and web enforcement efforts, the White House wants to take advantage of the federal government's position as the country's single largest gun buyer to promote the use and development of emerging gun safety technology.
Building on a 2013 directive to the Justice Department to review technological advances in firearm safety, the president has asked Justice, the Defense Department and the Department of Homeland Security to develop a strategy to expedite gun safety technology.
The three agencies have 90 days to develop a joint research and development strategy on real-world deployment and use of emerging technologies, including devices built into guns that can scan the user's fingerprints and only allow the owner to fire it, location apps for lost or stolen weapons and child guards.
"We have to boost gun safety technologies," Obama said. "If a child can't open a bottle of aspirin [because of safety caps], then they shouldn't be able to pull the trigger on a gun."
Justice, DOD and DHS were also directed to stay on top of new technological developments and consult with other agencies that buy firearms on how to incorporate those technologies into future acquisition specifications.
About the Author
Mark Rockwell is a staff writer covering acquisition, procurement and homeland security. Contact him at mrockwell@fcw.com or follow him on Twitter at @MRockwell4.
Shut Up Slave!
Fighting abuse to protect freedom of expression | Twitter Blogs
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 16:54
We believe that protection from abuse and harassment is a vital part of empowering people to freely express themselves on Twitter.
Today, as part of our continued efforts to combat abuse, we're updating the Twitter Rules to clarify what we consider to be abusive behaviour and hateful conduct. The updated language emphasizes that Twitter will not tolerate behavior intended to harass, intimidate, or use fear to silence another user's voice. As always, we embrace and encourage diverse opinions and beliefs ''but we will continue to take action on accounts that cross the line into abuse.
Over the past year, we've taken several steps to fight abuse in order to protect freedom of expression: We've empowered users with tools for blocking, muting, and reporting abusive behaviour, and evolved our policy to capture more types of abusive behaviour. We've also increased our investment in policy enforcement so that we can handle more reports with greater efficiency, and bolstered educational resources through a new Twitter Safety Centre.
One of the areas we've found to be effective in this multi-layered strategy of fighting abuse is creating mandatory actions for suspected abusive behavior, such as email and phone verification, and user deletion of Tweets for violations. These measures curb abusive behaviour by helping the community understand what is acceptable on our platform.
Keeping users safe requires a comprehensive and balanced approach where everyone plays a role. We will continue to build on these initiatives to empower our users and ensure that Twitter remains a platform for people to express themselves.
NJ High Schooler Called To The Principal's Office "For Being Anti-Israel" On Twitter: Gothamist
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 14:30
Administrators at a northern New Jersey high school are getting angry phone calls from Palestinian rights activists after a junior there says administrators accused her of bullying over tweets she made that were sympathetic to the Palestinian cause.Bethany Koval, 16, is prolific on Twitter, having dashed off more than 21,000 messages and gained nearly 4,000 followers since joining in February 2015. She got the attention of online activists including members of Anonymous this morning after tweeting about her trip to the principals office. The tweets include recordings of a man she says is her principal saying she could be formally charged with bullying, which under New Jersey's Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights Act (pdf) can lead to suspension or expulsion.
Koval grew up in the New Jersey suburb of Fair Lawn and attends Fair Lawn High School, where part of the mission statement reads, "We believe that the optimal environment is one in which students feel free to challenge themselves and have opportunities to take initiative, to articulate clearly and imaginatively, to be creative, and to learn from their inquiry and experience."
She said she became interested in politics over the last few years after realizing "I've been fed all kinds of kinds of propaganda and I started to question a lot of it." She said she joined Twitter because "I really wanted an outlet to express my views and find people who had similar views." Koval posted wide-ranging discussions of abortion rights, Hillary Clinton's record, and the Syrian civil wear. She said she has family in Israel and grew outraged about the country's treatment of Palestinians in 2014 after seeing video of civilians bombed in Gaza.
"I was just really hurt by what was going on, hurt by how much money the United States gives to Israel," she said. "I was so shocked because it seemed so undemocratic."
Koval tweeted about the bombings and the Israeli-Palestinian political situation over her winter break, and said that it's those tweets that caught the attention of a classmate who she describes as a former friend. In one, Koval described Hamas as "not extreme."
In another, she described Israel as a "terrorist force."
Koval thinks that the reaction might have come more swiftly had she not been on holiday break, but says word got back to her that the unidentified girl was unhappy with what she'd said. Online, she speculated about the kind of trouble that her online activity could get her in.
She also celebrated the classmate unfollowing her.
In another recording, the administrator seems to refer to this tweet, and possibly this one, perhaps the most directly confrontational.
Koval said she did message the girl's name to L_Chevere, a classmate, "but of course it didn't go farther. She didn't even know the girl."
This morning, she narrated the beginning of the fallout.
Koval said that upon arriving at school today, her teacher had received a memo and told her to report to the main office. There she says principal James Marcella showed her printouts of the tweets, and said, "Do you realize that what you put out electronically can also get you in trouble in school, or put you in some kind of problem?"
"I haven't put anything problematic out there," she says on the recording. "Maybe controversial."
"That's your interpretation," he replied. "There's a state law that might interpret it different."
Koval said she was let go, only to be called back and told to write a statement of the events. She said she told Marcella she wouldn't do it without a lawyer but that he told her they could only go on the other girl's account if she didn't write it then and there.
Koval said she has since been allowed to rescind this version of events and draw something up for tomorrow morning, when some sort of justice is supposed to meted out. Also, she said, concerned that she might have "filmed" the proceedings, Marcella told her the Department of Education could sue her if she had.
She said she thinks she's been targeted "because I'm not pro-Israel."
The response online was swift, prompting an #IStandWithBenny hashtag, and a deluge of calls and emails to the school from around the world. There was also reaction close to home. She said one boy at her school messaged her, "bitch let's fight son." When she got home this evening, she said the school called her mom and she overheard someone say the administration was getting calls from far and wide. Her mom walked into the other room for the rest of the call.
Koval said she is not especially concerned for her safety now that she is internet famous: "I'm just worried for my parents, really."
Her parents, who she describes as "apolitical" are now "REALLY mad."
Koval said that she did not intend to start this controversy. Rather, she said she did what was instinctive.
"I documented it because i was nervous. That's what I do," she said. "I didn't think it would get that bad either. I felt like I was really stripped of my rights."
At the moment she is frantically trying to get legal advice before tomorrow morning. And convince her followers to lay off the school.
Administrators at Fair Lawn High School did not immediately respond to calls and an email requesting comment.
F-Russia
Land Destroyer: Washington Quietly Lifts Sanctions on Russian Rockets
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 15:00
January 7, 2016 (Ulson Gunnar - NEO) - Washington, who leveled widespread sanctions against Russia in an increasingly tenuous bid to isolate and undermine the stability of Moscow, has found itself humiliated and backtracking as it lifts bans on Russia's RD-180 rocket engines.And even as Washington does so, the US media finds itself still painting Russia as a villain even as the US finds itself forced to buy rockets from a nation it claims invaded Crimea, is fostering a "hybrid war" in eastern Ukraine, and is bombing US-backed "rebels" in Syria. It is worth mentioning that Russia's RD-180 rocket engines, possessing unparalleled performance US firms have yet to match, will be used to launch payloads into Earth orbit for the US Department of Defense.
Popular Science in its article "Congress Moves to Lift Ban on Using Russian Rocket Engines" claims:
After Russia invaded Crimea, Congress swore off Russian rocket engines. But its ban on using these rockets to launch military payloads into space was perhaps a bit too hasty. A new bill approved by Congress has found a way to nullify the ban. United Launch Alliance (ULA), a joint venture of Boeing and Lockheed Martin that has long been the primary contractor for launching Defense Department payloads into space, relies on the Russian-made RD-180. ULA recently declined to bid on a launch contract due to its limited supply of rocket engines, and the Pentagon is not happy. Though ULA is developing a new engine, the BE-4 is years away from reaching the launch pad. This is, after all, rocket science that we're talking about.
While Russia did not in fact "invade Crimea," Popular Science is correct in pointing out that a ULA-made replacement for the Russian RD-180's is years from becoming a reality.Popular Science also hints toward another reason that might be behind the lift of sanctions on Russian rockets:
ULA has long had a monopoly on military payload launches. SpaceX recently got permission to use its Falcon 9 rocket to launch military payloads as well, right around the time ULA dropped out because of the ban. If the ban is lifted, it means ULA and SpaceX will take part in the first competition for a military launch since 2006--and that could translate into savings for the U.S. government.
Ironically, a desire by ULA (a joint venture between defense industry giants Boeing and Lockheed Martin) to maintain their monopoly and all the unwarranted power and wealth associated with it, has forced them to do business with one of the nations it and a collection of other special interests on Wall Street, in Washington and in London have been attempting to undermine, divide and destroy for decades.SpaceX seeks to disrupt and decentralize the aerospace industry, a direct threat to Boeing and Lockheed Martin both in short-term and long-term regards.
And it seems that both in short-term and long-term regards, the strategy of these special interests on Wall Street, in Washington and in London, is incoherent and self-defeating. As it attempts to isolate and undermine Moscow, it finds itself threatened by disruptive business models and innovators at home in America. To tamp down domestic competition, these interests have ended up rolling back sanctions against foreign competitors.
Impotent and incoherent, it appears that the US has managed to do more harm to itself than to Russia. While Russia is certainly suffering from sanctions, should it overcome them, it will come out stronger and more self-sufficient on the other side. For the US however, win or lose against Russia, it is clearly harming itself in the process.
For the global public looking on, flooded daily with news and op-eds about how much of a threat Russia is to global peace and stability, the fact that the US Department of Defense is still essentially buying rockets from Russia to put American satellites into orbit should serve as a reminder that nothing resembling actual principles, facts or honesty guides US foreign policy or how it is presented across US and European media.
If the US finds itself unable to justify continued sanctions against Russian rockets, rockets used in vital roles for maintaining US defense capabilities, how is the US continuing to justify other sanctions against Russia that remain in place? Are these sanctions in place simply because the businesses being hurt by them across the West lack the lobbying power of Boeing and Lockheed Martin? And are we expected to continue believing Russia is such a "threat" but still America's primary partner in launching defense satellites into space, not to mention American and European astronauts and supply missions to the International Space Station?
In fact, flip-flopping on Russian sanctions seems like it should indicate to various stakeholders in Washington and London's international order that it is looking less like an organized global enterprise, and more like a blind tropism seeking profits wherever it finds them, even if they are over the edge of a cliff. For these stakeholders, it may be time to consider divesting and/or diversifying into something truly looking with its eyes open toward the future and toward real progress.
Ulson Gunnar, a New York-based geopolitical analyst and writer especially for the online magazine ''New Eastern Outlook''.
Migrants
Open brief van Duitse schrijfster over aanrandingen in Keule... - De Standaard
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 22:34
Het hoofdstation in Keulen, waar de gebeurtenissen plaatsvonden.
In het hoofdstation van Keulen werden op oudejaar tientallen vrouwen het slachtoffer van diefstal en seksuele aanranding. Minstens 40 mannen van Arabische en Noord-Afrikaanse origine zouden in verschillende groepen hun slachtoffers hebben omsingeld, betast en bestolen. De politie kon er niet rap genoeg bij zijn, omdat ze door jonge mannen op het stationsplein met vuurwerkpijlen werden belaagd.
De Duitse schrijfster Katja Schneidt plaatste naar aanleiding van de bijzonder onfeestelijke gebeurtenissen een open brief aan haar regering op facebook. Het bericht wordt massaal opgepikt en gedeeld.
P-Magazine vertaalde haar kwade brief:
'Geachte Duitse Bondsregering,
Ik moet iets toegeven, jullie hebben schitterend werk verricht! Jullie pogingen om elke terechte kritiek over de houding van vluchtelingen onmiddellijk met het naziverwijt de kop in te drukken, heeft zijn vruchten afgeworpen.
We zijn ondertussen in Duitsland zo ver gekomen dat ontelbare vrouwen al een klacht ingediend hebben (35, maar volgens de politie ligt het feitelijke aantal veel hoger) over het feit dat ze op oudejaarsnacht door een horde wilde asielzoekers beledigd en op de zwaarst mogelijke manier seksueel lastig gevallen werden (ja, het waren asielzoekers, want de politie heeft bij controles de voorgeschreven asielformulieren onder ogen gehad). Slechts de regionale kranten schrijven hierover.
Ze hebben deze vrouwen bepoteld, hun vingers in alle lichaamsopeningen gestoken en soms ook de kleren van hun lichaam getrokken. Dit alles begeleid van 'ficki '' ficki' en 'Schlampen'-kreten. De politie kon deze vrouwen niet beschermen omdat ze door de razende asielzoekers met vuurwerk bekogeld werden. Een schande voor ons land!
Waar zijn nu de grootste media? Tv-nieuws? Nergens! Bild? Nergens! Waar is jullie in het Arabisch ondertitelde oproep aan de gewelddadige asielzoekers, waarin jullie duidelijk maken dat vrouwen in dit land geen vrij wild zijn? Waar is meneer Gabriel (SPD) die deze daden scherp veroordeelt en de zwaarste verwensingen uit? Niets! Geen woord!
Nee, we zijn intussen zover gekomen dat we zulke gebeurtenissen doodzwijgen, nationaliteit niet durven benoemen en stilletjes in onze hoofdkussens wenen omwille van de vele seksuele misdrijven door asielzoekers. Het gaat niet langer om enkele gevallen. Ik alleen al verzorg zeven vrouwen die gedurende de laatste zes maanden het slachtoffer zijn geworden van seksueel geweld door 'vluchtelingen'. Dat mag men echter niet zeggen. Dan is men namelijk een opruier! Een vreemdelingenhater! Een nazi!
Dat deze gebeurtenis doodzwijgen een verdere slag is in het gezicht van de slachtoffers, nemen we er goedkeurend bij. Zelfs ik heb nagedacht of ik wel over de verschrikkelijke gebeurtenissen in Keulen mag schrijven. Ja, ik mag dat! Ik strijd al zoveel jaren tegen huiselijk en seksueel geweld en als ik uitsluitend de gevallen waarbij een Duitser de dader is publiekelijk mag maken, dan ben ik inderdaad een racist.
Maar dat ben ik niet! Ik hou van iedereen, zolang zij maar met respect met hun medemensen omgaan. Mij kan het niet schelen of iemand moslim, christen of jood is. Ik beoordeel mensen naar hun daden, en niet volgens hun afkomst of geloof. Dat in vele moslimlanden een ander vrouwenbeeld heerst en emancipatie een woord uit een vreemde taal is, is niet mijn schuld. Dat er nu vele mensen naar ons land komen met een verouderd vrouwenbeeld, is evenmin mijn schuld.
Als ik echter geweld, dat door een aantal van deze mensen bedreven wordt, goed zou praten, dood zou zwijgen of zou verontschuldigen, dan ben ik w(C)l verantwoordelijk. Ik geef hen dan het idee dat ik het goedkeur dat zij vrouwen discrimineren, domineren en seksueel misbruiken. Dat zou fout zijn. Daarom ga ik niet zwijgen, want ik zou ook mijn mond niet houden als de daders Duitsers waren. Ieder die een beetje kan denken weet dat een groot gedeelte van de mensen die hierheen komen niet gewelddadig zijn. Maar bij een miljoen vluchtelingen is 10 procent die seksueel geweld plegen al genoeg om 100.000 vrouwen een slachtoffer van seksueel geweld te maken.
Ik zal ook niet stoppen de hier bescherming zoekende mannen duidelijk te maken dat ik van hen verwacht dat zij Duitse vrouwen niet als vrij wild beschouwen en dat ik evenzeer verwacht dat zij de integratie van hun vrouwen, zusters en dochters niet met verouderde waardepatronen verhinderen! Wie hier wil wonen, moet onze cultuur volledig respecteren, zonder discussie! Wij, Duitse vrouwen, willen niet 'ficki '' ficki' doen en we zijn ook geen 'Schlampen' (sletten) die erop wachten eens een grondige beurt te krijgen. Wij beslissen zelf wie ons waar aanraakt en dat moet zo blijven!
En nu, beste regering, verwacht ik dat jullie eindelijk jullie verantwoordelijkheid nemen en de daders duidelijk maken dat we genoeg Duitse verkrachters hebben. We zijn niet van plan om dit aantal nog te doen stijgen.'
Sehr geehrte Bundesregierung,eines muss man Ihnen lassen: Sie haben ganze Arbeit geleistet!Ihre Bem¼hungen, jegliche...
Posted by Katja Schneidt on Monday, January 4, 2016
Migrant crisis: Turkey police seize fake life jackets - BBC News
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 17:53
Image copyrightAFPImage caption Lifejackets left behind by refugees and migrants form a huge pile on the Greek island of Lesbos Police in Turkey say they have confiscated more than 1,000 fake life jackets made for migrants wanting to cross the Aegean Sea to Greece.
Officers raided a workshop in the port of Izmir, where they say they found life jackets stuffed with packaging rather than buoyancy aids.
The four workers making the jackets included two young Syrian girls.
On Tuesday, the bodies of 34 migrants were found along Turkey's coast. Many were wearing life jackets.
Several children were among the dead.
More than one million migrants crossed the Mediterranean in 2015 and the vast majority went from Turkey to Greece.
Many migrants buy life jackets to help them survive the dinghy journey. A properly made jacket costs up to a £100 ('‚¬130; $150), reports the BBC's James Reynolds in Istanbul.
But many migrants make do with cheaper, badly made ones, which cost just £10 and may offer no protection whatsoever, our correspondent says.
Izmir: Migrants' life jacket capital
The life jacket 'mountains' of Lesbos
Migration to Europe explained in graphics
Media captionFergal Keane reports from the Greek island of LesbosAccording to the UN, 3,771 people were listed as dead or missing in 2015.
In Wednesday's raid the authorities seized 1,263 life jackets that failed to correspond to safety standards, Turkey's Dogan news agency said. The workshop was in the centre of Izmir, a major hub for refugees and migrants.
Four people were found working in the workshop, including two young Syrian girls, the news agency said. It did not publish the girls' ages.
The confiscated life jackets have been sent to the local police for examination and an investigation has been launched.
It comes one day after the bodies of more than 30 migrants were washed up in Turkey. Their boats capsized in bad weather on the way to the Greek island of Lesbos, the authorities say.
Turkish media published harrowing images of the corpses, many still wearing life jackets that had apparently been of no use.
Migrants are continuing to arrive on the Greek islands every day, despite the wintry weather. Lesbos is by far the most popular destination for migrants leaving Turkey. More than 500,000 reached the island in 2015.
Late last year, Turkey reached a deal with the European Union to tighten its borders and reduce the numbers crossing to Greece in return for '‚¬3bn (£2.1bn) and political concessions.
A note on terminology: The BBC uses the term migrant to refer to all people on the move who have yet to complete the legal process of claiming asylum. This group includes people fleeing war-torn countries such as Syria, who are likely to be granted refugee status, as well as people who are seeking jobs and better lives, who governments are likely to rule are economic migrants.
NK
U.S. slams NK test, but doubts hydrogen bomb claim
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Earon
Sweden's feminist foreign minister has dared to tell the truth about Saudi Arabia. What happens now concerns us all >> The Spectator
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 19:13
If the cries of 'Je suis Charlie' were sincere, the western world would be convulsed with worry and anger about the Wallstr¶m affair. It has all the ingredients for a clash-of-civilisations confrontation.
A few weeks ago Margot Wallstr¶m, the Swedish foreign minister, denounced the subjugation of women in Saudi Arabia. As the theocratic kingdom prevents women from travelling, conducting official business or marrying without the permission of male guardians, and as girls can be forced into child marriages where they are effectively raped by old men, she was telling no more than the truth. Wallstr¶m went on to condemn the Saudi courts for ordering that Raif Badawi receive ten years in prison and 1,000 lashes for setting up a website that championed secularism and free speech. These were 'mediaeval methods', she said, and a 'cruel attempt to silence modern forms of expression'. And once again, who can argue with that?
The backlash followed the pattern set by Rushdie, the Danish cartoons and Hebdo. Saudi Arabia withdrew its ambassador and stopped issuing visas to Swedish businessmen. The United Arab Emirates joined it. The Organisation of Islamic Co-operation, which represents 56 Muslim-majority states, accused Sweden of failing to respect the world's 'rich and varied ethical standards' '-- standards so rich and varied, apparently, they include the flogging of bloggers and encouragement of paedophiles. Meanwhile, the Gulf Co-operation Council condemned her 'unaccept-able interference in the internal affairs of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia', and I wouldn't bet against anti-Swedish riots following soon.
Yet there is no 'Wallstr¶m affair'. Outside Sweden, the western media has barely covered the story, and Sweden's EU allies have shown no inclination whatsoever to support her. A small Scandinavian nation faces sanctions, accusations of Islamophobia and maybe worse to come, and everyone stays silent. As so often, the scandal is that there isn't a scandal.
It is a sign of how upside-down modern politics has become that one assumes that a politician who defends freedom of speech and women's rights in the Arab world must be some kind of muscular liberal, or neocon, or perhaps a supporter of one of Scandinavia's new populist right-wing parties whose commitment to human rights is merely a cover for anti-Muslim hatred. But Margot Wallstr¶m is that modern rarity: a left-wing politician who goes where her principles take her.
She is foreign minister in Sweden's weak coalition of Social Democrats and Greens, and took office promising a feminist foreign policy. She recognised Palestine in October last year '-- and, no, the Arab League and Organisation of Islamic Co-operation and Gulf Co-operation Council did not condemn her 'unacceptable interference in the internal affairs of Israel'. I confess that her gesture struck me as counterproductive at the time. But after Benjamin Netanyahu ruled out a Palestinian state as he used every dirty trick he could think of to secure his re-election, she can claim with justice that history has vindicated her.
She moved on to the Saudi version of sharia law. Her criticism was not just rhetorical. She said that it was unethical for Sweden to continue with its military co-operation agreement with Saudi Arabia. In other words, she threatened Swedish arms companies' ability to make money. Saudi Arabia's denial of business visas to Swedes threatened to hurt other companies' profits too. You might think of Swedes as upright social democrats, who have never let worries of appearing tedious stand in the way of their righteousness. But that has never been wholly true, and is certainly not true when there is money at stake.
Sweden is the world's 12th largest arms exporter '-- quite an achievement for a country of just nine million people. Its exports to Saudi Arabia total $1.3 billion. Business leaders and civil servants are also aware that other Muslim-majority countries may follow Saudi Arabia's lead. During the 'cartoon crisis' '-- a phrase I still can't write without snorting with incredulity '-- Danish companies faced global attacks and the French supermarket chain Carrefour took Danish goods off the shelves to appease Muslim customers. A co-ordinated campaign by Muslim nations against Sweden is not a fanciful notion. There is talk that Sweden may lose its chance to gain a seat on the UN Security Council in 2017 because of Wallstr¶m.
To put it as mildly as I can, the Swedish establishment has gone wild. Thirty chief executives signed a letter saying that breaking the arms trade agreement 'would jeopardise Sweden's reputation as a trade and co-operation partner'. No less a figure than His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf himself hauled Wallstr¶m in at the weekend to tell her that he wanted a compromise. Saudi Arabia has successfully turned criticism of its brutal version of Islam into an attack on all Muslims, regardless of whether they are Wahhabis or not, and Wallstr¶m and her colleagues are clearly unnerved by accusations of Islamophobia. The signs are that she will fold under the pressure, particularly when the rest of liberal Europe shows no interest in supporting her.
Sins of omission are as telling as sins of commission. The Wallstr¶m non-affair tells us three things. It is easier to instruct small countries such as Sweden and Israel on what they can and cannot do than America, China or a Saudi Arabia that can call on global Muslim support when criticised. Second, a Europe that is getting older and poorer is starting to find that moral stands in foreign policy are luxuries it can no longer afford. Saudi Arabia has been confident throughout that Sweden needs its money more than it needs Swedish imports.
Finally, and most revealingly in my opinion, the non-affair shows us that the rights of women always come last. To be sure, there are Twitter storms about sexist men and media feeding frenzies whenever a public figure uses 'inappropriate language'. But when a politician tries to campaign for the rights of women suffering under a brutally misogynistic clerical culture she isn't cheered on but met with an embarrassed and hugely revealing silence.
War on Vape
U.K. Approves E-Cigarette Prescriptions To Help People Quit Smoking
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 22:25
LONDON (Reuters) - Britain's drug regulators have given the go-ahead for a British American Tobacco electronic-cigarette vaping device to be sold as a quit smoking medicine, the first such product to be given a drug license in the UK.
The decision to license BAT's e-Voke product means it can now be prescribed on the state-funded National Health Service for patients trying to give up smoking.
"We want to ensure licensed nicotine containing products -- including e-cigarettes -- which make medicinal claims are available and meet appropriate standards of safety, quality and efficacy to help reduce the harms from smoking," the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) said in a statement on Monday.
The statement said the e-Voke license was granted "recently", and a spokesman told Reuters it was issued "towards the end of last year".
Many experts think e-cigarettes, which heat nicotine-laced liquid into an inhalable vapor, are a lower-risk alternative to smoking, but since they are relatively new products, there is little long-term evidence on their safety.
Public Health England, the government's public health agency, has said it considers e-cigarettes to be at least 95 percent safer than tobacco cigarettes, which cause lung cancer and many other diseases and kill half of all those who use them.
BAT said in a statement on its website it is "currently evaluating plans to commercialise" e-Voke, which uses cartridges containing pharmaceutical grade nicotine.
More than 2 million adults use e-cigarettes in Britain, about a third of whom are ex-smokers and two-thirds current smokers, according to the charity Action on Smoking and Health.
Big tobacco firms, including BAT, Philip Morris International, Japan Tobacco and Imperial Tobacco Group, are jostling for position in the emerging vaping market, which is estimated at around $7 billion for 2015.
The MHRA said it would "continue to encourage companies to voluntarily submit medicines license applications for e-cigarettes and other nicotine containing products as medicines" and hoped to see more e-cigarettes and next generation nicotine delivery products submit applications in future.
(Reporting by Kate Kelland, editing by Louise Heavens)
Also on HuffPost:
Out There
Hillary Clinton: I will reveal truth about UFOs if I become America's next President - Mirror Online
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 01:02
Hillary Clinton has vowed to "get to the bottom" of UFOs if she becomes the next President of the United States.
And the Democratic presidential candidate believes we may already have been visited by extraterrestrials.
Responding to a question about UFOs from a journalist while campaigning in New Hampshire, she reportedly said: "Yes, I'm going to get to the bottom of it."
Clinton, who could become America's first female president if elected in November, also said she would send a "task force" into Area 51 - a top secret base in Nevada where UFO enthusiasts believe alien technology is being back-engineered.
John Podesta, her campaign chairman, has previously called for the release of all UFO files as the ''American people can handle the truth''.
Video loadingClick to play
Last year he famously tweeted his biggest regret of 2014 was not securing the release of the UFO files before he retired.
He said: "Finally, my biggest failure of 2014: Once again not securing the #disclosure of the UFO files. #the truthisstilloutthere".
Read more:John Podesta: Outgoing Barack Obama adviser reveals regret over failure to disclose secret UFO files
Podesta was also her husband Bill Clinton's chief of staff when he was in the White House and a top advisor to President Barack Obama.
Hillary said: ''He has made me personally pledge we are going to get the information out. One way or another. Maybe we could have a task force go to Area 51."
Top secret: Groom Lake, also known as Area 51, is off limits to prying eyesLast year Bill Clinton told US chat show host Jimmy Kimmel he wouldn't be surprised if alien life visited Earth but said he hoped it "wouldn't be like Independence Day".
He also said he had looked into Area 51 but added: "There are no aliens there."
When asked about her husband's comments, Hillary said: "I think we may have been (visited already). We don't know for sure."
Video loadingClick to play
In 1993, Clinton, when he was president, was approached by billionaire Laurance Rockefeller to release all UFO files to the public.
The Clintons even met with the philanthropist and financier, part of the American banking dynasty, at his ranch in Wyoming in August, 1995, as part of the so-called "Rockefeller Initiative".
Retired detective constable Gary Heseltine, who has been researching UFOs for 40 years and edits UFO Truth Magazine, said: "I am well aware of the Rockefeller initiative and that both the Clintons were heavily involved in it.
UFO detective: Gary Heseltine has welcomed Hillary Clinton's pledge
"It was inevitable that Hillary Clinton would be asked questions about her links to it and I am pleased that she has responded to them.
"She cannot run away from those links so she really has to embrace it in order to remain credible. It will be interesting to see how much of a political issue it will become in her presidential campaign."
Dudes Named Ben
facebook admins arrested in egypt
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:56
CAIRO (AP) -- Egyptian authorities arrested three people who administer 23 Facebook pages, accusing them of using the networking website to incite against state institutions.The Interior Ministry on Saturday accused two men, both age 27, and a 25-year-old women of being members in the Muslim Brotherhood. Egypt outlawed the Brotherhood in 2013 after the military overthrew elected Islamist President Mohamed Morsi.Authorities have shown public concern over calls on social media to organize protests on Jan. 25 to mark the fifth anniversary of the 2011 uprising that removed longtime autocrat Hosni Mubarak. Social media, particularly Facebook and Twitter, played a large part in organizing the Jan. 25 uprising, and other protests since then.Last week, President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi warned against any such protests, saying they could result in chaos.On Monday, prosecutors ordered a 15-day detention for four activists from the April 6 movement, which helped engineer the 2011 uprising and was outlawed last year. The four were put under investigation on suspicion of protesting without a license and belonging to a banned organization.The arrests are taking place amid a crackdown on art spaces in downtown Cairo, an area popular among activists. Tahrir square, the epicenter of the 2011 uprising, is also located in downtown Cairo.Also on Monday, authorities raided the Townhouse Gallery, one of Egypt's most popular art venues, a day before they raided Dar Merit, a publishing house where left-leaning intellectuals sometimes meet.The officials shut down Townhouse Gallery, while two workers who were present at the time of the raid said they took a computer, a laptop, employees' notebooks, and CDs and forced the employees to show them movies that were on their computers. The officials prevented people from leaving the venue during the raid.In Dar Merit, officials detained a volunteer, Mohammed Zain, for about 12 hours, Dar Merit's manager and owner Mohammed Hashem said. Zain was questioned about the political orientation of books and seminars at Dar Merit and about Hashem's political views, Hashem said Wednesday.
Vaccine$
Small head babies
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 19:32
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RED ALERT: A NEW TAINTED MMR VACCINE HAS SUDDENLY CAUSED THOUSANDS OF BABIES IN BRAZIL TO BE BORN WITH FAR UNDERSIZED BRAINS IN THE PAST TWO MONTHS ALONE"when these facts are added to the fact that the Zika virus has never done anything prior but cause a mild cold, suddenly blaming it for thousands of shrunken baby brains is outright medical fraud.They are now fronting brain damage caused by a newly formulated MMR vaccine as a "Zika virus outbreak". Problem: The Zika virus, which has been known about for 70 years, has never done anything to babies while the mother was pregnant. Zika results in a mild cold and is all over the world now doing nothing to anyone with a mortality rate of ZERO. QUESTION: why did it suddenly blow the brains out of thousands of babies in ONE LOCATION - Brazil in the past two months alone when ZERO reported cases of this outcome have ever been recorded prior? ANSWER: Because a new MMR vaccine, which was spawned to destroy babies before they were born rather than after birth (due to the new awareness that autism is caused by intentionally destructive vaccines) was launched in Brazil in May of 2015. Gates&Cohorts now need a scapegoat to pin the damage on, and "ZIKA" sounded spooky enough.PERMALINKUPDATE: REFERENCES WHICH PROVE THE SHRUNKEN BRAINS ARE MMR VACCINE CAUSED AND NOT BECAUSE OF ANY ZIKA VIRUS ARE NOW SCREEN CAPTURED AND EMBEDDED BELOW THIS REPORT, (and there are plenty of other references that prove this if you go out an look for them.)MMR induced shrunken brains: The new autism.The new "Autism", titled "Microcephaly" has suddenly smashed it's way into delivery rooms overnight and destroyed more than 2,400 Brazilian newborn babies en utero in only the past 2 months with ZERO DESTROYED IN THE MONTHS PRIOR. The false reason is stated to be caused when a pregnant mother is bitten by the mosquito carried African zika virus, which recently "made it's debut" in Brazil in 2015. This is an obvious bold faced lie, because the pattern of symptoms does not match the virus which has been proven to have infected humans since 1954 and has never previously been associated with shrunken brains in newborn babies, nor does the geographic propagation pattern match the natural propagation pattern of a mosquito carried virus that would cause undersized brains in newborn babies if it really did exist.This "shrunken brain" issue in newborns was just suddenly in Brazil as if someone flipped a switch, and the only way that could really happen is via the sudden arrival of a new brain destroying MMR vaccine, which all pregnant Latin American women are strongly encouraged to get before week 22 of pregnancy. This sudden occurrence of shrunken brains perfectly matches the probable arrival of the real culprit - a tainted MMR vaccine, which if administered in May (when this virus supposedly arrived) would be causing precisely the shrunken newborn baby brain problems Brazilians are having now, right on schedule.
The claim is that a mosquito naturally carried this disease across almost all of South and Central America in only six months. This defies all logic because mosquitoes have a life cycle that is too long for immediate propagation and won't fly more than a mile from where they hatch, which would limit the movement of a totally new disease to a mile or so a month, not 30 miles a day. A continent wide outbreak of a totally new virus is not the same thing as an outbreak of malaria, which is already everywhere and only needs the correct conditions to bring it forward.
As standing proof of the impossibility any totally new host/carrier/host dependent disease could naturally propagate so rapidly, just look at how long it took the killer bee which needs no intermediate host to propagate through south and central America. It took the killer bee decades to do so and bees can fly miles in a day. And the killer bee was not host dependent, which in the case of the Zika virus, which is host dependent might permanently quarantine such a virus to a small area via demography alone. Additionally, if the zika virus spread so readily, it should have made it to Brazil from Africa during the first periods of air traffic 50 years ago, traveling to Brazil via infected passengers, who would then pass it along to the Brazilian mosquitoes. If it was as contagious as they claim, and it really did shrink baby brains, it should have been decades old news.
ADDITIONALLY, AND EVEN MORE IMPORTANT IS THAT SOME OF THE NEWS RELEASES RELATED TO THIS "DISEASE" WERE ORIGINALLY DATED WEEKS INTO THE FUTURE, WHICH MEANS SOMEONE IS DOING IT AND THE MEDIA RELEASE WAS PRE PLANNED, TO MAKE THE SPREAD OF THE DISEASE APPEAR TO SPAN MORE THAN A YEAR, WHEN IT HAS NOT.The first undersized brains from MMR vaccines and NOT this disease were first seen in Brazil IN NOVEMBER OF 2015. IF SO, I'd like an explanation for how this virus, which has NEVER been associated with small brains before suddenly caused more than 2,400 children in Brazil to be born with undersized brains SINCE NOVEMBER OF THIS YEAR and has now been pinned to RECENTLY BORN babies with undersized brains in far away Mexico, when according to the story it arrived in Mexico in November of 2015? THERE IS NO WAY IN * THIS DISEASE WENT FROM BRAZIL TO PERU TO MEXICO TO ALL ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN IN ONLY SIX MONTHS UNLESS SOMEONE DID IT BY INTENT, OR THERE IS NO ZIKA DISEASE AT ALL, AND IT IS ALL A VACCINE SCAM, SPREAD RAPIDLY VIA REFRIGERATED BOEING JUMBO JETS.Here is the wiki:"In May 2015, Brazil officially reported its first 16 cases of the illness.[9] According to the Brazilian Health Ministry, as of November 2015 there was no official count of the number of people infected with the virus in Brazil, the disease being not subject to compulsory notification. Even so, cases were reported in 14 States of the country. Mosquito-borne Zika virus is suspected to be the cause of 2,400 cases of microcephaly and 29 infant deaths in Brazil in 2015.[10]"interesting, when it has never been associated with that before!"The emergence of Zika virus in South America led to a rapid spread throughout South and Central America, reaching Mexico in November 2015"
My response: Yep, it is in Wikipedia, which anyone can write to, including those involved in this plot, and they can just make it all look normal. Yep, symbiotic host/carrier/host diseases just rip across continents to all corners in months, faster than a bush tribesman could travel! IT REALLY IS THAT WAY, Wikipedia said so!REALITY: This is a host/carrier/host disease which requires new mosquitos to be born before it can spread. This makes it absolutely impossible for it to rip across the entirety of Latin America, from Chile to Brazil to Mexico in only six months. It would take DECADES for that process to complete. But 20 Boeing jets could carry the real brain shrinking cause via vaccines to all corners of Latin America in only 12 hours, with the zika mosquito being a convenient scapegoat for the devastation that followed.Here is another wiki quote:"The first human cases were reported in Nigeria in 1954.[3] A few outbreaks have been reported in tropical Africa and in some areas in Southeast Asia.[4]By using phylogenetic analysis of Asian strains it was estimated that Zika virus had moved to Southeast Asia by 1945.[2] In 1977 - 1978 Zika virus infection was described as a cause of fever in Indonesia.[5]
The first major outbreak, with 185 confirmed cases, was reported in 2007 in the Yap Islands of the Federated States of Micronesia.[6] A total of 108 cases were confirmed by PCR or serology and 72 additional cases were suspected. The most common symptoms were rash, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, and no deaths were reported. The mosquito Aedes hensilli, which was the predominant species identified in Yap during the outbreak, was probably the main vector of transmission. While the way of introduction of the virus on Yap Island remains uncertain, it is likely to have happened through introduction of infected mosquitoes or a viraemic human with a strain related to those in Southeast Asia.[2][6] This was also the first time Zika fever had been reported outside Africa and Asia.[7]"
My response: ALL OF THAT, AND IT WAS NEVER ASSOCIATED WITH SHRUNKEN BABY BRAINS UNTIL IT HIT BRAZIL, WHERE IT JUST SUDDENLY WHACKED THE BABY BRAINS OUT OF 2400 PREGNANT MOMS! See what I am getting at here? And if they change things, and say this disease has a history of shrinking baby brains, remember, up until now IT WAS NOT SO, so something else is causing the brain destroyed babies, it is not any "zika disease", something else is causing it and I guess they figured "zika" sounded spooky enough to blame it all on while they proceed to blow baby brains out with pre-natal pregnancy vaccinations. In many Latin American countries, women are strongly encouraged to get the MMR vaccine no more than 22 weeks into a pregnancy. Since the story line behind the Zika explanation is patent bullshit, another vector is being used, which leaves only the previously harmless MMR vaccine as the only available real "shrunken brain" transmission vector, BET ON IT.Additionally, they would never release such a disease with the mosquito as the carrier, because the tribe is everywhere, Kikedom has infiltrated all corners of the earth and they won't make themselves vulnerable to their own weapon. That means their weapon has to stay safely within needles and vials, to be separated out by marking "Ashkenazi" on the race card questionnaire handed out by every single hospital they will ever go to. Those who identify their race as "Asheknazi" will get a differently sourced vaccine.Ok so to sum this up:
1. Prior to 2015, the Zika virus was never associated with shrunken brains in newborn babies.
2. The propagation pattern is impossible, no mosquito borne disease that requires and intermediate host can get to all corners of a continent in only six months. Such a rapid propagation would require the disease to move 33 miles a day, day after day. Mosquitos do not breed, infect, lay eggs and hatch young to re-infect any faster than two weeks and won't fly more than half a mile during their lives, and if movement of people could spread it so fast, it would have happened decades ago. This disease might take six months to go 30 miles, not go 30 miles in a day!
3. The Zika virus has been known about since the 1950's, and requires a carrier host during it's life cycle. If it is so contagious it can rip across a continent via mosquitoes alone in only six months, which would require people flying around on airplanes to do, then it should have traveled across the ocean to Brazil as fast as an airplane can fly along with an infected host carrier from Africa, more than 50 years ago.
4. The autism / child vaccination link has now been so firmly drawn that the scammers need an entirely new venue before they get totally busted, and pre-birth vaccines have to be that venue. They need a safe way to do this and they are not going to get the job done by letting their weapon loose in the wild, where it can jump out of the bushes and nail them. They need a scapegoat for the intellectual damage they need to cause to maintain their future tyranny, and the zika virus is virtually assured to be their chosen scapegoat.
5. They claim this disease is ripping through the Caribbean island nations. QUESTION: HOW DOES A MOSQUITO BORNE ILLNESS, WHICH TOOK 50 YEARS TO JUMP FROM AFRICA TO LATIN AMERICA END UP PROPAGATING THROUGHOUT THE CARIBBEAN IN ONLY A FEW MONTHS, WHEN EACH LOCATION IN THE ENTIRE REGION IS, FROM A MOSQUITO'S STANDPOINT, EQUALLY SEPARATED BY OCEAN?
Good question, and I have the answer, CASE CLOSED:
I'll tell you what is going on here - VIRTUALLY ASSURED: Bill Gates or some other slime ball released a new vaccine in response to the autism uproar, which was to be administered to women while pregnant, to destroy the baby en utero so post-birth vaccines would not be blamed for damage they want to do to ALL children and are no longer completely getting away with. The zika virus has to be there to take the rap.HERE ARE THE CAPTURES THAT PROVE IT:
Here's a cute one!Common core wrote:We know why you only mention "rothschild" as the evil in this world, so your master's the rockefeller's WHO ARE DUTCH-TURK (german/austrian/hungarian)-CAUCASUS-ASIAN edomites, therefore correctly named "ROGGENFEDDLER", is not exposed, yet the whole sorcery and death it causes, surrounding the "medical" field is of these whores of the NWO, and is also who is behind the fake israel, the fbi, the cia, ETC!!. So not to worry we will make sure people know them very well, as we will you who lurks behind this filth, TURKedomite-ASIAN-boy!
My response: I am deeply sorry this web site is too complex for many people to read through entirely, but there are many many references to the Rockefellers here. I suggest you improve your reading skills so you can get through the thousands of pages on this web site and send accurate messages, OH, NO, I actually think that is a bit much to ask because it really is a lot, but please, before sending more of your numerous rants, make sure you check every page here before spewing, seriously, you are off with so much of what you send that this is the first time I bothered responding because other mails are simply too lengthy and poorly done to post.
Yeah, the Rockefellers are deeply rooted in the Federal Reserve scam, are almost entirely responsible for Feminism and the family courts that destroyed the United States, and are probably the main ones pushing the tainted vaccines on America, but they would get nowhere without the Rothchilds and are comparative evil altar boy accomplices to the high Satanic priest under the City of London.
Jan 5 2016
Kim Jong was saying a couple weeks ago that NK had the hydrogen bomb. No one believed it, and I was skeptical (but considering NK is part of the "axis of evil" I did not exactly dread it.)Well, it looks like the region is now more stable because NO ONE is going to attack Kim Jong if he tripped a 5.3 earthquake at his nuclear test site, and Kim Jong is not stupid enough to attack anyone in any meaningful way either.
The Hiroshima blast was good for approximately a 4.2 richter yield, (assuming it was buried, it actually did not register that high due to an airburst) which puts Kim Jong considerably higher, depending on geography and other factors. I honestly can't say I am sad, the last guy I'd ever be afraid of, nukes or not, is Kim Jong. I mean, even with a king sized nuke, what could he do other than take the U.S. navy out? Really, that is all he could ever do and from where he sits, that is good enough.
UPDATE: ALL THE NEWSPAPERS ARE QUOTING WIKIPEDIA RICHTER REFERENCE FOR THE SIZE OF THE BOMB, WHICH IS A HUGE MISTAKE. Wikipedia is, as usual, DEAD WRONG. I knew seismic yields for nuclear blasts were lower than the references given in Wikipedia, which means North Korea's bomb was approximately 10 times as large as stated by Wikipedia. NK's bomb was in fact in the 100 - 200 kiloton range, which means it really might have been a small hydrogen bomb, as NK claimed they had a couple weeks ago. Here is the proof:
This is the real deal, so I figured I'd post it in full, especially since it says exactly what I said - that this was all set up by the government and false truthers.From Christian Yingling:Ok ...Everybody... please gather around and listen to what I am about to say..Then either shut your mouth, or share this far and wide. If you have ANY faith in me as a leader you will heed what I am about to say. If not..I want nothing to do with you. simple as that.
The key to victory in any battle is the ability to remain calm in any given situation. What we are seeing right now is a whole bunch of people acting based solely on raw emotion. This is very bad and I'm about to explain exactly why. I am not letting my emotions make my decisions for me, but instead, looking at this from a calm, level headed, common sense approach.
What you are all witnessing right now right now in Oregon has the makings of a full on false flag event. And I will prove that to you to the absolute best of my ability. Should you choose to look at this from a logical perspective you will see I am 100% correct. Some of what I will tell you is speculation based on my own experience and experiences of others I have talked to throughout this ordeal, but most of what I am going to tell you is documented verifiable fact.
Back during the Bundy situation, Ryan Payne declared himself the unofficial "leader" of the militias present at the Bundy ranch. Nothing could have been further from the truth. In fact, none of the militias listened to him at all. The ONLY ones who listened to him were the Bundy's, Blaine Cooper, who Payne claimed was a "professional security consultant', who turned out to be nothing more than an ex con, and buddah bear (nice name) who he also claimed was a "professional security consultant", but was later discovered to be nothing more than a tattoo artist thug. The militias ignoring these three, is precisely why that situation didnt turn into a blood bath. (strangely enough all three are present at the refuge)
I and Scott Woods were asked on one occasion, by Payne to go and destroy BLM equipment in the middle of the night. We refused, stating that that's not why we were there. We were there solely to defend the family. That very same night he rushed off in a car with a loaded AR to START a violent altercation with LEOs who supposedly had pulled over members of the Armenian Militia off exit 10 near the ranch. This report was never vetted nor was it looked into before he rushed off. It is also well documented that Payne had tried to incite other militia members to start violent altercations with the authorities who were present there. all of which were refused by militia members..all for the same reason...we were NOT there to start a fight...but to DEFEND the family. When people refused, Payne, Cooper, and Buddah ostracized them and ran them off the ranch. This is why most militias left the ranch when they did. One other point worth mentioning was there were militia members present with long range 50 cal sniper rifles... but instead of positioning them on the hilltops surrounding the ranch, Payne had them stationed down in a valley where they were effectively useless...does that sound like the makings of a solid leader to you? And also Payne was always sure to make certain that there was ONE completely UNDEFENDED access point to the ranch.. I brought this up to him asking why he would leave our back door completely open and undefended... and he completely blew me off... What he was doing in fact, was leaving an access point open for authorities to bum rush the ranch if that's what they felt needed to be done. And I have the witnesses to prove it.
Now throughout the situation Payne made repeated threats to law enforcement on NATIONAL media. There's VIDEO of him doing this..its not hard to find. Yet oddly enough with all that evidence he was never charged with anything during or after the standoff. Does that seem ODD to anyone but me? (not if you're a paid provocateur) Now in this situation at the refuge, he has publicly stated to a reporter that he has snipers set up to kill any federal official who approaches the refuge. Yet still.. no charges are being filed against him. making threats like that, you'd think they'd swoop in and scoop him up... but noooo.. because they're giving patriots time to get there... Don't think for one second that with a couple of phone calls to the proper alphabet agencies, those shmucks wont be SORELY outnumbered. Tell you what... if you think LEO's don't take threats against them seriously... go find the nearest cop and walk up to him and tell him you plan to kill police officers and see what happens to you.. See how long it takes for you to end up in prison.. yet Payne roams free..as does Cooper. Better yet go ask Schuyler Barbeau what happens when you threaten a public official... oh wait...you can't... hes in prison... because of a facebook post. Funny how that works huh? Also... has anyone else noticed that until this situation popped up Payne was damned near SILENT on social media? Wonder why that is... Hell, Most of you don't even know who he is... He also claimed to be an Army Ranger, But when we had someone at the Ranger School check their records... they said NO Ryan Payne had EVER attended that school... whoda thunk it?
Myself and Scott begged the Bundys, after we left (via phone) to stop listening to Payne..that he was a plant. But they refused to listen. Payne wouldn't let ANYONE talk to the Bundy's with out him being present..or close by. The Bundy's are good God fearing Christians but they are TERRIBLY naive. They truly believe Payne is one of the good guys. Which is why they are at the refuge now. Do you honestly think for one second it was AMMON's idea to take that building? If you do... you're a fool. They're not that type of people. Ammon has been suckered into this standoff by Payne and Cooper. He truly went up there with the intention of helping the Hammonds, and when they were refused, The Bundy's were made to believe that taking a stand against the BLM was the answer.
Nothing could be further from the truth. Now Cliven is on his way there.. and the govt is finally going to get their revenge on the Bundy's and in doing so gain the access they need to their land. All the major players in the operation of that Ranch will soon be together at the wildlife refuge... thats no coincidence. I assure you.
Payne, Cooper, Pete Santili... All well trained provocateurs who are doing everything in their power to lure patriots to the ranch.. Case in point...Santili just released a video try to say that the FBI was TRYING to shut him down.. Dont you think if that were the case...with ALL of the resources the FBI has, they would just go ahead and do it...do you really think this shmuck is smart enough to outsmart the ENTIRE FBI? Think about it...
Let us continue on.. why the wild life refuge? how in the blue hell did they even know it existed if this wasn't PRE-PLANNED? And why were their trailers staged up there THURSDAY night if this was all "unplanned"? And if they wanted support so bad...why not let the Oregon 3%ers and militia in on this? I'll tell you why.. because they would have had no part in it and vehemently refused if they had known.... as was demonstrated by their response once they found out. SO..that being said.. why pick a place so remote.. I'll tell you why.. the same reason the Bundy ranch was picked.. it's remote... no civilian casualties. And if everyone out there is killed there's no witnesses allowing the govt to write the narrative of what happened afterwards..You can bet any reporters out there will be silenced should they actually get close enough to catch anything worth documenting unless of course they're willing to report what they're told to... the reason it failed at the Bundy ranch was because the community got so involved... NOT the case at the refuge.
Next.. why has a detachment of Delta Force been deployed to the area? (does anyone remember that Delta was ALSO at WACO?) 19 sets of orders were cut for operators to be at waco. Why in the Blue hell would they send Delta to squash a bunch of unorganized mostly unarmed protesters? I'll tell you why.. one of the things Delta specializes in is hostage rescue.. I.E. blow open a door rush in and shoot the bad guys but save the good guys.. I.E. embedded reporters from the national media who can later report the protesters fired first.
This is happening EXACTLY the same way WACO did... you know who else claimed, "We won't fire first but if attacked we'll fire back.."? David Koresh. Again well documented fact. This situation is going to turn out the exact same way. If these guys don't stand down now, while the sheriff is giving them an opportunity to, I promise you.. its going to turn out the exact same way. I'll bet my life on it.
Now lets look at poor John Ritzheimer. This guy is exhibiting all the classic signs of PTSD. It is my belief that he is not in on this plan but like the Bundy's... has been suckered into believing what he is doing is right. This poor bastard is still fighting the war in his head and Assholes like Payne and Cooper are feeding into his delusions that dying for this cause is what he needs to do. They are taking advantage of his big heart and his undying love for the country he fought for and twisting him into a suicidal maniac. Im sorry if that stings.. but I assure you its the cold hard truth. How could ANYONE in their right mind think that dying trying to fight the BLM of all things is going to "change the govt"? How ignorant do you have to be to think that fighting and dying out there is going to somehow make the BLM fold up shop and stop what they are doing. Sorry kids... the ONLY people who can stop the BLM are in DC.. and I assure you, as long as People like Harry Reid and the like are around... the BLM is not going anywhere.. no matter how much we fight them and run them off. We ran them off at the Bundy ranch...and how much did that slow them down..? we ran them off at the sugar pine mine... how much did that slow them down...? What makes anyone think this will be any different? Mind boggling I tell you.
Now to those of you who are buying into this whole "this will galvanize the movement line of crap".. What this is REALLY going to do is crush the patriot movement. They are going to hit these people with such force with such blinding speed and a level of violence of action that most patriots are going to turn and look at their own children and go there's no way in HELL I want that to happen to MY family... thus the reason there are women and Children being taken to the refuge. The govt has already shown at WACO and Ruby Ridge just how willing they are to kill American Children. Don't think for a second they wont do it here as well.
All the classic signs of a psyop. They plan to frighten the people into not even daring to ever take a stand against them again.
So what then of the militias? We'll still be here but will be forced into hiding.. those who aren't will be scooped up and charged as Domestic Terrorists. Do you for even ONE second really believe that this happening at the same time as Obama prepares to announce a whole new slew of gun restrictions is really a coincidence? Its not.. Not at all. What this is going to be used for is an EXCUSE to show why we need to disarm the American people for their own safety.. or put into place such SEVERE restrictions on owning firearms that we will NEVER be able to properly defend ourselves against a tyrannical govt. Hitler did it... Stalin did it... Mao did it... now Obama's doing it. History is repeating itself in front of our own eyes and we're too blinded by raw emotion to recognize it.
If everyone picked up and left that refuge tomorrow, what do you think Payne and Cooper would do? They're so die hard...think they'd stay and fight? I mean that's what they're saying... they're not leaving right? Prepared to die for the cause....right?.... My ASS ! Nope... they'll slink back into the shadows and wait for the next opportunity to bamboozle good patriots into signing their own death warrants. And of course... once again.. neither will be charged with anything. And good peoples lives will be risked for nothing.
We're being goaded into a fight here people...you NEED to see that. And every ONE of you who is advocating for this...Know this... if these people die... it will be YOUR fault. Not mine, nor will it be the fault of ANYONE in ANY unit I command. I simply wont allow it. THIS is the reason my troops follow me.. because I take the time to think these things through...to look at them from ALL directions... not based on sheer emotion as so many of you are doing now.
It was stated, dare I say, TAUGHT to me today by a close friend who is an ex special forces operator, that wars are not won by people taking rash actions such as the ones that have been taken here. Wars are won with proper planning. That shit hit me like a brick.. And I Will NEVER forget those words as that is the smartest thing I have heard throughout this entire ordeal.
1. Plan2. Equip3. Rehearse4. Execute
THAT'S how you win a battle. THAT'S how you minimize casualties.. THAT'S how you win a war. None of that was done here. Therefore, these guys are all as good as dead.. Why do you think the local sheriff there just said these guys need to leave WHILE THEY STILL CAN... Because he KNOWS whats going to happen to them! He's OFFERING them a way out and DAMNIT THEY NEED TO TAKE IT! The first thing I teach my guys is when they make unexpected contact with the enemy is, the proper response is to fall back, reset and take back the initiative. That's what we need to do here. Will it look like a loss in the eyes of the people? Absolutely. But hey, you all had better get used to the fact that we are not going to win every battle.. BUT... in the eyes of those who put this whole bullshit plan together... this will be a CRUSHING defeat...Even though it will never be made public knowledge. We have let the enemy pick the time and place of our fight...and that is about to prove to be a fatal mistake. Mark my words..
But we can still snatch victory out of this whole screwed up mess...if ONLY you will listen to me. How do we win then? Well I'll tell you...
We get those people out of there!!!!! Anyone and everyone who has contact with the people there needs to PLEAD with them to get the hell out of there... Then, we regroup, and WE pick the time and place of our fight...not the enemy. WE make THEM react.. WE pick ground that is most sensible for a proper defense, not a building in the middle of a field that has absolutely NO defensible positions as in the case of the refuge. Then we properly equip, plan, rehearse, and execute. If you want to win a war...that's how you have to do it. Most importantly.. we expose frauds like Cooper and Payne for who they truly are. and drum them out of the movement before they really get someone killed.
So that my take on this mess... listen to me if you want, ignore me at your own peril... either way it is of no consequence to me. I will not debate this issue, and NO ONE will change my mind about this... I have done too much research into this situation to allow ANY armchair commando to dictate my actions for me. This is the war you all wanted so badly... now either lead follow or get the fuck out of the way. End of story. (please note this post has been edited to provide more factual evidence to include mention of Delta at Waco.)
I don't care about it to be honest, it is all fake, but I have to say something, so here goes:Electronic triggers to "make sure the owner and no one else is shooting" will just be a way to shut guns off if people ever finally decide to do the right thing, and a "malfunction" of the biometric system that would make that type of gun possible could be faked with an EMP anyway. And I doubt any of the owners of probably over a billion guns in this country are going to submit to some half cocked method of making their existing guns compliant with such a system. Some estimates of the number of guns in America are as low as 300 million, I say FAT CHANCE, it is much much higher. There is no way they are all going to be modified, if I was in America right now I'd talk about three and hide five.
The tears were fake. It was all an act. He rubbed something into one eye right before he started "crying".
And what did Obama cry about? The proven false flag Sandy Hook, and totally debunked other false flags. I have no doubt Obama knows the people who do these false flags and is doing nothing but shedding festering rotten carcass tears. Yep, dripping carcass. He has no soul.
Anyway, I am tired of the topic already but must state that I am surprised he never mentioned Oregon. Quite surprised.
I guess people will stand back and watch Obama and his successors chip away at those who can own firearms . . . . those who will be denied because a doctor said so, those who will be denied because of certain SSI statutes, those who will be denied because they are the wrong veterans, those who will be denied because a family member said they should be denied, those who will be denied because somehow they landed on the no fly list . . . . . . you know, first they came for . . . . . and will Americans do nothing until there is a list for everyone and it is therefore too late to do anything at all?
The deer kill claims were never mentioned early on, are not part of the sentence, and happened at far too convenient a time to be believable. So I looked around for where that story came from, and believe I found it. Low and behold, as it turns out, Very close to the time of the Hammond ranch incident, an illegal deer killing happened on the other side of the country, and appeared in an article in the HAMMOND DAILY STAR. Coincidence? I think not, I really think this is where the hoax witness, who just suddenly stepped forward now with a stupid story, got that story from.Trolls be trolling, and all trolls are saying that "an illegal deer kill" is the real reason the Hammonds are going to jail. THIS IS A BOLD FACED LIE, no such deer kill has been presented by any legal authority as the reason why the Hammonds are being jailed, the entire case is FIRE RELATED ONLY.The trolls have really spun a ball of yarn with this one that is already proven to be misrepresented even if the deer kill was real, and the following capture clearly shows why I think it was in fact a troll dug fabrication. I strongly suspect that NO DEER KILL AT ALL happened at the Hammond ranch.
Keep in mind a VERY important thing with all of this: This entire Hammond Ranch incident is being used as a front for an armed protest and seizure of Federal property the Hammonds do not approve of, and it is all being done with PERFECT timing for Obama's new attempt at a gun grab. I firmly believe the Hammonds are being thrown in jail by the government to provide a precedent for a fake armed protest by the government to justify a massive gun grab BY THE GOVERNMENT. It all fits. Especially with the Hammonds openly stating they do not agree with the protest, it just fits.Required read: This is very eye opening information on the Hammond Ranch situation that has additional information completely different from what I posted above, this is a job very well done and I'd say a required read.Dubai fireIt appears two people who are actually in Dubai got through with regard to this topic. The building had sprinkler systems, but they were inoperative. The fire burned for 22 hours and portions of it made it well into the building, it did not just stay on the facade. This fire was put out only because half of the building stayed intact, which left a way for firefighters to get to the fire on all floors and put it out with fire hoses, just like I said had to be, but has now been confirmed. So this is good ammo to fire at the trolls, This fire did indeed burn in a way that sets a legitimate precedent for the WTC.Practically everyone has heard about the standoff in Oregon, where armed protestors took over a federal building to "protest the Hammond Ranch". But I have not heard anyone talking about what I think is really going on there.I think this is a staged op by the Federal government, and all the people who are "protesting" at this federal building are actors for the federal government, putting on a ruse to provide another avenue or excuse for gun control legislation.
The Hammonds, who have been nailed by the FED for having a controlled burn leave the controlled area have stated they did not want any sort of protest over the Federal government prosecuting them. The loss of control of the burn resulted in zero damage to surrounding property (other than removing brush that was a fire hazard) yet the Federal government is pursuing them for it (probably to fill a quota and/or seize land or whatever) over a decade after it happened.
The Federal government does controlled burns on a regular basis, and while doing so often loses control of the burns which have on many occurrences resulted in massive property damage and loss of life. The fact that they are prosecuting the Hammonds for the same thing they do, even though the Hammonds managed an out of control situation better than the Fed often does (resulting in zero property damage or loss of life), shows that the Fed operates in a state of hypocrisy in a way that threatens the government's legitimacy.
At any rate, the jist of it all is that the protests were not staged by the Hammonds, were not wanted by the Hammonds, and are most likely just a CIA operation staged for two purposes: 1. To distract the public away from the horrific behavior of the Federal government with regard to how they have clearly prosecuted people who should have been left alone, and 2. While doing this, to totally milk the situation for max sympathy towards the government despite the government being totally wrong, all the while they yet again stage a totally new flavor of false flag to justify gun control and an eventual gun ban.
If there is any sort of "waco" repeat with this, I'd be skeptical to believe it, they won't deliberately kill their own people and if anyone does die it will be sucker patsies who got dragged into yet another staged government scam. The fact this happened on Federal property in a Federally owned building should say it all.
DRUDGE HEADLINE "Charlie Hebdo 'feels alone' in its fight to poke fun at the world"I clicked through to the article, which is just a bunch of B.S. about the attacks, and how well financially Hedo did after the attacks, and then a staffer lamenting about how Charlie Hebdo was all alone in it's quest to poke fun at the world. TO THIS I SAY:Sometimes I feel alone in my fight to bring truth to the world, But I know it is just a feeling, and that others are fighting as hard as I am (whoever they may be). DEAR CHARLIE HEBDO: You are not alone in your quest to poke fun at the world. Anyone who can observe the obvious ought to be well aware of the fact that others are a hell of a lot better at it than you are!And yes, even Putin(tm) has declared that Russia "is not Charlie!" Even after the so-called shootings, Putin was not sympathetic to Charlie Hebdo in any more than a politically formal way, and after Charlie Hebdo posted disrespectful cartoons about the shoot down of the Russian jet, Russians are furious with Charlie Hebdo, with "I am not Charlie" peaking as the number one hashtag on Twitter and open hatred for the publication in Russian papers. Obviously I was never Charlie, and believe the "shootings" were nothing but a money making publicity stunt, and an attempt to bring Charlie Hebdo humor into the real world where the hatred it sparks could be real.
Update: I once again have this web site under my control.I have not even looked to see if this is happening elsewhere, but last night and this morning are crazy on the web.1. It all started with the internet in my area (and possibly a huge area) going down on both cellular and land providers.
2. As a result, I had to look around for a cyber cafe that was still up after the first one told me they were down also. Eventually I found one that had internet, but it used Windows 10. I decided to take a chance.
3. 3. When using Windows 10, Cpanel notified me that someone managed to hijack the session token and I could no longer administer the web site. It went in a vicious cycle where I could only keep the intruder off for about 45 seconds per password change.
4. I had to leave the server in a hacked state, because it got impossible to keep the intruder off, and that is the way it is now (I am going to fix this if I can today but am posting this first because for the first time I can at least type into this page)
5. The internet stayed down the rest of the night, it did not work when I got back home.
6. This morning, Linux Live and Firefox is having serious trouble and crashing, as if someone is trying to get control but there is an incompatibility problem with their efforts.
7. For the first time ever, (this morning) the administration window is giving errors and requiring double page loads, (one for me, and perhaps one for someone else? UPDATE: This was fixed completely with a password change done with Linux Live
I might be getting the upper hand with this now thanks to Linux Live, here is the Cpanel warning message that stated I was getting hacked while trying to use Windows 10. I doubt Gmail or Yahoo or any other place online would be polite enough to display such a warning - (Cpanel is much better than the usual with this)Take this as a warning about Windows 10 - You would be better off with a Commodore Vic 20 than with a quad core hacked by Windows 10, USE IT AT YOUR OWN RISK.I could not get more than a little way into these before the web went down and I had to start fighting hackers. Here is what I managed to put up last night before the fun started, (this continues below the mail window).Original post follows:
Now I know a simple tactic for securing that window, it will be secured again tonight. The problem is that there is a local stinger (which is as easy to set up as getting the correct privileged app installed on an Android phone in the house next door) and a Jewish couple moved in next door with two jobs, 1. to have this stinger set up and 2. to subvert and destroy a vibrant church community nearby. They have succeeded at both, the church is all but dead now and it only took them a year and a half to accomplish it. Bastards. My problems are actually less because I know what is going on and all they do is delete mails and steal, the site has survived.
The mail window can be assumed to be working now, I am going to re-secure it again after I post as many mails as I can format for this web site in about a half hour. The huge number of excellent mails surprised me, because the box has had almost nothing but trolled up orange peels in it for the past month and now I know people really are still hitting the site after what I saw in the mail box today. I was worried, not anymore!.Dropped in here with only text formatted for this web site, no comments.World trade centerThe World Trade Center buildings collapsed as a result of fires ignited by jet fuel!!??The above is absolutely and physically impossible. Thermodynamics 101.
Weakened steel does not fail explosively. It gradually loses strength along it's stress-strain curve and then only in the areas that attain the temperatures required to fail. Steel is an excellent heat conductor and will conduct heat away from the point of application. The materials "specific heat" will show you how much it has to absorb in order to get hot. This is measured in BTU's / mass. You can have flames as hot as you like but if there is not enough heat energy available to heat up the material you will do nothing.
An example of this is your stove at home. A gas range burns propane at 3254 F. An aluminum pan melts at 1220 F. This should make it impossible to cook on a gas range, as the pan wouldmelt or at least soften into putty, but it does not because heating materials is complex and actually pretty difficult. Heat goes away very fast and you have to continue to pour BTUs into it above the rate that it loses the heat. This is not easy.
I just made myself a omelet, the pan miraculously didn't melt.
There was not enough heat value in the jet fuel to come anywhere close to making the steelhot enough to fail. You will run out fuel long before that happens and the math is straight forward.
You simply take the tons of steel in question, the amount of BTU's it would take to make thesteel hot, including the concrete and the air and you just can't do it.
In fact it is so far from possible, the fires cannot be a factor, the temperature would not have even come close to the starting of the elastic region.
Anyone who repeats the jet fuel burns at xxx and steel loses yy% of it strength at xxx temp is an idiot or a liar or just cannot understand the physics involved here.
That this was an official explanation tells me that they are lying. When a suspect lies, ask any cop what that tells him.
as an aside, jet fuel burns at 1800 degrees all right IN A JET ENGINE. A jet engine forces air through a compressor to get enough volume and mass of O2 to support the combustion. You cannot get the fuel to burn at anywhere near that temp in open air, there is not enough mass air flow for an optimal stoichiometric ratio.
Even if you could, which you can't kerosene only yields 18,500 Btu/lb in perfect conditions.
In open air you'd be lucky to get 20% of that efficiency, but even at 100% efficiency there aren't enough BTU's to heat up the steel past about 700 degrees.
If you use a full fuel loading with zero gallons burned in the fireball and zero gallons sent down the elevator shaft to blow up the lobby you still only have enough fuel to to get the steelup to 500 degrees or so. That's with optimal heat transfer into the steel, best case conditions of delta-T and R values, with worst case delta-t for the heat LOSS from the steel. As material heat up they radiate and conduct heat AWAY at a rate governed by the temperature and ambient factors. So the hotter the steel gets the more heat it LOSES. This is why steel mills use crucibles to hold the steel as well as the heat.
The specific heat of steel is 240 btu/ton per degree > to raise the temp from ambient to 1800 degrees would require 432,000 btu/s ton at OPTIMAL efficiency. The concrete requires even more over 800,000 btu's.
The the air also has to heat up, and air being a poor conductor and all the humidity in the air, the specific heat of water is 8 times higher than steel and 5 times high than concrete.
It's a rather long equation but not really complex. Bottom line, not enough BTU to make thesteel hot enough to fail. Can't be done. Something else brought the buildings down. If they didn't fall immediately after the impacts there is now way the fires could have triggered it as the tensile and compressive strength of the steel did not change at all ( reference the stress-strain diagram for structural steel) after the fires did their work. It never exceeded it's maximum working stress, if it did, the top would have fallen over towards the point of maximum damage. It would have done this slowly as the stress progressed along to top of the curve to the point of maximum or ultimate strength. The metal would be very deformed at this point.
From the the origin to the point called proportional limit, the stress-strain curve is a straight line. This is called Hooke's Law that within the proportional limit, the stress is directly proportional to strain up to the elastic limit. That is the limit beyond which the material will no longer go back to its original shape when the load is removed, or it is the maximum stress that may be developed such that there is no permanent or residual deformation when the load is entirely removed.
The structural damage by the impact either failed the structure right away or the it brought it past the elastic limit. If it reached a certain point the curve here is actually longer that the portion from 0-the EL, the steel will start to deform plastically, that is bend like taffy. There was zero evidence of this.
The diagram for the temperatures tells us that the steel would have to attain a consistent temperature across the entire beam of way over 1500-1800 degrees, a point stress is not enough to induce failure, and there is no way to a localized temperature peak this high without the heat conducting to the rest of the beam. This is shown by the transfer equation is governed by the composition and shape of the beam, Shape is vital in that an I-beam or box had a high surface area to volume ratio, This means heat loss radiated away form the source of the heat is going to be very high, also humidity in the air will absorb the heat faster as water can take a lot of heat before raising it's temperature so initial heat transfer AWAY form the steel will be even higher.
If as they will say that the fireproofing was all blown away by the impact makes it even harder, as the steel can radiate more heat if it is uncovered.
We can also calculate the rate of heat transfer INTO the steel beams. It is a function of the differential temperature, the specific heat of the steel, the surface area of the expose material and the R value of the air or any remaining building materials between the flame and the steel, as well as the airflow ( mass flow rate of hot air).
Al these factors except R can be definitively identified. using the maximum value for R, you'd run out of fuel ( assuming 100% fuel loading on the plane with zero for elevator shaft and fireball) before you got a 700 degree T-rise anywhere.
But the Kean Commission weenies also state that vast amounts of fuel poured down the elevator shafts to account for the damage to the ground floor. So where that that leave us?
You'd be lucky to be able to do a marshmallow roast with what was left after the fireball anyway.
It doesn't work and there is no way to make it work. the official story is a sham and any one who believes it is an ignorant fool.
My brief response: All true fine and dandy, however, average people will be best convinced by the fire proof coating. Everything you say is SPOT ON.
MahdiDownunder wrote:Just thought I would respond to your rapture post regarding Muslims. You may find it interesting. All muslims around the world are waiting for Imam Mahdi to appear, the reason for this is that Imam Mahdi is the sign of Prophet Jesus returning. The sign of Imam Mahdi is the black flags and a small army, however the first black flags we will see will be an impostor (the ones we see today as ISIS), the second black flags that appear will be true and that will happen also when the anti-christ reveals himself - The battle will be between the jews led by the anti-christ and Imam Mahdi's small islamic army. Prophet Jesus will then descend from heaven upon two angels and lead the army and kill the anti-christ himself. He will reign over the world for 40 years where there will be peace and justice. During that time Gog and Magog will appear and kill everything in sight, however prophet Jesus will take the believers upon a mountain where they will be safe (this is the closest thing to a rapture like event that many christians believe).
After some time prophet Jesus will ask god to kill gog and magog for them and the believers are then able to return down from the mountain. Prophet Jesus will marry and eventually die a normal death, and then things will start to return to normal and there will be good and bad in the world, once evil starts to prevail again the beast will appear and will slay everyone apart from those that are marked as believers. Then there are some more signs before the final day of judgment but that is the jist of it my friend.
My response: I am not totally alert with the Muslim view of the appearance of the Mahdi, but what you wrote looks convincing enough to put up. Certainly ISIS is not it, and it is a definite - Muslims do indeed believe Jesus will return again and make things right. I'd prefer this happen sooner than later, I am really sick of trolls!
Edward wrote: Hi Jim,
When the 9/11 happened, I was stuck in Oregon fro a whole week before I could return home To Toronto, Canada. Working at the time, I pretty well believed what I saw and heard. It wasn't until I retired ten years later that my curiosity caught me thinking. I couldn't fathom a skyscraper, alas, two skyscrapers coming done like two clones because of being hit by big aircraft. Yes, all that smoke also raised many questions. To think that so much smoke did enough damage to buckle a skyscraper of that size seemed impossible. I dug further and concluded that what we've been hearing was totally impossible. Having an engineering background and using material and energy balances, whatever brought those towers down had to be in the order of a nuclear device. Going over original reports again, of which there are many still available, one has to be totally ignorant or stupid not to come to the same conclusion. Whoever did that one is also responsible for the current destruction of our planet through weather manipulations and spraying of toxic materials in the upper atmosphere on a daily basis all over the world. The question is WHO CAN STOP these evil people? Enjoy your forums and please keep up the great work,
Edward
Dubai fire I haven't made a study of the Dubai Hotel fire, but RT said that the OUTSIDE of the building was burning, and the inside was not. How is this possible? Who makes the exterior finish of a high rise out of combustible material? Someone said there were a bunch of 'cookers' outside the building....the kind one would make casual food from. But how would they sustain any sort of a fire? Do they not have a garden hose in Dubai? This whole fire makes no sense at all. It makes me wonder if there even IS a fire. (much like the Mexican Cat 5 hurricane)
My response: It is possible the outside of the building burned, but it is not possible that there is no damage inside. There will be massive repairs needed, the windows had to have all blown out and let the fire in. 18 hours is 18 hours, the Mex press said 18 hours so that is what it is. A facade will not burn for 18 hours, PERIOD and if you hear of shorter burn times I believe this will be done to conceal the fact that there is no way any coating on the outside of the building would keep such a huge span of floors on fire for that long.
IMPORTANT: Trolls are saying the sprinklers saved the day, but 18 hours say there were none and the fire department put this out simply because the fires were all on one side of the building, which allowed them to go floor to floor from the intact half of the building and put the fire out a floor at a time. Normally buildings in the Arab world have no sprinklers, as cute as the buildings may look, such safety features are usually not part of the plan. But trolls expect everyone to think everyone copies what America does ALL THE TIME. NEWS: They DO NOT.
I do not know what that building had in it in the way of sprinklers but I do know this: They were NOT REQUIRED to meet code.
THIS IS AN IMPORTANT CORRECTIONThank you, I did not have time to do this myself:Jim:
This sentence is wrong: " (they already assassinated Minister of Justice for something related to Israel)". It was an Argentinian Prosecutor that was murdered and Macri is set to reopen the case. This prosecutor was Jewish and was investigating the bombing of the Buenos Aires Synagogue, that was possibly a false flag to incriminate Iran, but I'm not sure. The entire issue is very, very fishy.
http://www.asalbuchi.com.ar/pt/2009/10/alberto-nisman-opera-como-fiscal-del-estado-de-israel-en-la-republica-argentina/
Note: Adrian Salbuchi is the top NWO ctitic in Argentina and main investigator-journalist, Happy New Year!
JB
My response: Thank you, I just could not get to that, I knew there was an error but just did not have the time to fix it. Thanks!
At this point, several Mexican internet providers crashed (including mine) and I had to find a cyber cafe that still worked. This meant being forced to use Windows 10. Fat chance the mail window is actually working then. IMPORTANT: From this new computer I never used before, Google Chrome still blocks me from administering this web site, so I had to use Internet Explorer also. HEADS UP ON CHROME, THAT IS A HOAX FAKE CONTROL MECHANISM AND NOT A BROWSER, DITCH IT EVEN IF IT APPEARS TO WORK FOR NOW BECAUSE IF IT TAKES OVER TOTALLY WE WILL DEFINITELY ALL BE DOOMED.UPDATE: THIS CYBER CAFE SESSION GOT HIJACKED WHILE USING WINDOWS 10, ANOTHER "ADMIN" IS NOW ON THIS SERVER.__________________________________________If I come across a way to do it, I am going to take an old brake rotor and throw it in a jet fuel fire with the same type of thermal coating the beams in the WTC had on them, along with a type K thermocouple embedded in the rotor with a live temperature readout, to see if under the most ideal conditions possible it can be brought to the claimed temperatures the MSM trolls are saying the beams in the WTC were brought to in the short time the WTC burned for. Somehow there has to be a way to do a real test of this and that is another pending project.Jan 2 2016This web site gets many times the reads as any forum thread, so I can slay their beasts from here.Many of you know by now that a tower in Dubai burned. American MSM is burying to what extent it burned. The Mexican press did not. The damage was massive, and the fire burned with intensity for a full 18 hours. And I got banned several places for saying it like it was, in contrast to the WTC.Obviously people are now comparing this to the WTC. Here is the ammo you need to kill the trolls, This is a main killing point I never heard covered by anyone, and it has now tripped bans in several places:The WTC did not have bare exposed metal beams. All beams, even those that were and were not covered in concrete as well as fireproofing, had 5/8 inch spray on fireproofing with an R value of 3. An R-value that high would prevent any piece of metal in the WTC from increasing in temperature by more than 25 degrees Celsius even if put directly in a perfect fire for the length of time the fires burned. This is due to the thermal mass of the beams, the heat of the flame, and how well an R value of 3 will block heat. R3 is better than most picnic coolers, which have a typical R-value of 2.5.
The big Achilles heel in the entire 911 ruse that everyone overlooked is that ALL supports in the entire building had fireproof thermal coating on them, and the larger beams had both a very thick thermal coating AND concrete blocking the heat. The large center beams most likely never even had a temperature rise of even 5 degrees in the short time between the jet impacts and the controlled demolition.You should not feed the trolls with the burning temperature of jet fuel and give them the foothold assumption that the beams actually reached that temperature, clearly, obviously, there is no conceivable way they did and it is far more rational to state that due to the fireproofing and the ability of the metal to conduct the heat away from the flames, NO piece of metal anywhere in the WTC got too hot to touch. And even if the fireproofing got scraped off a few of the beams, the beams missing it would not get sufficiently hot in that short of a time, and would have many many others nearby to take the load even if they did. Bash bash and bash the fact home that people were alive standing on the burning floors as well, there was clearly no inferno to begin with, only a smouldering smoky mess.
My mentioning the fact that the fire proofing alone makes the official story a certified ruse is triggering bans, they are deeply afraid of people knowing that, ARCHIVE AND POST!. If you mention this web site or quote text from here or you will get auto banned on most forums now so you have to say it your own way. But however you do it, from now on, don't mention the burning temperature of jet fuel, instead focus on how massive the beams were, and the fact that they had a thermal coating on them that would have prevented them from heating up in any meaningful way at all in such a short time.The jet fuel combustion temperature is their straw man, START RIPPING THE GUTS OUT OF THAT STRAW MAN by constantly referring an R-value of 3, the massiveness of the beams, and the short time the fires burned. Constantly quote "25 degrees Celsius max temperature rise with all factors considered" (in your own words, and circumvent the censor bots by saying 100 degrees, 50 degrees, the real number is approximately 25 degrees but you don't need it that good to make a point,) the key is to get around the censor bots and to stick in everyone's memory that due to the thermal coatings no actual metal could have ever even gotten too hot to touch in such a short time according to the official story.Other good attacks on trolls would be the craters in the basement well after it was all cleaned out, and the melted metal found in the basement. Relentlessly attack the trolls, asking them how jet fuel can melt steel, because all they can do is prove that under ideal combustion circumstances it might weaken it a little but they can't for a minute state it would ever melt. Drill Drill and DRILL HOME the huge pools of melted metal, and ask them how that happened when jet fuel can't do that, and then say, OBVIOUSLY THERE IS MUCH MORE TO THIS STORY THAN ARABS AND JETS, THE COMPLETELY MELTED POOLS OF STEEL PROVE IT. Please dear troll, explain the totally molten metal, all details please!It is actually not 2016 where I am sitting yet, but for much of the world it is, so I might as well change the date now.I have some slack time before the party, so I will throw a few quick things up.
The zika virus post and herbal cures will be put back up on top on the second major work day of the new year, because there will be a peak in traffic then and both of those need exposure. For now:Bruce wrote:As always, thanks for your courageous work on behalf of all of our freedoms.Regarding: "3. Because this image has no driver, it PROVES THEY MURDERED HASTINGS THIS WAY, IT IS BASICALLY CASE CLOSED."
...I disagree based on evidence which I go into in not much depth HERE
There is more and better info on the web confirming this. The car did not crash at speed. Hastings was in the driver's seat, unless they substituted another cadaver.
Keep up the good work, Bruce
My response: Michael Hastings death had many many anomalies, which led many people to conclude many things and sparked a lot of fights. I basically settled for low speed crash and someone torched the car where it sat and that it might not have even been Hasting's car. I never thought a bomb expelled the engine, and instead figured it was dropped as a prop where it was, and after dredging the videos deeply even found one where I'd bet $50 it was Hastings in the crowd watching the car burn.
In the story of Hastings, there is one COLD HARD FACT: We have all been lied to so much that you can be 100 percent proof positive that did not happen the way we were told it did, so in sorting out the lies people will come to different conclusions. There was not as good of an evidence path with Hastings as there was with the San Bernardino shooting, which was easy to sew up in a body bag because obvious definite provable mistakes were made in abundance. There is very little disagreement with San Bernardino simply because they botched it so bad and there was a lot of footage. Hastings will never be agreed on unanimously because there just is not enough definite proof of anything, other than that it is obvious a huge lie was told, wherever the facts may actually fall.
Herbal cures:Anonymous wrote:Medical cures - the western medicine makes one huge error (which you now seem to make too) thinking, that there is one ingredient doing the cure and others just a non-important balast, thinking that two cures with same main ingredient are equivalent... The real cures may depend on specific mixing, making a "tonic", thing that works on both sides (for ex. rising blood presure and meanwhile also lowering blood presure) and the body selects, what is more appropriate from the influences... Search somewhere a "tonicum" - in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbal_tonic they have just two short lines of text, whereas it is a very important term and topic in herbal medicine... Writing this, just so that you will not think, that you can select from an old recipe, what is "important" and what is a "balast", making precisely the same mistake, that western pharmaceuticals made, when "knowing better" but actually removing the propper original balance...
Because the pharmacy error may not be only in making the ingredients chemically instead of using real plants, but also MAY be in selecting only part of the recipe, what they _think_ is important, but removing other parts, that actually modulate the influence and perhaps soften it etc... Really better to consult your medicinemen, what can be removed from their recipes and what may not...
Otherwise good luck revealing the knowledge, and thank you very much for your work...
My response: All formulas will be posted in full to begin with, as I have so far with the first two, to avoid the problems you made note of. One thing I know for certain is that the big pharma cures are nothing but the shell with none of the details, and proof of this is the narrow therapeutic windows in practically all their copies of the real thing. If they nailed it correctly, all the therapeutic windows would be much wider. No doubt even single ingredient natural cures have many many side chemicals they are missing in the pharmaceutical versions. Let me explain what I am talking about with a different fake ingredient topic - food. If you take artificial vanilla and put it in ice cream, you end up with a very plain vanilla taste, because all the artificial vanilla flavor has is the main core flavor. But real vanilla has many many side flavors that make the core flavor far more wholesome, natural vanilla tastes much much better and much more real.
Even when it is a single plant sourced pharmaceutical variant of the real thing, it will be nothing but a fake vanilla version that will be missing all the side characteristics, which could, in the natural version greatly assist the curative/treatment powers. When you add to the fact that yes, with combined herbs it really does become a tonic with symbiotic chemistry going on, it is a guarantee that there is no way a pharmaceutical copy would ever totally nail it. This is why once you go into the medical system and start popping their crappy pills, you are usually trapped for life, because all the side buffering agents in the original are gone, and you have to then take 20 other pills to offset the adverse reactions to the first pill, which simply never happens if you do it right to begin with and go the natural route.
Ok, enough of the preaching, but rest assured - all complete formulas will be posted, and after they get posted I will go back and root out the main actors in each formula. This will be needed, because it might not be possible for people to ever assemble complete formulas with whatever they can get their hands on and it will really help them to know what they positively cannot do without.
Judgedredd wrote From judgedredd: In your cures you don't have the amounts or ratios of each herb to use in relation to the other herbs in the cure/treatment. Isn't this important?
My response: You can get a good idea of what the ratio of each ingredient is by just looking at the very clear pictures of the mix and looking at the pictures of the living plants below each picture of the herbal mix. This is why I am posting such clear pictures. These pictures expand if you click them, they are very clear. I have a lot to do with this, it is not a short term project and I will work out the details as far as precise ratios later.
THIS ONE IS IMPORTANT:Anonymous wrote:Israel has issued a severe threat to Brazil: If they do not accept Israeli Ambassador, there will be severe consequences: "Hotovely added that in the event of Brazil's refusal, there will be a crisis in relations between the two countries, and it is not worth going there. (RT)
That means we can expect their nuclear facility guarded by Israeli security company to go BOOM next or Prime Minister would be assassinated (they already assassinated Minister of Justice for something related to Israel)
MY RESPONSE: TIME FOR ME TO VISIT THE BRAZILIAN EMBASSY WITH THE FUKU REPORT.Debian founder deadGood morning Jim, came across this in my reading this morning, Debian Linux founder Ian Murdock dead at 42, seems suspicious. Wishing you Godspeed in the new year!http://www.theregister.co.uk/2015/12/30/ian_murdock_debian_founder/
My response: This would happen if he planned to try to get a new version of Debian that was secure. Linux can be perfectly secure, but after Bill Gates worked with Novell with SUSE and Ubuntu took on Sudo as something useful, Adios to security! HA, SUDO was written 15 years ago as a test to see if Linux security could be destroyed, and now it is false fronted as a "necessity" and security haven!
I'll tell you what is secure: Learning Linux well enough to BE ROOT, not need a "windows easy" OS and NEVER have any session other than root open with the user owning everything at all times, and NO SUDO on the machine. Root has to give password permission for everything to be done, and if you can just say no, how much better can it be than that? But you really have to know Linux to operate that way . . . . . anyway my last (secure) install was that way, I managed to get rid of Sudo on Ubuntu Hardy Heron and re-write the necessary files to make it work my way and not anyone elses way, but that took a few days, I am lazy, changed machines, don't want to go through that again with a new version, plus I am rightfully paranoid on top of it all so my current machine has no hard drive and I just run live 100 percent of the time. This entire web site is administered by a live OS and nothing else, graphics, coding and all. Try sudoing live, when everything dies on reboot. My only problem is the local stinger . . . . .
Debian won't be dead because open source does not mean "free", it means anyone can keep building the OS, and no doubt that will keep happening. Question is, who will "anyone" be? Perhaps your worst enemy.
Anyway, gotta go . . . HAPPY NEW YEAR!Dec 31 2015Mail once again censored almost completely, but what is news?A few people did get through, asking how much is in the medicinal cures posted farther down this page.Short answer: Enough to make a stiff 12 ounce tea. All of these cures are either boiled or soaked and then drank. There is something in medicine called a therapeutic window. This is the range between the minimum dose that will work, and the maximum dose you should sensibly give. All of the natural cures (for the most part) only have a minimum aspect to the therapeutic window, and it is virtually impossible to overdose. There will be a sensible level with all of these, and to error on the side of "definitely working" I will generally say get it to where the flavor is as much as you can stand and drink 12 ounces. Some of this stuff is downright yucky.All of the cures seem to have one main ingredient that actually does the curing, and additional side ingredients to treat symptoms. So eventually this will all be cataloged out to show what is the most important and what can be skipped.
The topic is a huge one, and will probably take well over a year to cover.
The Zika virus report will remain top posted because it is important, and it is New Years.Dec 30 2015
_________________________________________
23 Year old trucker destroys historic bridge because she did not know how many pounds six tons was!With common core math, calculating the number of pounds in six tons is a twelve thousand step process. No wonder why she made a failed judgment call!
Full story HEREMy opinion: The gas leak in California is not a storySome have compared it to the BP disaster in the gulf. What a joke! If it is, show me the millions of barrels of sludge flowing across the landscape! If the local utility company had not added the stink to the gas prior, no one would know there was a leak. If they want to take care of this leak, all they have to do is set it on fire until they plug it. Perhaps put up a burning man statue and sell tickets. Burning it off would be the best option for everyone.This is just one storage well for one utility company in one state. Whatever. Yep, it is a big one, so what? Some people have hopped on the global warming bandwagon, saying it is doom because methane is 25 times the greenhouse gas CO2 is. Ok, then what about water vapor, which is many times the greenhouse gas methane is? If the methane is doom, the ocean is doom, how much water evaporates from the ocean daily? Sure doom.
Maybe they have to evacuate nearby areas in an abundance of caution. This would not be so if they just torched off the gas. The gas is only 110,000 pounds per hour, as much available excitement that would be contained in two large gasoline trucks, and less than a single railcar. Just torch it off and stand back! And what would have happened to the area if the BP disaster happened there? There would have been an oil volcano coming out of the ground that would have made a fire river, probably all the way to the ocean. Similar disasters? NOT ON YOUR LIFE, someone needs a story.
Click here to continue to older reports
Remote controlled Germanwings Airbus A320 crash? All evidence points to this.SHUT UP OR DIE!Chavez | chiapas earthquake | CIA | Codex Alimentarius |Compartmentalization |contractors | web control |Corevpro | Al Rasheed bombed on purpose!|Rockefeller crack head intellect | Banker Bailout | supplemental benghazi | Bickering Jews |Nuclear Blackmail |The End of the California orange? Probably, Dams drained on purpose
Agenda 21 |BUSTED! |Hacked ECM's | stuxnet cartoon | Cells | cells addendum | CRR busted by Congress | Nibiru | How to deal with tyranny | Debka Psy Op |Deep Water Horizon |They are desperate! | SKP | Separate disinfo |Chinese invasion | Ecuador Snowden | Electronic Intefada | snowden 2 | civilization | Explosives in nuke plant!| Wag the Quake |Farganne snail | Fluoxitil | Fukushima Sabotage click here for updated PDF |NSA KEY | Kokesh CIA | Power grid tampering will end an era|Iranian consulate | gun control | Jenin comments | why I don't link corbett | Digital Stepping in the Aurora Borealis | Hastings| Zombie Apocalypse | 3 watt 3G | 50 plus mpg |Mike Phillips speaks | another antidepressant story | Aboud Church | Jenin bulldozed |antidepressants| Assange | Web site attack |Aurora| Russ Clarke explains 911 for the children |FED GETS THE MESSAGE | 70 MPG | Sandy Hook original coverage | "human" | Substation Attack |INTERCEPTED!! |The Real Iran | Iran bombed | Syria Nuked | FBI whistleblower | Jenin| Jewish Community| FAKE MANIFESTO!! | Masataka Shimizu |.Libraries destroyed | Links | Luciferian | Mails from Japan - the real perspective | The main core |Pornshackles | McCaffee SCAM | Mexico | Micro Nukes | Off the air | A Mexican speaks out | Letter to the Mossad | Fertilizer plant | Uri Avnery | New antidepressant mails | Gas explosion | NO EMT?|NSA Edward | NSA not God | Occupy L.A.!| Pizza shop video FAKE | Stories from Jenin | Executive Order bans tech. | Election stolen | PERPS!!| Persia | Bacteriophages| Photograph the CIA! | Predator Drone | NSA competition | Sydney riots | Syria psy op BUSTED!|PUPPY THROW - arent you proud?|Shaken Baby SCAM!|Meet Rachael Corrie (watch this to the end) | Radar anomaly | Railroaded!|Boston Whistleblower|rigged elections | Nuclear Rogue|Russia playing Snowden games | Sandy Bridge (old version) | Senator Wyden | Here's a good one!|Snowden is the litmus test | V4BL | Tainted Nightmare|Joe did not stack up.|Israel destroys records | Did the U.S. down Sukhoi Superjet? | Real good SHTF advice | Taxation without representation|The Hack | Tomato Freakout | I said this before Snowden! | Joe Vialls 1 | Joe Vialls 2 | Violence? | Meet Nick Vogt | 250 plus! | Mossad nailed! | Nailed again! | COME ON NOW! | Open letter to NSA|When all is lost40 percent! | Amish Allergies | Benghasi psyop fail | Spamhaus weponized | ConEdison thermite | Google Arrogance | No Hesitation | Indianapolis bombing| Mossad caught blowing up Mexican congress! | Oklahoma City | PressTV | Psyapocalypse | Russian comeback | Rockefeller narratives | Haarp and hurricane Sandy|Security tips 3,2,and1 | A shill screws up | Smart Meters, (tip4) | Springfield Bombing| Youtube rigging|Contractor earthquake testimony |
All the problems we face are secondary to what is really a primary biological problem. When the primary biological problem is addressed, the other problems will disappear. The primary problem is parasitic infestation, kill the parasites and problems caused by the parasites disappear. You do not extinguish a fire by collecting the smoke in bags . . .
EuroLand
European Commission to visit Amsterdam | News item | EU2016.nl
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 18:24
News item | 04-01-2016 | 16:36
The European Commission is visiting Amsterdam to mark the start of the Dutch Presidency of the EU Council. On 7 January 2016 Prime Minister Mark Rutte will receive the members of the European Commission at the National Maritime Museum.
Amsterdam as meeting venueFrom 1 January to 1 July 2016, Amsterdam will be the venue for many of the meetings held during the Dutch EU Presidency. The main locations are the National Maritime Museum and the neighbouring historic naval dockyard, the Marine Etablissement Amsterdam (MEA). After the reception with Mr Rutte, the Commissioners will meet the members of the Dutch government. Later that morning Mr Rutte will meet with the President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker in the Europe Building. In various sessions held at the same time, the other members of the government and of the European Commission will engage in talks on issues including employment and growth, climate change and counterterrorism.
Royal meetingIn the afternoon the European Commission will meet with His Royal Highness King Willem-Alexander and Her Majesty Queen Mxima at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam. The visit will end with a joint meeting between the European Commission and members of the Dutch Senate and the House of Representatives.
Dutch EU PresidencyIn 2016 the Netherlands will hold the Presidency for the 12th time. As EU Presidency holder,the Netherlands' guiding principles are a Union that focuses on the essentials, a Union that focuses on growth and jobs through innovation, and a Union that connects policy with citizens and civil society.
NA-Tech News
Facebook's Secret Chat SDK Lets Developers Build Messenger Bots | TechCrunch
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 18:26
M won't be the only artificial intelligence on Facebook Messenger. Facebook has given some developers access to an unannounced Chat SDK that allows them to build interactive experiences and ''bots'' in Messenger for shopping, booking travel, and more, sources with direct knowledge of the SDK confirm.
The Chat SDK allows developers to create bots that users can send text messages to directly and that automatically respond with information, images, location services, product prices, Buy buttons, and more. The Chat SDK can also tap into Messenger built-in payments system to let users make purchases via bots.
Facebook hasn't publicized any of the documentation for the Chat SDK, which is currently being shared with developers through PDF documents. The project is in part led by Facebook Messenger's head of strategic partnerships Bryan Hurren. Facebook declined to comment.
[Update 1/6 10:25am PST: Assist appears to be one of the bots built on the Messenger Chat SDK. Its website's claims that it offer interactive bot functionality on Messenger. When I asked the company about whether it uses the Chat SDK, it's refused to say, writing back ''We are excited to be available on Facebook messenger. We cannot discuss the specifics of the integration.'']
While it's only in limited release right now, the Chat SDK could flourish into a more open platform beyond its early big-name partnership experiments like Uber.
We're just getting people used to the idea that you can message more than just people on Messenger.
'-- Seth Rosenberg, Facebook product managerAt first it might seem odd that Facebook would help developers build Messenger bots that might compete with its own hybrid human/AI assistant. But one of the big goals of M is to differentiate Messenger as a chat app with super powers, and make it what people want to use for everyday communication instead of SMS or other competitors.
By nurturing an ecosystem of chat bots, Facebook could get outside developers to enhance Messenger's value and make it more addictive. That way users stay in Facebook's family of apps, where they're more likely to be exposed to ways Facebook earns money and delivers connection.
The Messenger Chat SDK could get more developers the ability to build bots like Uber's.
The WeChat Of The WestThe concept of lightweight chat-based interfaces for commerce, news, and more was pioneered and popularized in Asia by apps like China's WeChat and Japan's Line. Rather than forcing people to download entire apps for each business or use case, they can simply send messages ''official accounts'' or chat bots inside the instant messaging app they already use all day. These allow you to make purchases with a WeChat-connected payment option, order a taxi, buy movie tickets, pay bills, and more.
These bots and official accounts make accessing added utility not only convenient for the user. Chat app platforms relieve businesses from having to build, popularize, and maintain whole mobile apps for multiple phone operating systems. With so many apps flooding the app stores, getting people to discover them and go through the hassle of installing an app can be tough for businesses. It's much more casual and less daunting for businesses to get users to simply message them.
The more useful features developers and businesses build into Messenger, the stickier it gets. It's a similar strategy to Slack, which formally launched its workplace chat app platform last month.
Facebook previewed customer service over Messenger at F8 last April
Previously Facebook has worked with specific partners to build bot-like integrations for Messenger, but they were rather controlled experiments with big names. We broke the news last year that Facebook would turn Messenger into a platform for full-scale apps like Giphy and PingTank For Messenger, which help users make rich media content to send friends.
But at the launch at Facebook's F8 conference, it also unveiled its Businesses On Messenger platform for allowing companies to offer real-time customer service via chat, plus receipts and ways to change orders. Its initial partnership with Everlane showed customers able to chat with someone to get their shipping address changed, and take care of all the confirmations in the chat thread rather than by email.
Since then, Facebook hasn't talked much about Businesses On Messenger, as focus shifted to the limited launch of then Facebook M assistant. Meanwhile, it built a way for users to get real-time World Series baseball updates from the MLB, and get price quotes on handywork and connect to contractors from Pro.com.
TechCrunch was tipped off about one more curious thing Facebook has done in Messenger. For some users, entering the @ symbol at the start of a message brings up a ''Command'' menu with just one option called ''Holiday Challenge''. It seems Facebook is testing in-line bots similar Telegram and Kik in addition to full-fledged bot accounts built through the SDK.
Useful = AddictiveLast month, Facebook finally showed off the real potential of bots on Messenger with its Uber integration. Tap the Transportation button or an address and select Uber, and you'll start a chat thread with the car service. An interactive panel in the chat lets you set your pickup point, destination, and payment option. You'll then get updates in the thread as the driver approaches, with options to view a map or call the driver.
Bots built with the Messenger Chat SDK will look and work similar to these screenshots. They'll be immediately messageable without having to Friend or Like them. The bots can react to taps on interactive buttons or keywords typed into the thread. Sockets technology will allow them to respond in real-time Rather than seeing M as a competitor to developers' apps, Facebook could use it to test and experiment with what people want and what's possible with bots on Messenger.
Chat As A PortalOn the web, keyword search was the core of the experience. But on mobile, it's become clear that chat is where people spend most of their time. That makes winning the messaging war both a requirement and an opportunity for Facebook.
To stay dominant on phones, it must make Messenger irresistibly useful, and the best way to do that is to augment its own product with bots from developers that offer convenience and utility for every niche use case. If Facebook controls messaging, it controls the portal to commerce and content as well as communication.
Suddenly it makes more sense that Mark Zuckerberg's 2016 challenge to himself is building an artificial intelligence assistant to run his house like Iron Man's Jarvis. ''I'll start teaching it to understand my voice to control everything in our home '-- music, lights, temperature and so on'' he wrote. He too is building a bot that responds to natural language.
Before the Uber integration launch, Facebook Product Manager Seth Rosenberg told TechCrunch ''We're just getting people used to the idea that you can message more than just people on Messenger.'' The Chat SDK could bring those people more to message.
The End Of Apps As We Know Them - Inside Intercom
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 19:35
The experience of our primary mobile screen being a bank of app icons that lead to independent destinations is dying. And that changes what we need to design and build.
How we experience content via connected devices '' laptops, phones, tablets, wearables '' is undergoing a dramatic change. The idea of an app as an independent destination is becoming less important, and the idea of an app as a publishing tool, with related notifications that contain content and actions, is becoming more important. This will change what we design, and change our product strategy.
No more screens full of app iconsThis is such a paradigm shift it requires plenty of explaining. Whilst it may not transpire exactly as I'm about to describe, there is no doubt what we have today '-- screens of apps '-- is going to dramatically change. Bear with me as I run through the context.
The idea of having a screen full of icons, representing independent apps, that need to be opened to experience them, is making less and less sense. The idea that these apps sit in the background, pushing content into a central experience, is making more and more sense. That central experience may be something that looks like a notification centre today, or something similar to Google Now, or something entirely new.
The primary design pattern here is cards. Critically it's not cards as a simple interaction design pattern for an apps content, but as containers for content that can come from any app. This distinction may appear subtle at first glance, but it's far from it. To understand it, and chart the trajectory, we need to quickly run through two things.
Designing systems not destinationsI covered this topic in detail in a previous post, so I'll quickly summarise here. Most of us building software are no longer designing destinations to drive people to. That was the dominant pattern for a version of the Internet that is disappearing fast. In a world of many different screens and devices, content needs to be broken down into atomic units so that it can work agnostic of the screen size or technology platform. For example, Facebook is not a website or an app. It is an eco-system of objects (people, photos, videos, comments, businesses, brands, etc.) that are aggregated in many different ways through people's newsfeeds, timelines and pages, and delivered to a range of devices, some of which haven't even been invented yet. So Facebook is not a set of webpages, or screens in an app. It's a system of objects, and relationships between them.
Recent changes to iOS and Android notificationsThings changed with iOS 8 and Android KitKat. Notifications used to be signposts to go to other places. A notification to tell you to open an app. To open a destination.
But that is changing fast. For a while now, you can take action directly in Android notifications. Sometimes that takes you to that action in the app itself, but sometimes you can do the action directly, meaning that you don't need to open the app at all.
iOS is following suit here and raising the bar. Interactive notifications. No need to open the app. The notification is the full experience.
The next version of Android takes this even further, breaking notifications into independent cards. You can see that cards stack below each other.
We've moved pretty quickly from notifications as signposts, to containers (cards) that include content, and actions on that content.
Next up: cards housing full product experiencesThe next iteration is obvious. Lots and lots of notification cards that enable full product experiences and independent workflows right inside the card. Comment on the Facebook post. Retweet the tweet. Buy the item on Amazon. Check in for the flight. Share the news story. Add the reminder to your to-do list. Book the restaurant. Swap the fantasy football player. Annotate the run you just finished. Pay the bill. And on and on.
Towards apps as servicesBreaking things right down into the individual atomic unit, including the content and actions. The atomic unit separate from the container of the app itself, so that it can show up anywhere, on any device. The atomic units are then reassembled based on context. Aggregated in a centralised stream. Or pushed to you on your watch.
The content may be reformatted to enable more natural user input, optimized for your situation. Des sent me a text based message, but I'm driving so my watch reads it out to me. I speak my reply to Siri/Google and Des receives it as a text based message, because he's in work at his desk. The actions available change. All this and more is just about to happen.
It may be very likely that the primary interface for interacting with apps will not be the app itself. The app is primarily a publishing tool. The number one way people use your app is through this notification layer, or aggregated card stream. Not by opening the app itself.
In a world where notifications are full experiences in and of themselves, the screen of app icons makes less and less sense. Apps as destinations makes less and less sense. Why open the Facebook app when you can get the content as a notification and take action '-- like something, comment on something '-- right there at the notification or OS level. I really believe screens of apps won't exist in a few years, other than buried deep in the device UI as a secondary navigation.
A concept design to make this concreteThis is such a fundamental shift that to highlight where it may go, I'll start with a rough system design for how one might interact with a connected device in this world.
'' Imagine a vertical stream of cards, individually personalised and ranked based on who and what you care about, your current context (location, availability, etc.) and your likelihood to care about things based on historical data when you were in a similar context.
'' The cards can come from any source that you care about or have given permission to.
'' This looks a lot like Google Now, but on steroids. You will have almost as many unique sources in your stream as you have apps on your phone.
'' This also looks a lot like your notifications centre on your phone, but rather than merely signposts to open apps, these cards are notifying you, presenting you with the content to decide what to do next, and with the ability to interact with the content right there and then. So a card from Facebook has all the actions you would have for that content if you viewed it in the Facebook app. Like, comment, share, save, etc. all inline, with no need to open the Facebook app. Cards from travel apps allow you to book, cards from commerce apps allow you to buy, the list is endless.
This is the beginning of the end for apps as destinations. Why open the app when you don't need to? Let's take this a step further.
Imagine that you can scroll horizontally, and that shows you more content from the same source. So on a Facebook post, that is effectively your newsfeed presented horizontally rather than vertically.
This would be the same for all sources, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, news apps, etc. And of course on all devices.
OK now let's go a step further again.
Imagine that a parent card can support a child card, so for example a Facebook card can support (embed) a card from the BBC. Indeed something similar already exists with Twitter.
This is also a little similar to the recently launched Apple Extensions, and is already happening in app development in China with Baidu and WeChat, where smaller apps are being bundled within bigger apps, only surfacing when some interaction in the UI invokes the smaller app. For example, in Baidu Maps you can find a hotel, check room availability, and make a booking, all inside the app.
But again the apparent subtlety masks something much more profound. Embedded cards (child cards) within cards (parent cards) also mean you don't need to install the app to experience the content from the child card. You just need the parent card app on your device. Again, this is already happening, Twitter cards currently support Stripe payments inside the card. You don't need the New York Times app to see their content on Twitter. But imagine this pattern was widespread. Suddenly app developers have a powerful discovery channel. And some businesses may be comfortable always appearing as a child card, without ever having an app at all.
One final step further. What if the cards came from other things? Like vending machines that you walk up to and pay through the card? Hotels you walk into and order your breakfast or pay for the wifi?
The ramifications for websites might also be huge. If a publishing company, for example the New York Times, can push content to cards, and those cards can be seen in many different third party places (with revenue sharing agreements) why bother having a website at all? It's just a huge overhead.
We will still open apps. SometimesIn this world, it feels dumb to open apps just to see what lies behind the red counter, or to have to switch between apps. Opening apps is still necessary and great for many contexts, especially composition of new content and dedicated deep workflows, and maybe changing preferences. But not for seeing what's new and interesting. A bank of app icons as a dominant design pattern feels old and inefficient now, and I think it'll disappear within a couple of years, correctly relegated behind a ''show me my apps'' action.
The system will learn, creating new competitorsAs people interact or don't interact with cards presented to them, the system will learn when to show more or less from a specific source (app). As content from different apps will be presented side by side, this changes who you might think you are competing with. Competition is between products that do the same job, not products that are in the same category. This is already the case today; when faced with multiple notifications on a phone screen, they all compete with each other for your attention.
Here at Intercom, we're big proponents of the Jobs To Be Done (JTBD) framework, which asks what Job people need to get done that your product fulfills. If you focus purely on the job, and not the industry, you realise airlines selling business class seats are competing with Skype for customers, as they address the same job: the need to have clear communication with colleagues.
Similarly, apps will realise they are competing on Jobs they may not have realised their product addresses. Twitter for example, may be competing much more with apps addressing the Job of 'entertain me while I have a short amount of free time' e.g. Games and News apps, than with other social products.
This intense competition means businesses will have to spend time designing great notifications/cards, because they will potentially be competing with cards from Facebook, or Amazon, or Google. The days of sending lots and lots of notifications to bring people back to an app are going away, with a much better focus on designing notifications that people engage with there and then, independent of opening the app.
Three critical questionsThere are many signs pointing towards a near future that looks something like this. But many questions remain '-- these are three that I have no answers for:
Will this happen at the app, notification, or OS level?One of the biggest challenges will be whether these experiences will occur:
at an app level (like an evolution of Google Now),at a notification level (an evolution of the Android or iOS notification centre),or at the root OS level (a redesigned iOS for example that removes the sea of app icons).Will this be one consolidated stream, or multiple streams?Maybe we will have a friends stream, a news stream, a work stream.
Will this be owned at a company level?Maybe there will be a Google version, an Apple version, etc. Or more open systems that are interoperable across platforms (like the web itself), the first of which (like Wildcard and Citia) are being built now, could come to dominate.
Towards better businesses and productsThis is just a sketch but at a conceptual level I think it's largely where we are headed. Large parts of this are built already; things like Google Now, Android notifications, iOS8 interactive notifications, iOS8 extensions, Twitter cards. Emerging platforms like Android Wear and Apple Watch are confirming these trends towards cards that work as notifications, content and actions.
There are also a multitude of user benefits:
This new paradigm matches much more closely with how real life works. We don't live our lives in silos, like the app silos that exist today. People start to forget about ''apps'' and just think about businesses and products and services. This is a great thing, the container for content should be invisible to users.
This new paradigm also solves a critical problem around volume of incoming content. Navigating to lots of apps is so inefficient. A new problem emerging is an overwhelming volume of notifications. Things will need to be ranked, which will make them more manageable. It's also a better experience, apps maximising their usefulness in a quick lightweight fashion rather than dominating your attention in a slow heavyweight app-oriented experience.
The constraint of an individual card also makes you think about the most important thing you could show, and only the most important actions relating to that. That constraint is very powerful.
For businesses, it also starts to solve the app discoverability problem. Rather than relying on App Store promotion, advertising, or new deep in app linking to get discovered, an apps content can appear as a card in our stream, particularly when embedded in a parent card. Indeed there may not be a child app, the content and actions in that child card may come from the web.
This paradigm shift also starts to ask questions of the bundle or unbundle dilemma (btw both are happening now, it's not just unbundling). Maybe in this world you can have your cake (unbundled simple focused one task experiences) and eat it too (bundled into a coherent individual stream). A deliberately designed eco system of cards where cards are simple, but can carry information and context from other cards you build.
5 key take awaysThese patterns reinforce two things we wrote about here on Inside Intercom early in their development. That cards are the future of the web, and designers need to design systems not destinations. Cards are happening. Systems are happening. Get fully up to speed on both of these things.Responsive design is a nice thing, but we're heading way beyond that. We're talking about designing content that may appear on an incomprehensible number of devices and in an incomprehensible number of situations. This will need new design principles, new ways of thinking about researching context. Push forward with this yourself, don't wait for it to happen.Designing the notifications, and the actions within them, will become an increasingly important part of product design. We will need to spend as much of our time on this aspect of the experience, as on the experiences within the app. Change how you think and work now, rather than when it is too late. Sketch systems, not screens.Think about who you might integrate with. Integrations as part of a product strategy are increasing, witness the explosion in available APIs, Webhooks and the emergence of services like Zapier and IFTTT. Integrations make things possible that you could never do alone. They give you access to new audiences. Make integrations part of your business plan, product strategy, and product design.I carry around both an iPhone and an Android phone. I often also have my iPad Mini. I wear a Nike Fuelband. I've tried Google Glass whenever I can (in private ;-)). When I can I'll buy an Apple Watch. We all need to dive headfirst into this, eyes open, trying to see what works and fails, trial and error.If you made it this far, thanks for reading. Whilst the trajectories seem clear, much is unknown, we'll all figure this out together. So please let us know your feedback, thoughts, ideas below, and we'll do our best to respond and keep the conversation moving forward.
Update: Read our follow up piece: It's not the end of apps.
There are many other people writing about these things and I'm indebted to them for sharing their thinking. Here are some key articles if you want to read more:
Thanks also to my colleagues at Intercom for contributing to this and making it much much better.
Like what you read here? Why not come and work with us? We're hiring for roles in Dublin and San Francisco.
Want to read our product management best practices? Download our free book, Intercom on Product Management. It's recommended by folks like Ryan Singer, Hunter Walk, and Dharmesh Shah.
Small Batch
FDA Finds Majority of Herbal Supplements at GNC, Walmart, Walgreens, And Target Don't Contain What They Claim '' Instead Cheap Fillers Like Wheat And Soy Powder - Healthy Food House
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 14:38
Echinacea
No echinacea or plant material was found in the supplementSaw Palmetto
Garlic and rice were found in the productSome samples contained small amounts of saw palmettoGinseng
No ginseng detectedInstead, rice, dracaena, pine, wheat/grass and citrus were found in the supplementGingko Biloba
No gingko Biloba found in the dietary supplementInstead, the product included rice, dracaena, mustard, wheat and radishSt. John's Wort
No St. John's Wort foundDetected garlic, rice and cassavaGarlic
One sample showed small amounts of garlicThe product included rice, pine, palm, dracaena and wheatProducts By Walgreens, Finest Nutrition brand
Echinacea
No echinacea detectedThey found garlic, rice and daisySaw Palmetto
Ginseng
No ginseng foundDetected garlic and riceGingko Biloba
No gingko Biloba detectedRice was found in the productSt. John's Wort
No St. John's Wort foundDetected garlic, rice and dracaenaGarlic
No garlic foundDetected palm, dracaena, wheat and riceProducts by GNC, Herbal Plus brand:
Echinacea
No echinacea foundrice found in some samplesSaw Palmetto
One sample contained the clear presence of palmettoOther samples contained a variety of ingredients, including rice, asparagus, and primroseGinseng
No ginseng founddetected rice, dracaena, pine, wheat/grass and citrusGingko Biloba:
No gingko Biloba foundDid detect allium (garlic), rice, spruce and asparagusSt. John's Wort
No St. John's Wort founddetected allium (garlic), rice and dracaena (a tropical houseplant)Garlic
Products By Target, Up & Up brand
Echinacea
Most, but not all tests detected EchinaceaOne test identified rice in the contentSaw Palmetto
Most tests detected saw palmettoSome tests found no plant DNAValerian Root
No valerian root foundDetected asparagus, pea family, rice, wild carrot, allium, bean, and saw palmettoGingko Biloba
No gingko Biloba detectedFound garlic, rice and mung/French beanSt. John's Wort
No St. John's Wort foundFound garlic, rice and dracaena (houseplant)Garlic
Contained garlicOne test identified no DNAREAD More GNC, Target, Wal-Mart, Walgreens accused of selling adulterated 'herbals'
Sources/References:livingtraditionally.comcomplete-health-and-happiness.comOther included sources linked in Living Traditionally's article: well.blogs.nytimes.com -- Original Article Source
Agenda 2030
France Declares All New Rooftops Must Be Topped With Plants Or Solar Panels | CSGlobe
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 19:44
A new law recently passed in France mandates that all new buildings that are built in commercial zones in France must be partially covered in either plants or solar panels.
Green roofs, as they are called, have an isolating effect which helps to reduce the amount of energy needed to heat a building during the winter or cool it in the summer. They are capable of retaining rainwater and reducing problems with runoff, and also offer birds a place to call home in the urban jungle.
French environmental activists originally wanted to pass a law that would make the green roofs cover the entire surface of all new roofs.
However, partially covered roofs make for a great start, and are still a huge step in the right direction.
Some say the law that was passed is actually better, as it gives the business owners a chance to install solar panels to help provide the buildings with renewable energy, thereby leaving even less of a footprint.
Green roofs are already very popular in Germany and Australia, as well as Canada's city of Toronto! This by-law was adopted in 2009, by the city of Toronto which mandated green roofs on all new industrial and residential buildings.
See also: This Woman's Documentary Of Air Pollution Goes Viral In China, Gets Banned By The Government
Benefits of Green RoofsThere are so many benefits to green roofs. Here are just a few:
Adding natural beauty and major aesthetic improvement to buildings, which in turn increases the investment opportunity.Helping contribute to landfill diversion by prolonging the life of waterproofing membranes, using recycled materials, and prolonging the service of heating, ventilation, and HVAC systems through decreased use.Green roofs assist with storm water management because water is stored by the substrate, then taken up by plants, and thus returned to the atmosphere through transpiration and evaporation. They also retain rainwater and moderate the temperature of the water and act as natural filters for the water that does run off. They delay the time at which runoff occurs, which results in decreased stress on sewer systems during peak periods.The plants on green roofs do a great job of capturing airborne pollutants and other atmospheric deposition. They can also filter noxious gasses.They open up new areas for community gardens, commercial and recreational space in busy cities where this space is generally quite limited.France is definitely on the right track, but it should be a mandate that all new buildings being built in North America, and even worldwide, adopt this amazing idea to reap all of the potential benefits.
See also: Ideas on raising environmentally-conscious kids
CLIPS AND DOCS
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this._isBuffering},isPlaying:function(){return this._isPlayActionQueued||this._isPlaying},isLoading:function(){return!!this.controller&&this.controller.getState()===d.States.LOADING},toggleMute:function(e){r.toggleMute(e)},isMuted:function(){return r.isMuted()},setVolume:function(e){r.setVolume(e)},getVolume:function(){return r.getVolume()},logAudioPerformance:function(){},getAudioManagerStates:function(){return d.States},getId:function(){return this.options.resourceId||this.options.soundId}}),s.extend(r,{extend:s.inherits,getSettings:function(){return m},setSettings:function(e){s.extend(m,e)},setAudioManager:function(e){d=e,e&&(r.AudioManagerStates=e.States,this.toggleMute(m.muted),this.setVolume(m.volume))},toggleMute:function(e){m.muted=e===undefined?!m.muted:!!e,d&&d.setVolume(m.muted?0:1)},isMuted:function(){return m.muted},setVolume:function(e){m.volume=e===undefined?1:e,d&&d.setVolume(m.volume)},getVolume:function(){return m.volume},Extensions:l,Protocols:h,Events:f,BUFFER_DELAY:w,PLAY_REGISTRATION_TIMEOUT:E})}),t("scaudio")})}), define("vendor/i18n/lib/datetime",["require","exports","module"],function(e,t,n){function f(e,t){function f(t,n,r){if(t instanceof Date){r=r||Date.now();var i=r-t,s=i>0,o,a=null,f,l,c=e.relativeTime;n=n&&parseInt(n,10)||1e3,i=Math.abs(i);if(i0&&o.push(l.hour(u)),a>0&&o.push(l.min(a)),(f>0||a===0&&u===0)&&o.push(l.sec(f)),o.join(" ")):(u>0&&o.push(u),n&&n.minimal&&u===0&&a===0?o.push(""):o.push(a0?"0"+a:a),o.push(f23||r>59)return;if(i)if(i==="p"){if(n13)return}else if(i==="a")if(n===12)n=0;else if(n>12)return;return r||(r=0),[n,r]}function v(){var e=new Date(2009,0,1,6,0,0),t=new Date(2009,6,1,6,0,0),n;return n=e.getUTCHours()>t.getUTCHours()?e.getTimezoneOffset():t.getTimezoneOffset(),n}function m(e){if(e.offset==null)return{};var t=new Date,n,r;return g(t,e.resolution),n=+(new Date(+t+e.offset*a[e.resolution])),r=+(new 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define("vendor/i18n/locales/en",["require","exports","module"],function(e,t,n){function i(e,t){return function(t){return e[r.pluralForm(t)].replace(/%d/i,t)}}var r={delimiters:{thousands:",",decimal:"."},relativeTime:{justNow:"Just now",rightNow:"Right now",future:"in %s",past:"%s",sec:i(["1 second","%d seconds"]),min:i(["1 minute","%d minutes"]),hour:i(["1 hour","%d hours"]),day:i(["1 day","%d days"]),month:i(["1 month","%d months"]),year:i(["1 year","%d years"])},dateFormats:{readable:"DD MMMM YYYY",readableTime:"DD MMMM YYYY HH:mm",readableAbbreviated:"MMM DD, YYYY",readableWithWeekday:"DDDD, DD MMMM 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r={delimiters:{thousands:".",decimal:","},relativeTime:{justNow:"Agora a pouco",rightNow:"Agora a pouco",future:"em %s",past:"%s",sec:i(["1 segundo","%d segundos"]),min:i(["1 minuto","%d minutos"]),hour:i(["1 hora","%d horas"]),day:i(["1 dia","%d dias"]),month:i(["1 mªs","%d meses"]),year:i(["1 ano","%d anos"])},dateFormats:{readable:"DD MMMM YYYY",readableTime:"DD MMMM YYYY HH:mm",readableAbbreviated:"MMM DD, YYYY",readableWithWeekday:"DDDD, DD MMMM YYYY","default":"DD/MM/YYYY"},dates:{months:["Janeiro","Fevereiro","Mar§o","Abril","Maio","Junho","Julho","Agosto","Setembro","Outubro","Novembro","Dezembro"],monthsShort:["Jan","Fev","Mar","Abr","Mai","Jun","Jul","Ago","Set","Out","Nov","Dez"],weekdays:["Domingo","Segunda-Feira","Ter§a-Feira","Quarta-Feira","Quinta-Feira","Sexta-Feira","Sbado"],shortWeekdays:["Dom","Seg","Ter","Qua","Qui","Sex","Sb"],minWeekdays:["Dom","Seg","Ter","Qua","Qui","Sex","Sb"]},d3:{grouping:[3],currency:["$",""],dateTime:"%A, %e de %B de %Y. 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YYYY","default":"DD/MM/YYYY"},dates:{months:["janvier","f(C)vrier","mars","avril","mai","juin","juillet","ao>>t","septembre","octobre","novembre","d(C)cembre"],monthsShort:["janv.","f(C)vr.","mars","avr.","mai","juin","juil.","ao>>t","sept.","oct.","nov.","d(C)c."],weekdays:["dimanche","lundi","mardi","mercredi","jeudi","vendredi","samedi"],shortWeekdays:["dim.","lun.","mar.","mer.","jeu.","ven.","sam."],minWeekdays:["Di","Lu","Ma","Me","Je","Ve","Sa"]},d3:{grouping:[3],currency:["$",""],dateTime:"%A, le %e %B %Y, %X",date:"%d/%m/%Y",time:"%H:%M:%S",periods:["AM","PM"]},datePicker:{closeText:"Fermer",prevText:"Pr(C)c(C)dent",nextText:"Suivant",currentText:"Aujourd'hui",weekHeader:"Sem.",dateFormat:"dd/mm/yy",firstDay:1,isRTL:!1,showMonthAfterYear:!1,yearSuffix:""},pluralForm:function(e){return e>1?1:0}};n.exports=r}), define("vendor/i18n/locales/es",["require","exports","module"],function(e,t,n){function i(e,t){return function(t){return e[r.pluralForm(t)].replace(/%d/i,t)}}var r={delimiters:{thousands:".",decimal:","},relativeTime:{justNow:"Ahora mismo",rightNow:"Ahora mismo",future:"dans %s",past:"%s",sec:i(["1 segundo","%d segundos"]),min:i(["1 minuto","%d minutos"]),hour:i(["1 hora","%d horas"]),day:i(["1 d­a","%d d­as"]),month:i(["1 mes","%d meses"]),year:i(["1 a±o","%d a±os"])},dateFormats:{readable:"DD MMMM YYYY",readableTime:"DD MMMM YYYY HH:mm",readableAbbreviated:"DD MMM YYYY",readableWithWeekday:"DDDD, DD MMMM YYYY","default":"DD/MM/YYYY"},dates:{months:["Enero","Febrero","Marzo","Abril","Mayo","Junio","Julio","Agosto","Septiembre","Octubre","Noviembre","Diciembre"],monthsShort:["Ene","Feb","Mar","Abr","May","Jun","Jul","Ago","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dic"],weekdays:["Domingo","Lunes","Martes","Mi(C)rcoles","Jueves","Viernes","Sbado"],shortWeekdays:["Dom.","Lun.","Mar.","Mi(C).","Jue.","Vie.","Sb."],minWeekdays:["Do","Lu","Ma","Mi","Ju","Vi","S"]},d3:{grouping:[3],currency:["$",""],dateTime:"%A, %e de %B de %Y, %X",date:"%d/%m/%Y",time:"%H:%M:%S",periods:["AM","PM"]},datePicker:{closeText:"Cerrar",prevText:"Ant",nextText:"Sig",currentText:"Hoy",weekHeader:"Sm",dateFormat:"dd/mm/yy",firstDay:1,isRTL:!1,showMonthAfterYear:!1,yearSuffix:""},pluralForm:function(e){return e!==1?1:0}};n.exports=r}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-en-gb.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"","Refresh the page to try again.":"","We can't find this page.":"","We can't find this sound.":"","We can't find this playlist.":"","We can't find this user.":"","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"","Connect with Facebook friends.":"","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"","Your profile":"","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit ourCreator Guide.':"","Your tracks.":"","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.',"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]",Messages:"Messages","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Go Pro","Search tracks":"Search tracks","Search playlists":"Search playlists","Search people":"Search people","Search groups":"Search groups","Search [[category]]":"Search [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"Unsubscribed successfully","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.","[[username]]'s stream":"[[username]]'s stream","1 hour":["1 hour","%d hours"],"1 minute":["1 minute","%d minutes"],"1 second":["1 second","%d seconds"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.",Close:"Close","1 track":["1 track","%d tracks"],"1 play":["1 play","%d plays"],"1 follower":["1 follower","%d followers"],"Download on the App Store":"Download on the App Store","Get it on Google Play":"Get it on Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Get it at BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Available at Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Get it in the Firefox Marketplace","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"Listen on SoundCloud iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"Listen on SoundCloud Android","Download our free app":"Download our free app",Retry:"Retry","Terms of use":"Terms of use",Legal:"Legal","Privacy policy":"Privacy policy",Privacy:"Privacy","Cookies policy":"Cookies policy",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Company information",Imprint:"Imprint","People directory":"",Directory:"Directory","SoundCloud homepage":"SoundCloud homepage","Hear the world's sounds":"Hear the world's sounds","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Trending tracks on SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"","Our app works best on mobile":"",Like:["Like","Likes"],Cancel:"Cancel","Select your language":"Select your language","Language:":"Language:","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"","Go to Messages":"Go to Messages","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"","Open or get the app":"","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"","Review your email subscriptions at":"Review your email subscriptions at","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"Results for: [[generatedSummary]]",back:"","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.","Play or pause track":"Play or pause track","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Become a SoundCloud Pro","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.","Stats with more data.":"Stats with more data.","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.","More upload time.":"More upload time.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"","More control.":"More control.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"",All:"All",Tracks:"Tracks",Playlists:"Playlists",People:"People","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"","Search SoundCloud":"Search SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Find people, tracks and playlists","You have successfullychanged your password.":"","Reposted by [[username]]":"Reposted by [[username]]","Now playing":"","Previous track":"Previous track","Next track":"Next track","1 Like":"","We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"",Spotlight:"Spotlight",Track:["Track","Tracks"],"Show more tracks":"Show more tracks",Playlist:"","Show more playlists":"Show more playlists","Show more likes":"Show more likes","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Sign in to SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"Download our free app"}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-es.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"Parece que algo no funciona bien.","Refresh the page to try again.":"Actualiza la pgina para intentarlo de nuevo.","We can't find this page.":"No se encuentra esta pgina.","We can't find this sound.":"No se encuentra esta pista.","We can't find this playlist.":"No se encuentra esta lista.","We can't find this user.":"No se encuentra este usuario.","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"Sube tu mºsica y audio para compartirlos con el mundo.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"Solo se pueden subir sonidos en navegadores de escritorio.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"Vuelve cuando est(C)s en el ordenador para subir ms pistas.","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"Mºsica del momento en SoundCloud.","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"Explorar solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"Tambi(C)n puedes descargar nuestra aplicaci"n m"vil para descubrir audio y mºsica del momento en cualquier lugar. Y lo mejor es que podrs seguir escuchando todas las novedades desde la aplicaci"n.","Connect with Facebook friends.":"Conecta con tus amigos de Facebook.","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"Solo puedes conectarte en navegadores de escritorio.","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"Quieres conectarte con tus amigos de Facebook o seguir a ms gente? Esta funci"n solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"Vuelve cuando est(C)s en el ordenador para encontrar a ms gente a la que seguir.","Your profile":"Tu perfil","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gesti"n de tu cuenta solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obtener ms informaci"n sobre la optimizaci"n de tu perfil, visita nuestra Gu­a para creadores.',"Your tracks.":"Tus pistas.","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gesti"n de tus pistas solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"Vuelve cuando est(C)s en el ordenador para editar, compartir y a±adir pistas a listas.",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obtener ms informaci"n, visita la Gu­a para creadores.',"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Disfruta de esta pista en cualquier lugar y vive al mximo la experiencia SoundCloud con nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] de [[authorName]]",Messages:"Mensajes","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Disfruta de esta lista en cualquier lugar y vive al mximo la experiencia SoundCloud con nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] de [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Hazte Pro","Search tracks":"Buscar pistas","Search playlists":"Buscar listas","Search people":"Buscar gente","Search groups":"Buscar grupos","Search [[category]]":"Buscar [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"Suscripci"n anulada correctamente","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"S(C) el primero en escuchar las nuevas publicaciones de [[username]] con nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita.","[[username]]'s stream":"Stream de [[username]]","1 hour":["1 hora","%d horas"],"1 minute":["1 minuto","%d minutos"],"1 second":["1 segundo","%d segundos"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Vive al mximo la experiencia SoundCloud con nuestra aplicaci"n.",Close:"Cerrar","1 track":["1 pista","%d pistas"],"1 play":["1 reproducci"n","%d reproducciones"],"1 follower":["1 seguidor","%d seguidores"],"Download on the App Store":"Descargar en el App Store","Get it on Google Play":"Obtener en Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Obtener en BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Disponible en Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Obtener en Firefox Marketplace","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"Escuchar en SoundCloud iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"Escuchar en SoundCloud Android","Download our free app":"Descarga nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita",Retry:"Int(C)ntalo de nuevo","Terms of use":"Condiciones de uso",Legal:"Legal","Privacy policy":"Pol­tica de privacidad",Privacy:"Privacidad","Cookies policy":"Pol­tica de cookies",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Informaci"n de la empresa",Imprint:"SoundCloud Ltd.","People directory":"Directorio de gente",Directory:"Directorio","SoundCloud homepage":"Pgina de inicio de SoundCloud","Hear the world's sounds":"Escucha las pistas del mundo","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Pistas del momento en SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Obt(C)n nuestra aplicaci"n para Android para guardar esta pista en tus Me gusta, crear listas y ms.","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Obt(C)n nuestra aplicaci"n para iPhone para guardar esta pista en tus Me gusta, crear listas y ms.","Our app works best on mobile":"Nuestra aplicaci"n funciona mejor en dispositivos m"viles",Like:["Me gusta","Me gusta"],Cancel:"Cancelar","Select your language":"Selecciona tu idioma","Language:":"Idioma:","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"Los mensajes soloson compatibles en navegadores de escritorio","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"Puede que las pginas no se muestren correctamenteen navegadores para m"viles.","Go to Messages":"Ir a Mensajes","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"SoundCloud para m"vilessolo est disponible como aplicaci"n.","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"Descrgala o brela ahorapara usar SoundCloud entu dispositivo.","Open or get the app":"Hazte con la aplicaci"n o brela.","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"Lamentamos que te marches.","Review your email subscriptions at":"Consulta tus suscripciones de correo en","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"Resultados de: [[generatedSummary]]",back:"atrs","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"No quieres aparecer en los resultados? Visita la versi"n de esta pgina para escritorio para que no te incluyamos.","Play or pause track":"Reproducir o pausar la pista","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Psate a SoundCloud Pro","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"Ms de 175 millones de personas escuchan SoundCloud cada mes. Obt(C)n las herramientas que necesitas para compartir tu mºsica y ampliar tu pºblico.","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"Solo es posible comprar un plan Pro desde un ordenador.","Stats with more data.":"Estad­sticas con ms datos.","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"Las estad­sticas de Pro presentan los datos que necesitas para planificar tus nuevos lanzamientos, conectar con tus seguidores ms fieles y desarrollar tu carrera.","More upload time.":"Ms tiempo de subida.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"Dobla tu tiempo de subida con una suscripci"n Pro o adquiere almacenamiento ilimitado para tus pistas, lbumes, proyectos y trabajos anteriores con Pro Unlimited.","More control.":"Ms control.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"Fija pistas y listas en la parte superior de tu perfil con Spotlight, y activa o desactiva los comentarios y las estad­sticas pºblicas mediante el Modo silencioso. Con el nivel Pro, tendrs todo el control sobre tus pistas y tus listas.","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"Entra en [[[link]]] desde tu ordenador para pasarte hoy mismo a SoundCloud Pro.",All:"Todo",Tracks:"Pistas",Playlists:"Listas",People:"Gente","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"La bºsqueda no da resultados.","Search SoundCloud":"Buscar en SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Buscar gente, pistas y listas","You have successfullychanged your password.":"Has cambiado tu contrase±acorrectamente.","Reposted by [[username]]":"Republicado por [[username]]","Now playing":"Reproducci"n en curso","Previous track":"Pista anterior","Next track":"Pista siguiente","1 Like":["1 Me gusta","%d Me gusta"],"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"La pista no est disponible para dispositivos m"viles.",Spotlight:"Spotlight",Track:["Pista","Pistas"],"Show more tracks":"Mostrar ms pistas",Playlist:["Lista","Listas"],"Show more playlists":"Mostrar ms listas","Show more likes":"Mostrar otros me gusta","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Iniciar sesi"n en SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"Descarga nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita"}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-fr.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"Il semble y avoir un probl¨me","Refresh the page to try again.":"Actualisez la page pour r(C)essayer.","We can't find this page.":"Cette page est introuvable","We can't find this sound.":"Ce titre est introuvable.","We can't find this playlist.":"Cette playlist est introuvable.","We can't find this user.":"Cet utilisateur est introuvable.","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"T(C)l(C)chargez vos pistes audio et musicales et partagez-les avec le monde entier.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"Uploader est pris en charge sur les navigateurs d'ordinateur de bureau uniquement.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"R(C)essayez lorsque vous utiliserez votre ordinateur pour uploader plus de titres.","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"Musique en vogue sur SoundCloud.","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"La fonction d'exploration est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"Vous pouvez (C)galement t(C)l(C)charger notre application mobile pour d(C)couvrir les tendances en mati¨re de musique et de titres audio pendant vos d(C)placements. L'avantage est que vous pouvez toujours (C)couter des titres en vogue avec l'application mobile","Connect with Facebook friends.":"Restez en contact avec vos amis Facebook.","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"La fonction Connect est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"Vous souhaitez rester en contact avec vos amis Facebook ou trouver de nouvelles personnes suivre ? Cette fonction est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"R(C)essayez lorsque vous utiliserez votre ordinateur pour trouver d'autres personnes suivre.","Your profile":"Votre profil","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gestion de votre compte est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit our Creator Guide.':"Pour plus d'informations sur l'optimisation de votre profil, consultez notre Guide de l'auteur.","Your tracks.":"Vos titres.","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gestion de vos titres est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"R(C)essayez lorsque vous utiliserez votre ordinateur pour modifier, partager et ajouter des titres des playlists.",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':"Pour plus d'informations, consultez notre Guide de l'auteur.","Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Emportez ce titre avec vous et vivez l'exp(C)rience SoundCloud pleinement avec notre application gratuite.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] par [[authorname]]",Messages:"Messages","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Prenez cette playlist avec vous et vivez l'exp(C)rience SoundCloud pleinement avec notre application gratuite.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] par [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Passer la version Pro","Search tracks":"Rechercher des titres","Search playlists":"Rechercher des playlists","Search people":"Rechercher des personnes","Search groups":"Rechercher des groupes","Search [[category]]":"Rechercher dans [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"D(C)sinscription r(C)ussie.","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"Soyez le premier savoir ce que publie [[username]] avec notre application gratuite. ","[[username]]'s stream":"Stream de [[username]]","1 hour":["%d heure","%d heures"],"1 minute":["%d minute","%d minutes"],"1 second":["%d seconde","%d secondes"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Vivez l'exp(C)rience SoundCloud pleinement avec notre application.",Close:"Fermer","1 track":["%d titre","%d titres"],"1 play":["%d (C)coute","%d (C)coutes"],"1 follower":["%d abonn(C)","%d abonn(C)s"],"Download on the App Store":"T(C)l(C)charger dans l'App Store","Get it on Google Play":"Disponible sur Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Disponible sur BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Disponible sur Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Disponible sur le Firefox Marketplace ","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"‰couter sur SoundCloud iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"‰couter sur SoundCloud Android","Download our free app":"T(C)l(C)charger notre application gratuite",Retry:"R(C)essayer","Terms of use":"Conditions d'utilisation",Legal:"Informations l(C)gales","Privacy policy":"Politique de confidentialit(C)",Privacy:"Confidentialit(C)","Cookies policy":"Politique d'utilisation des cookies",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Informations sur l'entreprise",Imprint:"A propos","People directory":"R(C)pertoire de personnes",Directory:"R(C)pertoire","SoundCloud homepage":"Page d'accueil de SoundCloud","Hear the world's sounds":"D(C)couvrez les sons du monde","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Titres en vogue sur SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"T(C)l(C)chargez notre application Android pour enregistrer ce titre dans vos mentions J'aime, cr(C)er des playlists et bien plus encore.","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"T(C)l(C)chargez notre application pour iPhone pour enregistrer ce titre dans vos mentions J'aime, cr(C)er des playlists et bien plus encore.","Our app works best on mobile":"D(C)couvrez notre application mobile pour une exp(C)rience optimale",Like:["Likes","Mes favoris"],Cancel:"Annuler","Select your language":"S(C)lectionnez votre langue","Language:":"Langue :","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"Les messages sont uniquementpris en charge par les navigateurs d'ordinateurs de bureau.","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"Les pages peuvent ne pas s'afficher correctementdans les navigateurs mobiles.","Go to Messages":"Acc(C)der aux Messages","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"SoundCloud pour mobile estuniquement disponible sous forme d'application.","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"Ouvrez ou t(C)l(C)chargez le fichier maintenantpour utiliser SoundCloud survotre appareil.","Open or get the app":"Lancez ou t(C)l(C)chargez l'application","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"Nous sommes d(C)sol(C)s d'apprendre que vous nous quittez.","Review your email subscriptions at":"V(C)rifiez vos inscriptions par e-mail sur","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"R(C)sultats pour : [[generatedSummary]]",back:"retour","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"Vous ne voulez pas ªtre ajout(C)(e) ? Utilisez la version de bureau pour d(C)sactiver.","Play or pause track":"Lire un titre ou le mettre en pause","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Passez la version SoundCloud Pro","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"175 millions de personnes (C)coutent de la musique sur SoundCloud chaque mois. Profitez des outils n(C)cessaires pour partager votre musique et (C)largir votre public. ","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"L'achat d'un abonnement Pro ne peut s'effectuer que depuis un ordinateur.","Stats with more data.":"Statistiques comportant d'autres donn(C)es","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"Les statistiques Pro vous fournissent les donn(C)es n(C)cessaires pour planifier vos sorties, entrer en contact avec vos plus grands fans et construire votre carri¨re.","More upload time.":"Davantage de temps de t(C)l(C)chargement.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"Multipliez votre temps de t(C)l(C)chargement par deux avec un abonnement Pro ou obtenez un espace de stockage illimit(C) pour vos titres, vos albums, vos projets et vos anciens enregistrements avec Pro Unlimited.","More control.":"Davantage de contr´le.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"Placez des titres et des playlists dans la partie sup(C)rieure de votre profil avec les Titres ‰pingl(C)s, activez ou d(C)sactivez les commentaires et les statistiques avec le Mode silencieux : en passant la version Pro, vous avez le contr´le de vos titres et de vos playlists.","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"Passez un abonnement SoundCloud Pro sur votre ordinateur d¨s aujourd'hui sur [[[link]]].",All:"Tous",Tracks:"Titres",Playlists:"Playlists",People:"Personnes","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"D(C)sol(C), aucun r(C)sultat ne correspond votre recherche.","Search SoundCloud":"Rechercher dans SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Trouver des personnes, des titres et des playlists","You have successfullychanged your password.":"Vous avez bienmodifi(C) votre mot de passe.","Reposted by [[username]]":"Repost(C) par [[username]]","Now playing":"Lecture en cours","Previous track":"Titre pr(C)c(C)dent","Next track":"Titre suivant","1 Like":["1 J'aime","%d J'aime"],"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"D(C)sol(C), ce titre n'est pas disponible sur mobile.",Spotlight:"Titres (C)pingl(C)s",Track:["Titres","Titres"],"Show more tracks":"Afficher plus de titres",Playlist:["Playlist","Playlists"],"Show more playlists":"Afficher plus de playlists","Show more likes":"Afficher plus de mentions J'aime","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Se connecter SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"T(C)l(C)charger notre application gratuite"}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-pt-br.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"Parece que alguma coisa n£o est bem.","Refresh the page to try again.":"Atualize a pgina para tentar de novo.","We can't find this page.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar esta pgina.","We can't find this sound.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar este som.","We can't find this playlist.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar este playlist.","We can't find this user.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar este usurio.","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"Fa§a upload das suas mºsicas e udios, e compartilhe-os com o mundo.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"O upload (C) suportado apenas em navegadores desktop.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"Retorne quando vocª estiver no seu computador para enviar mais faixas.","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"Mºsica do momento na SoundCloud.","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"A op§£o Explorar s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"Outra op§£o (C) baixar nosso aplicativo m"vel para descobrir mºsicas e udios do momento enquanto vocª est se deslocando. Mas a boa not­cia (C) que vocª ainda poder ouvir os sons em destaque no aplicativo m"vel.","Connect with Facebook friends.":"Conecte-se com os amigos do Facebook.","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"A conex£o s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"Est tentando se conectar com os amigos do Facebook ou encontrar novas pessoas para seguir? Esse recurso s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"Retorne quando vocª estiver no computador para encontrar novas pessoas para seguir.","Your profile":"Seu perfil","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"A gest£o de sua conta s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obter mais informa§µes sobre a otimiza§£o do seu perfil, visite nosso Guia do criador.',"Your tracks.":"Suas faixas.","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"A gest£o de suas faixas s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"Retorne quando vocª estiver no seu computador para editar, compartilhar e adicionar faixas s playlists.",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obter mais informa§µes, visite o nosso Guia do criador.',"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Ou§a esta faixa aonde quer que v e aproveite a experiªncia completa da SoundCloud com o nosso app gratuito.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] de [[authorName]]",Messages:"Mensagens","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Escute esta playlist aonde quer que v e aproveite a experiªncia completa da SoundCloud com o nosso app gratuito.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] de [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Assinar Pr"","Search tracks":"Pesquisar faixas","Search playlists":"Pesquisar playlists","Search people":"Pesquisar pessoas","Search groups":"Pesquisar grupos","Search [[category]]":"Pesquisar [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"Inscri§£o cancelada com sucesso","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"Seja o primeiro a ouvir o que [[username]] publica com o nosso app gratuito.","[[username]]'s stream":"Stream de [[username]]","1 hour":["1 hora","%d horas"],"1 minute":["1 minuto","%d minutos"],"1 second":["1 segundo","%d segundos"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Aproveite a experiªncia completa da SoundCloud com o nosso app.",Close:"Fechar","1 track":["1 faixa","%d faixas"],"1 play":["1 reprodu§£o","%d reprodu§µes"],"1 follower":["1 seguidor","%d seguidores"],"Download on the App Store":"Baixar na AppStore","Get it on Google Play":"Baixar no Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Baixar no BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Dispon­vel na Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Baixar no Firefox Marketplace","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"Ou§a no app SoundCloud para iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"Ou§a no app SoundCloud para Android","Download our free app":"Baixe nosso app gratuito",Retry:"Tentar novamente","Terms of use":"Termos de Uso",Legal:"Aviso legal","Privacy policy":"Pol­tica de Privacidade",Privacy:"Privacidade","Cookies policy":"Pol­tica de Cookies",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Informa§µes sobre a empresa",Imprint:"SoundCloud Ltd.","People directory":"Diret"rio de pessoas",Directory:"Diret"rio","SoundCloud homepage":"Pgina inicial da SoundCloud","Hear the world's sounds":"Ou§a os sons do mundo","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Faixas mais tocadas na SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Baixe nosso aplicativo para Android para salvar esta faixa em suas curtidas, criar playlists e muito mais.","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Baixe nosso aplicativo para iPhone para salvar esta faixa em suas curtidas, criar playlists e muito mais.","Our app works best on mobile":"Nosso aplicativo funciona melhor em aplicativos m"veis",Like:["Curtida","Curtidas"],Cancel:"Cancelar","Select your language":"Selecione o idioma","Language:":"Idioma:","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"As mensagens s£o suportadas apenasem navegadores desktop.","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"As pginas podem n£o ser exibidas corretamenteem navegadores m"veis.","Go to Messages":"Ir para Mensagens","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"A SoundCloud para dispositivos m"veis s"est dispon­vel como aplicativo.","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"Abra ou baixe agorapara usar a SoundCloud noseu dispositivo.","Open or get the app":"Abrir ou obter o aplicativo","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"Que pena que vocª est indo embora.","Review your email subscriptions at":"Consulte suas assinaturas por email em","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"Resultados para: [[generatedSummary]]",back:"voltar","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"N£o quer ser inclu­do? Visite a vers£o para desktop desta pgina para cancelar.","Play or pause track":"Reproduzir ou pausar faixa","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Torne-se SoundCloud Pr"","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"175 milhµes de pessoas ouvem a SoundCloud todo mªs. Obtenha as ferramentas de que precisa para compartilhar sua mºsica e aumentar seu pºblico.","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"Os planos Pr" podem ser adquiridos somente em um computador.","Stats with more data.":"Estat­sticas com mais dados.","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"As estat­sticas Pr" fornecem os dados que vocª precisa para planejar seus lan§amentos, conectar-se com seus maiores f£s e projetar sua carreira.","More upload time.":"Mais tempo de upload.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"Dobre o tempo de upload com uma assinatura do plano Pr" ou obtenha armazenamento ilimitado para suas faixas, lbuns, projetos e catlogo com o plano Pr" Iilimitado.","More control.":"Mais controle.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"Coloque as faixas e playlists no topo do teu perfil com o Spotlight, ative ou desative os comentrios e estat­sticas pºblicas com o Modo Silencioso. Assinando o plano Pr", vocª se mant(C)m no controle de suas faixas e playlists.","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"Torne-se um SoundCloud Pro no seu computador hoje mesmo em [[[link]]].",All:"Tudo",Tracks:"Faixas",Playlists:"Playlists",People:"Pessoas","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"Lamentamos, n£o houve resultados para sua pesquisa.","Search SoundCloud":"Pesquisar na SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Encontre pessoas, faixas e playlists","You have successfullychanged your password.":"Vocª trocousua senha com sucesso.","Reposted by [[username]]":"Republicada por [[username]]","Now playing":"Reproduzindo agora","Previous track":"Faixa anterior","Next track":"Pr"xima faixa","1 Like":["1 curtida","%d curtidas"],"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"Lamentamos, essa faixa n£o est dispon­vel para dispositivos m"veis.",Spotlight:"Spotlight",Track:["Faixa","Faixas"],"Show more tracks":"Mostrar mais faixas",Playlist:["Playlist","Playlists"],"Show more playlists":"Mostrar mais playlists","Show more likes":"Mostrar mais curtidas","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Fazer login na SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"Fazer download de nosso aplicativo grtis"}), define("lib/helpers/dns-helper",["require","exports","module","lib/url"],function(e,t,n){var r=e("lib/url"),i=[],s=n.exports={lookup:function(e){var t=document.createDocumentFragment(),n;e=typeof e=="string"?[e]:e,e.length&&(e.forEach(function(e){n=r.parse(e).host;if(n&&i.indexOf(n)===-1){i.push(n);var s=document.createElement("link");s.rel="dns-prefetch",s.href="//"+n,t.appendChild(s)}}),t.childNodes.length&&document.head.appendChild(t))}}}), define("views/footer/footer.tmpl",["vendor/handlebars-runtime","views/app-buttons/app-buttons","views/locale-selector/locale-selector"],function(){return require("vendor/handlebars-runtime").template(function(e,t,n,r,i){function l(e,t){var r="",i;return r+='
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a(e){var t=0;return e= 1.0.0"],n=this.merge(n,e.helpers),i=i||{},'\n'})}), define("views/sound/sound-controls.css",["require","exports","module","css"],function(e,t,n,r){n.exports=r.stringToStyleElement(r.transform(".soundControls{height:80px;position:absolute;top:50%;left:0;right:0;margin-top:-40px;-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);pointer-events:none}.soundControls__control{background-position:0 0;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:100% auto;position:absolute;pointer-events:auto}.soundControls__prev,.soundControls__next{background-image:url(https://m.soundcloud.com/assets/images/ldpi/player/skip_button-e03e9a61.png);width:28px;height:19px;top:30px;opacity:0;-webkit-transition:opacity 2s cubic-bezier(1,.01,.81,1);transition:opacity 2s cubic-bezier(1,.01,.81,1)}.soundControls__prev{left:17px}.soundControls__next{right:17px;-webkit-transform:scaleX(-1);-ms-transform:scaleX(-1);transform:scaleX(-1)}.soundControls.disabled .soundControls__playPause,.soundControls.playing .soundControls__playPause:active,.soundControls.loading .soundControls__playPause:active{background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.5)}.soundControls.playing .soundControls__playPause,.soundControls.loading .soundControls__playPause{background-position:0 0}.soundControls__prev:active,.soundControls__next:active{background-position:0 -19px}.soundControls.disabled .soundControls__next,.soundControls.nextDisabled .soundControls__next,.soundControls.disabled .soundControls__prev,.soundControls.prevDisabled .soundControls__prev{display:none}.initialized .soundControls__playPause{opacity:0}.initializing .soundControls__next,.initializing .soundControls__prev,.paused .soundControls__next,.paused .soundControls__prev,.paused .soundControls__playPause{opacity:1}.paused .soundControls__next,.paused .soundControls__prev,.paused .soundControls__playPause{-webkit-transition:none;transition:none}.soundControls.scrubbing{display:none}")),data=null}), define("views/sound/sound-controls.tmpl",["vendor/handlebars-runtime"],function(){return require("vendor/handlebars-runtime").template(function(e,t,n,r,i){this.compilerInfo=[4,">= 1.0.0"],n=this.merge(n,e.helpers),i=i||{};var s="",o=this.escapeExpression;return s+=''+o(n.$a11y.call(t,{hash:{screenreader:n.$t.call(t,"Previous track",{hash:{_comment:"Help text on prev button"},data:i})},data:i}))+'\n'+o(n.$a11y.call(t,{hash:{screenreader:n.$t.call(t,"Play or pause track",{hash:{_comment:"Help text on play/pause button"},data:i})},data:i}))+'\n'+o(n.$a11y.call(t,{hash:{screenreader:n.$t.call(t,"Next track",{hash:{_comment:"Help text on next button"},data:i})},data:i}))+"\n",s})}), define("lib/views/mixins/fullscreen-loader",["require","exports","module","lib/views/loading","lib/mixin"],function(e,t,n){var r=e("lib/views/loading"),i=e("lib/mixin"),s=n.exports=new i({override:{LoadingView:r,loadingViewArgs:function(){return{size:"fullscreen"}}}})}), define("views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content",["require","exports","module","lib/helpers/client-environment-helper","lib/lingua","lib/native-links","lib/view","views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.tmpl","views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.css"],function(e,t,n){function a(e){this.bubble("closeButton:click")}function f(e){e.stopPropagation()}var r=e("lib/helpers/client-environment-helper").device,i=e("lib/lingua"),s=e("lib/native-links"),o=e("lib/view"),u=n.exports=o.extend({template:e("views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.tmpl"),css:e("views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.css"),className:"likeAppUpsellContent g-align-vertical",events:{"click .likeAppUpsellContent__closeButton":a,click:f},setup:function(e){this.el.className+=" "+r.brand},getTemplateData:function(e){var t=r.iOS?i.t("Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more."):i.t("Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.");return{upsellIcon:"https://m.soundcloud.com/assets/images/ldpi/interstitial/like-upsell/heart-android-280d5bc8.png",upsellHeader:i.t("Try our app.It's even better"),upsellContent:t,getLikeUpsellDeepLink:s.getLikeCountDeepLink}}})}), define("lib/views/mixins/swipeable",["require","exports","module","lib/mixin"],function(e,t,n){function s(e){var t=e.data.direction;t==="left"&&this.onSwipeLeft?this.onSwipeLeft():this.onSwipeRight&&this.onSwipeRight(),e.originalEvent.preventDefault()}var r=e("lib/mixin"),i=n.exports=new r({defaults:{swipeableSelector:null},after:{renderDecorate:function(){this.$el.on("swipe",this.swipeableSelector,s.bind(this))}}})}), define("views/sound/sound.css",["require","exports","module","css"],function(e,t,n,r){n.exports=r.stringToStyleElement(r.transform(".sound__info{position:absolute;z-index:1;top:20px;left:18px;right:18px}.sound__username{font-size:15px;line-height:22px}.sound__username a{color:#ccc}.sound__title{font-size:22px;line-height:1.3}.sound__controls{position:absolute;top:50%;left:0;right:0;height:80px;margin-top:-50px}.sound__infoContent{margin:0 0 4px}.sound__artwork,.sound__artworkOverlay{position:absolute;top:0;bottom:0;width:100%}.sound__artworkOverlay{height:100%;opacity:0;background:#000}.sound__playIndicator{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,-3px,0);transform:translate3d(0,-3px,0)}.sound__likes{color:#fff;position:absolute;bottom:12px;right:20px;line-height:39px;padding:0 10px 0 5px;font-size:14px}.sound__likes:before{width:35px;height:35px;background-image:url(https://m.soundcloud.com/assets/images/ldpi/player/like_button-280d5bc8.png);background-size:35px 35px}.iOS .sound__likes{right:auto;left:20px;border-radius:4px;height:33px;line-height:33px;background:rgba(0,0,0,.3);border:1px solid transparent}.sound.iOS.paused .sound__likes{background:none;border-color:rgba(255,255,255);border-color:rgba(255,255,255,.2)}.iOS .sound__likes:before{width:25px;height:25px;background-size:25px 25px;margin-top:4px}.sound.playing .sound__playIndicator{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0)}.sound__info.disabled>.sound__infoDisabled{display:block}.sound__infoDisabled{display:none;position:absolute;background:rgba(0,0,0,.2);top:0;left:0;right:0;bottom:0}.sound.paused .sound__artworkOverlay{opacity:.6}.sound.paused .sound__username,.sound.paused .sound__title{background:none;box-shadow:none}")),data=null}), define("views/sound/sound.tmpl",["vendor/handlebars-runtime","views/banner/banner","views/sound/waveform"],function(){return require("vendor/handlebars-runtime").template(function(e,t,n,r,i){function l(e,t){var r="";return r+=" "+u(n.$view.call(e,"views/banner/banner",{hash:{},data:t}))+"\n",r}function c(e,t){var r="",i;r+=" ",i=n.$view.call(e,"views/banner/banner",{hash:{},inverse:a.noop,fn:a.program(4,h,t),data:t});if(i||i===0)r+=i;return r+="\n",r}function h(e,t){var r="";return r+=" "+u(n.$t.call(e,"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.",{hash:{},data:t}))+" ",r}function p(e,t){var r="",i;return r+=' '+u(n.$a11y.call(e,{hash:{visible:(i=e&&e.likes_count_info,i==null||i===!1?i:i.count),screenreader:(i=e&&e.likes_count_info,i==null||i===!1?i:i.fullMessage)},data:t}))+" \n",r}this.compilerInfo=[4,">= 1.0.0"],n=this.merge(n,e.helpers),i=i||{};var s="",o,u=this.escapeExpression,a=this,f="function";s+='\n'+u((o=t&&t.title,typeof o===f?o.apply(t):o))+'
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r={delimiters:{thousands:".",decimal:","},relativeTime:{justNow:"Agora a pouco",rightNow:"Agora a pouco",future:"em %s",past:"%s",sec:i(["1 segundo","%d segundos"]),min:i(["1 minuto","%d minutos"]),hour:i(["1 hora","%d horas"]),day:i(["1 dia","%d dias"]),month:i(["1 mªs","%d meses"]),year:i(["1 ano","%d anos"])},dateFormats:{readable:"DD MMMM YYYY",readableTime:"DD MMMM YYYY HH:mm",readableAbbreviated:"MMM DD, YYYY",readableWithWeekday:"DDDD, DD MMMM YYYY","default":"DD/MM/YYYY"},dates:{months:["Janeiro","Fevereiro","Mar§o","Abril","Maio","Junho","Julho","Agosto","Setembro","Outubro","Novembro","Dezembro"],monthsShort:["Jan","Fev","Mar","Abr","Mai","Jun","Jul","Ago","Set","Out","Nov","Dez"],weekdays:["Domingo","Segunda-Feira","Ter§a-Feira","Quarta-Feira","Quinta-Feira","Sexta-Feira","Sbado"],shortWeekdays:["Dom","Seg","Ter","Qua","Qui","Sex","Sb"],minWeekdays:["Dom","Seg","Ter","Qua","Qui","Sex","Sb"]},d3:{grouping:[3],currency:["$",""],dateTime:"%A, %e de %B de %Y. %X",date:"%d/%m/%Y",time:"%H:%M:%S",periods:["AM","PM"]},datePicker:{closeText:"Fechar",prevText:"Anterior",nextText:"Pr"ximo",currentText:"Hoje",weekHeader:"Sm",dateFormat:"dd/mm/yy",firstDay:0,isRTL:!1,showMonthAfterYear:!1,yearSuffix:""},pluralForm:function(e){return e!==1?1:0}};n.exports=r}), define("vendor/i18n/locales/fr",["require","exports","module"],function(e,t,n){function i(e,t){return function(t){return e[r.pluralForm(t)].replace(/%d/i,t)}}var r={delimiters:{thousands:".",decimal:","},relativeTime:{justNow:"R(C)cemment",rightNow:"Maintenant",future:"dans %s",past:"%s",sec:i(["1 seconde","%d secondes"]),min:i(["1 minute","%d minutes"]),hour:i(["1 heure","%d heures"]),day:i(["1 jour","%d jours"]),month:i(["1 mois","%d mois"]),year:i(["1 an","%d ans"])},dateFormats:{readable:"DD MMMM YYYY",readableTime:"DD MMMM YYYY HH:mm",readableAbbreviated:"DD MMM YYYY",readableWithWeekday:"DDDD DD MMMM YYYY","default":"DD/MM/YYYY"},dates:{months:["janvier","f(C)vrier","mars","avril","mai","juin","juillet","ao>>t","septembre","octobre","novembre","d(C)cembre"],monthsShort:["janv.","f(C)vr.","mars","avr.","mai","juin","juil.","ao>>t","sept.","oct.","nov.","d(C)c."],weekdays:["dimanche","lundi","mardi","mercredi","jeudi","vendredi","samedi"],shortWeekdays:["dim.","lun.","mar.","mer.","jeu.","ven.","sam."],minWeekdays:["Di","Lu","Ma","Me","Je","Ve","Sa"]},d3:{grouping:[3],currency:["$",""],dateTime:"%A, le %e %B %Y, %X",date:"%d/%m/%Y",time:"%H:%M:%S",periods:["AM","PM"]},datePicker:{closeText:"Fermer",prevText:"Pr(C)c(C)dent",nextText:"Suivant",currentText:"Aujourd'hui",weekHeader:"Sem.",dateFormat:"dd/mm/yy",firstDay:1,isRTL:!1,showMonthAfterYear:!1,yearSuffix:""},pluralForm:function(e){return e>1?1:0}};n.exports=r}), define("vendor/i18n/locales/es",["require","exports","module"],function(e,t,n){function i(e,t){return function(t){return e[r.pluralForm(t)].replace(/%d/i,t)}}var r={delimiters:{thousands:".",decimal:","},relativeTime:{justNow:"Ahora mismo",rightNow:"Ahora mismo",future:"dans %s",past:"%s",sec:i(["1 segundo","%d segundos"]),min:i(["1 minuto","%d minutos"]),hour:i(["1 hora","%d horas"]),day:i(["1 d­a","%d d­as"]),month:i(["1 mes","%d meses"]),year:i(["1 a±o","%d a±os"])},dateFormats:{readable:"DD MMMM YYYY",readableTime:"DD MMMM YYYY HH:mm",readableAbbreviated:"DD MMM YYYY",readableWithWeekday:"DDDD, DD MMMM YYYY","default":"DD/MM/YYYY"},dates:{months:["Enero","Febrero","Marzo","Abril","Mayo","Junio","Julio","Agosto","Septiembre","Octubre","Noviembre","Diciembre"],monthsShort:["Ene","Feb","Mar","Abr","May","Jun","Jul","Ago","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dic"],weekdays:["Domingo","Lunes","Martes","Mi(C)rcoles","Jueves","Viernes","Sbado"],shortWeekdays:["Dom.","Lun.","Mar.","Mi(C).","Jue.","Vie.","Sb."],minWeekdays:["Do","Lu","Ma","Mi","Ju","Vi","S"]},d3:{grouping:[3],currency:["$",""],dateTime:"%A, %e de %B de %Y, %X",date:"%d/%m/%Y",time:"%H:%M:%S",periods:["AM","PM"]},datePicker:{closeText:"Cerrar",prevText:"Ant",nextText:"Sig",currentText:"Hoy",weekHeader:"Sm",dateFormat:"dd/mm/yy",firstDay:1,isRTL:!1,showMonthAfterYear:!1,yearSuffix:""},pluralForm:function(e){return e!==1?1:0}};n.exports=r}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-en-gb.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"","Refresh the page to try again.":"","We can't find this page.":"","We can't find this sound.":"","We can't find this playlist.":"","We can't find this user.":"","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"","Connect with Facebook friends.":"","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"","Your profile":"","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit ourCreator Guide.':"","Your tracks.":"","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.',"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]",Messages:"Messages","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Go Pro","Search tracks":"Search tracks","Search playlists":"Search playlists","Search people":"Search people","Search groups":"Search groups","Search [[category]]":"Search [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"Unsubscribed successfully","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.","[[username]]'s stream":"[[username]]'s stream","1 hour":["1 hour","%d hours"],"1 minute":["1 minute","%d minutes"],"1 second":["1 second","%d seconds"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.",Close:"Close","1 track":["1 track","%d tracks"],"1 play":["1 play","%d plays"],"1 follower":["1 follower","%d followers"],"Download on the App Store":"Download on the App Store","Get it on Google Play":"Get it on Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Get it at BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Available at Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Get it in the Firefox Marketplace","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"Listen on SoundCloud iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"Listen on SoundCloud Android","Download our free app":"Download our free app",Retry:"Retry","Terms of use":"Terms of use",Legal:"Legal","Privacy policy":"Privacy policy",Privacy:"Privacy","Cookies policy":"Cookies policy",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Company information",Imprint:"Imprint","People directory":"",Directory:"Directory","SoundCloud homepage":"SoundCloud homepage","Hear the world's sounds":"Hear the world's sounds","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Trending tracks on SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"","Our app works best on mobile":"",Like:["Like","Likes"],Cancel:"Cancel","Select your language":"Select your language","Language:":"Language:","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"","Go to Messages":"Go to Messages","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"","Open or get the app":"","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"","Review your email subscriptions at":"Review your email subscriptions at","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"Results for: [[generatedSummary]]",back:"","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.","Play or pause track":"Play or pause track","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Become a SoundCloud Pro","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.","Stats with more data.":"Stats with more data.","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.","More upload time.":"More upload time.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"","More control.":"More control.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"",All:"All",Tracks:"Tracks",Playlists:"Playlists",People:"People","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"","Search SoundCloud":"Search SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Find people, tracks and playlists","You have successfullychanged your password.":"","Reposted by [[username]]":"Reposted by [[username]]","Now playing":"","Previous track":"Previous track","Next track":"Next track","1 Like":"","We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"",Spotlight:"Spotlight",Track:["Track","Tracks"],"Show more tracks":"Show more tracks",Playlist:"","Show more playlists":"Show more playlists","Show more likes":"Show more likes","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Sign in to SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"Download our free app"}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-es.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"Parece que algo no funciona bien.","Refresh the page to try again.":"Actualiza la pgina para intentarlo de nuevo.","We can't find this page.":"No se encuentra esta pgina.","We can't find this sound.":"No se encuentra esta pista.","We can't find this playlist.":"No se encuentra esta lista.","We can't find this user.":"No se encuentra este usuario.","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"Sube tu mºsica y audio para compartirlos con el mundo.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"Solo se pueden subir sonidos en navegadores de escritorio.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"Vuelve cuando est(C)s en el ordenador para subir ms pistas.","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"Mºsica del momento en SoundCloud.","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"Explorar solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"Tambi(C)n puedes descargar nuestra aplicaci"n m"vil para descubrir audio y mºsica del momento en cualquier lugar. Y lo mejor es que podrs seguir escuchando todas las novedades desde la aplicaci"n.","Connect with Facebook friends.":"Conecta con tus amigos de Facebook.","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"Solo puedes conectarte en navegadores de escritorio.","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"Quieres conectarte con tus amigos de Facebook o seguir a ms gente? Esta funci"n solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"Vuelve cuando est(C)s en el ordenador para encontrar a ms gente a la que seguir.","Your profile":"Tu perfil","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gesti"n de tu cuenta solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obtener ms informaci"n sobre la optimizaci"n de tu perfil, visita nuestra Gu­a para creadores.',"Your tracks.":"Tus pistas.","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gesti"n de tus pistas solo est disponible en navegadores de escritorio.","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"Vuelve cuando est(C)s en el ordenador para editar, compartir y a±adir pistas a listas.",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obtener ms informaci"n, visita la Gu­a para creadores.',"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Disfruta de esta pista en cualquier lugar y vive al mximo la experiencia SoundCloud con nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] de [[authorName]]",Messages:"Mensajes","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Disfruta de esta lista en cualquier lugar y vive al mximo la experiencia SoundCloud con nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] de [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Hazte Pro","Search tracks":"Buscar pistas","Search playlists":"Buscar listas","Search people":"Buscar gente","Search groups":"Buscar grupos","Search [[category]]":"Buscar [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"Suscripci"n anulada correctamente","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"S(C) el primero en escuchar las nuevas publicaciones de [[username]] con nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita.","[[username]]'s stream":"Stream de [[username]]","1 hour":["1 hora","%d horas"],"1 minute":["1 minuto","%d minutos"],"1 second":["1 segundo","%d segundos"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Vive al mximo la experiencia SoundCloud con nuestra aplicaci"n.",Close:"Cerrar","1 track":["1 pista","%d pistas"],"1 play":["1 reproducci"n","%d reproducciones"],"1 follower":["1 seguidor","%d seguidores"],"Download on the App Store":"Descargar en el App Store","Get it on Google Play":"Obtener en Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Obtener en BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Disponible en Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Obtener en Firefox Marketplace","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"Escuchar en SoundCloud iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"Escuchar en SoundCloud Android","Download our free app":"Descarga nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita",Retry:"Int(C)ntalo de nuevo","Terms of use":"Condiciones de uso",Legal:"Legal","Privacy policy":"Pol­tica de privacidad",Privacy:"Privacidad","Cookies policy":"Pol­tica de cookies",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Informaci"n de la empresa",Imprint:"SoundCloud Ltd.","People directory":"Directorio de gente",Directory:"Directorio","SoundCloud homepage":"Pgina de inicio de SoundCloud","Hear the world's sounds":"Escucha las pistas del mundo","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Pistas del momento en SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Obt(C)n nuestra aplicaci"n para Android para guardar esta pista en tus Me gusta, crear listas y ms.","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Obt(C)n nuestra aplicaci"n para iPhone para guardar esta pista en tus Me gusta, crear listas y ms.","Our app works best on mobile":"Nuestra aplicaci"n funciona mejor en dispositivos m"viles",Like:["Me gusta","Me gusta"],Cancel:"Cancelar","Select your language":"Selecciona tu idioma","Language:":"Idioma:","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"Los mensajes soloson compatibles en navegadores de escritorio","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"Puede que las pginas no se muestren correctamenteen navegadores para m"viles.","Go to Messages":"Ir a Mensajes","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"SoundCloud para m"vilessolo est disponible como aplicaci"n.","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"Descrgala o brela ahorapara usar SoundCloud entu dispositivo.","Open or get the app":"Hazte con la aplicaci"n o brela.","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"Lamentamos que te marches.","Review your email subscriptions at":"Consulta tus suscripciones de correo en","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"Resultados de: [[generatedSummary]]",back:"atrs","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"No quieres aparecer en los resultados? Visita la versi"n de esta pgina para escritorio para que no te incluyamos.","Play or pause track":"Reproducir o pausar la pista","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Psate a SoundCloud Pro","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"Ms de 175 millones de personas escuchan SoundCloud cada mes. Obt(C)n las herramientas que necesitas para compartir tu mºsica y ampliar tu pºblico.","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"Solo es posible comprar un plan Pro desde un ordenador.","Stats with more data.":"Estad­sticas con ms datos.","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"Las estad­sticas de Pro presentan los datos que necesitas para planificar tus nuevos lanzamientos, conectar con tus seguidores ms fieles y desarrollar tu carrera.","More upload time.":"Ms tiempo de subida.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"Dobla tu tiempo de subida con una suscripci"n Pro o adquiere almacenamiento ilimitado para tus pistas, lbumes, proyectos y trabajos anteriores con Pro Unlimited.","More control.":"Ms control.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"Fija pistas y listas en la parte superior de tu perfil con Spotlight, y activa o desactiva los comentarios y las estad­sticas pºblicas mediante el Modo silencioso. Con el nivel Pro, tendrs todo el control sobre tus pistas y tus listas.","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"Entra en [[[link]]] desde tu ordenador para pasarte hoy mismo a SoundCloud Pro.",All:"Todo",Tracks:"Pistas",Playlists:"Listas",People:"Gente","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"La bºsqueda no da resultados.","Search SoundCloud":"Buscar en SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Buscar gente, pistas y listas","You have successfullychanged your password.":"Has cambiado tu contrase±acorrectamente.","Reposted by [[username]]":"Republicado por [[username]]","Now playing":"Reproducci"n en curso","Previous track":"Pista anterior","Next track":"Pista siguiente","1 Like":["1 Me gusta","%d Me gusta"],"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"La pista no est disponible para dispositivos m"viles.",Spotlight:"Spotlight",Track:["Pista","Pistas"],"Show more tracks":"Mostrar ms pistas",Playlist:["Lista","Listas"],"Show more playlists":"Mostrar ms listas","Show more likes":"Mostrar otros me gusta","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Iniciar sesi"n en SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"Descarga nuestra aplicaci"n gratuita"}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-fr.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"Il semble y avoir un probl¨me","Refresh the page to try again.":"Actualisez la page pour r(C)essayer.","We can't find this page.":"Cette page est introuvable","We can't find this sound.":"Ce titre est introuvable.","We can't find this playlist.":"Cette playlist est introuvable.","We can't find this user.":"Cet utilisateur est introuvable.","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"T(C)l(C)chargez vos pistes audio et musicales et partagez-les avec le monde entier.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"Uploader est pris en charge sur les navigateurs d'ordinateur de bureau uniquement.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"R(C)essayez lorsque vous utiliserez votre ordinateur pour uploader plus de titres.","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"Musique en vogue sur SoundCloud.","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"La fonction d'exploration est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"Vous pouvez (C)galement t(C)l(C)charger notre application mobile pour d(C)couvrir les tendances en mati¨re de musique et de titres audio pendant vos d(C)placements. L'avantage est que vous pouvez toujours (C)couter des titres en vogue avec l'application mobile","Connect with Facebook friends.":"Restez en contact avec vos amis Facebook.","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"La fonction Connect est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"Vous souhaitez rester en contact avec vos amis Facebook ou trouver de nouvelles personnes suivre ? Cette fonction est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"R(C)essayez lorsque vous utiliserez votre ordinateur pour trouver d'autres personnes suivre.","Your profile":"Votre profil","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gestion de votre compte est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit our Creator Guide.':"Pour plus d'informations sur l'optimisation de votre profil, consultez notre Guide de l'auteur.","Your tracks.":"Vos titres.","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"La gestion de vos titres est uniquement disponible sur les navigateurs de bureau.","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"R(C)essayez lorsque vous utiliserez votre ordinateur pour modifier, partager et ajouter des titres des playlists.",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':"Pour plus d'informations, consultez notre Guide de l'auteur.","Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Emportez ce titre avec vous et vivez l'exp(C)rience SoundCloud pleinement avec notre application gratuite.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] par [[authorname]]",Messages:"Messages","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Prenez cette playlist avec vous et vivez l'exp(C)rience SoundCloud pleinement avec notre application gratuite.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] par [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Passer la version Pro","Search tracks":"Rechercher des titres","Search playlists":"Rechercher des playlists","Search people":"Rechercher des personnes","Search groups":"Rechercher des groupes","Search [[category]]":"Rechercher dans [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"D(C)sinscription r(C)ussie.","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"Soyez le premier savoir ce que publie [[username]] avec notre application gratuite. ","[[username]]'s stream":"Stream de [[username]]","1 hour":["%d heure","%d heures"],"1 minute":["%d minute","%d minutes"],"1 second":["%d seconde","%d secondes"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Vivez l'exp(C)rience SoundCloud pleinement avec notre application.",Close:"Fermer","1 track":["%d titre","%d titres"],"1 play":["%d (C)coute","%d (C)coutes"],"1 follower":["%d abonn(C)","%d abonn(C)s"],"Download on the App Store":"T(C)l(C)charger dans l'App Store","Get it on Google Play":"Disponible sur Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Disponible sur BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Disponible sur Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Disponible sur le Firefox Marketplace ","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"‰couter sur SoundCloud iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"‰couter sur SoundCloud Android","Download our free app":"T(C)l(C)charger notre application gratuite",Retry:"R(C)essayer","Terms of use":"Conditions d'utilisation",Legal:"Informations l(C)gales","Privacy policy":"Politique de confidentialit(C)",Privacy:"Confidentialit(C)","Cookies policy":"Politique d'utilisation des cookies",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Informations sur l'entreprise",Imprint:"A propos","People directory":"R(C)pertoire de personnes",Directory:"R(C)pertoire","SoundCloud homepage":"Page d'accueil de SoundCloud","Hear the world's sounds":"D(C)couvrez les sons du monde","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Titres en vogue sur SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"T(C)l(C)chargez notre application Android pour enregistrer ce titre dans vos mentions J'aime, cr(C)er des playlists et bien plus encore.","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"T(C)l(C)chargez notre application pour iPhone pour enregistrer ce titre dans vos mentions J'aime, cr(C)er des playlists et bien plus encore.","Our app works best on mobile":"D(C)couvrez notre application mobile pour une exp(C)rience optimale",Like:["Likes","Mes favoris"],Cancel:"Annuler","Select your language":"S(C)lectionnez votre langue","Language:":"Langue :","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"Les messages sont uniquementpris en charge par les navigateurs d'ordinateurs de bureau.","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"Les pages peuvent ne pas s'afficher correctementdans les navigateurs mobiles.","Go to Messages":"Acc(C)der aux Messages","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"SoundCloud pour mobile estuniquement disponible sous forme d'application.","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"Ouvrez ou t(C)l(C)chargez le fichier maintenantpour utiliser SoundCloud survotre appareil.","Open or get the app":"Lancez ou t(C)l(C)chargez l'application","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"Nous sommes d(C)sol(C)s d'apprendre que vous nous quittez.","Review your email subscriptions at":"V(C)rifiez vos inscriptions par e-mail sur","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"R(C)sultats pour : [[generatedSummary]]",back:"retour","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"Vous ne voulez pas ªtre ajout(C)(e) ? Utilisez la version de bureau pour d(C)sactiver.","Play or pause track":"Lire un titre ou le mettre en pause","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Passez la version SoundCloud Pro","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"175 millions de personnes (C)coutent de la musique sur SoundCloud chaque mois. Profitez des outils n(C)cessaires pour partager votre musique et (C)largir votre public. ","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"L'achat d'un abonnement Pro ne peut s'effectuer que depuis un ordinateur.","Stats with more data.":"Statistiques comportant d'autres donn(C)es","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"Les statistiques Pro vous fournissent les donn(C)es n(C)cessaires pour planifier vos sorties, entrer en contact avec vos plus grands fans et construire votre carri¨re.","More upload time.":"Davantage de temps de t(C)l(C)chargement.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"Multipliez votre temps de t(C)l(C)chargement par deux avec un abonnement Pro ou obtenez un espace de stockage illimit(C) pour vos titres, vos albums, vos projets et vos anciens enregistrements avec Pro Unlimited.","More control.":"Davantage de contr´le.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"Placez des titres et des playlists dans la partie sup(C)rieure de votre profil avec les Titres ‰pingl(C)s, activez ou d(C)sactivez les commentaires et les statistiques avec le Mode silencieux : en passant la version Pro, vous avez le contr´le de vos titres et de vos playlists.","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"Passez un abonnement SoundCloud Pro sur votre ordinateur d¨s aujourd'hui sur [[[link]]].",All:"Tous",Tracks:"Titres",Playlists:"Playlists",People:"Personnes","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"D(C)sol(C), aucun r(C)sultat ne correspond votre recherche.","Search SoundCloud":"Rechercher dans SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Trouver des personnes, des titres et des playlists","You have successfullychanged your password.":"Vous avez bienmodifi(C) votre mot de passe.","Reposted by [[username]]":"Repost(C) par [[username]]","Now playing":"Lecture en cours","Previous track":"Titre pr(C)c(C)dent","Next track":"Titre suivant","1 Like":["1 J'aime","%d J'aime"],"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"D(C)sol(C), ce titre n'est pas disponible sur mobile.",Spotlight:"Titres (C)pingl(C)s",Track:["Titres","Titres"],"Show more tracks":"Afficher plus de titres",Playlist:["Playlist","Playlists"],"Show more playlists":"Afficher plus de playlists","Show more likes":"Afficher plus de mentions J'aime","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Se connecter SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"T(C)l(C)charger notre application gratuite"}), define("shared/config/locales/locale-pt-br.json",[],{"Something doesn't sound right.":"Parece que alguma coisa n£o est bem.","Refresh the page to try again.":"Atualize a pgina para tentar de novo.","We can't find this page.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar esta pgina.","We can't find this sound.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar este som.","We can't find this playlist.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar este playlist.","We can't find this user.":"N£o foi poss­vel encontrar este usurio.","Upload your music and audio and share it with the world.":"Fa§a upload das suas mºsicas e udios, e compartilhe-os com o mundo.","Upload is only supported on desktop browsers.":"O upload (C) suportado apenas em navegadores desktop.","Come back when you're at your computer to upload more tracks.":"Retorne quando vocª estiver no seu computador para enviar mais faixas.","Trending music on SoundCloud.":"Mºsica do momento na SoundCloud.","Explore is only available on desktop browsers.":"A op§£o Explorar s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Alternatively, download our mobile app to discover trending music and audio on the go. But the good news is you can still listen to trending sounds in the mobile app":"Outra op§£o (C) baixar nosso aplicativo m"vel para descobrir mºsicas e udios do momento enquanto vocª est se deslocando. Mas a boa not­cia (C) que vocª ainda poder ouvir os sons em destaque no aplicativo m"vel.","Connect with Facebook friends.":"Conecte-se com os amigos do Facebook.","Connect is only available on desktop browsers.":"A conex£o s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Looking to connect with Facebook friends or find new people to follow? This feature is only available on desktop browsers.":"Est tentando se conectar com os amigos do Facebook ou encontrar novas pessoas para seguir? Esse recurso s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Come back when you're at your computer to find new people to follow.":"Retorne quando vocª estiver no computador para encontrar novas pessoas para seguir.","Your profile":"Seu perfil","Managing your account is only available on desktop browsers.":"A gest£o de sua conta s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.",'For more information on optimizing your profile, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obter mais informa§µes sobre a otimiza§£o do seu perfil, visite nosso Guia do criador.',"Your tracks.":"Suas faixas.","Managing your tracks is only available on desktop browsers.":"A gest£o de suas faixas s" est dispon­vel em navegadores desktop.","Come back when you're at your computer to edit, share and add tracks to playlists.":"Retorne quando vocª estiver no seu computador para editar, compartilhar e adicionar faixas s playlists.",'For more information, visit our Creator Guide.':'Para obter mais informa§µes, visite o nosso Guia do criador.',"Take this track with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Ou§a esta faixa aonde quer que v e aproveite a experiªncia completa da SoundCloud com o nosso app gratuito.","[[soundTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[soundTitle]] de [[authorName]]",Messages:"Mensagens","Take this playlist with you and enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our free app.":"Escute esta playlist aonde quer que v e aproveite a experiªncia completa da SoundCloud com o nosso app gratuito.","[[playlistTitle]] by [[authorName]]":"[[playlistTitle]] de [[authorName]]","Go Pro":"Assinar Pr"","Search tracks":"Pesquisar faixas","Search playlists":"Pesquisar playlists","Search people":"Pesquisar pessoas","Search groups":"Pesquisar grupos","Search [[category]]":"Pesquisar [[category]]","Unsubscribed successfully":"Inscri§£o cancelada com sucesso","Be the first to hear what [[username]] posts next with our free app.":"Seja o primeiro a ouvir o que [[username]] publica com o nosso app gratuito.","[[username]]'s stream":"Stream de [[username]]","1 hour":["1 hora","%d horas"],"1 minute":["1 minuto","%d minutos"],"1 second":["1 segundo","%d segundos"],"Enjoy the full SoundCloud experience with our app.":"Aproveite a experiªncia completa da SoundCloud com o nosso app.",Close:"Fechar","1 track":["1 faixa","%d faixas"],"1 play":["1 reprodu§£o","%d reprodu§µes"],"1 follower":["1 seguidor","%d seguidores"],"Download on the App Store":"Baixar na AppStore","Get it on Google Play":"Baixar no Google Play","Get it at BlackBerry World":"Baixar no BlackBerry World","Available at Amazon":"Dispon­vel na Amazon","Get it in the Firefox Marketplace":"Baixar no Firefox Marketplace","Listen on SoundCloud iOS":"Ou§a no app SoundCloud para iOS","Listen on SoundCloud Android":"Ou§a no app SoundCloud para Android","Download our free app":"Baixe nosso app gratuito",Retry:"Tentar novamente","Terms of use":"Termos de Uso",Legal:"Aviso legal","Privacy policy":"Pol­tica de Privacidade",Privacy:"Privacidade","Cookies policy":"Pol­tica de Cookies",Cookies:"Cookies","Company information":"Informa§µes sobre a empresa",Imprint:"SoundCloud Ltd.","People directory":"Diret"rio de pessoas",Directory:"Diret"rio","SoundCloud homepage":"Pgina inicial da SoundCloud","Hear the world's sounds":"Ou§a os sons do mundo","Trending tracks on SoundCloud":"Faixas mais tocadas na SoundCloud","Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Baixe nosso aplicativo para Android para salvar esta faixa em suas curtidas, criar playlists e muito mais.","Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.":"Baixe nosso aplicativo para iPhone para salvar esta faixa em suas curtidas, criar playlists e muito mais.","Our app works best on mobile":"Nosso aplicativo funciona melhor em aplicativos m"veis",Like:["Curtida","Curtidas"],Cancel:"Cancelar","Select your language":"Selecione o idioma","Language:":"Idioma:","Messages are onlysupported on desktop browsers.":"As mensagens s£o suportadas apenasem navegadores desktop.","Pages might not display correctlyin mobile browsers.":"As pginas podem n£o ser exibidas corretamenteem navegadores m"veis.","Go to Messages":"Ir para Mensagens","SoundCloud for mobile isonly available as an app.":"A SoundCloud para dispositivos m"veis s"est dispon­vel como aplicativo.","Open or download nowto use SoundCloud onyour device.":"Abra ou baixe agorapara usar a SoundCloud noseu dispositivo.","Open or get the app":"Abrir ou obter o aplicativo","We're sorry to hear you're leaving.":"Que pena que vocª est indo embora.","Review your email subscriptions at":"Consulte suas assinaturas por email em","Results for: [[generatedSummary]]":"Resultados para: [[generatedSummary]]",back:"voltar","Don't want to be included? Visit the desktop version of this page to opt out.":"N£o quer ser inclu­do? Visite a vers£o para desktop desta pgina para cancelar.","Play or pause track":"Reproduzir ou pausar faixa","Become a SoundCloud Pro":"Torne-se SoundCloud Pr"","175 million people listen on SoundCloud each month. Get the tools you need to share your music and grow your audience.":"175 milhµes de pessoas ouvem a SoundCloud todo mªs. Obtenha as ferramentas de que precisa para compartilhar sua mºsica e aumentar seu pºblico.","Pro plans can only be purchased from a computer.":"Os planos Pr" podem ser adquiridos somente em um computador.","Stats with more data.":"Estat­sticas com mais dados.","Pro stats provide the data you need to plan your releases, connect with your biggest fans, and build your career.":"As estat­sticas Pr" fornecem os dados que vocª precisa para planejar seus lan§amentos, conectar-se com seus maiores f£s e projetar sua carreira.","More upload time.":"Mais tempo de upload.","Double your upload time with a Pro subscription or get limitless storage for your tracks, albums, projects, and back catalog with Pro Unlimited.":"Dobre o tempo de upload com uma assinatura do plano Pr" ou obtenha armazenamento ilimitado para suas faixas, lbuns, projetos e catlogo com o plano Pr" Iilimitado.","More control.":"Mais controle.","Pin tracks and playlists to the top of your profile with Spotlight, turn commenting and public stats on or off with Quiet Mode. By going Pro, you're in control of your tracks and playlists.":"Coloque as faixas e playlists no topo do teu perfil com o Spotlight, ative ou desative os comentrios e estat­sticas pºblicas com o Modo Silencioso. Assinando o plano Pr", vocª se mant(C)m no controle de suas faixas e playlists.","Become a SoundCloud Pro on your computer today at [[[link]]].":"Torne-se um SoundCloud Pro no seu computador hoje mesmo em [[[link]]].",All:"Tudo",Tracks:"Faixas",Playlists:"Playlists",People:"Pessoas","Sorry, nothing matches your search.":"Lamentamos, n£o houve resultados para sua pesquisa.","Search SoundCloud":"Pesquisar na SoundCloud","Find people, tracks and playlists":"Encontre pessoas, faixas e playlists","You have successfullychanged your password.":"Vocª trocousua senha com sucesso.","Reposted by [[username]]":"Republicada por [[username]]","Now playing":"Reproduzindo agora","Previous track":"Faixa anterior","Next track":"Pr"xima faixa","1 Like":["1 curtida","%d curtidas"],"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.":"Lamentamos, essa faixa n£o est dispon­vel para dispositivos m"veis.",Spotlight:"Spotlight",Track:["Faixa","Faixas"],"Show more tracks":"Mostrar mais faixas",Playlist:["Playlist","Playlists"],"Show more playlists":"Mostrar mais playlists","Show more likes":"Mostrar mais curtidas","button::Sign in to SoundCloud":"Fazer login na SoundCloud","button::Download our free app":"Fazer download de nosso aplicativo grtis"}), define("lib/helpers/dns-helper",["require","exports","module","lib/url"],function(e,t,n){var r=e("lib/url"),i=[],s=n.exports={lookup:function(e){var t=document.createDocumentFragment(),n;e=typeof e=="string"?[e]:e,e.length&&(e.forEach(function(e){n=r.parse(e).host;if(n&&i.indexOf(n)===-1){i.push(n);var s=document.createElement("link");s.rel="dns-prefetch",s.href="//"+n,t.appendChild(s)}}),t.childNodes.length&&document.head.appendChild(t))}}}), define("views/footer/footer.tmpl",["vendor/handlebars-runtime","views/app-buttons/app-buttons","views/locale-selector/locale-selector"],function(){return require("vendor/handlebars-runtime").template(function(e,t,n,r,i){function l(e,t){var r="",i;return r+='
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a(e){var t=0;return e= 1.0.0"],n=this.merge(n,e.helpers),i=i||{},'\n'})}), define("views/sound/sound-controls.css",["require","exports","module","css"],function(e,t,n,r){n.exports=r.stringToStyleElement(r.transform(".soundControls{height:80px;position:absolute;top:50%;left:0;right:0;margin-top:-40px;-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);pointer-events:none}.soundControls__control{background-position:0 0;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:100% auto;position:absolute;pointer-events:auto}.soundControls__prev,.soundControls__next{background-image:url(https://m.soundcloud.com/assets/images/ldpi/player/skip_button-e03e9a61.png);width:28px;height:19px;top:30px;opacity:0;-webkit-transition:opacity 2s cubic-bezier(1,.01,.81,1);transition:opacity 2s cubic-bezier(1,.01,.81,1)}.soundControls__prev{left:17px}.soundControls__next{right:17px;-webkit-transform:scaleX(-1);-ms-transform:scaleX(-1);transform:scaleX(-1)}.soundControls.disabled .soundControls__playPause,.soundControls.playing .soundControls__playPause:active,.soundControls.loading .soundControls__playPause:active{background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.5)}.soundControls.playing .soundControls__playPause,.soundControls.loading .soundControls__playPause{background-position:0 0}.soundControls__prev:active,.soundControls__next:active{background-position:0 -19px}.soundControls.disabled .soundControls__next,.soundControls.nextDisabled .soundControls__next,.soundControls.disabled .soundControls__prev,.soundControls.prevDisabled .soundControls__prev{display:none}.initialized .soundControls__playPause{opacity:0}.initializing .soundControls__next,.initializing .soundControls__prev,.paused .soundControls__next,.paused .soundControls__prev,.paused .soundControls__playPause{opacity:1}.paused .soundControls__next,.paused .soundControls__prev,.paused .soundControls__playPause{-webkit-transition:none;transition:none}.soundControls.scrubbing{display:none}")),data=null}), define("views/sound/sound-controls.tmpl",["vendor/handlebars-runtime"],function(){return require("vendor/handlebars-runtime").template(function(e,t,n,r,i){this.compilerInfo=[4,">= 1.0.0"],n=this.merge(n,e.helpers),i=i||{};var s="",o=this.escapeExpression;return s+=''+o(n.$a11y.call(t,{hash:{screenreader:n.$t.call(t,"Previous track",{hash:{_comment:"Help text on prev button"},data:i})},data:i}))+'\n'+o(n.$a11y.call(t,{hash:{screenreader:n.$t.call(t,"Play or pause track",{hash:{_comment:"Help text on play/pause button"},data:i})},data:i}))+'\n'+o(n.$a11y.call(t,{hash:{screenreader:n.$t.call(t,"Next track",{hash:{_comment:"Help text on next button"},data:i})},data:i}))+"\n",s})}), define("lib/views/mixins/fullscreen-loader",["require","exports","module","lib/views/loading","lib/mixin"],function(e,t,n){var r=e("lib/views/loading"),i=e("lib/mixin"),s=n.exports=new i({override:{LoadingView:r,loadingViewArgs:function(){return{size:"fullscreen"}}}})}), define("views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content",["require","exports","module","lib/helpers/client-environment-helper","lib/lingua","lib/native-links","lib/view","views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.tmpl","views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.css"],function(e,t,n){function a(e){this.bubble("closeButton:click")}function f(e){e.stopPropagation()}var r=e("lib/helpers/client-environment-helper").device,i=e("lib/lingua"),s=e("lib/native-links"),o=e("lib/view"),u=n.exports=o.extend({template:e("views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.tmpl"),css:e("views/interstitials/like-app-upsell-content.css"),className:"likeAppUpsellContent g-align-vertical",events:{"click .likeAppUpsellContent__closeButton":a,click:f},setup:function(e){this.el.className+=" "+r.brand},getTemplateData:function(e){var t=r.iOS?i.t("Get our iPhone app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more."):i.t("Get our Android app to save this track to your likes, create playlists and more.");return{upsellIcon:"https://m.soundcloud.com/assets/images/ldpi/interstitial/like-upsell/heart-android-280d5bc8.png",upsellHeader:i.t("Try our app.It's even better"),upsellContent:t,getLikeUpsellDeepLink:s.getLikeCountDeepLink}}})}), define("lib/views/mixins/swipeable",["require","exports","module","lib/mixin"],function(e,t,n){function s(e){var t=e.data.direction;t==="left"&&this.onSwipeLeft?this.onSwipeLeft():this.onSwipeRight&&this.onSwipeRight(),e.originalEvent.preventDefault()}var r=e("lib/mixin"),i=n.exports=new r({defaults:{swipeableSelector:null},after:{renderDecorate:function(){this.$el.on("swipe",this.swipeableSelector,s.bind(this))}}})}), define("views/sound/sound.css",["require","exports","module","css"],function(e,t,n,r){n.exports=r.stringToStyleElement(r.transform(".sound__info{position:absolute;z-index:1;top:20px;left:18px;right:18px}.sound__username{font-size:15px;line-height:22px}.sound__username a{color:#ccc}.sound__title{font-size:22px;line-height:1.3}.sound__controls{position:absolute;top:50%;left:0;right:0;height:80px;margin-top:-50px}.sound__infoContent{margin:0 0 4px}.sound__artwork,.sound__artworkOverlay{position:absolute;top:0;bottom:0;width:100%}.sound__artworkOverlay{height:100%;opacity:0;background:#000}.sound__playIndicator{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,-3px,0);transform:translate3d(0,-3px,0)}.sound__likes{color:#fff;position:absolute;bottom:12px;right:20px;line-height:39px;padding:0 10px 0 5px;font-size:14px}.sound__likes:before{width:35px;height:35px;background-image:url(https://m.soundcloud.com/assets/images/ldpi/player/like_button-280d5bc8.png);background-size:35px 35px}.iOS .sound__likes{right:auto;left:20px;border-radius:4px;height:33px;line-height:33px;background:rgba(0,0,0,.3);border:1px solid transparent}.sound.iOS.paused .sound__likes{background:none;border-color:rgba(255,255,255);border-color:rgba(255,255,255,.2)}.iOS .sound__likes:before{width:25px;height:25px;background-size:25px 25px;margin-top:4px}.sound.playing .sound__playIndicator{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0)}.sound__info.disabled>.sound__infoDisabled{display:block}.sound__infoDisabled{display:none;position:absolute;background:rgba(0,0,0,.2);top:0;left:0;right:0;bottom:0}.sound.paused .sound__artworkOverlay{opacity:.6}.sound.paused .sound__username,.sound.paused .sound__title{background:none;box-shadow:none}")),data=null}), define("views/sound/sound.tmpl",["vendor/handlebars-runtime","views/banner/banner","views/sound/waveform"],function(){return require("vendor/handlebars-runtime").template(function(e,t,n,r,i){function l(e,t){var r="";return r+=" "+u(n.$view.call(e,"views/banner/banner",{hash:{},data:t}))+"\n",r}function c(e,t){var r="",i;r+=" ",i=n.$view.call(e,"views/banner/banner",{hash:{},inverse:a.noop,fn:a.program(4,h,t),data:t});if(i||i===0)r+=i;return r+="\n",r}function h(e,t){var r="";return r+=" "+u(n.$t.call(e,"We're sorry, that track isn't available on mobile.",{hash:{},data:t}))+" ",r}function p(e,t){var r="",i;return r+=' '+u(n.$a11y.call(e,{hash:{visible:(i=e&&e.likes_count_info,i==null||i===!1?i:i.count),screenreader:(i=e&&e.likes_count_info,i==null||i===!1?i:i.fullMessage)},data:t}))+" \n",r}this.compilerInfo=[4,">= 1.0.0"],n=this.merge(n,e.helpers),i=i||{};var s="",o,u=this.escapeExpression,a=this,f="function";s+='\n'+u((o=t&&t.title,typeof o===f?o.apply(t):o))+'
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VIDEO- Are Armed White Men a Bigger Threat to the US Than ISIS? - YouTube
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:57
VIDEO-Scuffles in Cologne as rival groups hold demonstrations over immigration | euronews, world news
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 05:05
"All of a sudden these men around us began groping us. They touched our behinds and grabbed between our legs"
Scuffles have broken out between far-right activists and anti-fascist protesters in the German city of Cologne, with police attempting to keep them apart.
The right-wing groups have condemned the government's welcoming of refugees after the city's police chief told the media that people of Arab or North African origin were behind New Year's Eve attacks.
Almost 100 women have reported being robbed, assaulted and sexually molested, but the government has warned against putting foreigners and refugees under what they call ''blanket suspicion''.
Increasingly under pressure over immigration policies, even from within her own political fold, the German Chancellor has been attempting to answer her critics.
Today Angela Merkel said it was important to achieve a ''noticeable reduction in the flow of refugees''.
She said they had to work on the causes but also look at measures such as improved repatriation of rejected asylum seekers.
Protesters have been condemning violence against women after the New Year's Eve attacks, while police say three suspects have so far been identified.
One victim of the attack told reporters: ''All of a sudden these men around us began groping us.
''They touched our behinds and grabbed between our legs. They touched us everywhere. When I turned around one guy grabbed my bag and ripped it off me.''
Another victim said: ''They felt like they had power and could do anything with the women who were out in the street partying.
''They touched us everywhere. It was so horrible.''
As Angela Merkel expressed shock over the attacks, the Mayor of Cologne said there was no reason to believe the perpetrators were refugees.
VIDEO-Seeing The Price Of Oil Going Up Other Oil Rich Countries Join Saudi Arabia In Bashing Iran - YouTube
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 04:56
VIDEO-We Don't Use The Word Terrorists Because We're Talking About WHITE Americans Here! - YouTube
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 04:49
VIDEO-First Images Of North Korea "Hydrogen Bomb" Test - YouTube
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 04:45
VIDEO-CNN Hypes 'Vanilla ISIS,' 'Yeehadist' Labels of Anti-Federal Protest | MRCTV
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 04:28
[More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.]
On the 4 January 2016 edition of CNN Newsroom, Deborah Feyerick touted how anonymous "critics" were likening Ammon Bundy's group that took over a wildlife refuge facility in Oregon to Islamist terrorists: "Everybody remembers Ruby Ridge...and the government certainly does not want something like that. But...critics are arguing that if this was another group...there are different hashtags out there now mocking this group, calling them 'Vanilla ISIS;' calling them 'Yeehadists'....if this were members of ISIS...who had taken over a facility, is it fair to say the response would, in fact, be very, very different?"
Correspondent Sara Sidner first cited such chatter on social media during her report on the armed protest: "They've been here for now two days '-- going into a third day '-- and that has a lot of folks talking on social media, as you might imagine. There's a lot of criticism '-- saying, well, if there were armed militia that took over, for example, another kind of government building, and they happen to be African-American; or they happen to be Muslims '-- that the response would be very different. We can't say that."
VIDEO-Joy Behar: I'd Vote for a Rapist as Long as They're Liberal | MRCTV
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 04:06
[See NewsBusters for more.] The View's Joy Behar on Tuesday insisted that, regardless of whether Bill Clinton raped a woman or Ted Kennedy drowned someone, she would vote for these liberal politicians. Behar and her fellow co-hosts were discussing how Clinton's past would impact his wife. She justified, ''Republicans have voted against the Violence Against Women Act. Now, that to me, is more important than anything that Bill Clinton did or didn't do because it's what she's going to vote for." This came after co-host Paula Faris reminded, ''Juanita Broaddrick, Kathleen Willey. They say that he either exposed himself to them, raped them or groped them. These are three accusations.'' Behar conceded, ''He is a dog. Let's face it.''
VIDEO-President Obama Remarks Gun Control Executive | Video | C-SPAN.org
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 03:57
January 5, 2016President Obama outlined his executive actions on guns, calling for what he said was a national ''sense of urgency'' to help'... read more
President Obama outlined his executive actions on guns, calling for what he said was a national ''sense of urgency'' to help reduce gun violence.'‚His actions included requiring all gun retailers to conduct background checks, strengthening existing gun laws, improving gun safety technology, and increasing investments to help the mentally ill.'‚President Obama was introduced by Mark Barden, whose son, Daniel, was one of the victims of the 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut.'‚The president became emotional when talking about the children who died then. close
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*This transcript was compiled from uncorrected Closed Captioning.
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VIDEO-CNN Boosts Guest's Racial 'Double Standard' Claim About Anti-Federal Protest | MRCTV
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 03:36
[More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.]
The 5 January 2015 edition of CNN Newsroom gave a platform to left-wing commentator David Love, who asserted in a Monday column for theGrio.com that "if Black Lives Matter protesters were to take over a federal building armed to the teeth with firepower '-- and they certainly would not do this '-- they would wind up dead or in prison for life on terrorism charges." Love criticized the handling of an armed occupation of a federal wildlife refuge in Oregon: "It seems that this country has a double standard. I would say it's a color-coded system when it comes to defining terrorism."
VIDEO-CBS Goes All Out for Obama on Guns; Tears Offered 'Silence More Powerful Than Words' | MRCTV
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 03:32
See more in the cross-post on the NewsBusters blog.
24 hours after heralding President Obama revealing specifics on his executive actions concerning gun control, the CBS Evening News offered a full-court press for the President on Tuesday following the announcement that saw the President shed tears that anchor Scott Pelley deemed were ''more powerful than words'' as ''the most powerful man in the world'' took ''action to stop'' gun violence.
The newscast opened with the normal teases, but began without the program's theme music and instead audio of a silent White House as the President wept before Pelley interjected: ''With silence more powerful than words, the President mourns victims of gun violence and takes action to stop it.''
VIDEO-NBC's Today Set to Air Obama Infomercial Live From White House | MRCTV
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 02:43
More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.
At the top of Wednesday's NBC Today, co-host Matt Lauer teased an ''exciting'' announcement about the morning show preparing to broadcast from a new location far from its New York studio. Fellow co-host Savannah Guthrie added: ''Yeah, the whole show is headed somewhere. We'll have more on that in a minute.''
At 7:30 ET Guthrie proclaimed: ''We promised a big announcement. Here it is. You see the White House there. Next Tuesday, in a morning show first, we are going to broadcast our entire show there. This is unprecedented.''
VIDEO-ABC Hypes Obama on Guns: 'America's Parent-in-Chief' | MRCTV
Thu, 07 Jan 2016 02:37
[See NewsBusters for more.] According to Nightline co-anchor Byron Pitts, Barack Obama is ''America's parent-in-chief'' when it comes to guns. The ABC journalist on Tuesday night hyped the President's White House speech: ''Camera clicks the only sound in the White House east room as the normally stoic President Obama openly wept and paused to compose himself.'' Pitts declared, ''It was a rare glimpse at America's parent-in-chief.''
VIDEO-Fox host: President Obama put a 'raw onion' in his podium so he could cry fake tears for kids killed by guns
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 20:55
Cruz campaign official says Christians must take over public schools to stop 'deception of the seed'
Fox host: President Obama put a 'raw onion' in his podium so he could cry fake tears for kids killed by guns
'This is a nightmare': Black residents fume as Alabama city backs 'Confederate commander' police chief
Stephen Colbert rips Go-Gurt-slurping Oregon militants at 'Ammon Bundy Preserve for the Armed and Cranky'
WATCH: Kentucky man shouts 'punk a** n****r' at black judge '-- and gets slapped with 60 days in jail
Oklahoma official opposes LGBT housing protections because gays might try living over his garage
'What are you talking about!?' CNN debate goes off the rails as liberal guest pummels pro-gun conservative
Maddow's side-by-side Trump vs. George Wallace comparison is so spot-on it's scary
Oregon militant Ryan Bundy insists he's not a terrorist '-- but he doesn't even know what that word means
Cop savagely beats Hawaiian man after he performs native 'healing prayer' near seal on the beach
VIDEO-Exclusive: Inside an Islamic State Terror Weapons Lab - YouTube
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 20:51
VIDEO-Germans shaken by New Year attacks on women in Cologne | Reuters
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 20:16
Tue Jan 5, 2016 | 4:28 PM EST
By Madeline Chambers
BERLIN (Reuters) - About 90 women have reported being robbed, threatened or sexually molested at New Year celebrations outside Cologne's cathedral by young, mostly drunk, men, police said on Tuesday, in events they have described as 'a new dimension in crime'.
Cologne police chief Wolfgang Albers told a news conference officers described the men as looking as if they were from "the Arab or North African region" and mostly between 18 and 35 years old. "We have one complaint that represents a rape," he added.
Integration commissioner Aydan Ozoguz warned against putting foreigners and refugees, hundreds of thousands of whom have entered Germany largely from Middle Eastern war zones, under "blanket suspicion".
Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed shock over the attacks that police said occurred when about 1,000 men split into gangs as officers cleared a square to stop fireworks being thrown from the top of steps into the crowd below.
While politicians also urged people not to become wary of all refugees, the incident fueled calls from right-wing groups to stop letting in migrants.
Germany took in just over a million last year, far more than any other European country.
Cologne mayor Henriette Reker said it was "unbelievable and intolerable what happened on New Year's Eve" but there was no reason to believe those involved in the attacks were refugees.
Justice Minister Heiko Maas said Germany would not accept such attacks which he described as "a new scale of organized crime".
Around 150 people gathered in front of Cologne's cathedral on Tuesday evening to protest against violence against women. One of them held a sign saying: "Ms Merkel where are you? What do you say? This scares us!"
"TOUGH RESPONSE"
The right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD), which has gained in polls in part at Merkel's expense thanks to a campaign against refugees, said she should close the border.
"Mrs Merkel, is Germany 'colorful and cosmopolitan' enough for you after the wave of crimes and sexual attacks?" tweeted AfD chief Frauke Petry.
Merkel told Reker in a phone call the attacks deserved a tough response.
"Everything must be done to investigate those responsible as quickly and completely as possible and punish them, regardless of where they are from," she said, according to her spokesman.
There are almost daily attacks on refugee shelters.
"Events like that in Cologne foster xenophobia," said Roland Schaefer, head of Germany's association of towns and localities.
After a crisis meeting, Cologne mayor Reker said new steps would be taken to avoid a repeat, including increasing police numbers at big events and installing more security cameras.
She stressed that women must feel safe at traditional carnival celebrations next month when the city closes down for five days of drunken street parades and parties.
Reker was stabbed in the neck and seriously hurt in October, just a day before she was elected mayor. Police said that attack appeared to be motivated by her support for refugees.
(Additional reporting by Joseph Nasr and Matthias Sobolewski in Berlin and Andreas Kranz in Cologne; Editing by Ruth Pitchford)
VIDEO-Montage: In 33-Minute Speech on Guns, Obama Refers to Himself 76 Times :: Grabien - The Multimedia Marketplace
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 20:00
While announcing his new executive actions on guns, President Obama spoke today about the pain of having to give speeches after mass shootings. He also spoke about meeting Gabby Giffords shortly after she was shot, and noted that she opened her eyes for the first time just an hour after his visit.
He spoke about his support for the Second Amendment, his background as a constitutional law professor, his critics, his frequent trouble locating his iPad, and perhaps most memorably, his anger when thinking about child victims of mass shootings.
If it's starting to sound like Obama made frequent mention of himself, that's because he did.
In total, we counted 76 references to himself during his 33-minute address.
Note that in arriving at this calculation, we included mentions of "we" when he was clearly including himself as part of the plural pronoun; the many uses of "we" in referring to America at large were not included. "Me," "myself," and "our" were also included.
Did we miscount? Feel free to let us know in the comments section.
[Note: We've also posted this montage to Facebook, if you'd like to share it there.]
Earlier:
Oct. 1st, 2015: In 12 Minute Speech to America About Mass Shooting, Obama Refers to Himself 28 Times
Jan. 27th, 2015: In India, Watch Obama Refer to Himself 118 Times in a 33-Minute Speech
VIDEO-TSA Screener - Excessive Pat-Downs - YouTube
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 19:13
VIDEO-Cologne attacks: Mayor's 'arm's length' advice slammed - CNN.com
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 18:09
Germany has been shocked by the apparently coordinated crime wave, in which Cologne police received more than 100 criminal complaints from women who said they had been sexually assaulted or robbed by gangs of men of Arab or North African appearance in the city center during New Year's Eve festivities. Cologne police would not elaborate Wednesday on the total number of crimes reported, as the figure continued to rise.
Police have said that about a quarter of the complaints related to sexual assaults, including a rape, and that they believed the assaults were probably intended to distract the victims, allowing attackers to steal mobile phones and other devices.
Three suspects had been identified and were being questioned, a police representative told CNN. Police were working through a large amount of cellphone footage from the evening to identify further suspects.
Similar attacks were reported in Hamburg on New Year's Eve, with 39 reported sexual assaults and 14 robberies, according to police in the city, while police in Stuttgart said two women had reported their phones were missing after they were assaulted by a group of men of Arab appearance during New Year's festivities there.
Read more: Reports of New Year's Eve sex assaults in Cologne fuel German migrant debate
Mayor's comments slammedThe crimes, which an outraged German Chancellor Angela Merkel labeled "disgusting" and Cologne's police chief described as offenses "of a totally new dimension," have sparked a firestorm in Germany.
The episode has prompted angry protests, fueled public debate about Germany's welcoming stance to migrants and unleashed a wave of anger at authorities and the media for their perceived reticence in addressing the crimes, out of a misplaced sense of political correctness.
Cologne Mayor Henriette Reker appeared to pour oil on the fire with her remarks at a news conference Tuesday, at which she addressed the New Year's crimes and discussed plans to issue guidelines for behavior during Cologne's famous Carnival next month, when hundreds of thousands of revelers are expected on the city's streets.
When asked how women could protect themselves, she suggested keeping "a certain distance of more than an arm's length" from unknown men.
She reiterated her advice at an appearance on German public service broadcaster ZDF's "Heute Journal" program Tuesday, when she said: "Women would also be smart not to go and embrace everyone that you meet and who seems to be nice. Such offers could be misunderstood, and that is something every woman and every girl should protect herself from."
'An arm's length'Her comments were met with derision on social media, with the hashtag #einearmlaenge ("an arm's length") circulating to mock her suggestion for appearing to place responsibility for the attacks on the victims.
German Justice Minister Heiko Maas addresses the assaults in Cologne.
German Justice Minister Heiko Maas was also critical of the comments, tweeting: "I don't think much of the how-to-behave tips for women such as #anarm'slength. It is not women who are responsible, but the perpetrators."
Reker later issued a statement in response to the criticism, saying that media coverage had given the impression that her prevention initiatives were limited to behavior tips for women, which was not the case.
She had also explained at the news conference Tuesday the need "to explain to people from other cultures that the jolly and frisky attitude during our Carnival is not a sign of sexual openness."
Broadcaster: 'It was our failure'German broadcaster ZDF also issued an apology Tuesday for failing to report on the attacks in a timely fashion on its "Heute Journal" show, after criticism that the media had neglected to adequately cover the incidents because of sensitivities concerning the alleged ethnic identities of the assailants.
In a statement, deputy editor Elmar Thevessen said the network had failed by not reporting on the attacks during the Monday evening broadcast.
"It was our failure that the news broadcast at 7 p.m. did not inform about the attacks on New Year's Eve," read the statement.
"The editorial department of 'Heute' decided to delay the report until today because of an emergency meeting to gain time for additional interviews. This, however, was a clear misjudgment."
'They touched us everywhere'German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere also criticized Cologne police for their handling of the incident Wednesday, saying in a news conference that police "cannot work that way."
Victims of the assaults in Cologne said this week that they feared being killed or raped by the attackers. One woman said she was too scared to go out alone after the ordeal.
"The men surrounded us and started to grab our behinds and touch our crotches," she said.
"They touched us everywhere. I wanted to take my friend and leave. I turned around, and in that moment, someone grabbed my bag."
Germany has taken the largest numbers of migrants from the influx that has created a crisis on Europe's borders, but many Germans have expressed opposition to the sudden arrival of so many, predominantly Muslim, migrants, questioning their ability to adapt to a European way of life.
Read more: Germany's anti-migrant protest: 'We don't want to be strangers in our own country'
Read more: Europe's migration crisis
CNN's Carol Jordan, Frederik Pleitgen, Atika Shubert and Claudia Otto contributed to this report.
VIDEO-Stocks hit by China woes, nuclear test
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 17:16
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Algeria's Tattooed womenMon, Jan 04, 2016 -(1:01)
What did you Google in 2015?Thu, Dec 31, 2015 -(0:35)
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Talking Climate COP21Sun, Dec 13, 2015 -(1:48)
Reuters Pictures of the Year 2015Wed, Dec 09, 2015 -(1:33)
The disappearance of Aletsch GlacierThu, Dec 03, 2015 -(1:00)
Images of NovemberMon, Nov 30, 2015 -(1:01)
The disappearance of Lake PowellMon, Nov 30, 2015 -(1:14)
The Utmost Bliss Dharma AssemblyFri, Nov 27, 2015 -(1:06)
The universe in false color imageryFri, Nov 27, 2015 -(0:41)
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The legacy of Hurricane KatrinaFri, Aug 28, 2015 -(2:38)
China's only childrenThu, Oct 29, 2015 -(0:48)
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TIMELAPSE: Disney's 60th anniversary parade of...Wed, May 27, 2015 -(1:22)
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VIDEO-New video message from Ḥarakat al-Shabāb al-MujāhidÄn: ''The Path to Paradise: From the Twin Cities to the Land of the Two Migrations
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 16:57
Jihadology is a personal project of Aaron Y. Zelin and is not associated with The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.
SearchTranslationsTo inquire about translations for a fee email: azelin [at] jihadology [dot] net
Follow Blog via EmailArchivesArchivesCategoriesCategoriesRecent PodcastsNew NashÄd from al-Qā'idah in the Arabian Peninsula's AbÅ Fāris: ''Our Martyrs''January 6, 2016New video message from Ḥarakat al-Shabāb al-MujāhidÄn: ''In Remembrance #13'"January 6, 2016New video message from Ḥizb al-IslāmÄ al-TurkistānÄ in Bilād al-Shām: ''Dr. 'Abd Allah bin Muḥammad al-MuḥaysinÄ: Virtues of the TurkistānÄ MujāhidÄn in al-Shām''January 4, 2016New release from the MujāhidÄn in the Philippines: ''Bay'ah to the Caliph of the Muslims AbÅ Bakr al-BaghdādÄ''January 4, 2016New video message from Anṣār al-SharÄ'ah in the Arabian Peninsula: ''Appeals of the ḤÅthÄ Prisoners #2'"January 4, 2016New video message from Jabhat al-Nuá¹£rah: ''Aspects of the Progress of the Battle Upon the Fronts of Marj al-Sulṭān in Eastern al-GhÅá¹­ah''January 3, 2016New video message from Jabhat al-Nuá¹£rah: ''Scenes From the Raid Upon the Nuá¹£ayrÄ in Burj al-Qaá¹£ab''January 3, 2016New release from Jabhat al-Nuá¹£rah's Dr. SāmÄ al 'UraydÄ: ''Music to the Ears of the Worshippers With the ÄḥādÄth of the Prophet in the Education of the Children''January 3, 2016New statement from KatÄbat 'Uqbah Ibn Nāfi': ''And Dismounting of the Knight Shaykh al-BulaydÄ: Condolences on the Martyrdom of Shaykh al-BulaydÄ''January 3, 2016New article from KatÄbat 'Uqbah Ibn Nāfi's ḤafÄd 'Uqbah Ibn Nāfi: ''Guidance With Insights: About What Happened From the Article of Shaykh Mājid al-Rāshid About the Algerian Jihād''January 2, 2016New statement from the 'Abd Allah 'Azzām Brigades: ''On the Execution By the Sa'ÅdÄ Government of Some of the Students of Knowledge and the MujāhidÄn''January 2, 2016New release from AbÅ Yaḥyā al-LÄbÄ: ''Private Message to AbÅ 'Umar al-BagdādÄ''January 2, 2016New statement from the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan: ''Regarding the Passing Away of the Late SayyÄd Muḥammad ḤaqqānÄ''January 2, 2016New video message from Anṣār al-SharÄ'ah in the Arabian Peninsula: ''Appeals of the ḤÅthÄ Prisoners #1''January 1, 2016New video message from Ḥarakat al-Shabāb al-MujāhidÄn: ''The Path to Paradise: From the Twin Cities to the Land of the Two Migrations #2''January 1, 2016New statement from al-MuhājirÅn: ''al-Shām Calls for the Islamic Nation to a General Mobilization''January 1, 2016New NashÄd from al-Qā'idah in the Arabian Peninsula's AbÅ Bakr: ''Oh Gun Artillery''January 1, 2016New audio message from the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan's Shaykh al-ḤadÄth MawlāwÄ Naáº'ār Muḥammad: ''Regarding Conciliation of Several 'Ulamā' With the Leader of the Islamic Emirate''January 1, 2016New video message from the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan: ''Conquest of Marjah''January 1, 2016New statement from Ḥarakat al-Shabāb al-MujāhidÄn: ''The 'Ulamā': The Heirs of the Prophets: Condolences on the Martyrdom of Shaykh RashÄd al-BulaydÄ''January 1, 2016Copyright NoticeCopyright (C) Aaron Y. Zelin and Jihadology.net. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of original material without express and written permission from this blog's author is strictly prohibited. Content may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Aaron Y. Zelin and Jihadology.net with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.
VIDEO-Remarks by Special Presidential Envoy to the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL Brett McGurk Before the Daily Press Briefing
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 16:54
Brett McGurkSpecial Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition To Counter ISIL, Office of the Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL
MR KIRBY: Good afternoon, everybody. I have a special guest here to start the briefing today. In just a couple minutes, the Special Presidential Envoy to the Coalition to Counter ISIL Brett McGurk, someone you know '' you all know very, very well, is going to come up here and take the podium. He's going to give you an update on the counter-ISIL campaign for a few minutes, and then he'll be able to stick around as well to take a few questions, just a few. I'll be moderating those questions, so please look to me and I'll be calling on you. We won't have time to take too many, but we'll take a few, and then I'll get back up here and we'll do the rest of the daily briefing after Mr. McGurk leaves. With that, Brett.
MR MCGURK: Thanks, John. So thanks for seeing me today. I thought what I would do '' I was here a couple months ago or so, or six weeks ago, and gave an overview of kind of what we're trying to do, about eight or nine different points of pressure, and how what we call lines of effort kind of come together and what we do throughout the government to try to put pressure on ISIL. And what I thought I'd do is just give an update on where we are kind of as we look around the periphery of this phony self-proclaimed caliphate, and then finish a little bit with Ramadi and kind of the significant events that happened over the '' over the holiday.
This, of course, as I briefed in detail last time, this is ISIL core '' Iraq, Syria. That does not lessen the importance of the networks. We think of ISIL in terms of the core, the networks, and then the affiliates, their eight affiliates. And we're constantly trying to pressure all of these things at once, but you really have to focus on the core. I think as the President said, focused on the heart, which we're doing.
So I would just start '' I'll go around the horn kind of clockwise. It's in no particular order, but I think that's the easiest way to do it. The number one on the map '' and first, what this map indicates, and this is only in November so it's '' it would have been changed since then. But the green on the map represents territory that ISIL has lost over the last year to 18 months or so. In Iraq, it's about 40 percent of its territory. So you can see the kind of shrinkage, and that's going to, we think, increase over the coming months. It's already increased, actually, quite significantly just since this map was put out in November. The dark red represents areas that they have gained over the last 18 months, and so there are some areas of concern that we look at on the map, which we're focused on with our partners and in the coalition effort.
But let me start at the number one. This is the 98-kilometer strip of border with Turkey that we talk about quite a bit. If you see to the east of the Euphrates all that green, we've taken away that entire border from ISIL. They controlled the entire thing about a little over a year ago. If I was here around the time of Kobani, there's just a little teeny, teeny dot of green about five square blocks in the town of Kobani. Since then, obviously, a dramatically changed situation, and it's going to continue to change dramatically against ISIL's interests over the coming months.
On one, that 98-kilometer strip of border, it's not only what we're doing across the border in Syria, but most significantly and most significantly in this building, the diplomacy with Turkey and focused on the Turks and really closing up that 98-kilometer border. And since we were at the G20 with President Obama '' had a very good meeting with President Erdogan about this very issue '' we have seen the Turks take some significant steps in terms of setting up defensive perimeters, more patrols. Much harder for ISIL to get resources into this very critical area. We're continuing that engagement now. I think the Chairman Dunford, General Dunford is in Turkey this week. The Vice President will be heading out to Turkey later this month, and we have teams of experts, particularly from DHS, who are heading out to Turkey to talk about this very critical stretch of border. Because you take ISIL away from that border, it is a truly self-contained entity and a very different problem.
So that's a true kind of interagency effort. There's a military side. What we're doing '' that little splotch of dark red, we call that the Mari line. I talked about that last time. We think we've checked the western advance of ISIL and beginning to push a little bit to the east. I also mentioned last time how the Russian air campaign has made that a little more complicated, and that's something that we're continuing to deal with. But we are still, as my DOD colleagues can speak to, still flying in that area, still doing strikes almost every single day, and pressuring ISIL in that critical area.
Number two is kind of east of the Euphrates, a very different situation, but it's also the core ISIL '' core of its phony caliphate in Raqqa, its self-proclaimed capital. And what we're going to be doing over the coming weeks and months is just squeezing them and constricting them in this area and really isolating the core of Raqqa. Again, it's not only a military effort, though that gets most of the attention and rightfully so, but it's a dramatic fusion of all the information we bring across the government.
So I think my colleague, Amos Hochstein, was here to brief you a couple weeks ago to talk about a lot of what we're doing here. The number two on that map is over at Al-Hal, and that has moved a lot more green since this map was put out. And that's a coalition of Syrian Kurds and Arabs that have made pretty dramatic gains against ISIL in that area, taking about 500 square miles from them. And that was organized simultaneously and a lot of diplomatic kind of really shoe leather diplomacy from this building to work with the Iraqi Kurds and the Peshmerga and the Syrian Kurds to get this whole thing synchronized, and that all kicked off late last fall through the winter. Simultaneous operations on the Syrian side of the border at Al-Hal, moving a little bit more south, and then the Peshmerga retaking Shaddadi to cut that entire road from Raqqa to Mosul.
Similar, before I go to Iraq, operations that happened just over the '' over December cutting off '' you can't see it in this map, but if you go, like, right here is all green now '' taking the primary supply corridor of ISIL from this area here into Raqqa. The Tishreen dam is now no longer in their hands, so they have to go all the way around. It's one just one effort of how we're going to continue to isolate and constrict in Raqqa.
As we do that, and as I think I mentioned last time, and our friends in the intelligence community and also in this building constantly looking to see how they adapt. As they come under pressure, they do stupid things. We're able to see who they are and then our military colleagues are able to, with quite devastating effect, strike them in their heart in Raqqa. And the high-value targets we continue to strike in Raqqa. Just the day before Christmas, we killed an individual who you know was directly linked to the Paris attacks.
So that's all going to continue and that's a fused effort across the interagency from here, DOD, our intelligence community, Treasury, across the board.
Before I leave Syria, the last point that '' and Deir al-Zor and that Euphrates Valley that's kind of the heart of their economic infrastructure, and again, I think Amos spoke in some detail with this about you, but we know more about ISIL's economy now than we ever did before, and we're putting all of that information to very good effect. So I think you'll see over the coming weeks and months more news coming out on that area.
If I just go into Iraq very quickly around the horn, there's Sinjar, which is number four. Sinjar, of course, is where a lot of this burst onto the public consciousness with Mount Sinjar and the Yezidis. That's the heart of that area and our Peshmerga friends were able to retake Sinjar last month. So Sinjar is now a real humanitarian kind of coalition effort to try to get the resources in place to restore, reconstruct, and get people back into their homes in Sinjar. That is a huge, huge challenge, because one thing that ISIL does when they take over these areas, they booby-trap houses, they booby-trap public infrastructure, and before they leave they either make the area almost impossible to re-inhabit or they blow up buildings as they're leaving.
So Sinjar is now an enormous challenge. We'll be meeting as a coalition in early February '' I don't think this is '' but Secretary Kerry meeting with kind of key coalition members to talk about what we have to do now over the next three to four months, bringing the coalition together and the resources for the humanitarian and the stabilization challenges. So more to follow on that.
Mosul, which is just north of the number five '' Mosul '' people ask, ''When is Mosul going to begin?'' Mosul has kind of already started, but you've got to think of it of a rolling kind of campaign to isolate and squeeze, learn more about the information about what's happening there, but also a very heavy diplomatic-political effort to get the Iraqi Government in Baghdad working with the Kurdish Peshmerga and the Kurdish Regional Government to kind of work together to figure out how to do Mosul, because Mosul is very complicated. There's Shia, Sunni, Arab, Kurd; kind of everybody is there together, and we want to make sure everything is synchronized and working together, and that has now really started. We have a joint operations command center set up in Makhmur, and our diplomats and our ambassador in Baghdad is constantly shuttling between Baghdad and Erbil, and we've had very good cooperation with President Barzani in Erbil and with Prime Minister Abadi about planning Mosul.
When I was in Iraq last week, one of my critical meetings was with the new governor of Nineveh province, so we have a new governor in Nineveh province who's very actively engaged about planning and coordinating how to constrict and isolate Mosul. So more to follow on that, but it's really focused on isolating, constricting, getting this kind of coherence and cohesiveness together. And I think that '' you'll see that come together again over the coming months.
Going south in Tikrit, Tikrit now is kind of where everything comes together. We've learned an awful lot of lessons about Tikrit. ISIL, when they moved into Tikrit in the summer of 2014, totally depopulated the city. They committed mass atrocities, killing thousands of people, putting it up on YouTube. The retaking of Tikrit was incredibly challenging, just given some of the forces that were involved. And when it was eventually retaken, again, it was a situation where the population was almost entirely gone, the city was almost destroyed, and we had to work closely with the Iraqi Government and with the United Nations and with the local leaders in Salahuddin province. And what we did '' a very active 24/7 effort over a number of months, based out of Baghdad '' our embassy '' and also folks here at the State Department, to put together the plan about how we can begin to bring the population back to Tikrit. It looked like a very daunting task at the time, the kind of thing that looks impossible to do. But if you look at it now, according to the UN statistics, about 90 percent of the population has come back to Tikrit. Tikrit University, which was a headquarters of ISIL not too long ago, is reopening, and it's reopening thanks to funds donated by the coalition; about 16,000 students returning to the University of Tikrit, something that would have been unimaginable not too long ago.
We've learned a lot of lessons of Tikrit about how to do stabilization, about how to work with the central government in Baghdad and the local authorities to get people back safely. And those are lessons we're now building on.
So I'll finish just on Ramadi. Ramadi's significant because it was really the first significant test for the Iraqi Security Forces that we have helped reorganize and retrain as a coalition. When Ramadi fell in May, it was a real kind of shock to the Iraqis. Ramadi had been under threat when ISIL first moved into Ramadi on January 1, 2014 '' six months before Mosul, to kind of put this in perspective. It had been contested, constant fighting. And after a massive car bomb wave, when the forces left, it was something that was a real shock.
Prime Minister Abadi immediately engaged with us, engaged with the coalition, and said I'm going to put together a plan to retake Ramadi as soon as we can. We met at the White House within about 36 hours with President Obama and we said we're going to look to see what we do and we're going to help the Iraqis try to retake Ramadi. Again, at the time, it looked like quite a daunting challenge.
If you go back to that time and you look at the sequence of decisions that were made, the President made a critical decision on the recommendation of the Secretary of Defense and the chairman to deploy U.S. Special Forces to Taqaddum Air Base, not far from Ramadi, and they got out there very, very soon. And this is right between Fallujah and Ramadi, a really heroic mission those guys took on to advise and assist the Iraqi Security Forces, to reorganize, to think about what are they going to need, and then to begin to plan a counterattack on Ramadi. And I mean, those guys, you just can't speak enough about what they were able to do in terms of the influence they have and the capabilities that they can bring to bear.
Every single time now against ISIL that we have advised and assisted an Iraqi operation, or any operation against ISIL, ISIL has not only been defeated, they've been just totally routed. So we kind of have the combination of what works, and Ramadi was the most difficult test for this. I think Colonel Warren in Baghdad said it's the most difficult thing the Iraqis have done on their own as a military force really since 2003. That's true. And it was a real, so far '' and there's some ways to go '' but it's a success and it's a point that even when the Iraqis are taking casualties '' they've taken over 1,000 casualties in this counterattack '' they have continued to advance, they've continued to fight, and they've continued to liberate their territory.
Commensurate with the counterattack was a very active effort learning and building on the lessons of Tikrit to work with the Iraqi Government and to work with the local officials in Anbar province, with the tribes, with the governor to mobilize local forces, to hold areas, and to put together the stabilization plan.
So shortly after Ramadi fell, we met in Paris with Secretary Kerry and the main ministers of the coalition, with Prime Minister Abadi. And I have to admit, it was a kind of a dark cloud moment because Ramadi had just fallen. And Abadi told the ministers of the coalition, ''I want your help. I need to retake Ramadi. Here's how we're going to do it, but we need help. We need resources.'' And the coalition really responded.
I put out a letter for New Year's kind of to the coalition, which we put up just kind of listing about the number of coalition partners that stepped up at that critical moment, not only with military support but also with stabilization and reconstruction support.
And so what Abadi did at that critical time was delegated an awful lot of authority to the local leadership of Anbar province. We now have authorization for 10,000 tribal fighters in Anbar province. There is authorization for 24,000 police in Anbar province. The new Iraqi budget in 2016 has 20,000 new positions for the Iraqi army, which are very important. We think many of those will come from Anbar province as these areas are liberated.
So as the clearing went into Ramadi, we worked at the same time and in parallel with the stabilization and the hold and the resources to bring people back to their homes. Now, because Ramadi was fought over for almost two years, you can imagine that most of the city has been quite devastated in the fighting. Booby-trapped houses, I think the number of IEDs just since '' this is just a statistic to give you an indication '' since the 28th of December, so about a week ago, 2,316 IEDs were deactivated by a single IED unit that we helped advise and assist out of Habbaniyah base, which is near Taqaddum.
So that just gives you a sense of what has to be done here and how difficult this is, and the skills and the expertise that it takes to actually clear these areas. But the fact that we have a central government in Baghdad delegating authority to the leaders of Anbar province, we have a coalition supporting this effort, we've learned a lot of lessons from Tikrit '' and so we feel that a lot of the pieces are in place to begin to move to the stabilization phase, however recognizing just how difficult this is going to be.
As ISIL is defeated in areas, we see what they do. They come with waves of car bomb attacks and try to restore kind of some of their luster in the headlines. But unlike the days '' and I've been doing this a long time '' where they would come with 10 car bombs and then they would come with an infantry assault to retake territory, hold it, that's not really happening anymore. They're coming with a bunch of car bombs, many of which we're now stopping because of the military capabilities that our partners in DOD have provided to the Iraqis. But they're not then coming with the assault force. It's just '' it's not the kind of '' it's a much '' it's a degraded organization compared to what we've seen before. That said, there's a ways '' there's still a ways to go.
So I just wanted to give you an update on '' because I went last time about this simultaneous pressure campaign and what we're working to do, and I think the result to that '' I mean, we check it every single day '' but I'd like to come check in with you every couple months just to talk about different areas and what we're seeing, some things that are going well and then some things that, obviously, there will be setbacks along the way. None of this is going to be linear.
But overall, that's what we're trying to do. Ramadi was a key test. It'll remain a key test. I think it's still a big place. The entire city is not entirely cleared. The IED statistic I mentioned just gives you some indication of what we still need to do. And after Ramadi, there will be a number of follow-on steps because this thing is far from over. I was in the region last month '' in UAE and Jordan and Iraq '' talking about the kind of next steps in the campaign and what we need to do. And I think we have some coherence and some commonality of vision, but it'll remain a very challenging and very difficult fight.
So with that, I think I'll turn it over for any questions.
MR KIRBY: We'll start with you, Matt.
QUESTION: Thanks. I'm just curious if you have seen or are concerned about any complications from the Saudi-Iran flare-up causing any sectarian tensions; if you see any complications to the synchronization, as you called it, of the effort in Iraq.
MR MCGURK: Yeah, Matt, no '' thanks. It's a great question, and so far, we have not seen any impact on the overall ISIL campaign. As you know, I mean, Secretary Kerry here was on the phone almost all day yesterday. We are encouraging a de-escalation because anytime you have regional polarization, regional escalation, it obviously can cause difficulties and it opens up seams for extremists on all sides to take advantage of the situation. So there were reports yesterday of a couple mosques that were targeted. The governor of Iraq immediately responded to that.
So I would say so far, we have not seen that type of impact on the overall campaign, but obviously, it's something that we're concerned about and that's why the Secretary's been spending so much of his time on it.
MR KIRBY: Arshad.
QUESTION: Are Saudi aircraft taking part in strikes against ISIL targets?
MR MCGURK: I'd have to refer to DOD. I know the last time the Saudis took an airstrike against ISIL in Syria '' as you know, they've been heavily engaged in Yemen, but some of our other partners, the Jordanians and others, have been '' continue to strike ISIL targets in Syria.
QUESTION: Are you aware of one recently?
MR MCGURK: A Saudi strike against ISIL in Syria?
QUESTION: In Syria.
MR MCGURK: As I said, I think the Saudi '' they have their capabilities, their bandwidth is pretty stretched with Yemen. So I can't say when the last time they took a strike in Syria, but of all our partners, you have to look at how they're contributing in different ways. And the Jordanians, for example, just '' I think just took a number of airstrikes just last week.
MR KIRBY: Jim.
QUESTION: Sorry, the who?
MR MCGURK: The Jordanians.
QUESTION: Oh, the Jordanians.
MR KIRBY: Jim.
QUESTION: Brett, thanks very much. Looking at that map, when you look particularly at the Syrian border, it looks like you've cut off to really a small chokepoint the controlled area, just as you were saying. I wonder, has that translated into stopping '' effectively stopping the flow of fighters across that border? And are you seeing cooperation from the Turks, which I know has been ambivalent, as it's been described to me at times? Is that in much better shape, as it looks on the map? Because physically, it looks like you made that progress. I'm just curious if it translated to stopping that. And then I just have a quick follow-up, if you don't mind.
MR MCGURK: So Jim, I think as I mentioned in my opening, definitely seeing progress along that border on the Turkish side, and definitely seeing a willingness and readiness for the Turks to engage with us in terms of advice on what needs to be done. They have moved resources there. And I think this has been covered in the press, but they've moved resources there. It's much harder to get from the Turkish side of the border into Syria from that strip, all of which is very positive.
So now this month we're following up with them on a number of things '' not only what's happening on their side of the border, but also what we want to do together on the Syrian side of the border. And that's why the chairman is there this week. That's why the Vice President will be in town. And that's why we have a number of '' the Vice President going to Turkey, and a number of our kind of border security experts at the working level going to Turkey.
So I would just say yes, the cooperation's been good. Our information '' it's much harder to get '' for an ISIL fighter to get from Turkey into Syria now than it was some months ago. When you look at the data on this, those who kind of count this, there's often a lag in terms of the '' when they can take a number and what's happening today. All I can say is our sense and our indication is that the network overall is substantially degraded. We know that ISIL in its public statements has called on foreign fighters, ''maybe, hey, don't go into Syria; maybe go to Libya,'' which is another indication that Syria is now not as hospitable an environment as they might have '' as it might have been in the past.
So I think the trend line overall is moving in the right direction, but it's something we got to stay at every single day. Because as I've said before to you, this is a challenge like we've never seen before. The world has never seen something like this, upwards of 35,000 now foreign fighters from 100 countries all around the world supercharged by social media and Twitter and everything. It's something we've never seen before.
So as we try to '' when we think of the core, we want to make sure that if a foreign fighter gets into Syria or Iraq they can't get out, and we try to make sure that they can't get in. At the same time, we're working globally with all of these partners '' which is why we have a 65-member coalition '' on the criminal justice side, on the intelligence sharing side, just to try to make it harder for these guys to move around. But again, as we saw in Paris and elsewhere, that '' we have work to do.
QUESTION: Just a --
MR MCGURK: And our partners have work to do.
QUESTION: A brief follow on the 10,000 tribal fighters you mentioned in Anbar. Is Prime Minister Abadi playing nice with them, so to speak? Or is he '' the concerns expressed about his deference to Iran and therefore reluctance to play nicely with the Sunnis '' are you seeing that abating?
MR MCGURK: He's fully supported the tribal mobilization in Anbar province. When Secretary Carter was there a couple weeks ago, this was one of their key conversations. In fact, he upped the cap from 8,000 to 10,000, and that just comes into the kind of '' I think it's about 10,000 tribal fighters, 24,000 local police from Anbar. So you're talking an awful lot of people. So if a young Anbari wants to get in the fight, there are plenty of avenues to do that. And our two platforms '' one at Taqaddum Air Base and one at Al Asad, where we have been since this campaign really started, out in western '' the western Euphrates Valley.
We've been working closely with three tribes there in Haditha and these areas in which if you looked at '' I mean, if you looked at this map over time, you'd have a little bit of green in Haditha. And that has expanded. And had we not gone to Al Asad Air Base when this campaign kicked off in September of 2014, had we not engaged with those tribes at the time that we did, I think that entire area would've been gone. But by engaging with them, by giving them capabilities '' and they have gotten the full support of the Iraqi Government '' we were able to not only hold off these number of ISIL advances back in those days, but they're now not only holding the line, but beginning to conduct their own operations. So the tide out there '' and it's like the wild west out there; I've been out there a few times '' has shifted.
But to answer your question, in terms of Prime Minister Abadi, he's given full support to this program we have in Anbar.
MR KIRBY: We're just going to take two more. Justin.
QUESTION: Thanks. So if the negotiating parties are demonstrating that they can't work together to find a political solution in Syria, as we're seeing with Iran and Saudi Arabia, does that require you or are you working on a strategy that doesn't include a political solution in Syria? Is there a way to defeat ISIS without that?
MR MCGURK: I think what '' I mean, our special envoy in Syria is in Saudi Arabia now, working with a lot of the opposition groups to set the stage for these negotiations that have to take place, we hope later on this month. But I think even the Saudis recognize you have to have some sort of a political process to de-escalate the overall conflict. So I let the Saudis speak for themselves, but, I mean, what I've heard is they've said that nothing here should really stop the process that was launched in Vienna. And that's something that's not '' that's a real consensus of the international community now, enshrined in a UN Security Council resolution.
No question this is extremely difficult. That's something that we've said from day one. But you have to bring all the external actors to a table, and then the internal actors to a table. So we've gotten all the external actors together really for the first time since the civil war started, and now we're working to bring the internal actors together to a table later this month. So a lot of folks here in this building are working on that every day, and that remains the plan as enshrined in the Security Council resolution.
MR KIRBY: Said, I'm going to give you the last one today.
QUESTION: Thank you very much. Yes, sir, I'm a bit confused on the figure that you gave '' the numbers, the vacancies in the Iraqi army '' the 26,000 or something like this that it can absorb. Will these be special units like the Awakening Council, or are they '' will they be part of the Iraqi army? And will they coordinate with militias like al-Hashd al-Shaabi and so on?
MR MCGURK: So the 20,000 numbers '' in the new Iraqi budget, they opened up space for 20,000 new positions, and that's important because we want to bring more folks into the army. So again, if you are '' if you're from a town in the Euphrates Valley in Anbar province and you're 20 years old and you want to join to protect your community, we want to make sure that some of the deficiencies of the prior model, where it was a little bit more ad hoc, such as in the Awakening '' that it's embedded and enshrined in the state structures. So if you want to risk your life to defend your community from Daesh and others, you'll be taken care of by the state.
So there are three vehicles now to do that. There's the tribal mobilization program, and that is all enshrined in the Iraqi legal structure and the budget to make sure that people get paid '' something you work on every single day. There's the police, and there's a cap for 24,000 police in Anbar province, which is what it was before the crisis. And then there's now 20,000 new positions for the army in this new budget. We have the training facilities; we're training. It's going up almost about '' we're at about 18,000 now that we've trained. But it's a whole host '' it's the army, it's the CTS in terms of our training.
But just to be very clear on the numbers I'm talking about, focus on Anbar: 10,000 tribal fighters in Anbar, 24,000 police. And then there are the new number of recruits in the Iraqi army of 20,000. Now, the Iraqis have asked us to help them with this in terms of where the folks go, what units and things, and that's something that we're working with them all the time in terms of how to structure their overall security architecture, but that will take some time.
But in terms of defeating ISIL, you need the force to go in and do the clearing, and I think we've '' have had some success with that now. You need the force to do the holding, and that's the police and these tribal forces. And then you need the long-term, sustainable architecture, because we're learning a lot of the lessons from the past year. And the long-term, sustainable architecture is to make sure you have a more federal-based structure which is interwoven in the Iraqi constitution, in which the central government is delegating authority to the provinces, to the local leaders, so the people who are risking their lives to take '' protect their community are taken care of by the state. And that's the bargain that this new Iraqi Government has offered. And so far, if you look at Tikrit, if you look at what we're starting to see in Anbar, you can see how that can come together.
QUESTION: How concerned are you, though, that these sectarian tensions in the region '' not just between Saudi Arabia and Iran, but now all the Sunnis '' are going to bleed over into Iraq and the Shia and the Sunnis are not going to be able to work together, and Abadi will maybe hesitate to reach out to the Sunnis in deference to Iran?
MR MCGURK: So let me say '' answer it two ways: On the one hand, as someone who works this every day, very concerned whenever you see this kind of potential for a real polarization, because it enables extremists on both sides to take advantage of the situation, which is extremely dangerous and plays into the hands of groups like ISIL. So that's something, of course, that we're concerned about because our objective here is to support moderates on both sides of this kind of sectarian divide. So that's one, and that's why we're working very hard to try to de-escalate things.
On the other hand, try not to get into a too simplistic box of Sunni and Shia, because there's so many divisions within the two communities. I'm talking a lot here about Anbar province. It's about 100 percent Sunni but it's '' there are Salafi, there are secularists, there's Baathists, there's tribal divisions, there's like everything. There's so '' there are a whole array of different viewpoints. Among the Shia, you have in Iraq a great deal, a majority of the Shia see their marja as Grand Ayatollah Sistani, who has a totally different vision than the supreme leader in Tehran. Sistani believes in the separation of the state and the community and a more quietest tradition than Khamenei, and it's a totally different viewpoint. So trying to kind of not get into the box of all the Sunni and all the Shia because it's just not really accurate and not how this thing goes.
What we worry about when things get too polarized is that extremists on both sides try to take advantage of the situation. So no doubt in the immediate wake of something like this, I think you'll see more provocations from some of the extremists on both sides, and that's something that we try to tamp down. And a good example was in '' when there were reports yesterday that some mosques were attacked in Hilla, some Sunni mosques were attacked in Hilla, the Iraqi Government responded immediately.
So I would just say concerning '' yes, there's all sorts of things that concern us every single day. Whenever you see something like this for potential polarization, it's concerning. At the same time, we try to not put things into too simplistic a black and white box because that's not the reality. It's just so many divisions within each community, and trying to strengthen the cohesiveness of the moderates on both sides is something that we try to do every day. But I will not underestimate just how difficult it is, as you know, Elise.
QUESTION: Thank you.
MR KIRBY: Thanks, everybody.
QUESTION: Do have an updated version of that map? And if you do, can we get a copy? And if you don't, can we get a copy of this one?
QUESTION: Yeah, that would be great. In a JPEG or something like that?
MR MCGURK: I'll defer to these guys.
MR KIRBY: Yeah, we'll get you a copy. We will.
QUESTION: Thank you.
MR KIRBY: Thanks, everybody.
QUESTION: Thank you.
MR KIRBY: Thank you.
MR MCGURK: Thanks.
MR KIRBY: Thank you, Brett. Appreciate that.
VIDEO-Face it, Oregon building takeover is terrorism - CNN.com
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 15:18
Let's begin with what to call the Oregon anti-government protesters who have taken over a federal building. The men, heavily armed, urging others to come support their cause, and claiming somehow that, while peaceful, they will "defend" themselves whatever it takes, are -- by any definition -- domestic terrorists.
It does not matter that they insist they are peaceful or some sort of lawful militia; I can claim I'm 26 years old and a size 2 and that still doesn't make it true. This group of men is wielding terror, and the threat of violence, as if it were their constitutional right.
So, let's stop with the wrenching discussions of who they are.
They are dangerous, they are unforgiving, they are flouting federal law, they have a political purpose and they clearly are willing to use violence to get their way. Simply because they are not Muslim jihadists does not mean they are authorized to threaten or use violence to support their political cause.
To decipher their cause is difficult, but it appears they do not like the fact that one of their rancher kin is going to jail for arson because he didn't want to sell his land. Only the most ardent backers of their causes or those with an anti-federal government paranoia (or an anti-Obama one) are trying to slice and dice what the group is doing to make it seem somehow benign. It is not.
Don't take my word for it. Ammon Bundy, the 40-year-old son of Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy, who is well-known for anti-government action, exposed his own sense that they were in an armed conflict when, after refusing to answer a CNN reporter's question about how many people were with bunkered down with him, he said he did not want to risk exposing "operational security." Operational security? We are not in Iraq.
What to doGiven that their aim amounts to domestic terrorism, any strategy to get them out of the building must, then, take into account a number of federal concerns and priorities.
Violence should be avoided at all costs. Do not turn these men into martyrs or heroes by excessive force or unnecessary violence. And, in the process of resolving the standoff, teach them (and others) a lesson or two.
How do the feds do that?
First, time is on their side. No question about that. In the absence of an imminent threat to children, bystanders or captives, the federal response should be akin to, "We got all day. And night. And another day. And are you getting hungry? Possibly thirsty? Bored? Are you wondering why you are here in the first place? We got all day. And another one after that."
Immediate action is unwarranted and unnecessary; Bundy's call to brethren to join him will be met with a fierce resistance by public safety officials who will not allow anyone else in and will arrest any of them for conspiracy to support a federal crime.
The situation is wholly different from the Waco siege in 1993, when a 51-day standoff at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas ended in tragedy after the FBI mounted an assault, fires set by the Branch Davidians broke out and 75 people perished. Much is still in dispute in that case, but federal authorities believed that children and captive civilians were in immediate risk of death.
Second, divide and conquer. With time, the opportunity to separate the group, offer carrots and sticks to some so they disarm and surrender, becomes available. Federal authorities can offer reduced sentences, even misdemeanor charges, against anyone barricaded who may not want to go to jail for a lot of years based on the call to arms of Bundy.
If a federal agent or public safety official is harmed or killed during any siege, the federal authorities should remind those inside that they will all be accomplices to first-degree murder. Over time, Bundy may find it difficult to keep his troops unified. Again, time is on the federal authorities' side.
Rule of law is paramountFinally, while the presence of federal troops might make the situation more tense than it already is, the Obama administration needs to make a statement with this organization and future domestic terrorists.
Various federal authorities are now in charge, but the administration should be ready to mobilize federal military support should they need it, if only for the long haul. And to make an important point that the rule of law is paramount in a civil, democratic society.
Local law enforcement officials, in such an isolated area of Oregon, are likely to know some of these men and could let their perspective be colored by their relationships, either to be too lenient or to want to vigorously uphold the law against such flagrant actions. There are risks if too much emotion is allowed to seep into the decision-making process.
A show of federal force -- even if just for show -- treats these men as they should be treated: domestic terrorists who are putting the whole community at risk.
Again, time is on the responders' side. Use it. Indeed, if Waco serves as a "what not to do" in such a situation, it is a reminder of how too aggressive a response can turn Bundy and his crew into martyrs.
It was the Waco siege that radicalized a different round of domestic terrorists, mainly those who planned the Oklahoma federal building bombing in 1995, two years to the day that Waco burned.
The Oregon men are domestic terrorists. But, let's not panic. We've got all the time in the world.
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VIDEO-Boyfriend of Roanoke reporter killed on TV talks about president's gun measures | News, Weather, Sports, Breaking News | KEPR
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:42
WASHINGTON (WJLA) '--President Obama couldn't hold back tears as he discussed some of the victims of gun violence during his announcement on executive actions to tighten gun control.
One of the people who joined the president for his speech at the White House Tuesday was Chris Hurst. Hurst is the boyfriend of Alison Parker, a reporter killed on television with a photographer in Roanoke, Va. during the summer of 2015.
"When the president invites you to come to the White House, you accept the invitation," said Hurst.
"It was emotional for all of us," he said, "one of the most poignant things he said was that it was a room full of stories."
"That's what we forget. Sometimes we try to reduce this issue down to numbers and statistics. But behind every statistic, there's a traumatic story."
VIDEO-Marine arrested in slaying of North Texas college student | www.statesman.com
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:36
DALLAS
A Marine stationed in Arizona was arrested Tuesday in the fatal shooting early on New Year's Day of a North Texas college student, authorities said.
The U.S. Marine Corps said in a statement that Cpl. Eric Johnson, 20, was taken into custody at the north gate of the Marine Corps air station in Yuma, Arizona. Police in Denton, Texas, said he was arrested on a murder warrant in the death of 20-year-old Sara Mutschlechner.
Mutschlechner, a student at the University of North Texas in Denton, 40 miles northwest of Dallas, was fatally shot in the head after an exchange of words between people in the vehicle she was driving and a group of five or six men in a sport utility vehicle, according to police.
"Apparently it was an amicable conversation to begin with that quickly went downhill and some derogatory statements were made toward the female occupants of that vehicle," said Officer Shane Kizer, a Denton police spokesman.
Mutschlechner was the designated driver after going to a New Year's Eve party that at least two people in the SUV had also attended, according to police. Kizer has said police aren't aware of any interaction between the groups at the party, which had about 60 people there. The arrest affidavit says occupants of Mutschlechner's vehicle said they'd stayed at the party for about 45 minutes.
The arrest warrant for Johnson said the two male occupants of Mutschlechner's vehicle told police that the SUV's occupants said they wanted to have sex with the two women in the vehicle.
The affidavit says that when one of the men in Mutschlechner's vehicle responded that he didn't appreciate the comments, the driver, later identified as Johnson, displayed a handgun and indicated he would shoot. Shots were fired as the vehicles crossed through an intersection.
Kizer has said that after Mutschlechner was struck by a bullet, her vehicle hit another vehicle and crashed into an electrical pole.
Johnson "was seen with a handgun in the vehicle right before the shots were fired," Kizer said. He said the other people in the SUV are considered "persons of interest and witnesses."
Thomas Smith, a U.S. Marshals Service official in Yuma, did not know whether Johnson had an attorney who could comment on his behalf. Authorities also do not yet know when Johnson might be returned to Texas.
The Marine Corps said Johnson is assigned to the Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron-1. Capt. Justin Smith, a spokesman for the Marine Air Ground Task Force Training Command in California, said Johnson joined the Marines in August 2013. He said Johnson is an administrative specialist and has never been deployed.
According to the arrest affidavit, Johnson was associated with an address in Fort Worth.
Kizer has said Mutschlechner was from Martindale, about 40 miles south of Austin.
Associated Press writer Paul Davenport in Phoenix contributed to this report.
VIDEO-Snowden, Assange and Manning statues unveiled in Berlin | euronews, world news
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 22:04
"The sculptures represent three contemporary heroes who have lost their freedom for the truth."
Taking a stand in Berlin's Alexanderplatz are whistleblowers Chelsea Manning, Julian Assange and Edward Snowden.
The life-size bronze statues were unveiled on Friday in front of members of the German Green Party as well as activists.
All three figures are considered heroes on the political left for leaking US intelligence documents.
The artist behind the work Italian sculptor Davide Dormino explains that he wanted to ''represent three contemporary heroes who have lost their freedom for the truth.'' He says that they act as a reminder of ''how important it is to know the truth and have the courage to know the truth.''
Entitled Anything to Say the sculpture encourages supporters to stand up for freedom of speech and information.
Wikileaks founder Julian Assange faces extradition to Sweden to face investigation into accusations of rape and sexual assault, but fears he will be extradited to the US to face questions over his role in leaking secret US documents. He has taken asylum in Ecuador's London Embassy. US soldier Chelsea Manning (born Bradley Manning) was convicted in 2013 on charges relating to the Espionage Act for leaking US intelligence and military documents to Wikileaks. She is currently serving a 35 year prison sentence. Edward Snowden is currently evading extradition to the US by taking asylum in Russia. He released classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) to journalists revealing the scale of the US government's global surveillance capabilities.
Their statues will have fewer restrictions on their movements with a scheduled world tour.
If you are in Berlin the sculptures can be found here at Die ¶kologische Kulturoase .
Taking a stand in Berlin's Alexanderplatz are whistleblowers Chelsea Manning, Julian Assange and Edward Snowden. Would you like to see them honoured in your city? Tell us in the comments
Posted by euronews on Monday, 4 May 2015
VIDEO-Matthew Boylan Exposes Himself as a Shill! | It's Time To Unite
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 22:03
The following story, pictures, and audio recording are from one of Matt Boylan's fans who generously allowed him to stay with her family for nearly a month before the following incident took place. They are often talking over one another, but I can testify that this is the only way to successfully have a ''conversation'' with Matt, otherwise you will be unable to complete a sentence before he interrupts and continues his diatribes. Also regarding Matt's constant crying of copyright infringement and lack of consent, he has used video/audio of me in his documentaries without even informing me let alone asking my permission. So two can play at that game Mr. Wizard. For much more condemning information about the leader of this leaderless movement, see the following IFERS thread: http://ifers.boards.net/threads/recen'...
Flat Earth Shill Wall of ShameSearching through Matt's older videos on his channel it's clear that such paranoid, aggressive, off-putting rants are part of his schtick and the ''flat Earth'' subject is more of an aside to his other performance pieces. His YouTube ''TheNASAChannel'' is far less concerned with exposing NASA or the truth of our flat Earth and more concerned with Matt painting on naked women's bodies, ranting about random subjects like Axe Cologne / hookers on tinder, and promoting his championship-status sexual prowess. There are also suspicious videos about Steven Hawking and one with Matt in what appears to be stage make-up claiming to have been intentionally hit by a car, driven by a plain-clothes police officer purposely trying to assassinate him.Read More
VIDEO-An Animated Neil deGrasse Tyson Gives an Eloquent Defense of Science in 272 Words, the Same Length as The Gettysburg Address Open Culture
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:16
Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, the most prominent public defender of science education and funding, frequently comes in for some good-natured ribbing for his genial pedantry, ascension to Carl Sagan's unofficial spokesmanship, and downgrading of the beloved Pluto from planet status. But he takes it all in stride. As another science communicator, Phil Plate the ''Bad Astronomer,'' has written, ''The man is brilliant, charming, a pillar of science education, and a glutton for punishment. But I think he secretly revels in it.'' If you follow Tyson's Twitter account and watch him engage with cranks, or if you've seen him in any of the hundreds of public debates and panels he attends, it seems he more than revels in it; he's totally in his element, so to speak, publicly modeling the mix of confidence, humility, and curiosity that drives science forward.
In the video above, Tyson dares to try and fill the shoes of another great communicator'--and no, I don't mean Ronald Reagan, but the president whose most famous speech Charles Sumner called ''a monumental act.'' And though Abraham Lincoln was not nearly as comfortable in front of an audience as Tyson is, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address set the bar for how to get a point across with the maximum amount of eloquence and minimum of redundancy and rambling. Can Tyson deliver the goods like Lincoln did with only 272 words to work with? Is the attempt to ''reply'' to the ''Gettysburg Address'' an act of hubris or the ultimate tribute? Decide for yourself as you listen to Tyson's April, 2015 acceptance speech at the National Academy of Science for the Public Welfare Medal, the Academy's ''most prestigious award.''
Tyson's speech has been enhanced with a dramatic animation and sound effects for a technological impact Lincoln never could have achieved, though by most accounts he didn't need it. Not a solemn occasion like Gettysburg, the awards ceremony nonetheless called for at least a little pomp, as well as some history. Tyson points out that ''during the bloody year of his Gettysburg Address, President Lincoln chartered the National Academy of Sciences.'' For more of that story, see the short video above, where you'll learn, among other things, that Lincoln was the first and only American president to hold a patent on a scientific invention.
via Bill Gates
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Josh Jones is a writer and musician based in Durham, NC. Follow him at @jdmagness
VIDEO-Militant in Islamic State video believed to be British bouncy castle salesman | Reuters
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:11
Tue Jan 5, 2016 | 8:31 AM EST
By Michael Holden
LONDON (Reuters) - The masked militant in an Islamic State video showing the killing of five men accused by the group of being Western spies is believed to be a Londoner known as Sid who once sold inflatable bouncy castles.
Siddhartha Dhar, who left Britain for Syria while on police bail after his arrest on suspicion of belonging to a banned group and encouraging terrorism, has been identified by media as the spokesman in the militant organization's latest film.
The video also features a young boy wearing a black bandanna around his head and army-style camouflage clothing, threatening in English to "kill the kaffir (unbelievers) over there".
Sunday Dare, a Londoner of Nigerian origin, identified the child as his four-year-old grandson Isa. Dare told British media his daughter, who grew up a devout Christian named Grace before converting to Islam and changing her name to Khadijah, had taken London-born Isa to Syria with her to join Islamic State.
The video revived memories of "Jihadi John", another British IS member who appeared in several videos in which hostages were murdered before he himself was believed to have been killed in an air strike late last year.
Dhar, who is also known as Abu Rumaysah, is one of Britain's most high-profile Islamists and an associate of Anjem Choudary, Britain's best-known Islamist preacher who is due to go on trial next week accused of terrorism offences.
A convert from Hinduism who lived in east London, Dhar regularly attended protests staged by the now banned organization al-Muhajiroun and had often spoken to the media in support of radical Islamic causes.
Since leaving Britain he gained further attention through online videos in which he exhorted life under Islamic State.
"OPPRESSIVE"
Khadijah Dare is also a keen propagandist for the group who has posted images of herself and her toddler son pointing rifles on social media.
Reported to have been radicalized online, Dare left London for Syria in 2012 with Isa, then a baby. Having made her way to territory controlled by Islamic State, she married a jihadi of Swedish origin known as Abu Bakr, now thought to be dead.
The couple appeared together in footage filmed in Syria in 2013, joking about which of them had the best AK47.
A trail of videos also offers some insight into Dhar's world view.
In one posted on his YouTube website, titled "The beauty of the Shariah and the Caliphate", he said: "I've grown up in the West, I've lived in the United Kingdom all my life, I've seen what a democracy has to offer and quite frankly it's quite oppressive."
His sister Konika told British media the man in the video sounded just like her brother, echoing the views of others who knew him well. However, neither she nor security experts said they could be certain it was him.
British intelligence officials are analyzing the film and a security source said they had not yet reached a conclusion as to the man's identity.
British officials say up to 800 Britons have traveled to Iraq and Syria, some to join Islamic State, and around half had returned home. About 70 were believed to have been killed.
In the 10-minute video released on Sunday, the masked man speaking with a clear British accent threatens British Prime Minister David Cameron before shooting one of the alleged spies in the head.
The footage was reminiscent of the gruesome beheadings shown in videos featuring Londoner Mohammed Emwazi, who gained worldwide notoriety as "Jihadi John".
Robb Leech, who got to know Dhar while making a documentary about his own stepbrother who was jailed for terrorism offences in 2013, said the militant in the video looked and sounded like Dhar. He said Dhar had never struck him as violent, and had always been friendly.
British newspapers said he used to sell children's inflatable bouncers, known as bouncy castles in Britain, and was a fan of Arsenal soccer club and the rock group Nirvana.
"The last time I saw him it was about two months before he left and joined so-called Islamic State and we were laughing. It was very good natured," Leech told BBC radio.
"To remember him like that and then see him supposedly in this video, I don't understand that," he said, adding that Dhar must have had some very significant experiences in Syria with Islamic State to make him capable of doing what he did.
"Because the guy who I knew was no more capable of it than you or I as far as I could tell."
In one video on his YouTube site, Dhar distances himself to some extent from the killing of U.S. and British citizens who were apparently beheaded by Jihadi John.
"I don't want to see another James Foley or Steven Sotloff or David Haines but unfortunately the way the West and the Europeans are going about things in terms of their policies with air strikes and intervening in the caliphate, sadly I can't see an end to this," Dhar said.
(Additional reporting by Estelle Shirbon; editing by Guy Faulconbridge and Philippa Fletcher)
VIDEO-Armed Men - Led By Bundy- Take Over Oregon Wildlife Refuge - YouTube
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 03:33
VIDEO-Cybersecurity chatter at CES | Reuters.com
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 01:23
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VIDEO-Obama confident new gun measures are constitutionally sound | Reuters.com
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 01:21
ROUGH CUT (NO REPORTER NARRATION) President Barack Obama said on Monday (January 4) he was confident his new executive actions to tighten U.S. gun rules were consistent with the constitutional right to bear arms and said the initiatives would be rolled out over the next several days. "We have a frequency of mass shootings that far exceeds other countries and frequency. And although it is my strong belief that for us to get our complete arms around the problem, Congress needs to act. What I asked my team to do is to see what more we could do to strengthen our enforcement and prevent guns from falling into the wrong hands," Obama told reporters following a meeting with Attorney General Loretta Lynch, FBI Director James Comey and acting Director of the Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco & Firearms, Thomas Brandon. "And the good news is is that these are not only recommendations that are well within my legal authority and the executive branch, but they're also ones that. The overwhelming majority of the American people including gun owners support and believe in," Obama said. Obama said the initiatives would be released over the next few days. "We'll be making sure that people have a very clear understanding of what can make a difference and what we can do. And although we have to be very clear that this is not going to solve every violent crime in this country; it's not going to prevent every mass shooting; it's not going to keep every gun out of the hands of criminals, it will potentially save lives and spare families the pain and the extraordinary loss that they've suffered as a consequence of a firearm being in the hands of the wrong people," Obama said. The president stressed that the initiatives were not aimed at lawful gun owners. "I'm also confident that the recommendations that are being made by my team here are ones that are entirely consistent with the Second Amendment and people's lawful right to bear arms," he said. In a statement released before Obama's announcement, U.S. Speaker of the House Paul Ryan criticized any executive actions on gun control. "We all are pained by the recent atrocities in our country, but no change the president is reportedly considering would have prevented them. We have seen consistently that an underlying cause of these attacks has been mental illness, and we should look at ways to address this problem. We should also better enforce the laws we have on the books now to keep guns out of the hands of violent criminals," the statement read.
VIDEO-Putin perfume on sale in Moscow
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 01:17
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Images of NovemberMon, Nov 30, 2015 -(1:01)
The disappearance of Lake PowellMon, Nov 30, 2015 -(1:14)
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VIDEO-ISIS releases video showing execution of five 'British spies' - PzFeed
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 20:18
ISIS has released a new video showing the execution of five British spies, and threatening David Cameron over the UK's campaign in Syria.
The video released by ISIS group's Raqqa-based media arm shows five men wearing orange jumpsuits and ''confessing'' to spying on behalf of the UK security services.
The video ends with a trailer for a further execution and has a young boy speaking in English, who talks about killing unbelievers.
VIDEO-Donald Trump TV AD Campaign AD Commercial 2016 ''-- - YouTube
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 19:38
VIDEO-Donald Trump EXPLODES at Cameraman During Biloxi Speech: DISGUSTING - MS Rally 1/2/2016 - YouTube
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 19:04
VIDEO-SOMEBODY ELSE ON THE MOON - According To NASA Whistleblower - YouTube
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 18:16
VIDEO-Onderzoeksgroep: twintig Russen in beeld voor neerhalen MH17 | NOS
Sun, 03 Jan 2016 20:54
Bellingcat werkt samen met de JIT-onderzoekers uit Nederland, Belgi, Maleisi, Oekra¯ne en Australi. Higgins en andere medewerkers hebben tijdens gesprekken informatie aan het JIT gegeven. Ook is Higgins twee keer als getuige gehoord: afgelopen zomer en in het najaar van 2014.
53ste Brigade
Het afgelopen jaar ontdekte Bellingcat welke eenheid de Russische Buk-raketinstallatie, die vlucht MH17 in 2014 neerhaalde, naar Oekra¯ne transporteerde: dat was het Tweede Bataljon van de 53ste Luchtafweerraketbrigade, afkomstig uit de omgeving van Koersk in Rusland. Het Bataljon bestond uit ongeveer honderd militairen, maar Bellingcat wist de groep betrokkenen terug te brengen tot pakweg twintig militairen.
Een van hen is Sergey M., de commandant van de 53e brigade. Vanwege zijn functie heeft hij "zeker een rol gespeeld bij het neerhalen van vlucht MH17, omdat zijn brigade het 'wapen' heeft geleverd", aldus Bellingcat.
Andere betrokkenen zijn Dmitry T., de commandant van het Tweede Bataljon, en negen luitenants die in 2014 binnen het bataljon de leiding hadden over Buk-luchtafweerraketsystemen. Ook zijn enkele "zeer ervaren militairen" in beeld die opgeleid waren om een Buk-raketinstallatie te bedienen.
BUK
Sinds vlucht MH17 neerstortte, doet Bellingcat onderzoek naar de oorzaak van de ramp. Zo toonde Bellingcat eerder aan dat separatisten in Oekra¯ne op 17 juli beschikten over een Buk-lanceerinstallatie. Die werd ongeveer drie uur voor het neerhalen van MH17 van de oplegger gelost in Snizjne en later gefilmd met (C)(C)n raket minder, rijdend door het door separatisten gecontroleerde Loehansk.
Raw
Putin: Russia To Become #1 Exporter of Non-GMO Foods
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 12:33
This article originally appeared at True Activist
Putin is not a fan of Monsanto or bioengineered anything, which is why, in a new address to the Russian Parliament last Thursday, he proudly outlined his plan to make Russia the world's 'leading exporter' of non-GMO foods that are based on 'ecologically clean' production.
The Russian president harshly criticized food production in the United States, stating that Western food producers are no longer offering high quality, healthy, and ecologically clean food.
''We are not only able to feed ourselves taking into account our lands, water resources '' Russia is able to become the largest world supplier of healthy, ecologically clean and high-quality food which the Western producers have long lost, especially given the fact that demand for such products in the world market is steadily growing,'' Putin said in his address.
Reuters reports that it is likely Putin will use the country's affinity for organic and sustainable farming as a centerpiece in his economic strategy.
''Ten years ago, we imported almost half of the food from abroad, and were dependent on imports. Now Russia is among the exporters. Last year, Russian exports of agricultural products amounted to almost $20 billion '' a quarter more than the revenue from the sale of arms, or one-third the revenue coming from gas exports,'' he added.
In Putin's eyes, Russia is fully capable of supplying the domestic market with home-grown food by 2020.This declaration comes just months after the Kremlin decided to stop the production of GMO-containing foods, a triumph seen as a huge step forward in the international fight to expose and ruin Monsanto.
With this latest news, Russia has clearly established itself as a dominant force in the realm of organic farming.
NewsWires : euronews : the latest international news as video on demand
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 12:25
Reuters, 05/01 14:56 CET
By Aaron Maasho
ADDISABABA (Reuters) '' The United States has stopped flying drones from southern Ethiopia in its campaign against militants in Somalia and Yemen, at the request of the Ethiopian government, officials said.
Washington spent millions of dollars in 2011 on upgrading an airfield in the town of Arba Minch, from where it launched Reaper drones that can carry Hellfire missiles and satellite-guided bombs.
The airfield is the only U.S. drone base acknowledged by the Ethiopian government to exist in the country.
On Tuesday, officials and U.S. diplomats confirmed the end of drone activities there.
''This was done upon request by the Ethiopian government,'' government spokesman Getachew Reda said.
''In the first place, this was a project with a limited timespan and both governments had long prepared themselves for this eventuality,'' he added without giving further details.
Reapers, known as ''hunter-killer'' drones, have a range of about 1,800 km (1,100 miles).
Ethiopia is one of Washington's key allies and is considered a bulwark against militant Islam in the region.
Ethiopian troops have been fighting al Qaeda-allied al Shabaab militants in Somalia since 2011 as part of an African Union peacekeeping mission.
''U.S. military personnel are no longer in Arba Minch,'' said David Kennedy, Public Affairs Officer at the U.S. Embassy in Addis Ababa.
''As we work with our African partners, our mutual needs change over time, and a determination was made that our use of the facilities in Arba Minch is no longer necessary,'' he told Reuters in an emailed response.
(Editing by Andrew Roche)
euronews provides breaking news articles from Reuters as a service to its readers, but does not edit the articles it publishes.
Copyright 2016 Reuters.
RFI mitigation
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 12:06
A Ham's Guide to RFI, Ferrites, Baluns, and Audio Interfacing Revision 5a 5 Jun 2010 (C) Entire Contents Copyright 2007-10 The Audio Systems Group, Inc., except Appendices 2, 3, and 4, which are property of the cited authors, and product data, which is copyright by Fair-Rite Products. All Rights Reserved by Jim Brown K9YC Audio Systems Group, Inc. http://audiosystemsgroup.com The basis of this tutorial is a combination of my engineering education, 55 years in ham radio, my work as vice-chair of the AES Standards Committee working group on EMC, and extensive re-search on RFI in the pro audio world where I've made my living. That work is documented in tech-nical papers and tutorials that can be downloaded from the publications section of my website. Chapter 1 '' Some Fundamentals To solve interference problems, we must understand them. So we'll begin by describing the ways that RF interference is coupled into equipment and detected. There are several principal mecha-nisms at work. You should study this tutorial thoroughly to understand how these things work. Detection at Semiconductor Junctions Every semiconductor junction, whether part of a diode, transistor, or integrated circuit, is quite nonlinear, especially in the voltage region where it is be-ginning to conduct. In analog circuits, we prevent this non-linearity from causing distortion by properly biasing the circuitry, by using lots of negative feedback, and by preventing the signal from being large enough to cross into the cutoff region. Thanks to this non-linearity, every semiconductor junction functions as a square law detector, de-tecting any RF signal it sees. A good designer prevents detection by shielding the equipment and its wiring, by filtering input and output wiring, and even by bypassing the junction by a capacitor. Since virtually all detection that causes RFI follows square law, the strength of the signal detected by audio equipment, telephones, and other equipment will increase (or decrease) as the square of any increase (or decrease) in RF level at the detector. In other words, the strength of the detected RF changes by twice the number of dB that the RF signal changes. This means that if we manage to reduce the interfering RF signal by 6 dB, the detected audio will drop by 12 dB. This is a very use-ful thing '' it means that we may not need "an elephant gun" to solve many interference problems. Antenna Action The most fundamental cause of radio interference to other systems is the fact that the wiring for those systems, both inside and outside the box, are antennas. We may call them "patch cables" or "speaker cables" or "video cables" or "Ethernet cables," or printed circuit traces, but Mother Nature knows that they are antennas! And Mother Nature always wins the argument. When we transmit, some of the RF from our transmitter is picked up by those unintentional anten-nas, and RF current flows on them. What happens to that current determines whether there will be interference, and how severe it will be. We know that antennas work in both directions '' that is, they follow the principle of reciprocity '' so when RF trash from inside the box flows on those an-tennas, it is radiated as noise and we hear it on the ham bands. Fig 1 shows a simple antenna we've all used, probably with our first radio receiver. We con-nected a random wire to our receiver, and the antenna current flowed through the receiver to a "ground" that might have been a driven rod, but was more likely the safety ground of the AC power line (the third pin on the AC socket, known in North America as the "green wire"). Even if the radio was double insulated so that it didn't require the green wire connection, RF current still flowed through the stray capaci-tance of the power transformer to the power line and made the radio work. Fig 1 '' A simple random wire antenna RF picked up on the antennas we call loudspeaker wiring, video cables, the coax from the cable TV system or a rooftop TV antenna, flows through equipment to get to the AC power system safety ground. Hams understand that some antennas are more effective than others. An antenna that is
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 2 close to resonance will work better than one that is not. Long antennas tend to pick up more RF than short ones. Think about these fundamental principles when trying to diagnose which cables are bringing your RF into a given system (or radiating their trash into your receiving antenna). A path to "ground" or the power system is not always needed to produce antenna action. The whip antenna on our VHF and UHF handheld radios uses the radio, capacity-coupled to our hand that holds it, as a counterpoise (that is, to provide "the other half of the antenna"). All that is required for this to work is that the size of the counterpoise must be a significant fraction of a quarter wave (or larger) so that it can "sink" the antenna current. Common Mode and Differential Mode Signals A differential mode signal is one that exists be-tween the conductors of a cable. At any given point along the cable, current flowing on one con-ductor is precisely balanced by current flowing in the other direction on the other conductor. The intentional signals carried by cables are differential mode signals '' the audio or video signal in a home audio system, Ethernet signals on CAT5/6 cable, and the RF signal carried by the feedline connecting our antennas to our transceivers. A common mode signal is one that places equal voltage on all conductors '' that is, the voltage be-tween the two ends of the cable are different, but there is no voltage between the conductors. An-tenna action produces a common mode voltage and current along a cable. The antenna current induced on audio and video wiring is a common mode signal. That is, with "ideal" cable, there is no differential voltage between the signal conductors as a result of this antenna action. If the cable is shielded, nearly all of this current flows on the shield (and skin effect causes it to flow on the out-side of the shield). If the shield is ideal (that is, if the current is distributed with perfect uniformity around it), the field inside the shield will be zero, and thus none of this antenna current will flow inside the cable. Conversely, when a cable shield is carrying differential mode current, as in the case of coax, skin effect will cause that differential mode current to flow on the inside of the shield. The real world is not ideal, so most interfering signals will simultaneously exist in both common mode and differential mode, but in most real world conditions, one or the other mode dominates. Several cable defects (essentially manufacturing tolerances) certainly can and do convert this "common mode" antenna current to a differential signal (that is, a voltage between the signal con-ductors), but that is rarely the most powerful coupling mechanism. One common defect that af-fects both balanced and unbalanced cables is imperfect construction of cable shields. In even the best "real world" balanced twisted pair cables, there are imbalances in the capacitance between "red" and "black" conductors to the shield on the order of 5%. [B. Whitlock, JAES, June 1995] In balanced paired cables that use "foil/drain" shields, there is even more imbalance in the inductive coupling between each conductor and the shield. Noise (or RFI) coupled by this mechanism is called "shield-current-induced noise," or SCIN. [N. Muncy, JAES, June 1995] All three of these mechanisms convert shield current to a differential signal at system input and output terminals. If the cable is an unshielded pair (loudspeaker cable, for example), RF will be induced approxi-mately equally on both conductors (but, depending what the input circuit of the equipment looks like at RF, current flow into the equipment may not be equal on both conductors). This can also produce a differential voltage at the input (or output) terminals. Output Wiring is Important Too! It is well known, for example, that RF interference is often cou-pled into the output stage of audio equipment '' for example, the power amplifiers that feed loud-speakers or headphones. There is always feedback around that output stage, so RF present at the output will follow the feedback network to the input of a gain stage, where it will be detected and amplified. This problem is made much worse when parallel wire cable (zip cord) is used to feed the loudspeakers or headphones, and can usually be solved simply by replacing the zip cord with a twisted pair of POC (plain ordinary copper). [Pseudo-scientific advertising hype for exotic cables notwithstanding, it was shown nearly 30 years ago that #12 copper twisted pair (or #10 for very long runs) is a nearly ideal loudspeaker cable.] [R. A. Greiner, "Amplifier Loudspeaker Interfacing,'' JAES Vol 28 Nr 5, May 1980] As we will discuss later, the twisting of a pair greatly reduces the level of RF that the wiring couples to circuitry. Power Supply and Control Wiring can also act as antennas. When I bought the house I owned in
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 3 Chicago, I upgraded the electrical wiring and put all of it in steel conduit (EMT). This shielded the wiring, so that only the short power cords between equipment and the wall outlets could act as antennas. The house I recently bought in California is wired with no conduit, using unshielded parallel conductors. Thanks to its length, and the fact that it is not shielded, this wiring acts as an effective receiving antenna for the RF I am transmitting, and an effective transmitting antenna for the RF trash generated by computer equipment, power supplies for low voltage lighting fixtures, and even battery chargers. Current Returns to its Source Current flows in a complete circuit that includes the source of the current. The circuit will couple noise inductively, and also by antenna action. The cause of many RFI and noise problems, as well as the solution to them, lies in identifying and controlling these circuits. Always ask, "Where does the noise (or RFI) current flow?" Loop Area One of the most fundamental laws of electrical circuits is that the current that is mag-netically induced between two circuits is proportional to the loop area of each circuit. Making the loop area small also minimizes the extent to which the wiring can act as an antenna. When we use a closely coupled pair of conductors to form a transmission line, we are reducing the loop area, which reduces the total current induced in the loop by an interfering signal, and the total magnetic field produced by current in that loop. The transmission line, of course, has other useful proper-ties. More on this later on. The equipment designer can also use multilayer printed circuit techniques to place a "ground" (ref-erence) plane next to all signal wiring, turning each circuit trace into an unbalanced transmission line, where the return current is carried on the reference plane under wiring. A single reference plane makes a very large reduction in the ability of that circuit trace to receive interference; sand-wiching it between two such planes virtually eliminates it. These techniques, called microstrip (one plane), or stripline (the sandwich), are widely used by better designers. They reject noise coupling both inside and outside the equipment by drastically reducing the loop area of the current path (and have the additional benefit of making high speed data circuits behave better because they are transmission lines). Loaded Words That Cause Misunderstandings One of the most overused and misunderstood words in electronics is "ground" (or "earth" in British English). There are several important and common uses of the words. One meaning is an actual connection to mother earth. Some common earth connections include the steel structure of a building, a buried conductive water pipe, a con-crete encased grounding electrode (called a Ufer, after its inventor, Herbert Ufer), and, of course, one or more conductive rods driven into the earth. [Concrete mixes vary widely in their conductiv-ity '' most we are likely to encounter are highly conductive, but some are effective insulators.] The primary function of this earth connection is lightning protection. A second common use of the word "ground" (or "earth" in British English) is a third conductor that is part of the power system wiring that should never carry current (except in the case of a fault) but connects the conductive enclosures of equipment to a common point within the power system. This "green wire" or third pin in the outlet in North American power systems, is called the "equip-ment ground" (or "protective earth" in British English). The green wire is required to be connected to all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment "that might be energized" in the event of equipment failure. The purpose of this connection is to provide a sufficiently robust current path that a fuse will blow or circuit breaker will trip in the event of equipment or wiring failure that causes the chassis to be "hot," thus protecting people from electrical shock and preventing fires. A third common use of the word "ground" (or "earth" in British English) is to describe "circuit com-mon" or "circuit reference" within equipment. Circuit common should nearly always be connected to the power supply reference, and to the shielding enclosure of the equipment. If the source of noise is within equipment, circuit common is reference for the noise voltage (and current), and it is the point to which that noise current wants to return. A fourth common use of the word "ground" is as the "return" for an unbalanced antenna like a ver-tical or long wire. In this application, the antenna needs some conductor to be a low impedance "sink" for the antenna current. The radials for an elevated or ground-mounted vertical antenna
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 4 serve this function. There is an excellent discussion of this in http://w2du.com/Chapter05.pdf Ground Wiring Some hams like to think of the earth as if it were somehow a "sink" into which all noise can be poured, never to bother us again. Indeed, you'll find lots of bad advice to solve RFI problems with "a better ground." In fact, nothing could be further from the truth. An earth connec-tion is rarely part of a solution to RF or noise problems. Rather, we need a better understanding of the four common meanings of ''ground,'' that ''ground'' is not a single point, and that connections between them change current paths. [There are exceptions to every "rule," and this no exception. See "Shunting Common Mode RF to Earth" later in this tutorial.] Consider a noise filter hanging between some piece of noisy equipment and the power line, with capacitors from the "hot" and "neutral" to "ground." What is that "ground?" It is circuit common and the shielding enclosure of the equipment, the green wire in the power cord, which is connected to the equipment ground in the power system, which goes to the breaker panel, which is in turn bonded to neutral and a real earth connection at the service entrance to our building (and, if we've done it right, there should be a bond between the power system ground and any grounds we've added for our radio equipment). In most systems, the green wire follows a rather long path '' typi-cally a quarter wave on 80 meters, and perhaps even on 160 meters. That current path is an an-tenna, and any RF current flowing on that conductor will radiate! In fact, the connection to earth may increase current flow. Like any other radiated RF signal, our receiving antennas will hear it. All of those "ground" connections must be present to have a safe installation, but it is the combination of the high series impedance of the filter's choke and the connection between the filter's "ground" and the shielding enclosure of the equipment (and it must be very short) that suppresses the noise. The earth connection provides lightning safety. This basic scientific fact has major implications in the design of filters intended to prevent noise coupling from noisy equipment to our ham stations. If we add a filter to wiring that enters or leaves a piece of noisy equipment, it is the shielding enclosure for that equipment to which any "ground" of our filter should return (and, of course, circuit common should also be connected to that shielding enclosure). All connections between the filter and the noisy equipment should be as short as possible (what my old EE professors liked to call "zero length" to emphasize the impor-tance of making them short). Why? First, to minimize the loop area, and thus the inductance. Second, to minimize antenna action. More about this when we discuss specific filter designs. Insufficient Input and Output Filtering As hams, we know that equipment needs good input and output filtering to prevent RF from coming in on input and output wiring. Beginning in the 1950's, hams operating the HF bands were deluged with TVI complaints because television manufacturers failed to include high pass filters in their sets. Likewise, audio equipment needs good low pass fil-tering to reject our signals. Many myopic designers of "high futility" audio gear (and even some professional gear) don't include low pass filters because they don't want to degrade the phase re-sponse of the audio path. While good phase response is certainly important, so is RF rejection. Good engineering can satisfy both needs without compromise. Ever since those early days, hams have always assumed that a good low pass filter will kill RFI in audio systems, and a good high pass filter will kill interference to FM and TV. Unfortunately, while good filtering is important, other mechanisms are far more important in most real world situations. Shield Resistance adds hum and buzz to unbalanced wiring (audio, video, and data (RS232). The "green wire" at every AC outlet is at a different potential, thanks to leakage current of equipment plugged into that outlet, as well as other leakage current flowing on the green wires. When that equipment is interconnected with unbalanced wiring, the difference in potential (60 Hz and its harmonics, plus noise) causes current flow on the shield, and the IR drop is added to the signal. A "beefy" shield (big copper) minimizes R '' that's why the best video cables use heavy copper shields! Audio transformers eliminate the hum/buzz by breaking the current path at DC and audio frequencies, but most hum and buzz in your ham station can be solved without a transformer '' simply power all interconnected gear from the same outlet, bond equipment all chassis' together, and use coax with beefy copper shields for audio. An unshielded transformer can make matters worse, coupling noise from a power transformer into its unshielded windings. See Chapter 8 for more.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 5 The Pin 1 Problem: The most common way that hum, buzz, and RF interference enters equipment is via a design defect first widely understood by the pro audio community thanks to the work of Neil Muncy, (ex-W3WJE). He named it "the pin 1 problem," because it is a mis-wiring of the shield of audio cables '' pin 1 in the XL connector commonly used for pro audio, but it is just as much a problem in un-balanced interfaces of all types, as shown in Fig 2. Fig 2 '' The Pin 1 Problem The proper connection for a cable shield to equipment is the shielding enclosure (chassis), but products with a "pin 1 problem" connect the shield to the circuit board instead. Nearly all con-sumer equipment, including even the most expensive "high futility" gear, is built with pin 1 prob-lems. Virtually all computer sound cards have pin 1 problems. So do most RS-232 interfaces and nearly all ham equipment '' indeed, almost all RFI problems we describe as "RF in the shack" have pin 1 problems as their root cause! Fig 2 illustrates both right and wrong connection of the shield. The trouble-free connection on the right goes straight to the shielding enclosure, so shield current flows harmlessly out the safety ground on the power cord. Any noise (or RF) on the cable shield stays "outside the box." The connection on the left, however, is a pin 1 problem. Current flowing on the shield bypasses the shielding enclosure and is forced onto the "ground bus" '' that is, "signal common." To get to the power system ground, noise current must follow that "ground bus" around the circuit board '' what Henry Ott calls "the invisible schematic hiding behind the ground symbol." The wires and cir-cuit traces that make up that invisible schematic have resistance and inductance by virtue of their length, and the IZ voltage drops across those R's and L's are coupled into each "gain stage" that connects to the ground bus! Once that happens, every semiconductor junction that "sees" the RF will detect it, and succeeding gain stages will amplify the detected RF. What if there is no "shielding enclosure?" Fig 3a and 3b shows how to avoid pin 1 problems with unshielded or partially shield equipment. (Of course, unshielded equipment has other potential problems, which we'll talk about later.) Fig 3a '' 120VAC power Fig 3b '' 12VDC power Why is equipment built with pin 1 problems? Two reasons. First, "fuzzy thinking" on the part of engineers, who have lost track of where noise current flows. Second, the construction techniques used in modern equipment, and the connectors built to support those techniques, make it more likely that pin 1 problems will happen. In "the old days," we mounted an RCA connector or phone jack by drilling a hole and screwing it down to the chassis. Today, those connectors come with solder tabs for mounting directly to a printed circuit board, which is then built, tested, and fitted into an enclosure. Screwing those connectors down to the enclosure increases cost significantly! And FIXING pin 1 problems in equipment having this kind of construction can be quite difficult. RFI and Pin 1 Problems There are three ways to cure RFI coupled by pin 1 problems. The first two
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 6 methods are obvious '' modify the equipment to eliminate the pin 1 problem, or rewire the con-nections so that the shield goes to the proper connection point, as shown in Figs 2, 3a, and 3b. Unfortunately, the way that most equipment is built usually makes both of these methods difficult or impossible to implement. The third method for curing RFI coupled by pin 1 problems is to eliminate or reduce the current. This is usually the best (the most practical, effective, and cost-effective). This is what we are doing when we use a ferrite choke on the wiring connected to a pin 1 problem, lift the shield at the re-ceiving end of a balanced audio audio cable, or bond all our equipment together with short fat wires! We'll study ferrites in Chapter 2, and bonding in Chapter 8. Shielding The wiring inside equipment can also act as an antenna if the designer allows it to do so. There are several ways to prevent this. The obvious one is to shield the equipment and bond (that is, make a solid electrical connection) that equipment shield to all cable shields entering that equipment. Note that while we call circuit common "ground," no connection to earth (or even cir-cuit common) is needed for shielding to be effective. (I have yet to see an aircraft trailing a ground wire, but the extensive instrumentation needed to operate and control it work just fine.) Twisted-Pair Cable is the single most important tool we can use to reduce RF pickup on an inter-connecting cable. In many circuits, twisting is far more important in rejecting noise and RF than a cable shield. Since this statement may seem counterintuitive, let's examine why it is true. A cable shield prevents electric field (capacitive) coupling, but it has little effect on magnetic fields (that is, inductive coupling). This is true at low frequencies because cable shields are not made of magnetic material. It is true at high frequencies because of imperfections in the shield that de-crease the uniformity of current flow on the shield. A transmission line does reject magnetic fields, but it does this by virtue of the mutual coupling between the conductors that causes the current and voltage induced in them by an external field to be equal and opposite, so they cancel at the input circuit to which the cable is connected. The de-gree of this equality depends on the coupling coefficient k, which is typically on the order of 0.7 for a closely spaced pair. An ideal coaxial cable, however, has a coupling coefficient of 1 above the cutoff frequency of the shield (see below). So, the shield of a coaxial cable is not a magnetic shield, it is an electric shield. Magnetic noise rejection is the result of mutual coupling between the center conductor and the shield, not because of shielding. Another important fact explains why coaxial cables don't reject magnetically coupled low frequency hum and buzz. Cables don't exhibit mutual coupling at frequencies where the resistance of the conductor is greater than its inductive reactance. The low frequency at which this transition occurs is called the shield cutoff frequency. For most cables, this is between about 1 kHz (coax with a "beefy" double copper braid shield") and 20 kHz (coax with a foil/drain shield). Twisting works to reject noise from the magnetic field because it causes the voltage induced in the two conductors to be more nearly equal. It also reduces electric field coupling in balanced circuits. In general, the "tighter" the twist, the more equal the induced voltage will be to the highest fre-quency. That's because any interfering field will vary with position based on the wavelength of the field. To understand this, consider any interfering source and a cable running past it. If the cable is not twisted, one conductor will be closer to the source, so more noise will be coupled to it than the other conductor. If the conductors are twisted, one conductor will be closer at one point along the cable, but one half twist further along the cable, the other conductor will be closer. The differ-ence in spacing between the conductors may not sound like it should cause much difference in level, but if we need 100 dB of cancellation, the two voltages must be equal within .0001%, a very small margin of error. Twisting is such a powerful mechanism for reducing noise coupling that telephone circuits have always used unshielded twisted pair. Likewise, very high speed Ethernet circuits are carried on tightly twisted pairs manufactured to close tolerances. To further reduce crosstalk from one pair to another, each pair in the cable is twisted at a slightly different rate. The author has demonstrated that sensitive microphone circuits connected with unshielded CAT6 cables are actually less suscep-tible to noise pickup than shielded balanced pairs, both at audio frequencies and at VHF/UHF!
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 7 This is true because the degradation in rejection due to imperfections in the cable tend to be greater than the relatively small benefit of the electric shield! CAT5/6 cables carrying Ethernet data do radiate RF trash, but most of that radiation is common mode '' that is, longitudinally along the cable '' because the line drivers on either (or both) ends of the cable have poor common mode isolation. But this is a defect in those line drivers, not in the cable! We'll address RFI filtering of Ethernet cables later on. RFI and Poorly Shielded Equipment There are few practical RFI fixes for poorly shielded equip-ment. The most obvious is to shield it, but this is usually either expensive or impractical if it wasn't built with good shielding. We could, for example, wrap it in aluminum foil, but to make that shield-ing effective, 1) we must bond the shields of all wiring that enters and leaves the equipment to that foil shield; and 2) any openings in the shield must be small as a fraction of the wavelength of the interfering signal; [It is quite difficult to watch a TV set, or adjust the controls of a stereo system, that is surrounded by aluminum foil!]; 3) Modify the defective product by adding filters (ferrite beads, bypass capacitors) to the junctions that are detecting the RF [you may have time for a sci-ence project like this, but I don't]; 4) use the bucket treatment. The Bucket Treatment: Find a bucket large enough to hold the defective equipment, and fill the bucket with water. Put the equipment in twice. Take it out once. Summary RF is coupled into equipment on wiring that acts as receiving antennas '' loudspeaker wiring, telephone wiring, audio interconnect wiring, antenna wiring, even wiring inside equipment that is poorly shielded. The pin 1 problem is a widespread design defect in computer gear, audio and video equipment, and even ham gear, and is a major cause of RFI. Imperfect construction of cables also converts RF to a differential mode signal. Once "inside the box," RF is detected by semiconductor junctions, and added to the signal where it is heard as interference. Most antenna action outside the box can be suppressed by suitable ferrite chokes that block the current. Chapter 2 '' Ferrites Ferrites can be a very effective tool for eliminating RF interference between systems. To use them effectively, we must understand them. Ferrites are ceramics consisting of various metal oxides formulated to have very high permeability. Iron, manganese, manganese zinc (MnZn), and nickel zinc (NiZn) are the most commonly used oxides. When a ferrite surrounds a conductor, the high permeability of the material provides a much easier path for magnetic flux set up by current flow in the conductor than if the wire were surrounded only by air. The short length of wire passing through the ferrite will thus see its self inductance ''magnified'' by the relative permeability of the ferrite. The ferrites used for suppression are soft ferrites '' that is, they are not permanent magnets. Fig 4 '' A toroidal ferrite choke Fig 5 '' Ferrites are made in many forms Permeability is the characteristic of a material that quantifies the ease with which it supports a magnetic field. Relative permeability is the ratio of the permeability of the material to the perme-ability of free space. The relative permeability of non-magnetic materials like air, copper, and alu-minum is 1, while magnetic materials have a permeability much greater than 1. Typical values (measured at power frequencies) for stainless steel, steel and mumetal are on the order of 500, 1,000 and 20,000 respectively. Various ferrites have values from the low tens to several thousand.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 8 Fig 6 '' Atypical ferrite mate-rial (Fair-Rite #61) Fig 7a '' Data sheet imped-ance Fig 7b '' Over-simplified equivalent circuit of a ferrite choke Fig 7c '' A better equivalent circuit of a ferrite choke Fig 8 '' A UHF material (Fair-Rite #61) Fig 9 '' Small cores of different lengths Fig 6 shows complex permeability µ'S and µ''S for a ferritematerial optimized for suppression at UHF. [For the engi-neers among us, µ = µ'S + j µ''S. Thus µ'S is the compo-nent of permeability defining ordinary inductance, andµ''S describes the loss component.] Product data sheets characterize ferrite chokes by graph-ing their series equivalent impedance, and chokes areusually analyzed as if their equivalent circuit had only aseries resistance and inductance, as shown in Fig 7a and7b. The actual equivalent circuit is closer to Fig 7c. We'lllearn more about it as we go along. Fig 8 is the manufacturer's data for a cylindrical bead of 5mm o.d. and 23 mm long, defined in terms of the seriesR and XL. Interestingly, XL goes off the graph above reso-nance, but it isn't zero. If you have the equipment tomeasure it accurately, you will see negative reactancecontributed by the capacitors in Fig 7c. Below resonance, the impedance of a wire passingthrough a ferrite cylinder is proportional to the length ofthe cylinder. Fig 9 shows the impedance of a family ofbeads that differ primarily in their length. There are alsosmall differences in their cross section, which is why theresonant frequency shifts slightly. Manufacturers vary the chemical composition (the mix)and the dimensions of ferrites to achieve the desired elec-trical performance characteristics. Fig 8 is data for asleeve made of a mix (#61) useful in suppressing RFIabove 200 MHz. The #43 mix used for the beads of Fig 9is optimized for suppression at VHF (30-300 MHz). Like all inductors, the impedance of a ferrite choke belowresonance is approximately proportional to the square ofthe number of turns passing through the core. Fig 10 ismeasured data for multi-turn chokes wound around thetoroid of Fig 4 (2.4" o.d x 1.4" i.d. x 0.5"). This ferrite isoptimized for the VHF range (30-300 MHz). Fig 12 showsdata for chokes wound around the same size toroid, butusing a material optimized for suppression above200MHz. The data of Fig 11 are for toroids of the samesize, but wound on a material optimized for use below 2MHz. We'll study the LD CD resonance first. A classic text (SoftFerrites, Properties and Applications, by E. C. Snelling,published in 1969), shows that there is a dimensionalresonance within the ferrite related to the velocity ofpropagation (VP) within the ferrite and standing wavesthat are set up in the cross-sectional dimensions of thecore. In general, for any given material, the smaller thecore, the higher will be the frequency of this resonance,and to a first approximation, the resonant frequency willdouble if the core dimension is halved. In Fig 7c, LD andCD account for this dimensional resonance, and RD forlosses within the ferrite. RD is mostly due to eddy current
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 9 (and some hysteresis) in the core. Now it's time to account for RC , LC, and CC. Note that there are two sets of resonances for the chokes wound around the #78 material (Fig 11), but only one set for the chokes of Fig 10 and 12. And for all three materials, the upper resonance starts just below 1 GHz for a single turn and moves down in frequency as the number of turns is increased. Fig 14, the reactance for the chokes of Fig 11, also shows both sets of resonances. That's why the equivalent circuit must include two parallel resonances! The difference between these materials that accounts for this behavior is their chemical composi-tion (called their mix). #78 is a MnZn ferrite, while #43 and #61 are NiZn ferrites. The velocity of propagation (VP) in NiZn ferrites is roughly two orders of magnitude higher than for MnZn, and, at those higher frequencies, there is too much loss to allow the standing waves that establish dimen-sional resonance to exist. Fig 10 '' Impedance of multi-turn chokes wound on the core of Fig 4 (Fair-Rite #43). (Measured data) Fig 12 '' Impedance of multi-turn choke on a core of the size/shape of Fig 4, on a material optimized for performance above 200 MHz (Fair-Rite #61). (Measured data) Fig 11 '' Impedance of multi-turn chokes on a core of the size/shape of Fig 4, but of a mate-rial optimized for performance below 2 MHz (Fair-Rite #78) (Measured Data) Fig 13 '' Chokes of Fig 10 with1-5 turns, measured to 1 GHz (Fair-Rite #43) (Meas-ured Data) Single Values For Permability We see that µ varies with frequency, and is complex, yet those who don't understand this often use a single number for µ. When a single number for µ is quoted, it is the value of µ at frequencies well below resonance, where losses are small and the graph of im-pedance is a straight line increasing linearly with frequency.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 10 Fig 14 '' Series reactive component of the chokes of Fig 11 (Measured Data) Fig 15 A multi-turn choke To understand what's happening, we'll return to our first orderequivalent circuit of a ferrite choke (Fig 15). LC, and RC, and CCare the inductance, resistance, (including the effect of the µ ofthe ferrite), and stray capacitance associated with the wire thatpasses through the ferrite. This resonance moves down in fre-quency with more turns because both L and C increase withmore turns. The dimensional resonance does not move, since itdepends only on the dimensions of the ferrite and its VP. What is the source of CC if there's no "coil," only a single wire passing through a cylinder? It's the capacitance from the wire at one end of the cylinder to the wire at the other end, with the ferrite acting as the dielectric. Yes, it's a very small capacitance, but you can see the resonance it causes on the data sheet. Let's talk briefly about series and parallel equivalent circuits. Many impedance analyzers express the impedance between their terminals as Z with a phase angle, and the series equivalent RS, and XS. They could just have easily expressed that same impedance using the parallel equivalent RP and XP BUT '' RP and XP will have values that are numerically different from RS and XS. There is also an important analytical ''mindset'' we need to adopt when thinking about how series and parallel cir-cuits behave. In a series circuit, the larger value of RS and XS has the greatest influence, while in a parallel circuit, the smaller value RP and XP is dominant. In other words, for RP to dominate, RP it must be small. Both expressions of the impedance are correct at any given frequency, but whether the series or parallel representation is most useful will depend on the physics of the device being measured and how that device fits in a circuit. We've just seen, for example, that a parallel equivalent circuit is a more realistic representation of a ferrite choke '' the values of RP, LP, and CP will come much closer to remaining constant as frequency changes than if we use the series equivalent. [RP, LP, and CP won't be precisely constant though, because the physical properties of all ferrites '' permeability, resistivity, and permittivity '' all vary with frequency.] Fig 16a '' Series element of divider is a par-allel resonance circuit Fig 16b '' Series element of divider is series equivalent circuit used for ferrite data sheet
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 11 But virtually all product data for ferrite chokes is presented as series equivalent RS and XS. Why? First, because it's easy to measure and understand, second, because we tend to forget there is stray capacitance, and third because ferrite chokes are most often used to reduce current in a se-ries circuit! Fig 16a and 16b are both useful representations of the voltage divider formed by a fer-rite choke and a small bypass capacitor across the device input. Which we use will depend on what we know about our ferrite. If we know RP, LP, and CP and they are constant over the fre-quency range of interest, Fig 16a may be more useful, because we can insert values in a circuit model and perhaps tweak the circuit. But if we have a graph of RS and XS vs. frequency, Fig 16b will give us a good answer faster. Because we will most often be dealing with RS and XS data, we will use the series circuit for our remaining examples. Another reason for using RS and XS is that the impedance of two or more ferrite chokes in series can be computed simply by adding their RS and XS components, just as with any other series impedances! When you look at the data sheet plots of RS, XL, and Z for a standard ferrite part, you are looking at the series equivalent parameters of their dominant resonance. For most MnZn materials, it is dimensional resonance, while, for most NiZn materials, it is the circuit resonance. Fig 17 '' The choke interacts with the cable Fig 17 shows how a choke might be used to reduce common mode current flow on a cable. Be-cause that cable is also an antenna, it will have some impedance of its own, depending on its length and the frequency of the interfering signal. If the antenna is shorter than a quarter-wave it will look like a capacitance, and can resonate with the inductance of the ferrite choke. When this happens, the current is limited only by the resistance of the circuit '' in this case, the loss compo-nent of the choke plus RR and RIN (the radiation resistance and the input resistance). The choke can also be capacitive, and the antenna can be inductive, as it would be if it were longer than a quarter-wavelength. Antenna theory tells us that these impedance relationships will repeat in increments of ½ wavelength. The last thing we want is to increase the RF current, and we would prefer to not have to worry about how long the antenna (mic cable) is. Thus we state three general rules about the use of ferrites as chokes. 1) More impedance is better. 2) All ferrite chokes should be designed to operate in the frequency range where their series equiva-lent resistance is large and their series equivalent reactance is small. 3) These conditions are satisfied at or near the choke's resonant frequency. We do this by selecting a suitable material, core size, and number of turns. These rules apply to both single turn and multi-turn chokes, and they apply to chokes (but not transformers) used for transmitting as well. New #31 Material is a Problem Solver The relatively new #31 material made by Fair-Rite Products is extremely useful, especially if some component of your problem is below 5 MHz. Measured data for the new material is displayed in Figs 18a and 18b. Compare it with Figs 19a and 19b, which are corresponding plots for the older #43 material. By comparison, #31 provides nearly 7 dB greater choking impedance at 2 MHz, and at least 3 dB more on 80 meters. At 10 MHz and above, the two materials are nearly equivalent, with #43 being about 1 dB better. If your goal is suppression or a feedline choke (a so-called current balun), the #31 material is the best all round performer to cover all HF bands, and is clearly the weapon of choice at 5 MHz and below. Be-tween 5 MHz and 20 MHz, #43 has a slight edge (about 1 dB), and above 20 MHz they're equiva-lent. We'll discuss baluns in detail in Chapter 6. The new #31 material is useful because it exhibits both of the resonances in our equivalent circuit '' that is, the dimensional resonance of the core, and the resonance of the choke with the lossy permeability of the core material. Below 10 MHz, these two resonances combine (in much the manner of a stagger-tuned IF) to provide significantly greater suppression bandwidth (roughly one octave, or one additional harmonically related ham band). The result is that a single choke on #31 can be made to provide very good suppression over about 8:1 frequency span, as compared to 4:1 for #43. As we will learn later, #31 also has somewhat better temperature characteristics at HF.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 12 Fig 18a '' Impedance of multi-turn chokes on a 2.4" o.d. toroidal core , but made of Fair-Rite's new#31 mix (Measured Data) Fig 19a '' Impedance of multi-turn chokes like those of Fig 16a, but on a Fair-Rite #43 core. (Measured data) Fig 18b '' Equivalent series resistance of the chokes of Fig 18a (Measured Data) Fig 19b '' Equivalent series resistance of the chokes of Fig 19a (Measured Data) A simple design problem Now let's do some engineering work using what we've learned so far. Suppose that we have an Ethernet router that is radiating trash as a common mode signal on the Ethernet cable that we're hearing on 30-10 meters (as it turns out, this is a very common problem). Figs 18 and 19 tells us that 9 turns of the Ethernet cable around a 2.4" o.d. toroid made of Fair-Rite #31 or #43 material will give us at least 2k ohms choking impedance between 10 MHz and 30 MHz. How much that choke reduces the radiated noise will depend on a lot of factors, including the common mode output impedance of the router, how long the Ethernet cable is (and thus its impedance), and the common mode input impedance of the Ethernet device on the other end. Fig 20 '' Ethernet circuit Fig 20 is a simplified equivalent circuit for our Ethernet problem. Note that it's drawn as if one de-vice is a transmitter and the other is a receiver, but any box that includes digital or RF circuitry is a potential generator of RF trash. The common mode input and output impedances of the Ethernet boxes are unknown, and they have at least some connection, maybe DC, maybe capacitive, to the green wire at the AC outlet. Without the choke, the impedance of the antenna circuit (the Ethernet cable and its return path) determines the current. So to achieve good suppression, we simply need the impedance of the choke to be much higher than the series combination of the antenna and the paths to "ground." But '' hold on a minute '' what's hiding behind that ground symbol?
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 13 Fig 21 '' Ethernet circuit, including "ground" Fig 21, which includes the impedance of the path to "ground," makes it clear that there can be a lot of variables in this simple problem. Each of the X terms may be capacitive or inductive, and they will have different values at every frequency. Every wire in that series circuit will function as an an-tenna, radiating any noise current that it carries. Does that mean we must throw up our hands? Of course not. But it clearly shows why coming up with a number for how much suppression a given choke will yield is not a simple matter. Indeed, the best way to learn that for any given circuit is to wind a choke that provides the greatest impedance in a practical package and try it! Do we need chokes on both ends of that cable? The answer is, it depends. The Ethernet devices on each end of the line are both potential generators of RF trash (because they both include digital electronics). We also need to look at the length of the series circuit that includes the Ethernet ca-ble. If the cable is shorter than about Î>>/10 at the highest interfering frequency, a choke roughly near the center of the cable may be entirely sufficient. A cable that is electrically longer than Î>>/10 (or is radiating VHF trash) is far more likely to need chokes at both ends. And the chokes that work at VHF are very different from the toroidal chokes that work at HF. In the simple circuit above, the Ethernet transmitter can be seen to feed an unbalanced dipole, where the Ethernet cable is half of the dipole and a connection to "ground" via the power supply is the other! Fig 21 makes it clear that the current path is also a loop. We must never forget that our invisible "ground" circuit can be part of the antenna circuit, contributing both its length and radia-tion to the problem. And if the Ethernet device is a switch or hub that has multiple outputs, the Ethernet cables connected to each port become part of the equivalent circuit, and because each output includes a line driver, the cables connected to each output need suppression. The dc power supply for that Ethernet router may also be a source of noise, and there are two an-tennas connected to it '' the AC power line and the dc power cable going to the router. Are either or both of these cables likely to need treatment? To answer this question, let's look at their likely behavior as antennas. In a typical home, the AC power line is probably 30-50 ft long by the time it reaches the breaker panel that feeds it, which is long enough to be a pretty good antenna on 10-30 MHz, so my next choke would go on the power line side of that power supply. On the other hand, the cable between the power supply and the router is only 3 ft long, which means that it is unlikely to be a good antenna below 30 MHz. So if I hear any noise on 10 meters after I've put chokes on the Ethernet cable and the power line, I'll try a fairly small choke (7 turns around #31 or #43) on the dc power cable. Ethernet trash comes in (at least) two common forms '' multiple carriers of relatively constant am-plitude, but with some modulation (birdies), and broadband hash. The clocks are generated within the Ethernet hardware, so frequencies vary slightly from one Ethernet box to another. In almost any residential neighborhood, you'll hear clusters of Ethernet birdies around 10,107 kHz, 10,122 kHz, 14,030 kHz, 18,106 kHz, 18,120 kHz, 18,167 kHz, 21,052 kHz, 21,113 kHz, 21,174 kHz, 21,221 kHz, 21,282 kHz, 21,343 kHz, 24,878 kHz, 24,945 kHz, 28,016 kHz, 28,060 kHz, 28,120 kHz, 28,182 kHz, 28,244 kHz, 28,304 kHz, 28,366 kHz, 28,427 kHz, 50,044 kHz, 50,058 kHz, 50,105 kHz, 50,120 kHz, 50,148 kHz, 50,166 kHz. There are certainly more, but these are some I've found (nearly all of my operation is CW). In any cluster, some birdies will be louder than others, depending on the behavior of the Ethernet cables as antennas, the nastiness of the Ethernet boxes, and the proximity to your antennas. Be-
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 14 fore you begin cleaning up your own trash, identify which signals are yours by killing power to your own router, switch, or hub. This is important, because even after you've killed your own trash, you're likely to hear your neighbors (hopefully at much lower levels). If you don't know which are yours, you can end up chasing your tail. And you may not be able to completely kill your own '' most of these boxes are poorly shielded, so some trash can be radiated by internal wiring. Chapter 3 '' Back to the Basics Threshold Effect Looking again at the series circuit of Fig 21, let's say that for a particular antenna (Ethernet cable) working into a particular piece of gear, the series impedance at the frequency of the interference is 300 '.... If we are able reduce the RF current by 6 dB, (one half), the interference radiated by that cable will also drop by 6 dB in our ham receiver. To do that, a choke must add enough resistance to double the total impedance. In other words, we need to end up with 600 '.... But what if the antenna circuit is capacitive and our choke is inductive at that frequency? Some of the impedance we are adding will increase the current because it resonates with the antenna, so we may need to add more than 300 '... to hit 600 '...! How many times have you heard someone say, "ferrite beads don't work on this problem '' I added one and nothing happened." In fact, they were simply below the threshold impedance needed in that particular circuit! Once we've hit that threshold, adding more series impedance continues to reduce the current flow. RF current is re-duced by the ratio of the "before" and "after" values of the total series impedances. Since power is proportional to the square of the current, RF noise falls 6 dB per halving of the current flow. If the choke is suppressing the detection of RFI in other equipment (telephones, hi-fi systems, etc.), 6 dB less RF translates into a 12 dB reduction in detected RF (because all detection is square law). Threshold effect is the reason why adding a few clamp-on beads doesn't make a dent in RFI at HF'--you need turns to hit the threshold! Human Perception and Level Changes When a sound is not near the noise floor (or much louder than other sounds), 1 dB is approximately the smallest change in loudness that most people can hear, and a change of about 10 dB will be perceived as half (or twice) as loud. When a sound is close in loudness to other sounds, (room noise, or the band noise when we're trying to copy weak DX), a change of a few dB in one of those sounds may be heard as half (or twice) as loud. Chokes May Be Used in Series and their impedances will add algebraically (that is, taking the sign of the reactance into account). For many years, "current baluns" have been made of many ferrite cylinders at the end of piece of coax. This so-called balun is really a common mode choke, and its common mode impedance is simply the impedance of one cylinder multiplied by the number of cores. Baluns are addressed in detail in Chapter 6. Suppression at VHF Let's suppose that we have a problem with RFI on 2 meters. The most common way to provide suppression at VHF is with one or more clamp-on cores like those of Fig 8 or Fig 22. A good "rule of thumb" is that it usually takes at least 500-1,000 ohms to get far enough above the threshold to "make a dent" in RFI, and more is better. Using that guideline, three of these cores might be needed for a problem on 2 meters if there isn't already another choke in line. There's usually more than one way to skin a cat though '' Fig 23 shows that we might get close with 2 or 3 turns around our old standby #31 or #43 toroids, especially if we already have an HF choke in place to contrib-ute its impedance. Fig 22 '' A #31 Fair-Rite "clamp-on" ferrite, 1.5" long with an i.d. of 0.275"
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 15 Fig 23a '' Equivalent series resistance of multi-turn chokes on a Fair-Rite #43 2.4" o.d. toroidal core (Measured Data) Fig 24a '' Equivalent series reactance of multi-turn chokes like those of Fig 18, a Fair-Rite #31 core. (Measured data) Fig 23b '' Equivalent series resistance of multi-turn chokes on a Fair-Rite #31 2.4" o.d. toroidal core (Measured Data) Fig 24b '' Equivalent series reactance of chokes on #31 toroids of Fig 23b (Measured Data) Note: All of the data presented up to now applies to chokes wound with small diameter wire. Chokes wound with cable diameters larger than about 0.2" (RG58) have more stray capacitance, moving the resonance down to a greater extent than those wound with small wire. See Figs 41 '' 46 for data on some chokes wound with RG8 and RG8X. Using Different Chokes in Series All ferrite chokes along a cable do not need to be identical '' in-deed, in broadband suppression applications it may be necessary for them to be very different. But we must remember that the complex impedances of these chokes (that is, their resistive and inductive or capacitive elements of their series equivalent circuit) will add algebraically, so we must consider the magnitude and the sign of the reactive components of each choke. Again, the fundamental principle of using ferrite chokes for suppression comes into play '' resistance always helps us, but reactance may make things worse. When adding up the total impedance of multiple chokes, the safest approach is to count only the series equivalent resistance of each choke. For example, consider a cable wound 5 turns around a toroid to provide good suppression for the HF ham bands. Fig 23a and 23b show measured series resistance, while Figs 24a and 24b clearly show that the impedance of these chokes is capacitive above resonance, just as we would expect from Fig 15. Now, we add one or more of the clamp-ons shown in Fig 22. Between 30 and 100 MHz, the clamp-on is below resonance, so it looks like a lossy inductance. Thus, with both the VHF clamp-ons and the toroid in series on a cable, there will be some cancellation of their reac-tances in this range, but their resistive components will always add (improving the suppression). When using multiple chokes to cover different frequency ranges, always place the choke covering the highest frequency range nearest to the equipment being protected. The wire between the
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 16 equipment and that choke can still function as an antenna. Large Signal Performance Up to now, we've talked only about the "small signal" behavior of ferrites '' that is, the field produced by current in the ferrite material is too small to cause heating or non-linearity. We can define a linear device as one that has the same impedance for all values of ap-plied voltage and current. Like other magnetic materials, ferrites will saturate at some high level of current. In other words, the ferrite behaves linearly if the field within it is small, but becomes non-linear as it begins to saturate. DC Bias As a magnetic material approaches saturation its permeability decreases, approaching zero at saturation. Consider a ferrite surrounding a conductor carrying both signal and a DC cur-rent. The total field at any instant is the result of the instantaneous current, so if the DC current is large, it can move all or part of the signal into the non-linear region of the ferrite. The DC bias can also cause heating. Non-Linearity is generally a bad thing, because it causes distortion. That distortion will take the form of harmonics for a simple waveform (a constant sine wave of a single frequency) and both harmonics and intermodulation products for a complex waveform (a keyed sine wave, or transmit-ted audio). We'll talk more about this in our discussion of transmitting baluns and chokes. Non-Linearity as a Tool Non-linearity isn't always bad. Bob Kavanagh, VE3OSZ, showed how the inductance of a coil wound around a toroid could be varied by controlling DC bias applied to the coil. In this application, both the bias and the signal were sufficiently small that non-linearity was also small. ["Remote tuning of a low-frequency loop antenna," QEX May/June 2003] Fig 25 '' Impedance vs. Frequency and Temperature as a percentage of impedance at 25°C Temperature The permeability of ferrite materials varies as a function of both frequency and tem-perature, and different mixes behave very differently (Fig 25). Any RF current that produces a field in the ferrite will cause heating in the ferrite (and IR losses in the wire). If the current is small enough, the heat will be radiated and/or conducted as fast as it is produced. Larger currents, how-ever, can cause temperature to increase. At some high temperature (the Curie temperature), the ferrite will temporarily lose its magnetic properties (until it cools). The Curie temperature is differ-ent for each mix. In the #43 and #73 materials, this will in turn cause permeability to fall, which in turn allows more current, which produces more heating. In other words, thermal runaway can occur if the current is large enough and the core is small enough. The #31 material has somewhat better temperature characteristics, especially on the lower HF bands, where impedance actually increases with temperature up to about 100°C, but a rather low Curie temperature. Thermal runaway can still occur, but is a bit less likely. In general, it is impor-tant to use ferrites in a manner that 1) saturation is avoided, and 2) permeability does not signifi-cantly drop with temperature. We'll talk more about this in our discussion of transmitting chokes.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 17 Total Field A ferrite sees the instantaneous algebraic sum of the fields produced by the currents in all the conductors that it surrounds (or that are wound through it). If, for example, a ferrite sur-rounds two conductors carrying currents that are equal and opposite, (for example, "hot" and "re-turn" of a power circuit, loudspeaker line, or RF transmission line), the total field will be zero. When the currents are not equal and opposite, the ferrite sees the field resulting from that differ-ence (that is, the common mode current). This means that we can use relatively small ferrites to suppress small common mode currents on paired cables that are carrying large differential currents as long as the ferrite surrounds all the conductors. We'll show applications of this later on. Chapter 4 '' More Suppression Applications Mobile Operation Common mode noise on the DC power line can be suppressed by winding turns of both conductors around a ferrite core. But: if DC return current divides between the dedi-cated DC negative lead and the shield of the coax going to the antenna, the DC component of the flux in the ferrite core will not be zero, and if it is large enough, the choking impedance is reduced. Ferrite chokes can also be used on only the positive DC conductor to provide differential mode suppression. In a modern vehicle, we have two very different problems. When receiving, we are concerned with noise from the vehicle's electronics causing interference to our radio, but the DC current to the radio is small (typically 1-2A). When transmitting, we are concerned with our radio causing interference to the car's electronics, and in this condition, our 100 W radio is drawing 15-20A. In Chapter 3, we learned that DC current can cause some reduction in the impedance of a ferrite choke. The obvious question is, "How much is the impedance reduced?" Quantifying the Reduction in Impedance with DC Current The Fair-Rite catalog provides data for the H-field in Oersteds for 1 Ampere-Turn for many of their products. The applications section at the end of the catalog includes families of curves showing how the impedance of each material (mix) is reduced as a function of field strength and frequency. (Fig 26) A Design Example: Ten turns of the positive DC lead for a mobile transceiver is wound around our stan-dard #31 2.4" toroid, and the DC current for our mo-bile transceiver is 1A on receive. The catalog tells us that H is 0.09 oe for 1 Ampere Turn, so H = 0.9 oe in our 10-turn choke, which reduces impedance to 40% of the measured value at 10 MHz and 50% at 25 MHz. If we were to re-plot the data with H as con-stant and frequency on the horizontal axis, we could extrapolate impedance of about 32% at 5 MHz. Ap- Fig 26 '' Reduction of Impedance with DC Current (Bias) Fair-Rite #31 Mix plying these correction factors to the data of Fig 18a tells us that with 1A of bias, we could expect our 10 turn choke to look like about 1,100 '... at 5 MHz, 1,600 '... at 10 MHz, and 2,000 '... at 20 MHz. This is still a fairly reasonable choke, and should provide reasonable noise suppression for receiving. When transmitting, however, this choke will be severely saturated, reducing its imped-ance to about 250 ohms at 10 MHz. Thus, if we suspect transmitter RF coupling via the radio's power lead to the automotive electrical system, we would use a larger ferrite part '' one that has a much larger cross sectional area for flux, like the "big clamp-on" of Fig 38. A Home Entertainment System What if the problem is RFI to a home audio system from operation on 80-10 meters? The first thing we should do is look at the loudspeaker wiring, and if it is zip cord, replace it with twisted pair. If we still have interference, it's likely that common mode current on one (or more) of the cables is exciting a pin 1 problem. We need to determine which frequen-cies we're still hearing, decide which cables connected to that system are the best antennas at those frequencies, and add chokes to those cables. In the system of Fig 27, the cable between the CD player and the receiver is probably quite short, and if both units are plugged into the same outlet, the loop through the power system is likely to
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 18 be fairly short. Depending on how the system is set up, the video cable may be long or short. On the other hand, the coax coming from rooftop TV antenna of the CATV system (including the downlead for the CATV system) may be fairly long. Both are likely to be pretty decent receiving antennas. In this system, I would first try 8-10 turns of the coax around a #31 toroid, because it looks likely to be the most effective receiving antenna for my 3.5-30 MHz station. But don't rule out shorter cables for the higher bands '' the cable connecting the CD player was the culprit for 10M RFI in my own living room. Fig 27 '' A simple home A/V system CATV and Rooftop Antenna Downleads Tom Rauch, W8JI, has outlined an excellent (and very simple) strategy for lightning protection that also puts an effective band-aid on pin 1 problems when the interfering signal is on the HF bands and is being coupled by coax from a roof-mounted antenna or CATV system. Tom bonds the coax shield to the green wire of the power cord at the power outlet for the entertainment system, then extends it to the A/V system. This causes the pri-mary path to "ground" for shield current to bypass the home entertainment system and go straight to the power system "ground." The only problem with this approach is that you probably need to build some sort of simple connector box to implement it. Interference At VHF is always coupled either directly into unshielded equipment, or onto wiring that is very close to the equipment. Fair-Rite #43 or #31 materials are the best choice up to about 200 MHz. Above 200 MHz, Fair-Rite #61 material or Steward HF material are the weapons of choice. The resonance of a single turn through a #43 or #31 core is typically about 150 MHz ; 2 turns brings the resonance below 90 MHz and double the impedance at the resonant peak; 3 turns brings it below 60 MHz and double it again. Thus, the 0.3" and 0.5" i.d. cores make very good suppression chokes at 50 MHz (2-3 turns) and 144 MHz (single turn, multiple cores in series). Use Your Talkie as An Injection Probe to locate the susceptible components and wiring in a sys-tem that is experiencing VHF interference. A talkie that has a relatively sharp turn-on transient (for example, the Kenwood TH-F6A) when you key it works best. To use it, find a channel where you won't cause interference near the frequency where your radio is getting into the equipment, set the radio to transmit at full power, and key the PTT switch on and off continuously as you move it around the susceptible equipment and its wiring. Move the talkie's antenna at least a wavelength or two along each cable connected to the susceptible equipment '' it's normal to find one or two hot spots at quarter and half wave increments along the cable. If the interference is very strong, reduce transmit power to "zero in" on the susceptible points. When you find sensitive wiring, add one or more ferrite chokes as close to the equipment as practical. Wiring between the choke and the equipment will still function as an antenna. And remember threshold effect '' multiple chokes may be required to hit and exceed the threshold. Most RF Susceptibility is Frequency Dependent Equipment may be free of problems on some bands but have serious problems on others. This is not surprising '' we know that the unintentional antennas that couple interference work better or worse depending on their length, orientation,
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 19 proximity to our transmitting antennas, and many other factors. The coupling paths into equipment are often frequency-dependent, as are the paths inside the equipment that lead to the semiconduc-tor junctions where detection takes place. This means that your talkie may not be much help in probing equipment for RFI problems on the HF bands. Equipment Shielding If you've killed all the RF coming in on the cables and there's still a problem, chances are it's poor shielding of the equipment, and for that, you'll need the bucket. Nearly every powered loudspeaker I've ever seen has been a shielding and pin 1 nightmare. You can fix pin 1 with ferrites. Be sure to duck when you tell your neighbor you need to use the bucket. Advanced Troubleshooting '' Dummies Typical home entertainment systems have several blocks in the signal chain and interconnections between them. Several pieces of gear could be detecting the RF, and pin 1 problems are the most common mechanism. Pin 1 problems are excited by shield current, so if we try to isolate a problem to a piece of gear by disconnecting it, we may get false clues because we've interrupted the RF current path with the disconnection, not because we've found the problematic equipment. Bill Whitlock developed an innovative solution to this dilemma, in the form a cable adapter he calls a "dummy." The dummy is very simple, and easy to build. It can take two forms. One is a "barrel" adapter, with a male connector on one end and a female on the other. There is no connection be-tween the male and the female, except for the shield contact. The female connector has a 10K re-sistor between "hot" and "return," while the male has a low value resistor (270-470 ohms) between hot and return. If the connector is unbalanced, return is the shell. In a balanced connector, it's the other signal lead. If a barrel connector is not available, we can use the other practical form of a dummy '' a pair of male and female connectors with a cable connecting only their shields together and the resistors within each connector. To use the dummy, insert it at various points in the signal chain and note whether the interference is present or not. Since there is no signal connection between the two ends of the connector, any detected RF that you're hearing must be getting detected downstream of the dummy. If you then break the connection to the dummy and the hum, buzz, or RF goes away, you know that there is hum, buzz, or RF shield current at the point where you broke the connection. Dummies are espe-cially useful in chasing RFI on the HF bands where the talkie doesn't help. RFI to Telephone Systems Telephone wir-ing is an effective receiving antenna for the HF bands, and most consumer tele-phone products have poor immunity. Again, the path for antenna current is through the phone and its power supply to "ground." Phones often have both common mode and differential mode sus-ceptibility. Ferrite chokes can reduce the common mode coupling, but differential coupling calls for a capacitor with good RF characteristics across the telephone line. This capacitor shouldn't have too high a value '' if it does, it could degrade the au-dio response '' and the leads must be very short. Fig 28-Common Mode Chokes for Telephone Lines Remember that twisted pair wiring inherently rejects RF and noise coupling, and the better the quality of the twisted pair, the better the rejection. CAT5/6 cable works very well for telephone wiring '' it is plentiful, inexpensive, easy to work with, and has both a very high twist ratio and very good bandwidth. Replacing existing telephone wiring with twisted pair is a very good first step. Fig 28 shows measurements of some common mode chokes that are known to be effective in suppressing of RFI to telephones from HF transmitters. The thing that all of these filters have in common is very high common mode impedance. Filters AM-1 and RF-1 are sold by John Browne,
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 20 KI6KY http://www.ky-filters.com/ Filters RF-2 and RF-2 BC are K-Com filters. Pete Krieger, K8COM, the manufacturer of the K-Com filters, has closed his business and retired. Filters YC-1 and YC-2 are my own design, and will be most effective on 160M and 80M. YC-1 is 30 turns of the telephone cable wound on one 2.4-inch #31 toroid. YC-2 is 22 turns wound on two toroids. For 40M or 30M, start with one 12-turn choke and add a second in series if needed. The RFI-1 KY fil-ter should be effective on the HF bands. RFI to DSL Modems DSL modems utilize the RF spectrum between about 25 kHz and 2MHz. Be-gin by using CAT5 for as much as possible of the wiring that carries the DSL signal, especially wir-ing that is exposed to interfering transmit antennas (including any radial system). Next, add YC-1 or YC-2 filters to every cable connected to the DSL modem, including its power supply. In your station, use a coaxial transmitting choke having at least 5,000 '... choking impedance at the feed-point of every transmitting antenna. Make sure that your tower ground, power system ground, telephone system ground, CATV ground, and shack ground all have a low impedance bond to a single point that is then bonded to all earth electrodes. If interference persists, differential filtering may be required. Use a low-pass filter with the highest practical cutoff frequency, taking into consideration the ham bands on which you will transmit. For example, if you use 160M, design the filter for a cutoff around 1.5 MHz; if 80M or 40M is your lowest band, use 2.5 MHz, and 5 MHz if 40M is the lowest band. Paired audio cables, including telephone cables, are not 600 ohms '' their characteristic impedance is 80-100 ohms, so the filter should be designed for 90 ohm source and load impedances. A very nice filter design program, SVCFilter, is included on the CDROM that accompanies the ARRL Handbook. It can also be downloaded from. http://www.tonnesoftware.com/svcfilter.html Set it for a 90 ohm design im-pedance. Carefully study the filter response to see if there's any variation in the time response in the passband. If there is, use a different filter configuration '' more poles, a higher cutoff fre-quency, a different filter type '' that minimizes the variation. Doorbells, Smoke Alarms, etc. Coupling of RF into these products is often differential mode. When it is, a good RF capacitor across the terminals is usually an effective fix. 0.1 '' 0.47 µF will usually do the job. Be sure that the voltage rating of the capacitor is sufficient '' study product documentation to see what voltages are used. Most products like this use 12-24 volts for control. Don't rule out the possibility of replacing the wiring for these systems with good twisted pair cable '' if you can get at the wiring. Shielding is not usually important, but twisting is. In addition, foil/drain cable shields can actually cause RF interference in twisted pair cables '' see the tutorials about shield-current-induced noise (SCIN) at http://audiosystemsgroup.com/publish.htm Suppression "At the End of the Line" Some devices that receive interference have only one set of wires connected to them, counting the power supply, so there is no path for RF current through the device. An example might be a smoke detector that has built-in electronics but no power sup-ply '' instead, it obtains its power from the same cable that connects the sensor to a main unit. When the device is at the end of the line, there is no path for common mode current to flow through the device, so the interference is almost certain to be coupled in the differential mode (that is, between the terminals of the signal wiring or the power wiring). "End of the line" interfer-ence cannot be suppressed with a choke '' there is no RF current to suppress. Most 'end of the line" problems are solved by a capacitor across the line to short out the interfer-ence. The capacitor must not be so large that it weakens or distorts the waveform of the desired signal, but large enough to reduce the strength of the RF signal. In some cases, a low pass filter may be required. More than One Coupling Mechanism Most cases of interference are coupled by more than one mechanism. The total interference will be the algebraic sum (that is, considering both magnitude and phase) of all of the interference mechanisms that are at play in that particular system. Usually, but not always, one will be dominant, and when it is eliminated, interference from the others may still be heard. We may, for example, kill the common mode current with a choke and reduce the interference, but there may still be some differential mode interference present that needs a ca-pacitor across the signal line to kill it. There may be more than one common mode current path,
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 21 as in the examples of the Ethernet equipment and the home entertainment system. Twisted Pair Cable I can't say it enough '' zip cord is terrible for RFI, and twisted pair solves many problems. If you have RFI and the cable is anything but coax or a good twisted pair, try to replace the cable. This is true for virtually all systems '' anything from the sensor for a smoke detector to telephone wiring to big loudspeaker cables. Shielded cable rarely solves RFI problems, partly be-cause to do anything useful cable shielding must continuous with equipment shielding, and lots of equipment to which you would like to connect it is unshielded! Cylindrical vs. Snap-On Cores As you can see from the data (Appendix 1), cylindrical cores per-form much better in the lower HF spectrum than equivalent Snap-On cores, but only about 10% better at VHF. The Snap-On cores are also nearly double the cost. Their principle advantage is their ease of use '' you can fit them onto a lot more cables without taking the connector off. Fair-Rite Data for 1-3 Turns Since I first published my work about five years ago, Fair-Rite has up-dated their online catalog with impedance data for 1, 2, and 3 turns through many of their sup-pression components. To access it, click on a part number to see a detailed data sheet, then scroll down to the bottom and click on Impedance Curve. Estimating the Performance of Multi-Turn Chokes Without Measured Data Unfortunately, other manufacturers don't publish much data for multi-turn chokes, and even Fair-Rite data only goes up to three turns. Beyond that, the measured data that I have published is nearly the only publicly available data on multi-turn ferrite chokes! You can, however, begin with published data and use our data as the basis for "guestimating" how another part will behave with multiple turns. Suppress Differential Mode Interference in FM and TV Receiving Antennas with traditional high pass, low pass, bandpass, and bandstop filters. Tin Lee Electronics, near Toronto, makes a broad selection of filters. www.tinlee.com Install the filter upstream of the first electronic device that is being overloaded by the interference. In Chicago, I used a bandpass filter on the FM-only antenna and a high pass filter on the TV antenna (in addition to common mode chokes on both antennas). Also, remember that after the DTV conversion, there are almost no TV stations operating below Channel 7 (174 MHz), and most are on UHF channels, so a high pass filter that cuts off above 2M should be sufficient. Study http://www.fcc.gov/dtv/markets/ for your area. Chapter 5 '' Suppressing Interference To Your Ham Station In addition to the weak signals of the DX we're trying to work, our ham antennas are bombarded with RF trash from a plethora of electronic devices, electrical appliances, and other equipment, both within our own homes, and in the surrounding neighborhood. The noise may be conducted on the power line, and it may be radiated both by power wiring and by other antennas connected to the noise source. Common noise sources include computers and computer peripherals, com-puter network hardware, power supplies for equipment, battery chargers, AC-AC converters for low voltage lighting, electric fences, and motors. Power Line Filters Since the power line is often both a conductor and a radiator of noise, we need to know how to take it out of the picture effectively. Most noise sources couple both common mode and differential mode signals, so both need to be addressed. Fig 29a '' Commercial Line Filters, and a typical schematic
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 22 Commercial AC power line filters (Fig 29a) typically include both common mode and differential mode filtering. Like most products, line filters are built to a wide range of performance levels to fit needs and budgets. Like any passive network, line filters are directional, because their operation depends on both source impedance and load impedance (but thanks to the impedance relation-ships, they don't work equally well in both directions). For data and photos for more filters I found at a local surplus house, see http://audiosystemsgroup.com/PowerFilters.pdf . In the schematic of Fig 29a, the inductor is a common mode choke. C1 and C2 function as voltage dividers with the imbalance and leakage inductance of the choke to form a differential mode filter. C1 minimizes noise coupling from load to line, while C2 minimizes coupling from line to load. The two capacitors Cy form a common mode filter for noise coupled from the power line to the equipment. Cy must be small in value to satisfy electrical safety codes, which limit leakage current to about 5 mA '' 4.7 nF is typical. Typical values for C1 and C2 are 0.22 '' 0.47 µF. Specifications for most good commercial filters are available on line. Study them carefully when choosing a filter. Note that these data are for a 50 ohm source and load network (called a LISN) specified by the FCC. While the LISN make the filters relatively easy to measure, it is a somewhat fictional representation of the real world '' it is, in essence, the "mean" of data for typical power sys-tems. The common mode impedance of a typical power system branch circuit ranges from about 30 ohms to about 300 ohms at radio frequencies. Because filters work by forming voltage dividers, two elements of which are their source and load impedances, the performance of any filter can vary widely from its published specifications, and will be better if the source impedance (at radio frequencies) of the AC line is lower. Fig 29b '' Published Specifications for Some Small Power Line Filters Fig 18b suggests that the filter shown in Fig 30 should provide about 3k Ohms RS between 2 and 10 MHz, and tests with some noisy low voltage lighting equipment correlated well with this pre-diction. It is less effective at higher frequencies, because its stray capacitance places its resonant frequency in the 10-20 MHz range, thus tending to short out the loss component of the choke above that range. This could be addressed in several ways. First, the wire is larger than needed for most applications '' most AC line cords are built with #18 wire. Winding the choke with #18 wire would likely raise the resonant frequency a bit because the turns could be less "jammed together". Alternatively, a second choke with fewer turns could be added in series with the first one. Fig 18 and 19 suggest that 7 turns on #31 or #43 should work well. A Home-Brew Filter The "brute force" line filter of Fig 30 provides effective line filtering for the lower HF bands (10 MHz and below). The choke is wound with a twisted pair of #12 THHN stranded wire on a #31 2.4" o.d. core, so it can be safely used in a 20A circuit. As in the commercial filters, the capacitor forms a dif-ferential mode filter with the imbalance in the induc-tance of the choke, and should always be on the end of the filter opposite the noise source. Since only the "phase" (hot) and neutral conductors pass through the choke, the equipment ground conductor (green wire) must be carried around the filter (that is, from power source to load). The capacitor should be about 0.47 µF, Only Type X1, X2, Y1 and Y2 capacitors, which are spe-cifically tested to withstand the high voltage spikes that Fig 30 '' A line filter for 1-14 MHz
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 23 can occur on power wiring should be used. Choose this capacitor carefully '' if it fails, it could catch on fire! Using Line Filters A line filter should be always as close as possible to the source of the noise so that the loop area (and antenna length) of wiring carrying the noise current is minimized. The home I bought here in California came with several low voltage lighting fixtures, all of which use very compact, and very noisy, 120 VAC to 12VAC "electronic transformers" (switching power sup-plies) that fit in the ceiling backbox for the lighting fixture. I tried two approaches. Both work fairly well '' if you can fit the filters where you need them. Method #1 '' build the ferrite choke of Fig 30 and cram it into the backbox. This choke works electrically '' it completely eliminated noise from very nasty power supplies that was radiating into my 160/80 meter vertical only 30 feet away. Unfortunately, it doesn't fit inside the backbox, so I would need to shove it into the ceiling behind the backbox. Fire safety considerations suggested that I try another approach. Method #2 '' mount a suitably small line filter to the back side of the metal plate that mounts the nasty 120-12V "electronic transformer" to the backbox, and connect it in series with the AC line by the shortest practical leads. This works mechanically, and it works well enough electrically that while I hear a bit of noise on the vertical, I don't hear it on the high dipole at about 100 ft. Method #3 '' wind chokes around smaller toroidal cores and cram them into the backbox. I've done this with a different set of lighting fixtures, and it works a bit, but not well enough. There's significant noise reduction, but I still hear noise on high 20 meter antennas (I need about 10 dB more suppression), and on a Beverage that runs within about 50 ft of the noisy wiring (I need 12-18 dB more suppression). Which leads us to method #4. Method #4 '' use both the commercial filter and the smaller toroidal choke. Method #5 '' find and install a 12 power supply with good noise suppression. Method #6 '' replace the power supply with a real transformer. The main problem with this ap-proach is that a suitably rated transformer won't fit in the ceiling backbox. Wall Wart Power Supplies and Battery Chargers These products can be very nasty noise sources. Build either the commercial filter or the home brew choke into a steel electrical backbox, mount-ing multiple 2-gang outlets to the top of the box. Plug the noisy power supplies directly into the outlets. This minimizes the current path between the noise source and the filter. Long line cords plugged into these outlets may still need a toroidal choke (as close as practical to the equipment). And don't forget a multi-turn choke on the dc lead to the equipment. Ferrite Chokes On a Service Drop Radiation of common mode noise from a typical residential overhead 240V power service can be sup-pressed by adding ferrite cores to the twisted triplet as it enters the premises. In Fig 31, six "big clamp-ons" (Fig 38) provided some sup-pression of noise on 40 and 30 meters to the antenna that ran parallel and fairly close to the power drop. This technique can only be used when the ferrite surrounds all three current-carrying conductors (two phases and the neu-tral), not just one of them. Thus, the ferrite sees only the common mode current, not the load current. The other cable visible in the photo is a telephone line, and chokes were applied to it at the point where it entered the house. Fig 31 '' Chokes on a Power Line (the bare conduc-tor is the neutral, and is grounded) Try Killing Power to Your House Many RFI specialists, including Mike Martin, K3RFI, recommend this as a first step in finding the sources of RF noise that you're hearing in your ham station. Al-ways start by cleaning up your own house. In the process, you'll learn a lot of things to look for if
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 24 you have the need (and the opportunity) to eliminate noise in the homes of your neighbors. It's pretty easy to run a ham receiver from a 12V battery '' indeed, all the radio gear in my ham shack (with the exception of the power amps) runs from a big 12V battery that is float charged by a regu-lated power supply. You'll be surprised by how much noise goes away when you kill the power to your own house. Then, while listening to your receiver, turn one circuit at a time back on at a time and track down the noise sources on that circuit using a process of elimination. Chapter 6 '' Baluns So-called "baluns" are widely used in ham stations, but few hams understand how they work or what their real function is. Virtually all discussions of baluns begin by saying that a balun is used to connect balanced antennas to unbalanced transmission lines '' it's like jazz coming up the river from New Orleans. While both statements contain a grain of truth, there's a lot more to both sto-ries! This chapter is an attempt to fill that void. In an ideal radio system, the transmission line for our antenna would act as if the transmitter (or receiver) was physically located at the feedpoint of the antenna, with nothing in between. There would be no loss, and no interaction of the feedline with the antenna. We've gotten to this point with microwave systems '' indeed, all of the RF electronics for many of these systems can clamp onto the back of a dish and drive it directly. We're not there with HF (or even VHF) systems though, and not likely to get there, thanks to the power levels, wavelengths, and antenna types that are practical. So in the real world, we're stuck with transmission lines for most of our anten-nas. The primary function of most baluns, at least in our ham stations, is to minimize the interac-tion of our antennas with the transmission lines that connect them to our radios. So let's dive in and learn a bit more about how antennas, transmission lines, and baluns work. Balance We should begin by defining a balanced circuit. A balanced circuit is not defined by the equality of current or voltage on the two conductors. Rather, a balanced circuit is one in which the impedances of the two conductors to the reference plane are equal in both magnitude and phase. A balanced circuit functions as a Wheatstone bridge, rejecting noise by virtue of the balance of the impedances within that system. [There is an excellent analysis of this in Whitlock, JAES, June 1995, and also on the Jensen Transformer website.] Antennas and Balance We like to think of a center-fed dipole as a balanced antenna, and in an ideal world it would be. To achieve that, we would need to suspend it over perfectly flat and uni-formly conducting earth, between electrically symmetrical support structures. There could be no buildings below it, no wiring, no conductive objects around it that were not perfectly symmetrical with the antenna, and the feedline would need to be perfectly perpendicular to the antenna all the way to the transmitter. As hams, few of us are able to install anything approaching a balanced antenna. We must suspend them from metal towers, trees, or the side of building. Often the ground beneath them is not flat, there are power lines, telephone lines, and there is wiring in nearby buildings. The antenna has capacitive and inductive coupling to all conductive objects in its near field. Rarely will that coupling be symmetrical, and rarely will it be possible to quantify it. In short, even the best of our antennas are a compromise. An example of a ham antenna that might have met that criteria of a balanced antenna was a dipole I was able to hang between two identical towers on top of the EE building at the University of Cin-cinnati when I was a student and trustee of W8YX in the early 60's. I used the word "might" be-cause although the towers were mounted symmetrically on the building, one held a large beam antenna. There goes the balance! Even with ideal ladder line feeding our real world "sort of" balanced antenna, the antenna imbal-ances cause the currents in the two halves of the antenna to be unbalanced (that is, unequal), so the current on two sides of our balanced feedline are not equal. The imbalance between the two currents is a common mode current, and it causes radiation from the feedline! And because all antennas work in reverse, any current flowing on the feedline couples unequally to the two sides of the antenna. The difference between those currents is sent back down the feedline as a differ-ential signal to our receiver. That feedline current could be noise from our neighbor's battery
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 25 charger, or a station coming from a direction we thought our beam antenna was rejecting. Coaxial Feedlines and Balance A coaxial feedline can add to the imbalance that already exists in our real world antenna. Because it is the most obvious of the imbalances (although not necessarily the dominant one) it is the one that we pay the most attention to. The way we pay attention to it is by adding a lump at the feedpoint that the guy at the ham radio store tells us is a balun. It's all nicely glued into a weatherproof housing that we can't take apart without destroying it, and the data sheet tells us nothing more than how wonderful it is. So now we're back where we started, asking "What is a balun?" And while we're at it, perhaps we should ask how it works. Types of Baluns There are three fundamental types of baluns, and several variations within each type. The three types are very different electrically, and they interact differently with the imbal-ances of both the feedline and the antenna. Voltage Baluns A "voltage" balun is essentially a transformer, most often with a primary and one or more secondary windings on a ferrite core. The Ruthroff baluns described by the late Jerry Sevick, W2FMI, and Doug DeMaw, W1FB, and the W2AU balun sold by Unadilla, are transformers (that is, "voltage" baluns) that use ferrites as a core to carry the flux between windings. Transmission Line Balun A balun can also take the form of a half-wavelength of transmission line (Fig 32). In the most common configuration, the center conductor of a 50 ohm line is connected directly to one side of a 100 ohm antenna and also to a half-wavelength of the same line, which in turn drives the other half of the an-tenna. The two sides of the antenna are thus driven in parallel, but 180 degrees out of phase with each other (but only at the frequency for which the transformer (the extra length of line) is one-half wavelength. As we move away from that frequency, the phase shift will be a bit more or a bit less. The antenna still works, but the balance degrades a bit. Fig 32 '' A Half-Wave Balun Current Baluns First published by Guanella and pioneered by Sevick, Joe Riesert (W1JR), and Walt Maxwell (W2DU), current baluns are actually common mode chokes applied to a feedline. Cur-rent baluns see only the common mode field. When wound with coax, this is true because all of the magnetic field associated with common mode current is outside the line, while all of the field associated with the transport of power from the transmitter to the antenna is inside the coax. When wound with parallel wires, the core sees the sum of flux from currents of opposite polarity; the differential components cancel, leaving only the common mode flux (due to the imbalance in the system). Current baluns work by adding a high impedance in series with the common mode impedance of the line, thus reducing the common mode current to a very small value '' if no com-mon mode current is allowed to flow on the transmission line, the current on the left half of the antenna must be equal to the current on the right half of the antenna, simply because there is no other path for current. There are three fundamental types of current baluns. Š Solenoid Balun The coaxial line is wound into a coil at the antenna. The choking imped-ance is the inductance of the coil. Reisert describes several designs for solenoid baluns (see Appendix 4), and the ARRL Handbook includes several designs for solenoid baluns. Š Inductive Ferrite Choke Balun The line is wound around a toroidal ferrite core that has low loss at the frequency where the balun is used, so all (or nearly all) of the impedance is in-ductive. The line may be coax or it may be bifilar (parallel wires). Reisert's toroidal baluns are wound on a material like #61 that has low losses at HF (Fig 12, Fig 33). [Reisert also introduced the concept of a crossover winding style, whereby half of the choke was wound in one direction around the toroid, then crossed 180 degrees to the other side of the toroid and wound in the opposing direction. Sevick noted that he was unable to measure any ef-fect of this technique. My measurements confirm Sevick's results.] Š Lossy Ferrite Choke Balun Maxwell introduced the concept of passing a coaxial line
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 26 through a string of lossy ferrite cores to form a common mode choke, a design which has come to be known as the W2DU balun. Maxwell's design consists of 50 Fair-Rite 2673002402 beads, 0.19" long and just big enough to fit over RG-303 coax (Fig 34). One of his experimental models used 300 beads, and measured 4500 +j3800 ohms at 4 MHz. Notice that his choke is resonant at about 8.5 MHz because that is where his #73 beads are resonant. A W2DU balun will be most effective on 40M, 30M, and 20M. Fig 33 '' RS for chokes on 2.4" o.d. Fair-Rite #61 Fig 34 '' A W2DU Balun (Measured Data) Others have proposed variations of the W2DU balun without realizing the importance of resis-tance. Fig 35 is computed data for straight uncoiled "string of bead" choke baluns using 1.125" long #31 beads. As with all bead baluns, the impedance of a straight balun is approximately equal to the impedance of one bead multiplied by the number of beads in the string. The W0IYH balun uses 100 #43 beads, 0.562" long, 0.25" i.d. The resonance of these beads (and thus the balun) is around 150 MHz, so these baluns are strongly inductive on the HF bands! K3LR has measured them. His results suggest considerable stray capacitance, which in turn suggests either measure-ment error (stray capacitance is a common measurement error) or that his string of beads may be coiled (increasing stray C, lowering FRES, and improving performance). Fig 35 '' Equivalent Series Resistance of #31 Bead Baluns (Computed from Fair-Rite Data) Advantages of Current Baluns Maxwell seems to have been the first to realize that with a current balun, loss in the ferrite is not a bad thing if you have enough of it! (We'll discuss this in detail a little later). Maxwell, and Roy Lewallen (W7EL) showed that a current balun has some important advantages over a voltage balun, and that the advantages are so great that only current baluns should be used in most ham radio applications. [Walt Maxwell, "Some Aspects of the Balun Prob-lem," QST March 1983, http://w2du.com/r2ch21.pdf ] [Roy Lewallen, W7EL, "Baluns: What They Do and How They Do It," http://www.eznec.com/Amateur/Articles/Baluns.pdf ] The ARRL Antenna Compendium Vol 1] Let's look at those advantages. Š Because the core sees only the common mode flux, a much smaller ferrite core is needed to handle high power without saturation. Š If the common mode impedance is high enough, common mode current can be forced to
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 27 near zero, which in turn forces near ideal balance. Disadvantages of "String of Bead" Baluns The common mode (choking) impedance is the imped-ance of one bead multiplied by the number of beads. As a result, Š 1) We are stuck with the resonant frequency of the bead used in the string. If the bead is inductive, the choke will be inductive, and nearly all commonly available beads are induc-tive in the HF spectrum. The exception is Fair-Rite #73 (see Fig 34), and the largest cable that fits through the largest #73 bead is RG-303. Š 2) As Figs 34 and 35 show, it takes a very large number of beads to achieve even modest choking impedance. The usual compromise is using too few beads, which results in insuf-ficient choking impedance. The resulting common mode current can overheat the balun, often to the point of failure, and couple RX noise. Š 3) This is a very inefficient use of the ferrite material. Disadvantages of Voltage Baluns The ferrite core of a transformer balun (the Ruthroff "voltage balun") sees all of the transmitted power, so it is easily overheated and saturated by high power. Because voltage baluns are carrying the entire transmitted signal, they should not be allowed to saturate, because that would create both harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion. You will be quite unpopular on the ham bands if you do either, and you will be quite likely to do so if you run high power through a voltage balun unless it is a very large one. This leads to the first two big negatives for voltage baluns '' they must be large to handle power, and they can generate both harmonics and splatter if they are overloaded. Related to these negatives are two important design constraints '' the cores of voltage baluns must have relatively low loss, and they need fairly high permeability to support the flux needed to carry the power. This limits them to a material like Fair-Rite #61 or #67. And yet another negative for voltage baluns '' any loss component in the ferrite core reduces the quality of the balance that the balun is providing, and real ferrites have losses. The result is that voltage baluns don't do a very good job of providing balance either! When used in a transformer (voltage) balun, or in a choke wound with parallel wire line, a core with high losses (#31, #43, #73, #77, #78) will convert much of the transmitter power into heat. The result are 1) high losses (that is, several dB of the transmitter output is lost in the balun); 2) balun performance may degrade due to heating; 3) the balun may overheat; 4) the balun (or the line) may fail due to overheating (that is, the line may melt and either deform or short, the ferrite may crack). Although voltage baluns are still sold and advocated in articles about ham building projects by au-thors who don't know any better, most authorities believe that they cause more problems than they solve, and should be avoided when there are other good options. This author strongly con-curs. There is a far better way to transform impedances using ferrite cores. See Impedance Trans-formation with Current Chokes later in this chapter. Lossy Toroidal Coaxial Chokes Winding multiple turns of a coaxial feedline through one or more lossy toroidal cores is simply another (and usually better) way to construct a W2DU balun. It is better because 1) it makes much more efficient use of the ferrite than a string of beads; and be-cause 2) it is easy to achieve much higher choking impedances in a very practical form and at rea-sonable cost than with any other form of balun; and because 3) a high level of performance can be obtained over a wide frequency range with a single part. Conceptually, lossy toroidal coaxial chokes are no different from W2DU's original design, they have all of the advantages of other cur-rent baluns, and they can provide much better performance over greater bandwidth. Disadvantages of the Reisert Toroidal Balun Because the design uses a low loss (high Q) material, the choke has a very high impedance only in the narrow range of frequencies to which it is tuned '' roughly one-half octave. Below that range it is inductive with very low loss, and above that range it is capacitive, with loss that increases with frequency. It takes a lot of turns around a lot of cores to achieve acceptable performance on the lower HF bands, and a given choke is likely to be a good performer on only one ham band. Significantly better performance over a much wider frequency
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 28 range can be achieved with lossy toroids. This has major implications when the objective is reduc-ing receive noise coupled from the transmission line to the antenna '' the lossy toroid choke is ca-pable of significantly more suppression and significantly greater bandwidth. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Solenoid Balun The principle advantage of solenoid chokes is their simplicity. Losses and dissipation are inconsequential. Solenoid baluns (coiled up coax) must be relatively large if they are to provide even relatively moderately high choking impedance (typically 500 '' 1,500 ohms), and are only practical on the upper HF bands. Using Common Mode Chokes As Baluns Maxwell taught us to use a common mode choke at the feedpoint of an antenna to minimize interaction of the feedline with the antenna '' that is, to de-couple the feedline from the antenna. This choke ("current balun") works by inserting a high com-mon mode impedance in series with the feedline, ideally as close to the feedpoint as possible. The obvious question is, how much impedance is enough? There are (at least) four criteria. Dissipation The choking impedance must be high enough to reduce common mode current to the level such that the choke cannot overheat and damage the core or the coax. Pattern Distortion We would like the choking impedance to be high enough so that feedline current does not distort the pattern of the antenna. Noise Coupling The choking impedance should be high enough that any noise current that may be received on the feedline behaving as an antenna cannot flow onto the intentional antenna. RFI Prevention The choking impedance should be high enough that the feedline does not radi-ate transmitter current near susceptible equipment in your home (or a neighbor's). How Much is Enough? Traditionally, "choke baluns" have been built around the assumption that a choking impedance on the order of 500 '... was enough. Maxwell considered 1,000 '... sufficient to eliminate pattern distortion, and considered his bead balun design sufficient to handle maximum legal power, although others have debated that assertion. In a self-published applications note, Chuck Counselman, W1HIS, suggested that a choking impedance of 5,000 '... as a more suitable target value to optimize noise suppression. My work and experience prove him correct. The Dissipation Question is one of the most important, yet can be tricky to get a good handle on. For a simple common mode choke in a pure 50 ohm system, it's simple '' worst case puts the full transmitter voltage across the choke under the condition of infinite imbalance, so the power is simply E2/R. For a 1.5kW CW or SSB transmitter, the PEP voltage is 275 volts, but heat is pro-duced by the average voltage, and the average voltage, even with heavy compression is at least 6dB less (one half, 138 volts). 275 volts (keydown) will burn 15 watts in a choke that is 5,000 ohms resistive, which is our design criteria. But once we start talking or sending CW, the average power drops by 6dB (one quarter) to less than 4 watts! Key-down modes like AM, FM, and RTTY will still burn 15 watts, but most transmitters and amplifiers must be de-rated by 2-3dB for key-down modes. If the duty cycle is 66% (continuous contest CQ'ing with few answers), we'd be hit-ting the choke with about 10 watts key-down and 2.5 watts for CW and SSB. The analysis above is for a 50 ohm system. What if the choke is on the output side of an antenna tuner (for example, up in the air at the feedpoint, or somewhere along the line) and the tuner is stepping up the impedance to match a higher impedance load? An impedance step-up of 4:1 dou-bles the voltage, which increases dissipation by 6dB, so our worst case CW or SSB dissipation is back to 10 watts. Increase the impedance to 400 ohms and CW/SSB dissipation rises to 14 watts. And all of this analysis is for an antenna that very badly unbalanced! Can a choke that provides 5,000 ohms choking impedance dissipate this much power? First, virtu-ally heating shows up primarily in the conductor(s), not in the core. Any choke wound according to our 5,000 ohm design criteria can handle 4 watts, even in an enclosure with no air circulation. 15 watts is no problem if the choke is exposed to air, and may work in an enclosure. 60 watts (keydown modes, full legal power) is likely to overheat a single core choke, but unlikely to cause problems with a big multi-core choke. It all depends on the choke we use. As we'll learn later on, we'll need 5 turns of RG8 through five 2.4" o.d. #31 toroids to achieve 5,000 ohms RS on 160, 80 meters, and 40 meters. We'll also learn about some bifilar chokes that can get us there.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 29 Seven turns of RG8 will easily fit without a connector, four turns with a connector, so these are very practical chokes! Temperature rise is further minimized by leaving cores exposed to air flow (Fig 36 and 37). And remember, this is an extreme worst case set of operating conditions! [All cores look alike '' the orange tape on these cores tells me these are mix #31.] Fig 36 '' Coaxial Chokes Wound to Minimize L and C Fig 37 '' A Bifilar Choke How Chokes Fail Common mode chokes subjected to high power fail when they are under-designed (that is, they have insufficient choking resistance), and when they are mistreated (that is, when they are in line with an antenna that is badly unbalanced and run at high power levels). Us-ing the analysis of Fig 36, it is easy to see how a choke that provides only 500 ohms choking im-pedance might easily overheat in this worst case condition. Weight: A 2.4" o.d. #31 toroid weighs about 4 oz, and we need less than 8 ft of coax for five turns, so a five core choke on RG8 will add just about 4 lb to the weight of the antenna. The "Big Clamp-On" in Fig 5, data in Fig 39, can also be used for coaxial chokes; it weighs 11 oz, and is equivalent to three or four toroids. Can we use smaller coax? Probably, especially if our antennas are always reasonably well behaved. The failures mostly come when they are not. W8JI reports that he often feeds high dipoles for 160 and 80 with RG6 to reduce weight, thus reducing sag and the strain on support lines, and that a good RG6 will handle full legal power. My "workhorse" 160/80/40 dipole, fed with 150 ft of RG59B that I bought from "The Wireman" several years ago, worked fine with the full output of my Titan amp, even with a mismatch on the line that ap-proached 2.5:1 during SSB contests. I've since replaced it with RG11 to reduce loss. Choking Impedance and Noise Suppression Once we've satisfied the dissipation criteria, the abil-ity of the common mode choke to suppress noise comes into play. The mechanism is simple. Any RF noise around your antenna will induce RF current on your feedline (and onto your antenna). When current flows on your antenna, you hear it in the receiver. The choke suppresses noise by adding a high resistance to common mode current between the feedline and your antenna, which in turn prevents it from showing up at the feedpoint and being sent back down the line to your re-ceiver. For good noise suppression, the series choking impedance should be as high as possible. Again, 5,000 ohms is a good target value, and more could be better. How Much Noise Reduction? Noise coupled from the feedline to the antenna will be reduced by 20 log (I2/I1)dB, where I2 and I1 are the common mode noise current with and without the choke. Once you've added enough choking impedance that the common mode current is dominated by that impedance, the noise reduction is 20 log (Z1/Z2)dB, where Z2 and Z1 are the common mode impedance with and without the choke. In other words, you get 6 dB of noise reduction for each halving of the current or doubling of the series impedance. This simple math explains why a 5K ohm choke is better than a 1K ohm choke! Choking Impedance and RFI Prevention Again, a higher value of choking impedance is better. If the choking impedance is high enough to satisfy dissipation requirements, it's likely to be enough to prevent RFI in your home. When should you use a "string of beads" choke, and when is a toroid choke better? The answer lies in factors like size, cost, and weight needed to achieve sufficient choking resistance. Both will work quite well '' if enough core material and turns are used to provide enough choking imped-
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 30 ance. A multi-turn choke on the right toroid is a far more efficient use of ferrite material, because impedance is multiplied by the square of the turns ratio, so a multi-turn toroidal choke is the clear winner below 30MHz. (See Table One in Chapter 7 for a cost and weight vs. benefits analysis.) When are "string of beads" chokes OK? Many rules are made to be broken. A few years ago, K3LR asked me if it was OK to form a W0IYH string of beads using clamp-ons on his 10M antennas, where the feedlines had been carefully phased for stacking, and modifying their length to add multi-turn chokes wasn't practical. Fig 35 shows that the answer is yes '' if enough beads are used to provide sufficient resistance that even if the feedline resonates with their inductance, the resis-tance still kills the common mode current. Fig 35 also shows that a relatively small "string of beads" can be quite effective on 6M and 2M. Fig 35 is computed for beads that are 0.562 inches long. Roughly half that number of 1.125-inch beads will provide equivalent performance. Temperature Characteristics At HF, especially below 25 MHz, the #31 material is a bit less sub-ject to thermal runaway than #43 and #73 materials. (See Fig 25 and the associated discussion.) Impedance Transformation with Current Chokes Very good impedance transformation can be achieved by wiring good common mode chokes in series-parallel configurations. Exam-ples are the high power "baluns" sold by DX En-gineering to match 200 ohm, 300 ohm, and 450 ohm line to 50 ohm coax. The chokes are wired in parallel on the low impedance side and in series on the high impedance side. Fig 38 shows a 4:1 version of this design. The primary design considerations are that 1) the common mode impedance of each choke must be large Fig 38 '' Current Choke (Guanella) Transformer enough that they do not short each other out or dissipate significant power; and 2) the common mode impedances of the chokes must reasonably matched each other. Two such chokes in se-ries/parallel provides a 4:1 impedance transformation, three chokes provides a 9:1 transformation. The high power baluns manufactured by DX Engineering are Guanella "current" baluns. You can easily wind your own for a fraction of the cost following my guidelines for coaxial chokes on #31 or #43 cores, or with bifilar windings on those cores using the measured data in Appendix One as a guide. Putting them in an box, however, is not so easy. There will be stray capacitance between the chokes, and between the chokes and a conductive enclosure. With a non-conductive enclosure, there can be capacitance to metal around the enclosure. This capacitance adds to what is already there, so it can detune the chokes, lowering their resonant frequencies, and it can de-grade system balance. In other words, building 1:4 and 1:9 chokes isn't as easy as it looks. Dissipation W8JI, designer of the DX Engineering baluns, notes that connecting either terminal (or even a center tap) of the high impedance side to ground can cause the entire transmitter voltage to appear across one of the chokes. Tom's analysis is solid to the extent that it describes "worst case" conditions, but it misses the fact that the so-called "grounds" are usually thousands of ohms apart. It also assumes key-down conditions. But he is entirely correct that if you're going to ground one high impedance terminal of a 4:1 or 9:1 choke balun at the balun, you'll need a very high value of choking impedance to avoid dissipation problems when transmitting key-down modes at 1.5kW. The same dissipation analysis we used for the simple common mode choke (page 28) applies to a choke that is part of a 1:4 current balun used according to its design criteria '' connecting a 50 ohm source and a 200 ohm load, and with neither conductor of the 200 ohm side grounded. Sevick analyzes this choke with no ground on the 200 ohm side, and assumes half of the output voltage is across each choke. W8JI assumes a zero-impedance grounded center-tap, which places the full transmitter voltage across one choke, but no voltage across the other. The real world is somewhere between these two simplistic analyses, and every system will be different. What if the choke is used at the output of an antenna tuner that steps up the impedance to match 400 ohms? That worst case math increases the voltage by 3dB, which increases the dissipation in the choke by 3dB, so we have 7.5 watts in the choke for CW or SSB, 30 watts for AM, RTTY, or FM. In a 9:1
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 31 choke, worst case dissipation in any one choke can be 3-6dB greater (that is, double or 4 times). In W8JI's worst case analysis of a 1:4 choke with one secondary terminal having a zero impedance short to the primary, he shows that one choke can have the full transmitter voltage while the other has either double the transmitter voltage or zero volts across it. Sevick's analysis places the trans-mitter voltage across each choke. Thus, in an unventilated enclosure, the worst case dissipation in the box is for 2X the transmitted voltage in one choke. The Biggest Clamp-On Fig 39 is data for coils wound through the "biggest Fair-Rite #31 clamp-on" in Fig 5. Measured data for 1-5 turns through this part and a somewhat smaller one are shown in Fig 39. The heavier lines are the biggest clamp-on (1" i.d.); the lighter lines are for a 0.75" i.d. part. While the smaller part provides a bit higher imped-ance at low frequencies, it is far less useful because it doesn't allow as many turns of most cables on which we would like to use it. This big clamp-on is quite useful in many applications where it isn't prac-tical to remove a large connector. Although we only measured small wire chokes up to five turns with this part, it can certainly be used with more than 5 turns of some cables. More turns moves the resonance even further down in frequency; it also increases the equivalent series resistance below res- Fig 39 '' The "Biggest #31 Clamp-On" (Fair-Rite 0431177081) onance, -and for up to about one-half octave above resonance. See Fig 45 for coaxial chokes using the "biggest clamp-on." Chokes Wound with Coax Up to this point, all of our measured data has been for small diameter wire wound around the core. The stray capacitance is a combination of the capacitance between the turns and the dielectric (the ferrite core) and the capacitance between the turns. The coaxial chokes of Fig 36 will have more stray capacitance than these smaller chokes or a bifilar choke like Fig 37), and they will have more inductance (by virtue of their greater length), but the loss compo-nent, mostly contributed by the ferrite, will be about the same as for the smaller chokes. Fig 40a '' Measuring Coaxial Chokes Fig 40b '' Equivalent circuit Fig 40a shows the test setup, and Fig 40b shows the equivalent circuit. Since the HP generator is designed to work into a 50 ohm termination and calibrated for that load, a 50 ohm "through" ter-mination was added at the output of the genera-tor. Without this termination, the generator volt-age would be about 6 dB greater. (and the elec- tronic attenuator might not work as well). The unknown impedance can then be computed from the voltage divider equation. For all values of unknown Z greater than 500 '..., the error is less than 10%, and less than 5% for unknowns greater than 1,000 '.... I measured the stray capacitance of this fixture as 0.4 pF at the terminals connected to the unknown impedance.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 32 This is a very useful measurement setup, and can achieve reasonable accuracy for rather high val-ues of impedance. K6MHE sent me a 13-turn choke he had wound on three #61 cores. I was able to measure an impedance greater than 150K ohms at resonance (15.5 MHz). The spectrum ana-lyzer could be replaced by an RF voltmeter or scope, in parallel with a suitable load resistor. How Much Stray Capacitance Is There? This is important, because it moves the resonance, and thus the frequency range over which the choke is effective, down quite a lot. To answer this ques-tion, I wound a lot of coax chokes (in the winding style of Fig 36) and measured them. Accurately measuring impedances in the range of 1K '' 10K at HF is not easy, especially with Network Analyz-ers and Antenna Analyzers that make reflection-based measurements. Because the unknown im-pedances being measured are so far from the center of Smith Chart, very small values of stray re-actance cause very large measurement errors. It is far more accurate to measure the unknown im-pedance (the choke) as the series arm of a voltage divider. I don't have access to a suitable Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), but I do own an HP 8657A RF generator and an HP 8590D Spectrum Analyzer. The 8590D includes a calibrated voltmeter that reads the voltage across a calibrated 50 ohm termination. Doing some math gives me the magnitude of the impedance. And since we al-ready know that the choke is essentially a parallel resonant circuit, we can learn most of what we need to know about it by studying its Q and the values of Z far above and below resonance. More Measurements: Fig 41 displays data obtained in this manner for RG8 chokes wound on stacks of #31 3.4" o.d. cores, in the style of Fig 36. Note that the resonant frequency falls both with more turns and with more cores in the stack. This is to be expected '' in addition to the resis-tive impedance we are looking for, each core also adds inductance and capacitance, both of which lower the resonant frequency. Our goal is 5K ohms over a broad frequency range (at least three ham bands). Fig 40 shows very good options for 1.8-14 MHz, but makes it clear that it isn't easy to get more than about 3K at 30 MHz in a single choke, and it will be difficult to wind a single choke that covers 14-30 MHz (for use on a multiband antenna). Note that the "burbles" around 20 MHz are measurement errors resulting from artifacts of the active attenuator in my HP 8657A, and not characteristic of the actual choke. Curve Fitting to Find R, L, and C values: Fig 42 is the impedance of a simple parallel resonant cir-cuit consisting of a 320 µH inductance, a 4 pF capacitance, and a 6,600 ohm resistance. Fig 42 is simply a plot (using Quattro Pro) of the equation for the impedance of a parallel resonant circuit consisting of those component values. The values were selected so that the curve closely ap-proximates the 5 turn choke wound on 7 cores in the vicinity of resonance '' the red curve in Fig 41. This circuit has a Q of 0..73 at resonance. Note that as we move away from resonance by more than about 2 octaves (a 4:1 frequency change), the calculated curve increasingly deviates from the measured data. This should come as no surprise, since the permeability and the permit-tivity of the ferrite material vary with frequency. Fig 41 '' Measured Impedance of RG8 Chokes wound on stacks of #31 2.4" toroids Fig 42 '' Impedance of a parallel resonant circuit of320 uh, 4 pF, and 6,600 ohms Note that for this particular choke, 4 pF is the total parallel capacitance around 4.5 MHz '' the ca-
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 33 pacitance between the coax and the ferrite, plus the capacitance between the turns of the coax that is close together within the cores, plus the capacitance between the turns of the coax that are widely spaced outside the ferrite cores, plus the 0.4 pF capacitance of our test fixture. How about the capacitance at 30 MHz? If we assume that the inductive reactance has dropped by a factor of about 8 and the capacitive reactance has increased by the same ratio, the capacitance at 30 MHz is approximately equal to 1/(2Ï f Z), or about 5.3 pF. Fig 43 '' Measured Impedance of RG8X Chokes wound on stacks of #31 2.4" toroids Fig 44 '' Impedance of a parallel resonant circuit of590 uh, 4.3 pF, and 7,800 ohms Fig 43 shows data for chokes wound using RG8X, and Fig 44 is a simple parallel resonant circuit that approximates a 7 turn choke wound around 5 cores (the magenta curve in Fig 42). The ca-pacitance value is a bit higher, and the Q is a bit lower. Applying the same techniques to the 4-turn 5-core RG8X choke of Fig 43 (the orange curve) yields circuit values of 56 uh, 1.3pF, 4,400 ohms, and a Q of 0.67. How good are these circuit values? Certainly they are a first approximation, based on an approxi-mate equivalent circuit. I would trust them to about 25% '' there easily might be enough stray L and C in the test setup to contribute that much error. And remember, L, R, and C contributed by the ferrites all vary because the complex permeability and the permittivity of the ferrites vary with frequency. So the answer to our question, "How much capacitance is there?" is, "typically between about 1 pF for a small choke and about 7 pF for a larger one with a lot of turns." The other part of the answer is, we can control that capacitance and keep it small enough that our chokes work by paying reasonable attention to winding style. Fig 45 '' Variation of chokes with winding style, coax outer jacket material Fig 46 '' Measured Impedance of Chokes wound on the "Big #31 Clamp-on" Your Mileage Will Vary Fig 45 shows the variation in impedance that can occur based on the de-tails of how the choke is wound, and on the jacket material. The magenta curve is for a choke
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 34 whose turns are tightly bunched together both inside and outside the toroids. Both the stray ca-pacitance and the inductance of the coax are maximized (for a given number of turns and winding diameter). The other three curves are for chokes whose turns are intentionally spread wide apart outside the toroids. One of them uses somewhat larger diameter turns and a different type of RG8X. Capacitance is a function of spacing, geometry, and the dielectric material. The diameter of the shield, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the jacket material all can cause variations in the capacitance. In all of the measurements, I saw the greatest unintentional variation from one to another with chokes having a lot of turns of RG8X, and the least with those wound using RG8. Tolerances in the Ferrites Fair-Rite #31 cores are considered suppression components, and be-cause in the world of suppression, more impedance is considered better, their performance speci-fications are typical minimum values of impedance over a range of frequency. That's fine for our purposes, but don't expect exact agreement from one part or batch to another. Chokes and Modeling A wire can be added to an NEC model for a dipole (or other antenna) to analyze the contribution of common mode current on the coax shield to antenna performance '' simply connect a wire from one side of the feedpoint to ground. Beginning with version 4 of W7EL's excellent EZNEC+, we can add a network, including a parallel RLC network, to any of the wires in the model. Use the values of R, L, and C that are determined empirically (see Figs 41 and 43, and the associated discussion). We might also add a nearby feedline that we suspect might need an "egg insulator" choke, and study the results with and without the choke. The Biggest Clamp-On Fig 46 is measured data for various coaxial chokes wound through the "biggest #31 clamp-on" of Fig 5 and Fig 39. This is a very useful and versatile part, because it can easily be applied to ca-bles without removing a large connector, or without disconnecting them from an existing system. Chokes in Series As we learned earlier, the impedances of multiple chokes in series will add, taking the reactances of each choke into account. That is, if one choke looks inductive and resistive at a given frequency and the other choke looks resistive and capacitive, the resistances will add, but the capacitance and inductance will cancel (at least partially). Fig 47 '' Impedance of Chokes in Series Fig 47 is measured data for three combinations that are potentially useful for multiband antennas. Bifilar Ferrite Chokes can be as effective as coaxial chokes in blocking common mode current, and a good small choke can handle 1.5kW. To prevent excessive dissi-pation in the choke, the bifilar winding must have very good symmetry and the 5,000 '... impedance guideline must be observed. Effect of Wire Insulation Fig 48 shows that the wire insulation shifts the resonant frequency. The increased overall diameter also reduces the maximum number of turns that can be wound on any given core. Sixteen turns appears to be the prac-tical limit for #14 THHN without overlap-ping turns. Fig 48 '' Some Useful Bifilar Chokes
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 35 Bifilar Chokes and Transmission Loss A bifilar choke wound around a toroid forms a short trans-mission line whose impedance may be different from that of the line into which it is inserted. Thus, a bifilar choke can introduces some mismatch. A tightly spaced enameled #14 bifilar wind-ing is very close to 50 ohms. Tightly spaced #14 THHN windings are close to 100 ohms. Not in-cluding mismatch, copper loss in a bifilar choke is quite small '' for #14 wire, less than 0.01 dB at 3.5 MHz and 0.03dB at 28 MHz. Any additional loss due to mismatch is unlikely to exceed 0.2dB, and will be distributed over the entire length of the line. Coaxial Chokes and Transmission Loss Coaxial chokes do not introduce any mismatch, so the loss of a coaxial choke is simply the loss for the additional length of coax required to wind it. At 2 ft/turn, chokes wound following Cookbook guidelines should add no more than about 0.05 dB loss if wound with low loss RG8; and no more than about 0.15 dB if wound with a low loss RG8X. A Common-Mode Choke as an "Egg Insulator" Have you ever noticed the egg insulators in the guy wires for an AM broadcast tower? Their function is to prevent the guy wires from interacting with the antenna. The egg insulators break the guy lines into small enough pieces that each is a small fraction of a wavelength at the operating frequency. Often, one or more feedlines in a typical ham station may interact with another antenna. The result of this interaction is unpredictable at best; there's a good chance that the result will degrade antenna performance. Seasoned antenna engi-neers know that any near-resonant object within several wavelengths of an antenna can interact with it. We also know that most interaction is multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the wires. This means that interaction is likely to be greater for wires that run in parallel with each other, and far less likely if they are at 90 degrees to each other. Here's an example from my own station. A few years ago, I installed a top-loaded vertical (with a good radial system) that was working quite well on 80 and 160 meters. A month or two later, I added a fan dipole for 20, 15, and 10 meters at about 100 ft. Most of the 150 ft-long feedline for the fan is vertical, rising about 90 ft from the vertical antenna, and it runs right past the vertical's feedpoint to get to the shack. I noticed that the vertical wasn't working at all on 80, and wasn't working nearly as well as it originally did on 160. On a hunch, I added a common mode choke at the transmitter end of the feedline for the fan dipole and the 80/160 vertical started working again! Chapter 7 '' K9YC's Choke Cookbook Armed with the measured data in Figs 41-47, I have updated my guidelines for chokes wound with coax. All of these chokes should be wound to minimize their stray capacitance and inductance, by using the smallest diameter turns that don't degrade the coax due to excessive bending, and by maintaining as much separation between turns as practical outside the stack of cores. See Fig 36. Transmitting Chokes These criteria provide superior suppression of receive noise and excellent freedom from pattern distortion. They are conservatively rated for full legal transmitter power into antennas that are reasonably well balanced. These chokes are 2-8 times better than the best com-mercial chokes. If receive noise is not part of your criteria, and if you're not running maximum le-gal power, fewer cores may be used. Most recommendations are for the minimum number of cores that achieve the 5,000 ohm criteria. Where practical, I've included options for 4 turns of RG8 in 2.4" o.d. cores (so they can be wound without removing the connector). Counting Turns: The number of turns is the number of times the coax passes through the cores. For chokes wound in the style of Fig 36, this is one more than the number of turns external to the cores. For example, a five turn coax choke would have only four turns outside the toroids. The chokes in Fig 36, looking from left to right, have four, five, and seven turns. 160 and 80 Meters: Š With RG8 or RG11, use 7 turns through five 2.4" o.d. #31 toroidal cores. Š With RG-6, RG-8X, and RG-59, use 7 turns through five 2.4" o.d. #31 toroidal cores. Š With RG-6, RG-8X, and RG-59, use 8 turns through a Big #31 Clamp-On
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 36 80, 40 Meters: Š With RG8 or RG11, use 6 turns through five 2.4" o.d. #31 toroidal cores, or 5 turns through 7 #31 cores. Š With RG-6, RG-8X, and RG-59, use 8 turns through a Big #31 Clamp-On or 7 turns through four 2.4" o.d. #31 toroidal cores. 30 Meters: Š With RG8 or RG11, use 5 turns though five 2.4" o.d. #31 or #43 toroidal cores. Š With RG6, RG8X, or RG59, use 8 turns through a Big #31 Clamp-On or 6 turns through four 2.4" o.d. #31 or $43 toroidal cores, or 5 turns through 5 cores. 20 Meters Monoband: Š With RG8 or RG11, use 5 turns through four 2.4" o.d. #31 or #43 toroidal cores, or 4 turns through 6 or 7 cores. Š With RG-6, RG-8X, and RG-59, use 5 or 6 turns through a Big #31 Clamp-On, or 8 turns through two 2.4" o.d. #31 or#43 toroidal cores or 7 turns through 3 cores. 15 Meters Monoband: Š With RG8 or RG11, use 4 turns through five 2.4" o.d. #31 or #43 toroidal cores, or 4 turns through six cores. Š With RG-6, RG-8X, and RG-59, use 5 turns through a Big #31 Clamp-On, or 4 turns through five 2.4" o.d. #31 toroidal cores. 10 Meters Monoband: Š With RG8 or RG11, use 3 turns through seven 2.4" o.d. #31 or #43 toroidal cores, or 4 turns through 5 cores. Š With RG-6, RG-8X, and RG-59, use 5 turns through a Big #31 Clamp-On, or 4 turns through five 2.4" o.d. #31 or #43 toroidal cores. Š For a traditional W2DU "string of beads" choke, use 20 of the 1.125" long cylinders listed in Appendix One. Multiband Antennas for 20-10 Meters, 30-10 Meters, and 40-10 Meters: Š With RG8 or RG11, use two chokes in series, one with four turns on 5 cores and the other with three turns on 5 cores. Multiband Antennas for 20-10 Meters: Š With RG6, RG8X, or RG59, use 5 turns through a Big #31 clamp-on or 4 turns through six 2.4" o.d. #31 or #43 toroidal cores. Š To use the Big Clamp-Ons with RG8 or RG11, use three 3-turn chokes in series, each with a single clamp-on. Wind only these clamp-on chokes with their turns tightly coupled. Š For a traditional W2DU "string of beads" choke, use 40 of the 1.125" long cylinders listed in Appendix One. 6 Meters: Š With RG8X, use six 2-turn chokes wound on the RG8 cylinders or clamp-ons in Appendix 1. Š With RG8 or RG8X, use 3 turns through 7 cores, two 3-turn chokes, each wound on a Big #31 clamp-on, or a string of at least a dozen of the clamp-ons or cylinders in Appendix 1. Coax Chokes for 100 watts or less: Use RG58 and follow the winding guidelines for bifilar chokes. Compact Chokes for 1kW: Use RG303 and follow the winding guidelines for bifilar chokes. Chokes in Enclosures Placing any choke in a close-fitting, conductive enclosure is likely to in-crease the stray capacitance and lower its resonant frequency. These guidelines are for chokes that are not in conductive enclosures. Enclosures inhibit air flow, so may get warm with high power.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 37 Bifilar Chokes Use #14 THHN (house wire) for up to 1.5kW; #16 is sufficient for up to 800 watts. Use the winding guidelines below for 2.4-inch o.d. toroidal cores. Allow 2.5 inches per turn plus 5 inches for connections at each end. Use tape or ty-wraps to form the two conductors into parallel wires. Cut off any excess after winding. Frequency Range Bifilar Choke (See Fig 37, Fig 48) 1.8 '' 5 MHz 16 bifilar turns of #14 THHN on one #31 core 3.5 '' 10 MHz 14 bifilar turns of #14 THHN on one #31 core 10-30 MHz 12 bifilar turns of #14 THHN on one #31 or #43 core Important Note: Do not cut corners winding bifilar chokes if you will be running high power. The primary cause of choke failure is insufficient choking impedance. General Suppression Chokes (not on transmitting lines): Use the graphs of measured data to tell you the number of turns needed on a single core for 5K ohms equivalent series resistance at the frequency of the interference. Receiving Antennas benefit significantly from the addition of a common mode choke to isolate the antenna from its feedline. Both ends of the RG6 feedline to each of my Beverages takes 8 turns through one of the Big Clamp-Ons. "Egg Insulators:" Use chokes as "egg insulators" on a feedline that is longer than about Î>>/4 at the frequency of an antenna that it could interfere with. Use the chokes recommended for the fre-quency of the antenna that you suspect might be interfered with. Use enough chokes that the longest piece of un-choked line is less than about Î>>/4. Chokes are most important on lines that are approximately in parallel with the antenna in question. Example: A feedline is running where it might be interfering with an 80 meter vertical. Try to break it down into pieces that are no longer than 80/4 meters (about 67 ft). Table One summarizes cost and weight considerations for various chokes and construction meth-ods. Traditional "string of beads" chokes are more expensive and heavier for equivalent perform-ance. Cost and weight includes for the added length of coax for the choke. Weight can also be re-duced by using specialized coax like RG303, rated for high temperature and high voltage. Costs assume group purchase in large quantities by a ham club. Table One '' Weight and Cost of Ferrite Parts and Complete Chokes Ferrite Part, Chokes Weight (oz) Cost Notes 1" Long RG8 Cylinder 2 $1.50 For "string of beads" chokes 1" Long RG8X Cylinder .55 $0.90 For "string of beads" chokes 2.4" o.d. #31 Toroid 4 $3.50 Big Clamp-On 11.5 $12 RG8 per turn 2.1 $1 40 RG8 Beads 80 $120 Multiband 20-10 40 RG8X Beads 22 $36 Multiband 20-10 Choke - 5 turns RG8 5 cores 30 $24 20M, 15M Choke - 7 turns RG8 5 cores 36 $26 160M '' 40M Choke - 7 turns RG8X, Big clamp 15 $15 160 '' 40M Choke '' 7 turns RG8X 5 cores 24 $24 160 '' 40M Bifilar choke '' 14 turns #12 6 $5 160 '' 30M The Big Clamp-Ons appear to be expensive but they're not '' one is roughly equivalent to three or toroids! They are wonderful for portable and Field Day operations, because you can easily apply them to coax without taking the connector off. There is another advantage '' chokes for 160-40 meters using the Clamp-On weigh about a half pound less than one using toroidal cores.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 38 Shunting Common Mode RF to Earth Earth connections are almost never a solution to RFI prob-lems, but there is one important exception. We know that RF induced by antenna action on cables entering or leaving equipment is coupled into the equipment by pin 1 problems, and by poor com-mon mode filtering on balanced circuits. We can attack this kind of RFI by diverting that current away from the victim equipment. We do this by giving it connection to the shielding enclosure of the interference source, or to the shielding enclosure of the victim equipment, or to the earth. This technique can be used to suppress RF picked up on the coax feeding Beverage antennas. Drive two ground rods at the feedpoint, one to terminate the Beverage and the other several feet away. Make a coax jumper cable long enough to reach between the Beverage and the second ground rod with enough turns for that 8-turn choke. Connect the coax shield both at the Beverage and at the second ground stake. Add a second 5,000 ohm choke on the shack side of the stake. To use this technique on telephone lines, which are balanced, you'll need equal value capacitors from each side of the line to the ground rod. Use only enough capacitance to shunt the RF '' the caps are in series across the line, and too much capacitance will kill or degrade a DSL signal. You'll also need the chokes. Chapter 8 '' Solving Problems in the Shack K9YC's Serial Cable Most rig control (Kenwood, Yaseu, and Elecraft) uses only a straight-through connection of the Receive Data (RD), Transmit Data (TD), and signal return lines (pins 2, 3, and 5 in a DB9). In addition, popular contesting software can be set up to use the DTR line (pin 4) to send CW and CTS (pin 7) for PTT. The K9YC serial cable uses CAT5 (or CAT6/7) cable. One pair is used for RD, one for TD, one for DTR, and one for CTS. The solid color of each pair goes to the signal pin, the striped color of each pair goes to the shell of the DB9. Using twisted pair greatly improves RF rejection, using multiple conductors for signal return minimizes IR drop coupling of hum, buzz, and noise, and using the DB9 shell puts a band-aid on pin 1 problems in the equip-ment on either end. There are several possible ways to implement the keying and PTT interface. You can, for example, put all four lines in a single CAT5/6/7 cable, with a breakout at the radio. This usually results in an interface that is tied to a particular radio. You can also make a generic cable that carries only the RD and TD signals, then add a DB9 female-male "barrel" at the computer that carries through RD and TD while breaking out DTR and CTS for keying and PTT to short lengths of small coax with a copper braid shield. I've done both of these, and they both work fine. Plain, ordinary, unshielded CAT5/6/7 works fine for the vast majority of ham shacks. If you are running high power at 20 MHz or above to an antenna that is closer than about 10-20 ft from the serial cable, shielded twisted pair cable may be needed. You could use shielded CAT5/6/7 (if you can find it), but good balanced audio cable with a braid shield works well too (for example, Belden 1901A, 1902A, etc.). In this application, use one pair per circuit, but connect the signal returns for each pair to pin 5 at each end, and use the shell of the DB9 for the shield(s). I developed the K9YC Serial Cable to solve an extreme "RF in the shack" condition at my old QTH in Chicago. The fact that it worked there proved how "bulletproof" a solution it can be. To work 160 and 80 on my very small city lot, I tied together both sides of the twinlead feeding my 80/40 dipole and loaded it against a "ground" system that consisted of a wrought iron fence and a few short radials. The feedline (in this case, a radiating part of the antenna) ran within 2 ft of the serial cable. With the original Elecraft serial cable (parallel wires, shielded) the computer line driver locked up at just over 10 watts; with the unshielded K9YC cable, I could run that antenna at legal power on any band below 15 meters! On 15 meters and above, I needed the shielded version to hit full power. [I didn't use this improvised antenna above 80 meters '' it wasn't at all effective on the higher bands. I loaded it that way only to test the effectiveness of the serial interface.] Why was shielding needed on the higher bands but not needed on the lower bands? Simple. The antenna was at a current maxima in the shack and the wiring was so close that it was in the near field (less than Î>>/6), so coupling was primarily magnetic. On the highest bands, the wiring was at greater spacing as a fraction of a wavelength, so the electric field was beginning to be significant.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 39 As we learned earlier, cable shields provide only electric field shielding, while twisting pairs strongly rejects magnetic fields. See Chapter 1 for a discussion of these fundamentals, and Chapter 9 for an introductory discussion of fields. Unbalanced Audio Interfaces Because virtually all ham gear and all computer and/or audio equip-ment we connect to our ham gear is unbalanced, we're stuck with unbalanced wiring. In our dis-cussion of the fundamentals, we learned that shield resistance couples power-related hum, buzz, and noise into unbalanced wiring as a result of IR drop on the shield. We also learned that nearly all of this gear has pin 1 problems. And we learned that at power and audio frequencies, the IR drop is minimized by four simple measures, and that their beneficial effects are additive. Š Minimize the resistance by using cables with a beefy copper braid shield. Avoid hi-fi patch cables, which tend to have flimsy, high resistance shields. (-6 dB/halving of resistance) Š Minimize the resistance by keeping the cables as short as practical. (This has the added benefit of minimizing the behavior of the cable as an antenna, which in turn minimizes RF coupled by a pin 1 problem where the cable terminates). (-6 dB per halving of length) Š Minimize the hum/buzz/noise voltage that causes the current by plugging all of the inter-connected equipment into the same AC outlet, or if that is not possible, into outlets with a very short connection between their green wires (adjacent outlets). When using different outlets, bond the backboxes together with short lengths of heavy copper braid. (This also minimizes hum/buzz coupled by pin 1 problems). Š Bond the enclosures of interconnected equipment together with short lengths of heavy copper braid. This diverts most of the hum/buzz current that would otherwise flow on the cable shield to the lower resistance braid. You don't need to buy braid '' simply strip the outer jacket from a junk length of RG8 or RG11 that has a heavy copper braid shield. The braid of a good transmitting coax like Belden 8213, 8214, 8237 is equivalent to #10 cop-per, which is nearly 30 dB better than the flimsy shields typical of most hi-fi cables. Audio Transformers One common solution to the hum/buzz part of the problem is to add audio transformers to each interconnection, thus breaking the path for low frequency current. Simple audio transformers block audio frequency current, but the capacitance between their windings lets RF couple across the transformer as it if weren't there. To block RF, the transformer must include dual Faraday shields. [A Faraday shield is a conductor placed between windings; when that con-ductor is grounded, it shorts RF to ground rather than coupling it between windings.] A cheap transformer can cause more problems than it solves. Most power supplies in our ham shacks include large power transformers that produce strong audio frequency magnetic fields around them. Transformers must be surrounded by mu-metal to shield them from these magnetic fields '' otherwise, strong 60 Hz hum (50 Hz in some countries) will be coupled into them! Transformers built with both of these shields aren't cheap. Good ones are made by Jensen Trans-formers, http://www.jensentransformers.com and Lundahl Transformers, http://www.lundahl.se The good news is that you don't need a transformer (or an expensive USB or fiber inter-face) if you follow my guidelines for Unbalanced Audio Interfaces and use the K9YC Serial Cable for rig control! You only need one of these boxes if you need the SO2R switching, interfacing, and control they provide. Feeding Computer Audio To Your Radio If you want to know why this works, study the preceding material and Appendix 5 on Audio Levels. Do all of the following: Š Plug all of the interconnected equipment into the same power outlet or to outlets in the same backbox, and bond together all of the interconnected equipment with heavy copper braid, as described above. Š Make up a cable that connects one channel of your sound card output to the audio input of your radio. Pay careful attention to the guidelines above for Unbalanced Audio Interfaces.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 40 Š If the radio input is at mic level, add a simple resistive voltage divider inside the connector that plugs into the radio. Use a 4.7K resistor in series with the audio, and connect a 470 ohm resistor between the mic input and mic ground. If you're using a line level or "patch" input to the radio, make the series resistor 1K. This prevents the computer from overload-ing the radio's input stage and causing distortion. Š Carry the shield connections straight through from computer to ham rig. Š Look for a setting in the control software for your sound card that sets Playback levels for your sound card. On a Windows PC, the setup screen can be accessed by clicking on the speaker icon on the taskbar, then selecting Options, and then Playback. You should see a screen with volume controls for various computer signals that can be sent out of the sound card on the 1/8-inch jack. RTTY, PSK, and SSB messages are adjusted by the WAV output. Š Adjust these Playback controls so that the maximum output level on peaks is about 6 dB below the maximum output level of the sound card. This prevents distortion from being created in the sound card. One good way to do this is to send RTTY or PSK tones from the computer (using a program like MMTTY or DM780) and view them on a scope. Slowly in-crease the level until you just begin to see clipping, then back off the level to get half the voltage. Š Adjust the mic gain in the radio for good modulation levels. Feeding Receive Audio To Your Computer Some computer sound cards can be set for either a mic level or line level input, while others have only a mono mic input. All of the outputs of a modern ham transceiver are line level outputs, but some are affected by the front panel audio gain control and some are not. Do all of the following: Š Plug all of the interconnected equipment into the same power outlet or to outlets in the same backbox, and bond together all of the interconnected equipment with heavy copper braid, as described above. Š Choose an output of your radio that is not affected by the front panel volume control. Out-puts designed for the connection of RTTY, packet, phone patches, or other external gear usually fit this requirement. Š Make up a cable that connects this output to the input of your sound card. Pay careful at-tention to the guidelines above for Unbalanced Audio Interfaces. Š Look for a setting in the control software for your sound card that turns off the mic preamp in the sound card. On a Windows PC, the setup screen can be accessed by clicking on the speaker icon on the taskbar, then selecting Options, and then Recording. You should see a screen with volume controls for various inputs to the sound card. Somewhere on that Re-cording screen (or maybe buried in a sub-menu) should be a way to turn off the mic pre-amp. On my IBM Thinkpads, I must remove the "check mark" next to "Mic Boost." Š Tune in a station so that you have normal audio coming out of the radio into your head-phones or speaker. Š Adjust the input fader of the sound card so that the level indicator (if there is one) peaks about 6 dB below maximum. If there is no level indicator, adjust the input level to the maximum it will go without audible distortion. Wired or Wireless Ethernet? There are several parts to the answer to this question, all ending with, "it depends." My advice is to try wireless networking, and use it for as much of your system as you can make work reliably. Š Wireless Ethernet systems operate in the 2.4 GHz band and above. I've never heard of the 2.4 GHz link causing or receiving ham interference, and the likelihood is thin, except pos-sibly on the 2.4 GHz band itself. Š I've seen systems work for 1,000 ft, but conductive (or absorbing) obstacles can make the RF link unreliable at 50 ft or less. Some newer models of Wireless Access units built to FCC Rules that permit higher power and detachable gain antennas can provide greater range and/or improved reliability.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 41 Š While the Ethernet circuitry in a wireless router can be just as strong a source of RF noise as any other Ethernet box, a wireless system will usually generate the least HF and VHF trash in our antennas because it reduces the number and length of data cables that can ra-diate. Be prepared to use chokes to suppress any noise radiated by cables connecting the wireless router to the cable or DSL modem, and also for inadequately shielded internal wir-ing that radiates trash. Š Some older computers, operating systems, and hardware may not operate (or operate re-liably) with a wireless connection. Wireless connections can also be slower, and operating system conflicts can be difficult to solve. DIN Connectors It is hard to find good quality DIN connectors to mate with interface and control jacks on the back of ham rigs. Nearly all DIN connectors sold in the ham marketplace are junk. These junk connectors have two serious defects that makes them useless; 1) the plastic melts when you try to solder to them; 2) you can't solder to them '' the metal used for the pins is an al-loy that doesn't take solder! These junk connectors are cheap, selling for around a buck, but they're worthless. Real DIN connectors are still made by Switchcraft and Tuchel, and sold by reli-able electronics vendors like Newark and Allied. They cost a lot more ($5-$7 each, depending on the number of pins), but they work! GM types have a two-piece metal shell held together with a plastic barrel. BL types have a nickel diecast handle and a heavy duty cable clamp. Acceptable low cost DIN connectors The YCCC team that put together the K1XM SO2R box found a source for low cost DIN connectors made by Kobiconn. The 8-pin 270° male plug is Mouser Part number 171-0278. They bought 166 of them at 52cents each. These connectors solder well '' their only shortcoming is that the two pieces of their "clamshell" don't mate very well, so I wouldn't want to use them in an application where they needed to be plugged and unplugged fairly often, but they're fine if you plug them in and leave them alone. "Phono" Connectors and 1/8-inch Audio Connectors I know of only two good quality manufactur-ers of these connectors '' Switchcraft and Neutrik. These Neutrik and Switchcraft parts are sold mostly by pro audio vendors; one of the best Full Compass Systems of Madison, WI. These Neu-trik connectors are good quality, inexpensive (about $1), and work well for ham audio intercon-nects. Their only shortcoming is that their contacts and strain relief clamps are too small for larger cables '' for that, you need the much more expensive Switchcraft parts (about $3), which are also more robust. Cable for Audio Interconnects Miniature coax is an excellent choice for unbalanced interconnec-tions. Impedance doesn't matter in this application. For balanced connections, use braid-shielded twisted pair. Belden 1901A and Gepco XB401 are the best of this type that I know of. Cable Mount Male DIN Connectors Used with Ham Gear Configuration Switchcraft Part Nr Some Common Uses 4 pins at 210° 09BL4M, 09GM4M FT1000MP RTTY FSK 5 pins at 180° 05BL5M, 05GM5M FT1000MP Packet 5 pins at 240° 12BL5M, 12GM5MX 6 pins at 240° 12BL8M, 15GM6MX TS850 Acc 1 7 pins at 270° 15GM7MX TS850 Remote, ICOM Pwr Amp, Yaesu DVS 8 pins at 262° 20BL8M, 20GM8M Yaesu Band Data 8 pins at 270° 15BL8MX, 15GM8MX Cable-Mount 1/8-in and Phono Connectors Description Switchcraft Part Nr Neutrik Part Nr 3-ckt male 1/8-in plug 35HDNN NYS231BG 2-ckt male 1/8-in plug NYS226BG 3-ckt female 1/8-in jack NYS240BG Phono male plug 3502 NYS352 Phono female jack 3503
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 42 RF Feedback Virtually all RF feedback (also called "RF in the shack") has a pin 1 problem as the root cause. (See Figs 2, and 3 in Chapter One, and the associated discussion.) A few years ago, I acquired an FT1000MP and got reports of RF feedback running 1.5kW on 75M and 15M SSB. The 15M transmitting antenna was a dipole (with a DXE "string of beads" balun) 150 ft from the shack! I identified the cause as a pin 1 problem at the mic jack, using the simple test outlined below. Testing for RF Pin 1 Problems: Set up a tunable RF generator for 100% 1 kHz (or 400 Hz) AM and maximum output (1 volt into 50 ohms is enough). Connect the center conductor of the coax from the generator to the shield connection point at the radio, and connect the generator coax shield to the chassis of the radio. Set the radio to transmit SSB at very low power, and not at a frequency where you have RF feedback. Listen to your signal on another radio while you tune the generator over the frequency range where you have RF feedback. If you hear the 1 kHz (or 400 Hz) modula-tion, you have a pin 1 problem on that shield connection. Repeat this test for every connector on the radio that has (or could have) a cable plugged into it. For each connector that you are testing, temporarily remove the cable connected to it while you are testing it. This test can be used to test any audio and video input and output connectors for RF pin 1 prob-lems, not only the audio interfaces of ham transceivers. With video equipment, the 1 kHz modula-tion may show up as horizontal bars in the video, or as 1 kHz (or 400 Hz) in the audio, or both. See http://audiosystemsgroup.com/AESPaperNYPin1-ASGWeb.pdf for more on RF pin 1 testing. RF feedback can also be caused by audio interfaces like those used for SO2R contesting, and to interface computers to radios for RTTY, PSK31, and other digital modes. If you don't find a prob-lem in your transceiver (or if you find and fix it but still have RF feedback), be sure to test any of these interfaces that you might be using (and the computer sound cards) for pin 1 problems. Solving RF Feedback Caused by Pin 1 Problems RF feedback is caused by poor RF rejection in one or more pieces of gear in your ham station. In earlier chapters, we learned that RFI caused by pin 1 problems can be solved in two ways: Š Rewire the connector so that the shield goes to the chassis, not the circuit board Š Block the current with a ferrite choke Rather than rebuild the radio, I killed the RF feedback in my FT1000MP by winding 7 turns of the mic cable around a #31 2.4" o.d. toroid. Chapter 9 '' A Short Tutorial on Fields Fields Electrical systems produce three kinds of fields '' electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic. An electric field is what is present in the relatively non-conducting space between two charged ob-jects (for example, between the plates of a capacitor). A static magnetic field exists around a permanent magnet. Static (DC) and time-varying (AC) mag-netic fields surround a wire that is carrying current. Contrary to what you high school physics teacher may have told you, a field produced by an electric current is a magnetic field, not an elec-tromagnetic field. An electromagnetic field is the combination of a time-varying electric field and a magnetic field of the same frequency at right angles to each other and 90 degrees out of phase with each other. Wave Impedance '' Near Field and Far Field The wave impedance of a field defines the relationship between the energy in the two fields. Wave impedance determines how well shielding will work (and what kind of shielding will work). (see Ott for an excellent discussion of wave impedance and shielding effectiveness.) In the Far Field of a signal source (including a transmitting antenna): Š the wave impedance is the impedance of free space '' 377 ohms Š the energy contained by the two time-varying fields is equal, and is traded back and forth between the two fields at the frequency of the signal Š The field will move through free space at the speed of light '' that is, it is a radio wave In the near field of any source, either the electric field or the magnetic field will dominate (that is,
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 43 contain most of the energy), depending on how the field is produced. Most "baseband" sources (motors, transformers, power wiring) and many antennas are magnetic sources; a few RF sources may be electric sources. The wave impedance is very low in the near field of a magnetic source, and very high in the near field of an electric source. The transition between near field and far field is a gradual one. For sources that are small as a frac-tion of a wavelength, the transition begins at Î>>/6 from the source. For larger sources (like a line source), the transition will be at a much greater distance. In the far field, the power in the field falls off as the square of the distance. In the near field, the dominant field falls off much more rap-idly until the two fields are equal. [One huge error in the application of FCC Part 15 Rules to BPL is that the rules are designed around the physics of a point source, but BPL systems are, in effect, a line source, so field strength falls off far more slowly. The improper application of the Rules allows interference levels to be tens of dB stronger than the authors of the Part 15 Rules intended.] The wave impedance becomes important when we are attempting to deal with interference in the near field of the source. We can state two generalities. Š Virtually all electronic equipment is in the very near field of any power-related sources that are strong enough to cause interference, and nearly all those sources are magnetic sources. Š Most electronic equipment in the far field of most radio sources. An important exception to these generalities occurs when an antenna is much closer than usual to susceptible equipment. Î>>/6 is about 84 ft on 160 meters, 44 ft on 80 meters, 22 ft on 40 meters, etc. The near field of a 160 or 80 meter antenna on an urban or suburban lot is likely include the living space of the ham and one or two neighbors; in a condo or apartment, a 40 or 20 meter ver-tical antenna may have consumer electronics within its near field. These are only "rule of thumb" guidelines '' our antennas are not simple point sources, so the transition distance will not be so simply defined. An understanding of near field and far field behavior simply contributes to our un-derstanding of how noise and RFI couple into systems, and which suppression methods are most likely to be effective in any given situation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are due Ron Steinberg (K9IKZ), whose AEA analyzer was on loan to me for two years, giv-ing me the capability to begin poking around this puzzle, to Dr. Leo Irakliotis (KC9GLI) for finding the rare Snelling text (in the third basement of the University of Chicago library) that was the key to understanding ferrites; to someone on a ham radio email list who pointed me to the Snelling text; and to Fair-Rite Products Corp, for providing every sample I requested and publishing exten-sive technical data on their products. Henry Ott, WA2IRQ, Dean Straw, N6BV, and Garry Shapiro, NI6T, reviewed various versions of the manuscript. The most important contributions to this work were made by a researcher who has done, and continues to do when he has time, the excellent measurements presented herein. He has chosen to remain anonymous. The ham radio commu-nity owes him quite a lot. Kevin Rowett, K6TD, assisted with measurements of coaxial chokes. POSTSCRIPT It is impossible to overemphasize the importance of sharing what we learn. The initial impetus for my work was a series of anecdotal reports of RF interference on an email reflector for engineers and technicians working in pro audio that not only got me interested, but also gave me clues about possible causes. A year or two later, I made contact with the aforementioned anonymous re-searcher when both of us shared our work on an email reflector about 8 years ago. As a result of having published earlier versions of the document you are reading, and of making numerous presentations to ham clubs, I was contacted by engineers from the CIA, who I subse-quently hosted in my shack and briefed on my work. Recently, the leader of that group sent me a pdf of an unclassified report prepared by a Department of Defense engineer in 1966 on the topic of using ferrite common mode chokes to isolate antennas from their feed lines. Among the key conclusions were 1) common mode isolation of the antenna from the line is highly desirable; 2)
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 44 5,000 ohms of common mode choking impedance is a suitable design goal; 3) the simplified equivalent circuit of a ferrite choke is a parallel resonant circuit; 4) the accuracy of the equivalent circuit can be improved upon at low frequencies by adding resistance in series with the inductor; 5) the low Q parallel resonant circuit near resonance is a good way to provide that choking imped-ance; 6) inductance and stray capacitance can be used to control the resonances, by varying the material, the number of windings, and the winding style; 7) increased conductor diameter in-creases stray capacitance; and 8) three chokes in series, each tuned to a different part of the fre-quency spectrum, can satisfy the 5,000 ohm design goal from 2-30 MHz. For all practical purposes, there are only three important differences between the 1966 work and my own are 1) the properties of the specific ferrite materials available in 1966 and 2002 2) the author of the 1966 report seems not to have recognized the behavior of the ferrite core as a dielectric (and the resulting contribution to stray capacitance), or of the fundamental resonant property of a single turn choke with the capacitance associated with that dielec-tric; 3) I published my work widely, first as peer-reviewed research papers to the Audio Engineer-ing Society, and later on my website to both the audio and ham radio communities as a whole. I've seen no evidence that the DoD report was ever circulated outside the Defense community. As a result, even though it was excellent, that 1966 DoD report appears to have disappeared into oblivion, while my work is finding its way into the ARRL Handbook. Since I first published this document three years ago, nearly 1 million copies have been downloads from my website, and I've received many useful questions and comments that have allowed me to learn more, find mistakes, filled gaps in my thinking, and given me more ideas to investigate. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Jim Brown got interested in music and radio as a teenager, falling in love with jazz and Bach, and qualifying for his Novice license (WN8FNI) before his 14th birthday. Three years later he obtained Amateur Extra Class and First Class Radiotelephone licenses, and entered the Electrical Engineering program at the University of Cincinnati. He received the BSEE in 1964 and has worked in broad-casting and professional audio since 1960. Since 1985, his consulting practice has specialized in the design of sound systems for worship, performance, and sports facilities. More recently, his fo-cus has expanded to include research and consulting on EMC. Jim is a Fellow of the Audio Engineering Society (AES), and a member of the Acoustical Society of America, the Society of Broadcast Engineers, and the Society of Motion Picture and Television En-gineers. He has presented invited papers and workshops to all of those societies, and to the IEEE EMC Symposium. He is a member of the AES Technical Committee on Acoustics and Sound Rein-forcement, and the AES Standards Committee's Working Groups on Microphones, Intelligibility, Acoustic and Sound Source Modeling, Digital Audio Transmission, and Audio Interconnection. He is Vice-Chair of the AES Standards Committee Working Group on EMC and Chair of the AES Tech-nical Committee on EMC. After 42 years in Chicago, he relocated in 2006 to Santa Cruz, where he is active on the ham bands as K9YC, and recently served a term as Vice-President of the Northern California Contest Club. BIBLIOGRAPHY Henry Ott, "Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering," Wiley, New York, 2009 Henry Ott, "Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems," Second Edition, Wiley, New York, 1988 Clayton Paul, "Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility," Wiley, New York, 1992 The Audio Systems Group, Inc. website includes numerous tutorials and applications notes on RF interfer-ence, and a tutorial on AC power systems. http://audiosystemsgroup.com/publish.htm Neil Muncy, "Noise Susceptibility in Analog and Digital Signal Processing Systems," J. Audio Engineering Soci-
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 45 ety, vol 43, No 6, pp 435-453, 1995, June Bill Whitlock, "Balanced Lines in Audio Systems: Fact, Fiction, and Transformers," J. Audio Engineering Society, vol 43, No 6, pp 454-464, 1995, June Fair-Rite Products Catalog, http://www.fair-rite.com This 200-page catalog (online as a pdf) is a wealth of product data and applications guidance on practical ferrites. This company is a class act. The vast majority of ferrite parts available at retail in North America are made by Fair-Rite. Chuck Counselman, W1HIS, Common Mode Chokes Self published 2006 E. C. Snelling, Soft Ferrites, Properties and Applications, Chemical Rubber Publishing, 1969 This, like all of Snelling's books, is geared toward non-suppression applications of ferrites. Lots of math and physics. All are long out of print. E. C. Snelling and A. D. Giles, Ferrites for Inductors and Transformers, Research Studies Press, 1983 Even more math and physics. E. C. Snelling, Soft Ferrites, Properties and Applications, Second Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1989 I've never seen this book, but I'd love to. Jerry Sevick, W2FMI, Transmission Line Transformers, Fourth Edition, Noble Publishing, Atlanta 2001 Jerry Sevick, W2FMI, Building and Using Baluns and Ununs, CQ Communications, 1994 Doug DeMaw, W1FB, Ferromagnetic Core Design and Applications Handbook, Prentice Hall, 1996
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 46 Appendix 1 '' Ferrites Useful to Hams For Suppression and Chokes Notes: 1) Use of these ferrites below 100 MHz requires multiple turns, multiple cores, or both. Study the text and the data. 2) #61 material can be used for transformers that must handle power. A single 2661803802 core can easily handle 100 watts with suitable windings. All other listed materials are rec-ommended only for suppression, choking applications, and small signal transformers. 3) The excellent Fair-Rite catalog can be downloaded as a pdf from http://www.fair-rite.com Costs are based on quotes during 2006. Manufacturer's Published Data Cylinder for RG8X, RG6 043117828 Clamp-On For RG8X, RG6 Cylinder for RG8 0431164181 Clamp-On for RG8 Dimensions (inches) Approx Cost Fair-Rite Part Nr Form o.d. i.d. Length Mix 250 pc 1,000 pc Freq Range (MHz) 2631803802 Toroid 2.4 1.4 0.5 #31 < >Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 47 Measured HF Data for Chokes on 2.4" o.d., 1.4" i.d. Toroids Note: All of these data apply to chokes wound with small diameter wire. Chokes wound with cable diameters larger than about 0.2" (RG58) have more stray capacitance, moving the resonance down to a greater extent than those wound with small wire. See Figs 40 '' 45 for data on some larger chokes. #31 Impedance #31 Equivalent Series Resistance #43 Impedance #43 Equivalent Series Resistance #77 Impedance #77 Equivalent Series Resistance
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 48 #61 Impedance #61 Equivalent Series Resistance #31 Impedance VHF #31 Equivalent Series Resistance VHF #43 Impedance VHF #43 Equivalent Series Resistance VHF #61 Impedance VHF #61 Equivalent Series Resistance VHF
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 49 Measured HF Data for #31 "Biggest Clamp-On" Impedance Equivalent Series Resistance Buying Ferrites Sadly, nearly all vendors selling ferrites in the ham marketplace are selling the wrong parts, and at obscenely high markups (4-5X typical). There are much better ways to buy. All of the ferrite parts described in this tutorial are made by Fair-Rite, a great company based in upstate New York. Fair-Rite has an excellent website with an extensive on-line catalog and a list of distributors. If you are willing to buy in quantity, you can do business with these distributors and buy at much lower cost. Established industrial electronics distributors like Newark, Allied, Lodestone Pacific, and Kreiger Components have all provided good service and competitive pricing on Fair-Rite parts. Don't bother these companies with onesy-twosey orders '' all you'll do is make them angry. Consider 20 pieces a minimum order, and combine orders with other hams for quantity discounts. Ferrites are brittle and easily broken in shipping if not carefully packed. To minimize breakage, try to buy in box quantities that are packed by Fair-Rite. Better yet, join or organize a group purchase with a ham club that includes lots of active HF opera-tors, DX chasers, and contesters. These guys are most likely to have RFI problems, and to be push-ing to optimize their stations to pull weak signals out of the noise. If you're active on HF or 6M, you can use a lot ferrites '' taming RFI to home entertainment systems, and minimizing the noise you hear in your radio from noisy equipment in your home and the homes of your neighbors. Des-ignate a club member who has worked in industry buying electronic parts to do the business with the distributor(s), and another member to collect the money and distribute the parts once they ar-rive. Expect to pay sales tax and shipping. How Many Ferrite Parts Should You Buy? Use the table below to estimate how many ferrite parts you can use over a period of several years. Number of HF antennas (include receive antennas) If you run 100 watts or less, multiply by 10 If you use a 400-600 watt amp, multiply by 20 If you use a 700-1,500 watt amp, multiply by 30 If you chase DX or work contests, multiply again by 2 If you operate 6 meters with 100 watts add 10 If you operate 6 meters with 500 watts add 20 If your antennas are close to your living space or your neighbors (like on a city or suburban lot), multiply again by 1.5 Multiply the largest number above by 2/3 and buy this quantity of #31 2.4'' tor-oids (Fair-Rite #2631803802) Buy one #31 ''biggest clamp-on'' (Fair-Rite #0431177081) for every three toroids Buy one #31 RG8-size clamp-on (Fair-Rite #0431164181) for every two toroids
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 50 Appendix 2 '' W8JI on Baluns > I also read W2FMI's book and I would have to agree that something isn't right about the W2DU > type Balun. I experienced heating and a rise in SWR when using a KW and an under 2:1 SWR but > not flat. It would heat up and the standing wave would rise over 2:1. This is not to say that all >bead baluns are bad. I had heard good things about the Force 12 version. Perhaps it uses a >different ferrite material. Walt's balun is based on good engineering for choking, but if you look at it closely there is no headroom for power. I suspect Walt never caught that because he mostly runs low power. There are certainly many cases where his balun would work OK, but 73 material or ANY material with high loss tangent is the wrong material for QRO or for use where the core is involved in handling any high flux density. >I built several of the W1JR type of Baluns and have had no problem with heating. I have had a >problem finding an inexpensive enclosure. I have tried using 3" PVC caps and plugs and have >about $5 in the enclosure. However, I created another problem. Weight of the enclosure and the >core/coax with connectors is a bit much for a dipole. An inverted V or mounting on a beam is not > a problem. There is no need for the criss-crossed winding style, a single layer solenoid winding measures nearly the same. Some articles and books tell you any stray C across the balun reduces choking, but the opposite actually happens. You just have to be careful and not use such a large winding that the self-resonant frequency of the balun is lower than 1/2 of the highest operating frequency. The cheapest balun for a given impedance and power rating is still an air-wound coil of coax on a PVC drainpipe. > I have also had excellent success with a coil of coax. When ur lighting every florescent tube within a block at 2 AM while on 80m with a flat SWR. This will cure it. If you use multiple turns through a core, the impedance goes up by the square of the turns in-crease. If you stick them through a string of beads, the increase in impedance is linear with length and has almost nothing to do with bead thickness. An air wound choke is somewhere between unity ratio and squared impedance as turns are increased, depending on mutual coupling between turns. A string of 43 material beads 36 inches long has the same common mode impedance as a stack of 43 cores 1 inch tall with 6 turns of coax. The string of beads will handle more power, because it has more surface area exposed directly to cooling air no matter how thick the beads are (beyond a certain limit). The more stress the balun has, the lower the µi of the core you should use. At the feedpoint with high power, a low-µi low-loss-tangent core is generally best, like air or a 61 material. This is espe-cially true if the feedline parallels the antenna, or if the element is off balance, or if the element impedance is high. In a coaxial line connected the normal way near the shack (like in the second chokes K3LR uses), a string of 73 material beads would almost certainly be acceptable no matter what the power level. The feedline should be grounded to the tower or another ground as soon as possible after the balun, only on the side of the balun closest to the shack if possible. I use air chokes, or 61 material cores at transmitting antennas. I use 73 or 75 material cores for receiving and in-the-shack or "down the cable a distance" isolation. 73, Tom W8JI [K9YC Note: This email exchange occurred before the introduction of Fair-Rite's #31 material. Tom now uses #31 in a number of applications. As to W2DU's chokes and power handling '' the 50-bead choke is under-designed for high power work because its impedance is too low. Walt's larger choke with 100-300 beads would have solved that problem, but it was the cheaper one that be-came popular. See discussion of these issues in Chapter 6. ]
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 51 Appendix 3 '' John Petrich W7FU on Baluns Subject: C-31XR Balun ..Author:John Petrich 13-Jan-2001 Hi Greg, Yes, I am familiar with the W1JR balun and have used it in some applications. It was good 30 years ago, it is still good today. The only reason that it is not as popular as it once was, is that the bead baluns are easier to construct and harder to goof up on. There may be a small advantage in terms of bandwidth for the bead baluns. In some applications, bandwidth is very important. In other ap-plications, bandwidth is really not important at all. I know what you mean about unrecognized balun heating. So many baluns are located up at the antenna feedpoint and the heating is only discovered after the balun has failed. Antennas can be properly constructed yet it is of major importance to pair the balun, the antenna and the band of operation correctly to avoid balun heating and unwanted feedline radiation. Feedline radiation isn't always a problem. Wanted feedline radiation can make for a useful antenna i.e. G5RV. Balun heating is the result of common mode currents flowing on the outside of the coax shield. These currents are then dissipated in the real component of the complex common mode imped-ance characteristic for that balun. There is no other source for heating for the ferrite beads. This heating problem occurs just the same way and for the same reason with all ferrite baluns, whether they are constructed with ferrite toroids or ferrite beads. The phenomenon is the same. It is inter-esting, if you carefully examine an overheating bead balun, the beads closest to the high imped-ance connections are the warmest. The beads closest to the low impedance connections are the coolest. It is as if each little bead functions as an individual little attenuator element. The entire stack of ferrites does not act like a resistor. The power from the common mode current is not dis-sipated uniformly as it would along a purely resistive element. There are two independent factors that contribute to common mode current flow and the resultant risk of balun heating: 1) INSUFFICIENT COMMON MODE IMPEDANCE TO CHOKE OFF COMMON MODE CURRENT FLOW: Anytime, repeat "anytime", one of these 800 ohm common mode impedance bead baluns is connected across a high impedance load, such as a 80 meter doublet excited on 40 meters, there is the risk of severe balun overheating. The same goes for trying to operate a old style triban-der on 17 or 24 meters with a ferrite balun. Low power operation won't heat the balun, BUT, the common mode current is still flowing, and the system could be operating at a disadvantage. This limitation from the balun's common mode impedance in a high impedance environment is BY FAR THE MOST SIGNIFICANT FACTOR that contributes to bead balun overheating. High power makes the heating problem easier to recognize. Low power doesn't cause as much heating but the system may not be functioning in an ideal manner. But, "everything works." A better solution for a balun in a high impedance enviroment is to use one of those coiled coax or "Badger", baluns. This particular style of balun is capable of exhibiting extremely high common mode impedance values if properly constructed and tested for the frequency of use. Just like an old antenna tuner of years gone by. 2) FERRITE MIX: Yes, ferrite mix can make a difference, but don't get overly excited on this one. Any importance that ferrite mix has on balun heating is not because one mix is "better" than an-other, or one mix is "worse" than another. The reason that ferrite mix can contribute to balun over-heating problems is because of #1 above- Insufficient Common Mode Impedance. The Force-12 balun, I'm guessing, acts like a string of #43 mix ferrite beads. The Maxwell, W2DU, bead balun uses a string of #77 mix ferrite beads. The Force -12 balun has a good peak common mode im-pedance from 40 meters to 10 meters. The Maxwell bead balun has a useful peak common mode impedance from 160 through 15 meters. There is substantial overlap for both and both are good. The Maxwell balun might not have enough common mode impedance on 10 meters and overheat in some 10 meter applications. The Force 12 balun might not have enough common mode imped-ance for a 160 meter installation and overheat in some applications on that band. I haven't actually tested each balun side by side in the antenna situations I have referred to but I am extrapolating from their common mode impedance curves.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 52 The key to reducing balun overheating probably lies with pairing up the antenna (and it's feed point impedance), and band of operation, with a balun having sufficient common mode impedance to choke off common mode current flow. The standard of comparison between "current mode" baluns is their measured common mode impedance at the frequency of use. Some "current mode" baluns have low common mode impedance compared to other baluns. I have only tested the Force-12 and Maxwell baluns and they exhibit common mode impedances of about 800 ohms. Unfortunately, the various manufacturers never publish the common mode impedance characteris-tics of their baluns. I think that it is very very very hard to get common mode impedance values greater than 800 to 1000 ohms using low Q type #43 and #77 ferrites. Maybe I don't know enough, so take that statement with a grain of salt. One can get relatively high common mode im-pedance by coiling coax on a higher Q #61 ferrite toroid. The air coiled coax, "Badger, balun or an old fashioned antenna tuner will give the highest common mode impedance values that I know of. Let me know your thoughts, Greg. John Petrich, W7HQJ [now W7FU ]
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 53 Appendix 4 '' Joe Reisert on Baluns Re: Topband: 160 Meter BALUNS From: Joe Reisert Mon, 22 Dec 2003 Hi Tom, A follow up to my prior EMail on a solenoid baluns. Regardless of whether 50 feet of RG8X wound on a solenoid (tube) is proper to use a balun or not, I'll leave that up to you and W8JI to decide. I guess you some would describe this type of balun as a choke. Now, here is some more theoretical information and measurements etc. that maybe of interest to some for the engineering types on this reflector. This maybe helpful to design similar types of so-lenoid baluns at other frequency bands. 50 feet of RG8X coax is a good starting point for a 160 meter solenoid (choke) balun for many rea-sons. If you close wind the coax on a 4.5" OD (I mistakenly said 4" in my prior EMail) standard white PVC tube, you obtain an impedance of about 650 Ohms (as measured on an HP Network analyzer). This means that you are above the 500 Ohms (and well above 250 Ohms) impedance that most experts feel is adequate for a balun impedance. At 80 meters, the same solenoid balun will have a measured impedance of about 1300 Ohms. However, depending on how tight you make the turns, a resonance will be noted somewhere be-tween 12 and 15 MHz. Hence, 50 feet of coax is probably only good for 160 through 30 meters. Use less turns if only for higher bands (see below). It looks like a 4 or 5:1 ratio of lowest frequency to highest useable frequency is a good rule of thumb. To carry on further, 50 feet of RG8X will amount to approximately 38 turns on a 4.5" OD former and the winding will be approximately 9.25" long. If you plug these numbers is into most standard equations to calculate inductance, you will calculate an inductance of approximately 60 micro Henries. Using the standard formula for reactance: Xl = 2 pi FL, yields about the same impedance as measured above. Pretty nifty to get such agreement! So, you can see that don't need fancy measuring gear to make a solenoid balun for any band. Just decide on how high an impedance you want (but not too high-see below) and make sure that you don't put on too many turns so reso-nances will occur above rather than in band! Some may ask if RG58 is OK for a solenoid balun. Sure it is but for lower power than RG8X. Since it is slightly smaller in diameter, 50 feet h a slightly higher impedance. Since the power handling ability of coax goes down as frequency increases, it maybe safer to use Teflon (RTM) type coax such as RG303 if you are running high power, especially at 80 meters and above. RG8 will also be OK but it is larger in diameter so more coax will be required. You can make your own calculations on this one. I wouldn't recommend foam RG8 coax as it may deform on such a small diameter. However, if you use a larger diameter tube, that will work with RG8 and since the diameter is lar-ger, the impedance will increase accordingly. Use the standard inductance equations. I made a solenoid balun with 25 feet of RG303 teflon (RTM), about 20 turns on a 4.5" tube, and the first measured resonance was about 24 MHz. This balun would be great, even at high power, for 80 through 15 meters. Again, about a 5:1 frequency range. Some purists will say to space the turns, for example, by the diameter of the coax. This maybe less of a problem for flash over if lightning hits. I'll leave that up to you to decide. However, using the info above, this would calculate (using standard inductor equations) to about 33 micro Henries of inductance for space windings (and an impedance of only 375 Ohms), well below that normally suggested for a 160 meter balun. Hence, more coax or a larger diameter tube is required. Finally, what about laying the balun on the ground. I'd recommend against that simply because that at least may lower the self resonance frequency. This is the old story that you shouldn't place objects near (1-3 diameters away) an inductor (which is what a solenoid balun is on the outside shield). I hope this info is of interest and help. There will always be the disagreements over whether to use ferrite beads, ferrite toroids or solenoid baluns. No one size fits all! However, for those interested
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 54 in designing their your own solenoid type baluns, I've hopefully given some info on how to "roll your own." Happy holidays and best of DX in 2004. 73, Joe, W1JR
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 55 Appendix 5 ''Grounding and Lightning Protection Grounding for lightning protection is another one of those widely misunderstood topics. This au-thor is not an expert on lightning protection, so the following discussion should be taken only as a starting point for lightning protection, not a final recommendation. What Lightning Is Lightning is the discharge of an electrical charge (that is, a potential difference) that builds up between some region of space and some other region of space. Air acts as an insu-lator, but breaks down (that is, arcs over) at some high voltage. The arc-over is a huge current pulse with a high rise time and short duration. Spectrum and Waveshape Any short duration pulse consists of an infinite number of harmonics, the relative strength of which is determined by the rise time of the pulse and the impedance of the current path. It is a major mistake to think of lightning as DC. Yes, there's a DC component, but IEEE data shows that most of the energy in a lightning strike is in the MF spectrum (300 kHz-3 MHz). So when designing a ground system for lightning protection, we need to think AM Broad-cast '' according to IEEE data, on average, the energy in lightning has a VERY broad peak around 1 MHz (so broad that there's lots of energy at 2-4x that frequency and at 0.2x that frequency). Common Bonding The single most important element of a lightning protection system is the bonding together of the reference planes (that is, circuit common) for every element of the system. A bond can be defined as a low impedance connection that is mechanically and electrically robust. At frequencies above a few hundred Hz, the impedance of virtually any conductor is dominated by inductance, not resistance. Bonding conductors should be "beefy" so that they don't melt, and as short as possible (so that they have low inductance). Earth As a Reference Plane The earth is an important reference plane. We can think of earth as a plane of infinite size, but whose conductivity varies widely, depending on the chemistry and geol-ogy of the soil (or rock) and its moisture content, from fairly good to very poor. Conductivity can vary significantly between points that are very close together for a variety of reasons, both natural (the presence of rocks, streams, earth stratification) and manmade (excavation, land filling, build-ing structure, buried pipes). Lightning Protection The most fundamental elements of lightning protection are: Š A low impedance path for lightning to our reference plane (earth) that does not include our house or ham station Š Common bonding of our equipment so that, in the event of a lightning strike, the potential difference between equipment is minimized Š Protection devices on power, signal, and control wiring that is connected to our equipment Earth Electrodes An earth electrode is an electrical connection to the soil, whether intentional or unintentional. A ground rod is an example of an intentional connection '' what the NEC calls a "made" electrode. Any building or installation is likely to have many unintentional connections to earth '' building steel, conductive cold water pipe, conductive gas pipe. We can reduce the imped-ance to earth of an electrode by increasing the surface area in contact with the soil, but at lightning frequencies (radio), the major component of the impedance our ground system is the wire between the electrode and our equipment! UFER Electrodes Concrete can be a good electrical conductor or good insulator, depending on its formulation. Most concrete used in construction is a fairly good conductor. A Ufer (named for its inventor) is an electrical conductor encased in conductive concrete to form a made electrode. Structural steel on a concrete foundation acts as a Ufer, including a ham radio tower sitting on concrete that is electrically conductive. Ground Electrodes in Difficult Soil Ground electrodes don't necessarily need to be vertical rods '' if rocky soil makes vertical rods difficult, consider multiple shorter rods, or burying wires or conduc-tive plates horizontally. The main reason for going deep below the surface is to get to in contact with moist (low resistivity) soil.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 56 Bonding Earth Electrodes All earth electrodes that lightning might view as associated with our house or ham station should have an effective low impedance bond between them. The imped-ance to earth of a ground system will be the parallel combination of all earth electrodes (ground rods, building steel, tower footing, cold water, radials), plus the inductance of the wire connecting them. The capacitance between a big radial field and the earth can be a significant component of lowering that impedance in the 300 kHz '' 3 MHz region where the energy of lightning is concen-trated. Star Bonding is designed to provide a low impedance path for lightning current to earth that does not include the building, the electrical system, or equipment within the building. It also provides a single path to earth for lightning current induced in building wiring, and minimizes the potential difference between equipment within the building in the case of a strike. In a star-bonded system: Š All the earth electrodes are bonded together Š All equipment and systems within a building are bonded together Š A single connection is made between the earth electrode system and the building systems (the center of the star) Š All external wiring is bonded to the center of the star '' the power system neutral, shunt mode lightning protection devices, cable TV entry, the shields of antenna wiring, the base of a tower, etc. Power System Bonding In North America, building codes generally require that an electrical instal-lation conform to the National Electrical Code (NEC). A few cities (including Chicago, Los Angeles) have their own codes that are generally similar to NEC. These codes apply to premises systems '' that is, buildings and facilities connected to mains power. They do not apply to systems that are strictly portable '' for example, a motor generator in a vehicle, and they do not apply to power dis-tribution systems outside buildings (that is, the power company's wiring). They do apply to a port-able generator or solar system that is connected to premises wiring. Some industrial systems, such as those running heavy equipment are exempt from some of these requirements. See http://audiosystemsgroup.com/SurgeXPowerGround.pdf In general, North American building codes require: Š that all earth electrodes shall be bonded together Š that a bond shall be made from the earth electrode system to a single point on the power system. In a residential system, the point of connection must be to the neutral bus at the service entrance Š that one conductor of the power system (the neutral) be bonded to earth. NEC refers to the neutral as "the grounded conductor" Š that a third wire, called the equipment ground, or "green wire" (protective earth or PE in the UK) is carried to every mains power outlet, and via the power cord to exposed metal in all connected equipment The sole function of the equipment ground is to blow a fuse or circuit breaker in the case of a fault (failure of equipment or wiring), thus protecting personnel from electrical shock and preventing fires. An equipment ground should never intentionally carry current (that is, serve as a return for load current). That is the function of the neutral. The bonding requirements of these standard building codes are based on solid engineering. They have been formulated and refined over the years by some of the best engineering minds on the planet, including many who are very aware of the RF implications of the requirements. There is no conflict between these grounding and bonding requirements and excellent perform-ance of radio transmitting or receiving systems. Those who advocate separate, unconnected grounds for power and radio systems are simply wrong.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 57 SURGE SUPPRESSION Surge Suppression devices are designed to prevent damage to equipment caused by lightning flowing into equipment. There two fundamental types '' shunt mode, and series mode. Shunt mode suppressors conduct the lighting current, hopefully diverting it away from the pro-tected equipment (and often onto the equipment ground conductor). Gas discharge tubes and metal oxide varistors (MOV's) are the most commonly used shunt mode suppression devices. At low voltages, they look like an open circuit, but conduct when the voltage exceeds a certain threshold. Series mode suppressors block the lightning current by adding a high reactive impedance (an in-ductor) in series with the lightning current. The energy in the lightning strike is stored in an induc-tor, then discharged slowly (and thus harmlessly) back into the power line. http://www.surgex.com Disadvantages of Shunt Mode Suppressors There are three very strong negatives. Š When a shunt mode suppressor conducts a lightning strike to the equipment ground, the IR drop in the "green wire" raises the potential between the equipment ground at the "pro-tected" outlet and other "grounds." Consider two pieces of gear plugged into different out-lets, with signal wiring between them. One of them has a shunt mode suppressor, the other does not. Or perhaps they both have suppressors, but they see different lightning currents and have different lengths of green wire to "earth." In either situation, the differ-ence in potential between the two equipment grounds can be thousands of volts for the in-stant of the strike, and one or both of those pieces of equipment is likely to experience a destructive failure. Š Shunt mode suppressors degrade and/or eventually fail, as they absorb some finite amount of energy. They may fail shorted or open. It is not practical to test for a degraded or "failed open" condition. As a result, it easy for a shunt mode device to have failed and offer little or no protection, but you don't know it! Š Shunt mode suppressors will conduct non-destructive noise spikes to the equipment ground, and the resulting noise current can radiate and be picked up on antenna systems. Advantages of Shunt Mode Suppressors Shunt suppressors are much cheaper than series mode suppressors. They are the only practical method for protecting signal circuits and for protecting an entire building (that is, a "whole house" suppressor" at the service entrance). Advantages of Series Mode Suppressors Series mode suppressors reliably protect equipment on branch circuits without causing destructive failures on equipment on other circuits. Disadvantages of Series Mode Suppressors They are larger and more expensive than shunt mode suppressors, and it is not practical to build series mode suppressors with capacities larger than about 30A. Recommended Surge Suppression Strategy Install a "whole house" suppressor at the service entrance as your first line of defense against light-ning coming in on the power line, and other power line faults. Use series mode suppressors on branch circuits (that is, between the breaker panel and equip-ment) to control lightning induced on branch circuit wiring. Never use shunt mode suppressors (MOVs) on branch circuits. Use shunt mode devices only in parallel with the RF inputs of sensitive equipment (antenna inputs, inputs of telephone equipment, computer network equipment, etc.) When shunt mode devices are on balanced wiring (telco, ethernet, etc.), do not return them to the green wire; use the star ground as their return.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 58 Appendix 6 '' Audio for Ham Radio Input and Output Levels One of the most important parts of audio interconnection is getting the levels right. It's easy to do it right '' as long as you know that you need to do it. Output Levels The maximum output level of most computer sound cards is on the order of 1 volt RMS (corresponding roughly to digital clip). The output stage can usually produce enough current to drive most headphones to reasonable listening level. Most output stages will begin produce significant distortion about 6 dB below their maximum output level. For this reason, it is very im-portant to stay below this level on digital modes like PSK31. The maximum output level of most radios is also on the order of 1 volt RMS at clip level. Most will drive an 8 ohm loudspeaker. Input Levels There are (at least) five common types of inputs, and each operates at a different level. Balanced mic level inputs typically operate between 1 mV and 100 mV rms, and may clip at 1 V rms. Unbalanced mic inputs typically work between about 10 mV and 250 mV, but may clip at levels as low as 250-500 mV rms. Balanced line inputs typically clip at about 10V rms. Input and Output Impedances Contrary to popular belief, 600 ohm inputs and outputs haven't been used in pro audio in almost 40 years. Modern output stages have a low output impedance '' typically 100 ohms or less for pro products, and 350 ohms or less for consumer products. Mod-ern input stages have a high impedance '' typically 1K for pro mic input, 10K for a pro line input, 50K for a consumer line input. In other words, modern equipment operates on the basis of volt-age matching, not power matching. Line level output stages are designed to provide voltage, not current, and input stages are designed to not draw current. The performance of a line level or mic level output degrades when it is connected to an input stage that "loads" it '' that is, a low impedance input that draws current. Degradation comes in the form of reduced output level and increased distortion at higher output levels. Sadly, the designers of some ham gear haven't gotten the word, and still load their input stages with low value resistors. The Elecraft K2, for example, must be modified to work with a professional mic. Loudspeaker Outputs There are two primary differences between a line output and a loudspeaker output of most ham rigs. Š A loudspeaker output is fed by a power amplifier that is designed to deliver current into an 8 ohm load. A line level output is fed by a simple stage that provides about the same volt-age, but it is not designed to deliver current. Š A line level output is usually not affected by a front panel volume control. Matching Levels An audio signal chain will have optimum sound quality and least noise pickup when its signal levels are matched. A simple way to describe correct level matching is to say that the gains are adjusted so that every stage in the signal chain is operating just below the level where distortion begins to rise drastically. For most analog stages, this is the "clip" level, where the tops of a sine wave would be clipped. For digital stages, it is 0 dB FS (0 dB re: full scale, where the A/D and D/A converters "run out of bits.") We don't want the signal to actually hit the clip level, but we want it to be about the same number of dB below clip (3-6 dB is a good range) at every point in the signal chain. Matching levels does three things for us. Š It assures that distortion produced in the electronics will be minimal. Š It minimizes the contribution of each gain stage to the noise level. Š It minimizes the contribution of noise on interconnect wiring. Speech Intelligibility The primary goal of most ham radio transmissions is communication. We are often working with less power, or an inferior antenna system, or in the presence of noise, over very long distances, or very difficult propagation. To get the most from our stations, we need to optimize their intelligibility. The major factors that contribute to intelligibility are: Š Frequency content Nearly all intelligibility in speech is contained between 400 Hz and 5
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 59 kHz, with the range between about 1 kHz and 3 kHz being most critical. Lower frequency sounds provide more pleasing sound (" body") and higher frequencies more "presence." To get the most "talk power," we want to concentrate our transmit power in the 500 '' 3,000 Hz range, without wasting transmit power on the lower frequencies, and without allowing the higher frequencies to create (or receive) splatter from adjacent channels. Š Equalization is used to optimize the frequency content of the transmitted audio. We use low pass filters to reduce the strength of low frequency sound that eats transmitter power but doesn't contribute to intelligibility. We also use some response boost around 3 kHz to maximize clarity. Š Signal to noise ratio Speech intelligibility is degraded by noise. We can minimize the noise by minimizing the receive bandwidth (but not so much that we lose audio frequencies be-tween 500 Hz and 3 kHz). Š Dynamic processing Human speech naturally has peaks and valleys of loudness. The loud-est peaks can't be allowed to exceed our permitted transmitter power (or FM deviation), but we don't want the valleys to fall into the noise. That's where dynamic processing comes in '' we use peak limiters and compressors just before the modulator in our radio to reduce the strength of peaks, then turn of the level on the entire voice signal so that the peaks just hit the maximum permitted output (or FM deviation). The difference between a peak limiter and a compressor is primarily their time constants '' that is, compressors act relatively slowing to smooth out the difference between the loud and soft parts of speech, while peak limiters act very quickly to catch short term transients that would overmodulate the transmitter. To sound good, dynamics processing must be done artfully '' if the peaks are reduced too sharply, or excessively, the audio can be distorted and sound unnatural. In the transmit audio chain, the audio should first be equalized to achieve the desired frequency content (that is the balance between highs, mids, and lows), and then passed through the dynamics processing. Š Time distortion and echoes Anyone who works with sound systems in churches or audito-riums knows that sound that bounces around a room and arrives at our ears as reverbera-tion or an echo degrades speech intelligibility. Echoes and time smear can also occur when a signal is propagated to us over multiple paths at the same time. It can be really tough to copy a signal that is reaching you by both a long path and a short path '' one will be offset in time from the other, and you'll hear an echo. The combination of good dynamics processing and careful shaping of the frequency response can make a 10-15 dB difference in "talk power." 10 dB is equivalent to multiplying your transmitter power by a factor of 10x; 15 dB is equivalent to 32x! Response shaping typically contributes 3-6 dB of that improvement, dynamics processing is good for 6-10 dB. Microphones come in four basic types. Dynamic microphones have a diaphragm attached to a voice coil that moves within the field of a permanent magnet. Condenser (and electret condenser) microphones have a conductive diaphragm forms one plate of a capacitor. Most mics commonly used with telephones,, consumer equipment, and ham gear are electrets. Before electrets, carbon mics were widely used in telephones, and crystal mics were used with low cost consumer equip-ment. Directional Patterns An omnidirectional mic picks up sound equally in all directions. A directional mic favors (usually) one direction (cardioid) or two directions (bi-directional, also called "figure-of-8"). Most performance mics are cardioids. Cardioids work by canceling the sound from a front and rear opening for sounds coming from directions other than the front. Hypercardioid and su-percardioid mics have a slightly narrower pattern than a cardioid, thanks to combining front and rear entry ports at a different ratio. Noise-cancelling mics are designed to be used very close to the mouth and reject background noise. They use two capsules that are combined out of polarity to cancel sound more than an inch or two from the mic. Noise canceling mics are very subject to sibilance and breath noise, so they
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 60 don't sound very good, and should generally be used only when the background noise is so loud that communications would be difficult without them (aircraft cockpits, etc.). They are a poor choice for most ham radio applications. Electret Mics Many modern microphones, and virtually all miniature microphones, have electret condenser capsules. They come in two basic forms. What these forms have in common is a VERY high-Z electret capsule (tens of megohms) with a FET follower to get it down to about 10K. The most common form of professional electret mics adds a gain stage with a balanced output to drive a professional sound mixer. Phantom Power Professional condenser mics get their power from the balanced line in what the old telco guys would call simplex '' that is, V+ equally on the signal pair, V- on the shield. This is called phantom power. Several common voltages are in use, with 48 volts through a matched pair 6.8K ohms to both sides of line being the most common. The mic has an on-board voltage regula-tor, and most mics actually work between 9 and 20 volts. There is also a nearly obsolete standard that put power in series, called T-power. It was popular with film folks for a while. The second form of electret mic is designed to be used with unbalanced inputs, like those that are part of wireless mic transmitters. The capsule with the FET follower has unbalanced wiring to pig-tail leads, which are then soldered to the appropriate connector. Electret mics of this form can drive a ham rig directly, but need a small dc voltage from the transmitter to bias the FET (with a suitable series resistor). The mic connectors on most ham transceivers has DC available, but you'll need to add the resistor. Shure, Audio-Technica, AKG, and Sony all make miniature electret mics like this for use with wireless mics that will work well with ham transmitters; only Shure and Crown have "headworn" versions. Be sure to buy an omni-directional version though '' the direc-tional mics all have proximity effect, so they don't work well at all for communications use. Proximity Effect Virtually all popular "vocal" microphones are directional mics, and nearly all of them exhibit proximity effect '' the "boosting" of low frequencies for a sound source very close to the mic. The exception is the family of "variable-D" microphones made by Electro-Voice '' the RE16, RE18, RE20, and RE27 (also the discontinued RE10, RE11, RE18, and 666). AKG and Shure used to make variable-D mics, and you may find them used. They are the AKG D202, D222, and D224, and the Shure SM53, SM54. If you're going to use a pro mic with your ham rig, it ought to be either one of these mics or one of the miniature omnidirectional electrets. I mostly use an RE16 for HF SSB. The advantage of the variable-D mic over the omni is that it rejects noise in your shack (like the fan in your power amp). Fig A6-1a SSB TX and RX Response Fig A6-1b '' Shure 450 Communications Mic Frequency Response of SSB Fig A6-1a is the response of typical 2.7 kHz crystal filters used to generate and receive SSB. The red curve is the response of the TX filter alone; the red curve is the cascaded response of the TX filter and the filter in the receiver. In addition, an international stan-dard calls for limiting bandwidth to 2kHz, and many SSB rigs have a built-in 2kHz rolloff. The fre-quency spectrum between about 1kHz and 3kHz is critical to good speech intelligibility, so the severe rolloff of Fig A6-1a tends to make speech somewhat muffled and indistinct. The rolloff can be compensated by boosting (pre-emphasizing) the response in the 2-4 kHz region. Virtually all popular "communications" microphones are built with this boost, so they sound fine. The Shure 450 (Fig A6-1b) and the various Heil mics are examples.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 61 Using Professional Low Impedance Mics With Your Ham Gear Most pro mics, built with relatively flat (that is, accurate) response, sound muddy and dull when connected to many ham transceivers. Use a twisted pair cable that has a braid shield to connect the mic to your ham gear. This cable needs a 3-pin female XLR on the mic end and a suitable ham mic connector (usually 8-pins) on the other. The twisted pair goes to pins 2 and 3 of the XLR, and the shield goes to pin 1. The wire from pin 2 of the mic goes to the mic input of your radio. The wire from pin 3 to the "audio ground" of your radio. Wire the cable shield to the chassis of your radio (hopefully the mic con-nector is bonded to the chassis, but don't count on it '' in many radios, it is not!) If your ham gear is rolled off per the standard and doesn't have its own "equalization" to fix it (some radios do), you can add a simple RC equalization network to match the "flat" re-sponse of the pro mic to the rolled off response of the ham gear. The network consists of a ca-pacitance in series with the wire from pin 2 to the input of the ham gear. Chose the capacitor so that its reactance is equal to the input resis-tance of the ham gear at 3 kHz, using the equa-tion C = 1 / 2Ï F X. For example, if the input resistance of the mic input stage is 1 K, use C of Fig A6-1c Response With Series Cap about 0.027 uF (27 nF). If your audio is still a bit dull, make the capacitance value even smaller. If the audio is too thin, make the capacitance a bit larger. The Elecraft K3 has a built-in equalizer that can easily be set to provide the needed compensation. Inexpensive Electret Mics work very well with almost any ham rig. Plantronics, first known for their excellent miniature "star-set" operator headsets, now makes a wide variety of miniature headworn earsets and headsets for use with computers and cell phones. Very good ones sell for about $25; all it takes to use them with your ham rig is to connect them to your radio, adding a suitable bias resistor between the V+ terminal and the audio terminal (see below). You don't need a "gold plated" mic sold by the rock and roll ham '' a $25 Plantronics can give you very good and very competitive audio at a fraction of the cost! There are three wires in the Plantronics cable, plus the shield. The shield goes to the chassis. Blue is common for the mic and earphone, and goes to common on the mic jack. One wire is the ear-phone, and goes to the audio out on the mic jack. The other wire is the mic, and goes to the mic input. To figure out which wire is which, stick the eaphone in your ear and listen as you probe for it with an ohmeter. When you hear the click, you've got the earphone. On the headsets I have, white is the mic, red is the earphone, blue is common. You also need a bias resistor between the mic wire and +DC on the mic jack to provide bias for the mic capsule. As I recall, I used something like 5K-10K, but I don't remember and I don't re-member it being critical. See your radio's manual for connector pinout '' Kenwood, Icom, TenTec, and Yaesu all wire their mic jacks VERY differently. Laptop Mic Inputs vary widely, and those who have studied them extensively say there are no real standards. Fig A6-2a is the most common configuration. Fig A6-2b is another. The tip of the 1/8-inch connector is the mic input, with the connector shell as the return. The ring of the connector is +5VDC through a 3.3K resistor (measured on my IBM Thinkpad). Connect a dynamic mic be-tween tip and sleeve. This works perfectly on my IBM T22, but MY IBM T41 uses a somewhat dif-ferent input circuit that is noisy and unstable with this simple connection. I tamed it by adding 0.22 µF between tip and ring. An electret ham mic may work with audio to tip and power to ring. Or you may need to add resistance in series with the ring. Or you may need the capacitor. Or both. Plantronics headsets work great with my IBM T-series laptops with the mic going between tip and sleeve of the TRS mic jack and a 36K resistor between tip and ring.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 62 Fig A6-2a Conceptual Laptop Mic Input #1 Fig A6-2b Conceptual Laptop Mic Input #2 The Yamaha CM500 Headset is just about ideal for ham radio. The headphones are quite com-fortable, even for long periods in a contest, they sound very good, and they have fairly good iso-lation from room sounds. The mic sounds great too (a lot better than the Heil mics I've heard), and it's response is nearly ideal for ham radio. Not only that, it's a bargain, at about $45 from good discount vendors of semi-pro audio prod-ucts. All it needs is bias for its electret capsule and a bit of low frequency rolloff to minimize breath pops. With my K3, I set the two lowest octave bands of the TX equalizer to full cut. For rigs that lack an equalizer, simply add a small capacitor in series with the mic input to the rig. Fig A6-3 Yamaha CM500 Headset The CM500 plugs straight into the rear panel mic and headphone jacks on the K3, and to the mic and headphone jacks of most computers. For other rigs you will need a simple adapter to mate the CM500's 1/8-inch 3-circuit plug with the rig's mic connector. Wire a 3-circuit 1/8-inch jack with the tip going to the rig's mic input, and connect a 5.6K'... resistor between the tip and +8VDC on the rig mic connector. Neither the resistor value nor the voltage is critical '' anything from about 5V to 12V and from about 3.9K'... to about 6.8K'... will work. For lower voltages, use a lower resis-tor value, for higher voltages a higher resistor value. If you're going to add a small capacitor to roll off the low end, place it in series between the two connectors, but with the 5.6K resistor connect-ing to the microphone side of the capacitor. See Chapter 8 for part numbers and internet sources for good quality 1/8-inch plugs and jacks. Impedance of Loudspeakers and Headphones The impedance of a transducer describes the rela-tionship between voltage and current, just as with any other passive element. These transducers move air, so they require some power to operate. Headphones move much less air than loud-speakers, so needs much less power. A transducer can take that power with a little voltage and a lot of current (low impedance) a lot of voltage and a little current (high impedance), or anywhere in between. Fig A6-4 '' A typical small loudspeaker. The lower curve is impedance, upper curve is voltage sensitivity
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 63 The impedance of a dynamic transducer (loudspeaker, headphones, dynamic mics) is not constant '' it varies widely with frequency. The variations are the result of mechanical resonances in the transducer and its enclosure. Fig A6-4 is the impedance of a typical loudspeaker. Headphone im-pedance varies in a similar way, but manufacturers rarely publish graphs of their impedance. By international standard, the impedance of a transducer is defined as the minimum impedance within the audio spectrum. For most full-range transducers, the minimum impedance point is be-tween 200 Hz and 1 kHz. Most loudspeakers have an impedance between 4 and 16 ohms; head-phones are typically 50 '' 1,000 ohms. Loudspeakers and Dynamic Mics are exactly the same in principal '' a diaphragm mechanically mounted to a coil, moving in the gap of a magnet. The loudspeaker is optimized to produce sound, the mic to detect it. Good audio technicians know that loudspeakers and dynamic mic both work in reverse. That is, if you momentarily connect ohmmeter probes or a battery to a dynamic mic, you'll hear the diaphragm click, and if you connect a loudspeaker to a mic preamp, you'll hear sound from the room that the loudspeaker is in. Many school intercoms work this way '' the speaker at the front of the classroom can be rigged to let the principal listen in! Loudspeaker and Headphone Sensitivity This is a measure of how much power is needed to achieve a given sound pressure level. Because the impedance of real loudspeakers and head-phones varies so widely with frequency, sensitivity (and the frequency response) is generally de-fined at a constant voltage that produces 1 watt at the low impedance point. The zero dB refer-ence for sound pressure level is a very soft sound. Small loudspeakers suitable for use in a ham shack typically have sensitivity of 75 '' 85 dB at one meter for one watt, but a more sensitive one (85-95 dB) could help cut through road noise when operating mobile, especially if the speaker out-put amplifier is on the anemic side. Power Amplifier Output Impedance Loudspeakers are driven by power amplifiers that have very low output impedances, typically a few tenths (or even hundredths) of an ohm. The combination of the power amplifier's output impedance and the loudspeaker form a simple voltage divider. The output impedance must be small for two reasons: 1) so that power is not wasted; and 2) so that the variable impedance of the loudspeaker does not modify the frequency response of the system. Headphone Outputs are typically driven by small power amplifiers, or through series resistors from the same power amplifier that drives the loudspeaker. Why are the resistors needed? Most headphones use three circuit (stereo) plugs, but some use 2-circuit plugs. When we plug stereo headphones into the radio, we want to hear audio in both ears, so both tip and ring must be driven. The resistors are there to prevent the power amplifier from seeing a short circuit when a 2-circuit (mono) phone plug is plugged into the headphone jack. Effect of the Resistors The resistors, in effect, raise the output impedance at the headphone jack. The resistors will do two things to the sound quality. 1) They will reduce the overall loudness; and 2) they will modify the frequency response. Both of these effects will be small if the impedance of the headphones is high (3x the resistor value), and greater if the impedance of the headphones is low (equal to or smaller than the resistor value). Headphone Acoustic Types Closed Ear headphones block room sounds, while Open Air head-phones let sound from the room come through. In the Ear headphones are miniature transducers that fit in the ear. In the Ear Headphones Professional quality In the Ear headphones can provide excellent isolation from room noise, thanks to the acoustic seal formed between the earbud and the ear canal. Better models come with several pairs of "ear buds" to fit different size ears. The ultimate in isolation and comfort is achieved by having custom earmolds fitted by an audiologist. I'm quite satisfied with the stock earmolds that come standard with the Shure and Etymotic Research models listed below. Noise Cancelling Headphones work by picking up room sound from a microphones on the out-side of each earphone, amplifying them, adding it to the electrical signal to each ear so that it is heard out of polarity with the acoustic leakage around the headphone's seal. To cancel, the two signals must be precisely equal in amplitude, precisely in phase, but also out of polarity at the ears. The amplitude and phase match is much easier to achieve at lower frequencies, where the physical
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 64 spacing between the noise sense mic and the earphone is the smallest fraction of a wavelength, and difficult where the spacing becomes a significant fraction of a wavelength, and thus contrib-utes phase shift. To some extent, this can be compensated by a digital delay network within the electronics, but that adds both cost and battery drain. RECOMMENDED HEADPHONES FOR HAM RADIO APPLICATIONS Nearly any good quality hi-fi or professional headset will have very good sound quality for ham radio applications. In order of importance, my criteria are: Š Physical comfort Š Noise isolation Š Compact size to fit in a briefcase Š Impedance around 100 ohms is a good compromise between voltage sensitivity and less interaction with the series protection resistors. Lower impedance may provide more sound level with some products that use lower value series resistors. AKG, Audio Technica, and Sony all make a wide range of very good Open Air headphones. The Sony MDR7506's are quite comfortable. Shure and Etymotic Research, both based near Chicago, make excellent In the Ear headphones. I like the Shure E3, E4, and E5 models, and the Etymotic Research ER4. I haven't used the lower cost ER6's, but would expect them to be very nice. I find these in-ear headphones to be quite comfort-able for long-haul contest operation. The Shure E1's are too big and clunky to be comfortable. I consider In the Ear headphones a far better solution for ham radio than noise canceling head-phones for three reasons. First, the recommended In the Ear headphones provide much better iso-lation from room sound than noise canceling models. Second, I've seen several complaints of RFI in some noise canceling headphones. Third, In the Ear headphones are passive, so they are sim-pler and less likely to fail. The earphones that are part of the Yamaha CM500 headset (see Fig A6-3) are an excellent choice for ham radio.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 65 Appendix 7 '' Measuring Impedance With Antenna Analyzers Antenna analyzers are a very useful tool, but to use them effectively (and get accurate results), we must understand their limitations. 1) Most antenna analyzers operate either as SWR analyzers or reflection analyzers, and meas-ure relative to some specified characteristic impedance (usually 50 ohms, but some ana-lyzers can be set for 75 ohms). They are most accurate when the SWR is low (that is, when the unknown impedance is near that characteristic impedance), and become increas-ingly inaccurate when the SWR is high. 2) There is a definite upper limit on the magnitude of the impedance that can be measured. For the MFJ259B, it is 500 ohms. For the AEA CIA-HF, it is 1,000 ohms. Some newer ana-lyzers can measure up to 2,000 ohms. 3) In general, antenna analyzers cannot resolve phase angles within 5 degrees of 0 degrees and 90 degrees. 4) In general, antenna analyzers do not know the sign of the phase angle (that is, they don't know whether the unknown impedance is capacitive or inductive). 5) In general, antenna analyzers have a fairly low input impedance. Typical values are 10K ohms in parallel with 12 pF. This further reduces the maximum impedance that can be measured (unless it is known and subtracted from the measured result). Using an AEA CIA-HF Antenna Analyzer Using HP 8753C with HP85046A S-Parameter Test Set and HP85052D Calibration Kit To appreciate the limitation of the AEA's 12 pF input capacitance, let's begin by computing its reac-tance. At 25 MHz, 12 pF is only 530 ohms; at 10 MHz, it's 1,327 ohms; and at 2 MHz it is 6,600 ohms. It's clear that if we're trying to measure an impedance of 1,000 ohms or more above about 4 MHz, the 12 pF input capacitance will cause major errors. To appreciate how large these errors can be, consider the two data sets above for coils wound around a Fair-Rite #61 2.4" i.d. toroid. For example, compare the data for the 6 turn coil. The AEA data shows resonance at about 12 MHz and suggests an impedance at resonance of about 1.5K. The more accurate HP system shows the resonance at 30 MHz, with Z = 4,000 ohms; at 12 MHz, the impedance is actually about 600 ohms and is strongly inductive. Thus, the stray capacitance of the analyzer (about 12 pF) is resonating with the coil to move the resonance down by a factor of nearly 3:1. The actual impedance of the choke is thus much higher than the AEA shows at 30 MHz, and much lower at 12 MHz. In other words, the antenna analyzer has completely mis-characterized the coil. So the obvious question is, how (and under what conditions) can we use an antenna analyzer to characterize ferrite parts? As a starting point, I'll offer the following guidelines.
Understanding and Solving RF Interference Problems Page 66 Š Stray Capacitance To minimize the er-ror caused by stray capacitance, wind just enough turns around the ferrite part in question to achieve a resonant peak whose impedance is one third or less of the reactance that the input capacitance of the analyzer has at the frequency of the resonance. At frequencies well be-low the measured resonance, the im-pedance of a single turn through the fer-rite part is approximately equal to the measured impedance divided by the square of the number of turns. Now, use the guidelines of chapter xxx to es-timate the resonant frequency of the fer-rite part for a single turn. Fig A7-2 Useful Measurement Range of Antenna Analyzer Š The fact that the analyzer loses accuracy for values of impedance widely displaced from the characteristic impedance for which it was designed, leads to another rule of thumb for 50 ohm analyzers: use just enough turns around the ferrite part to keep the data within the range of 10 '' 250 ohms. Figure A7-2 illustrates these guidelines graphically. The dashed lines show the guidelines based on Z between 1/5 and 5x ZO of 50 ohms. The solid black line shows the guideline for keeping the resonant peak less than one third the reactance of the stray capacitance. Correcting For Input Impedance Better accuracy at high frequencies can be achieved by express-ing the measured impedance as RP and XP, taking the reciprocal of RP to yield input conductance, then subtracting the input conductance and capacitance from the measured data. To perform this computation, the sign of the reactance must also be known. The resulting measurement will still be subject to the errors associated with measuring impedance well away from 50 ohms. A Better Way to Measure Chokes The test setup shown in Fig 40 (page 31) is a very good way to measure chokes. You need a decent RF signal generator and a way to measure RF voltage accu-rately over the frequency range of interest. If you are lucky enough to have access to a Vector Network Analyzer, you can get good data by connecting the choke between input and output measuring S21. This is the VNA equivalent of the method described in Fig 40. Antenna Analyzers, Vector Network Analyzers, Impedance Analyzers, and Chokes All of these ana-lyzers are designed to measure impedances that are relatively close to the characteristic imped-ance of a 50 or 75 ohms (within a 10:1 or 1:10 ratio). The common mode chokes we're trying to measure typically have parallel equivalent resistance of 1,000 '' 5,000 ohms and equivalent parallel capacitance of 1 '' 7 pF. A choke optimized for use on 14 '' 30 MHz may have parallel capacitance as low as 1-2 pF. To measure these chokes to 10% accuracy, an analyzer (or its test fixture) must have an input impedance of at least 10X the parallel equivalent resistance of the choke and 1/10 the parallel equivalent capacitance of the choke. The AIM 4170 is a nice analyzer, and provide very good performance relative to its cost. It cannot, however, accurately measure the impedance of these chokes above about 5 MHz, simply because its input capacitance is too large relative to the capacitance of the chokes. I've worked very hard to get good data for these chokes using the TenTec VNA. The best I can do is to get good data up to about 7 MHz, and then only if I use it to measure S21 of the unknown as a series element. Above that frequency, the software is not capable of accurately "calibrating out" the test fixture to yield magnitude data that matches the HP test rig. I suspect it may be possible to get good complex data for chokes with an HP VNA measuring S21. Kevin, K6TD, and I have done some work with this, but haven't been able to get the data out of his analyzer in a form that allows us to adequately test its validity, and my primary collaborator has been too buried in work to get at it. We're still working on it as we have time.
The owner of CNN and TNT wants to transform commercial breaks into 3-minute-long native ads | Business Insider
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 22:01
Turner Broadcasting '-- which owns TV networks including CNN, TNT, and Cartoon Network '-- has a plan to transform its commercial breaks to make them more like its programming.
At the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas this week, Turner is showcasing its ''Native Plus'' product, which will see it replace some commercial breaks that tend to showcase anywhere between five and 10 different 30-second ads a with 2-to-3-minute-long ''native'' ad for a single advertiser.
Turner will work with the advertiser to create the longer-form content, which it says will be more ''powerful and impactful to the viewer.'' The thinking, presumably, is that a longer ad will give the advertiser more space to convey their key messages and that the elongated slot will provide standout compared to traditional commercial breaks.
The advertiser can also choose to use their existing digital marketing content, extending it to a TV audience '-- a role-reversal from recent years when marketers used to be criticised for simply uploading their TV ads to YouTube and Facebook and hoping they would appeal to a digital audience.
In a press release, Turner says: ''Turner Native Plus will extend storytelling into the commercial pod by developing the right environment for the client, increasing exposure to the brand, and as a result, driving higher ROI [return on investment.]''
AdAge reports that Intel will be one of the first brands to trial Native Plus.
US primetime TV ratings declined 10% year on year, according to Nielsen's monthly live viewership data for December. However, as analysts at Nomura Securities pointed out in a recent research note, Turner was one of the bright spots of the industry in December.
CNN reported a 119% year-on-year ratings increase in primetime, while Cartoon Network recorded primetime viewership growth in nine of the last 10 months. The increases helped offset ongoing ratings declines at TBS and TNT, meaning aggregate primetime ratings were up 2% year-on-year.
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VW Stock: Here's Why Shares of Volkswagen AG Are Going Crazy This Morning
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 21:01
VW Stock Under PressureThe government of the United States is suingVolkswagen AG (ADR)(OTC:VLKAY). Indeed, VW stock fell almost seven percent since the start of the week after the Justice Department filed an official complaint with the court in Detroit over the company's violations of theClean Air Act. As it stands, VW could face a fine of up to $20.0 billion over the emissions scandal, which has come to be known as ''Dieselgate.'' (Source: ''BREAKING: EPA and DOJ sue Volkswagen over emissions cheating scandal in diesel vehicles,''New York Daily News, January 4, 2016.)
The lawsuit against Volkswagen, while not sufficiently large to bring VW stock to its proverbial knees (Volkswagen stock has a market cap of some $80.0 billion), does open an unpleasant chapter in U.S.-German relations, at least those of the economic variety. Bloomberg has confirmed that the U.S. Department of Justice has actually filed a suit to initiate a lawsuit against Volkswagen in Detroit. (Source: ''Volkswagen Faces Billions of Dollars in Penalties From U.S. Suit,'' Bloomberg, January 4, 2016.)
VW stock will face pressure, as Attorney General John Cruden, head of the Department of Justice's Environment and Natural Resources unit, has filed the lawsuit in the Eastern District of Michigan and then moved to Northern California, where Volkswagen is already facing a class-action lawsuit. Volkswagen stock will come under increasing pressure as the German automotive group goes on trial on suspicion of having rigged millions of vehicles in the U.S. and around the world.
VW Stock Under Pressure Following Emission TestsVW allegedly rigged the cars such that, under laboratory conditions, the engines produced lower emissions than would have been noted on the road. According to reports fromThomson Financial, the complaint, filed by the Justice Department on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), claims that almost 600,000 vehicles with two- and three-liter diesel engines were equipped with so-called ''defeat devices'' that rig emission control systems in order to perform below EPA standards and deliver better dynamic performance.
In fact, the German group has sold and imported used vehicles whose design diverged from what the EPA and the California Air Resources Board expected. According to theClean Air Act, a carmaker needs to inform regulators about the use of any auxiliary emissions control device in order for this to be considered legal. This is essentially what Volkswagen is accused of not doing and why VW stock is at risk of further losses.
The Justice Department holds auto manufacturers that make mistakes in certifying their cars and emission control systems guilty of violating public trust, endangering public health, and cheating competitors.
Cynthia Giles, from the EPA, explained that the lawsuit is an important step toward protecting public health by ensuring Volkswagen is held responsible for any illegal actions causing concerning pollution. (Source: ''BREAKING: EPA and DOJ sue Volkswagen over emissions cheating scandal in diesel vehicles,''New York Daily News, January 4, 2016.)
According to Giles, talks with VW have failed to produce an acceptable solution until now and these discussions will continue in parallel with the legal process, which will keep VW stock under pressure.
Nevertheless, VW stock could benefit from a plan to introduce 20 new electric and hybrid plug-in models by 2020 as part of a strategy that the company hopes might partly improve its image in the United States, avoiding the worst. (Source: ''VW teases electric concept for CES,'' Autoblog, December 11, 2015.)
CAD to USD: This Could Hammer the Canadian Dollar
Target Corp: The #1 Reason to Be Bullish on This Dividend Stock
4chan 'beta uprising' spreads countless threats of more school massacres
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 20:58
The 4chan imageboard at the center of at least one FBI investigation relating to the Oregon college massacre has come completely unhinged under a spate of media scrutiny.
The head-first descent into madness began Monday afternoon, after the Federal Bureau of Investigation warned Philadelphia-area universities of a threat made on /r9k/, a unique 4chan imageboard formally called ROBOT9001, which uses a script to block text and image reposts. These schools included Temple University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Drexel University.
4chan
The thread above is part of what /r9k/ is calling a ''beta uprising'' or ''beta rebellion.'' Both terms have lingered in the dark corners of the Internet for years. Both of them refer to males, known as ''betas,'' who have been passed over by females because of their looks. (A more nuanced explanation of this phenomenon can be found on Reddit's r/outoftheloop community.)Beta uprising posts generally involve threats of violence, the targets of which often include females and ''alpha'' males. James Holmes, the 27-year-old who murdered 24 people at a Colorado movie theater in 2012, said the massacre was part of a beta uprising. The latest strain on /r9k/ often includes threats of more school shootings.
On Thursday, /r9k/ captured the world's attention after it tried to pin the shooting at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, Oregon, to one of its users called Eggman
As is often the case with pranks that start on 4chan (here, here, and here are some of its notable attempts), this latest ''beta uprising'' has been half baked and juvenile.
The following images are from /r9k/ threads made Monday evening. They show anonymous users continuing to make threats against schools.
4chan
4chan
4chan
The ''beta uprising'' spilled over onto Twitter where some students expressed fear for their lives.
Twitter
Twitter
One student fed up with ''beta uprising'' was a Twitter user named gianna, who called out 4chan for its fear mongering and nonsense. Gianna also tweeted a grainy video she had found featuring the Pepe the Frog meme and what appears to be a bed full of firearms.Twitter
4chan's /r9k/ was not pleased with gianna. They responded to her tweets with violent and porngraphic remixes of Pepe.Twitter
These /r9k/ users also dug up old photos of gianna posted on Twitter, printed them out, and masturbated on top of them (the following photos have been censored).4chan
The harassment resulted in gianna deleting her Twitter account.Twitter
The Daily Dot has reached out to 4chan for a comment regarding /r9k/'s actions.Photo via Christopher Sessums/Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
What Happened In The Hammond Sentencing In Oregon? A Lawsplainer | Popehat
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 20:57
Much ink has been spilled amount United States v. Hammond, the federal criminal prosecution cited by militia members as one of the motivations for taking over a federal facility in Oregon. The increased sentence imposed on the Hammonds has been cited as a sign of government abuse. But the sentencing itself is not remarkable.
In 2001 Steven and Dwight Hammond set a fire on their property that spread to public land. In August of 2006 they set a back burn near the boundary of their land to respond to a lightning-kindled fire; that fire burned a small amount of public land. The federal government charged the Hammonds with various crimes, including Title 18, United States Code, section 844(f)(1):
(f)(1) Whoever maliciously damages or destroys, or attempts to damage or destroy, by means of fire or an explosive, any building, vehicle, or other personal or real property in whole or in part owned or possessed by, or leased to, the United States, or any department or agency thereof, or any institution or organization receiving Federal financial assistance, shall be imprisoned for not less than 5 years and not more than 20 years, fined under this title, or both.
The Ninth Circuit summarized part of the trial evidence as follows:
Although the Hammonds claimed that the fire was designed to burn off invasive species on their property, a teenage relative of theirs testified that Steven had instructed him to drop lit matches on the ground so as to ''light up the whole country on fire.'' And the teenager did just that.
A jury convicted the Hammonds of the Section 844 charge, acquitted them on other charges, and failed to reach a verdict on additional charges. While the jury continued to deliberate on the remaining charges, the Hammonds and the government reached a deal: the Hammonds would not appeal the verdict and the government would recommend that the Hammonds could stay out on bail pending sentencing and that the government would recommend that their Section 844 sentences be served concurrently '-- that is, that though the Hammonds were convicted of multiple counts of Section 844, each carrying a mandatory minimum five-year sentence, the government would recommend that those five-year terms not "stack," but result in just one five-year sentence.
At sentencing, the United States District Judge on the case refused to impose the five-year mandatory-minimum sentences required by Section 844, ruling that to do so would violate the Eighth Amendment's prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment. The court instead imposed sentences of twelve months and a day on the father1 and three months on the son.
The government appealed the sentence, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed and sent the case back, instructing the trial court to impose the statutory mandatory minimum sentence. The Court found '-- rather convincingly, given the precedent '-- that a five-year sentence for arson does not violate the Eighth Amendment:
Given the seriousness of arson, a five-year sentence is not grossly disproportionate to the offense. The Supreme Court has upheld far tougher sentences for less serious or, at the very least, comparable offenses. See Lockyer v. Andrade,538 U.S. 63 (2003) (upholding a sentence of fifty years to life under California's three-strikes law for stealing ninevideotapes); Ewing v. California, 538 U.S. 11 (2003) (upholding a sentence of twenty-five years to life under California's three-strikes law for the theft of three golf clubs); Hutto v. Davis, 454 U.S. 370 (1982) (per curiam) (upholding a forty-year sentence for possession of nine ounces of marijuana with the intent to distribute); Rummel v. Estelle, 445 U.S. 263 (1980) (upholding a life sentence under Texas's recidivist statute for obtaining $120.75 by false pretenses). And we and other courts have done the same. See, e.g., United States v. Tolliver, 730 F.3d 1216, 1230''32 (10th Cir. 2013) (upholding a 430-month sentence for using arson in the commission of a felony); United States v. Major, 676 F.3d 803, 812 (9th Cir. 2012) (upholding a 750-year sentence for offenses under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c)), cert. denied, 133 S. Ct. 280; United States v. Meiners, 485 F.3d 1211, 1212''13 (9th Cir. 2007) (per curiam) (upholding a fifteen-year sentence for advertising child pornography); United States v. Uphoff, 232 F.3d 624, 625''26 (8th Cir. 2000) (upholding a five-year sentence for arson of a building).
So the district court resentenced the Hammonds. The government asked for the five-year mandatory minimum but kept its deal to recommend concurrent sentences (rather than stacking two counts of Section 844 to form a ten-year sentence), and the court agreed and imposed that sentence. The Hammonds will necessarily serve 85% of that sentence, less the time they've already served.
Was the five-year sentence cruel and unusual?
It's arguable whether the five-year sentence is colloquially cruel and unusual, or whether the law should treat it as a violation of the Eighth Amendment. But there's no serious argument that the sentence is cruel and unusual under existing Eighth Amendment precedent. The Supreme Court and lower courts have upheld far harsher sentences for far less serious conduct. The Eighth Amendment still has vigor when applied to the death penalty and some conditions of imprisonment, but under modern jurisprudence it does not place any significant limit on the length of imprisonment that may be imposed for convictions. That may not be what the law should be, but it's what the law is, and has been for some time.
Was the mandatory minimum sentence unusual, or unusually imposed?
The Hammond case provided a straightforward application of a statutory mandatory minimum sentence. If you accept the premise of the jury's verdict '-- that the jury found that the Hammonds maliciously burned government land '-- then the case does not stand out. Longer mandatory minimums are routinely imposed for less culpable conduct. That doesn't make it right; it just makes it banal.
Was it unusual for the government to appeal the sentence, or for the Hammonds to be returned to jail after serving the original sentence?
Absent a waiver, both the government and the defense have the right to appeal a sentence. Federal prosecutors generally must seek approval from "main Justice" '-- the Department of Justice in Washington D.C. '-- before appealing a ruling. That's so the feds don't make what they see as "bad law" by appealing "bad cases," and so the feds' legal stance remains relatively consistent across circuits.
Back in the 1980s and 1990s, before the Supreme Court ruled that the United States Sentencing Guidelines must be treated as recommendations and not as mandates, the government routinely appealed sentences when they concluded that the judge had mis-applied the Guidelines in the defendant's favor. Now that the appellate standard is "reasonableness" of the sentence, the government appeals on that basis less often, but still does so. The United States has always routinely appealed sentences when a district judge has refused to impose a mandatory minimum sentence. Traditionally the Department of Justice has jealously guarded the mandatory nature of mandatory minimum sentences, appealing judicial defiance of them even in otherwise unappealing cases.
It's therefore not unusual at all that the government appealed the Hammonds' sentence.
Nor is the Hammonds' return to prison unprecedented. If the trial court imposes a short sentence and the appellate court overturns that ruling and requires a longer sentence, that's the result. The alternative would be that trial judges could avoid appellate review of sentences by making them short enough that defendants would be done with them by the time the appellate court could review them. That might be appealing to defense lawyers, defendants, and judges who believe in the primacy of trial court discretion, but it's not the law.
The U.S. v. Hammond appeal, reversal, and resentencing are not remarkable in the context of federal criminal law. Maybe they should be, but they aren't. Any suggestion that the proceedings represent a departure from the norm are incorrect.
That's not meant as an endorsement of the result. It's meant to question why this particular exercise of federal criminal authority strikes people as so outrageous, when in fact (as we often discuss here) it's routine.
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Donald Trump's first TV ad shows migrants 'at the southern border,' but they're actually in Morocco | PolitiFact
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 20:18
A Trump television ad shows Mexicans swarming over "our southern border."
'-- Donald Trump on Monday, January 4th, 2016 in a television ad
We took a closer look at the footage from a new Donald Trump ad.
In a new television ad -- his campaign's first -- Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump shows footage of dozens of people swarming over a border fence. But the footage isn't as it seems.
About halfway through the ad, a narrator says of Trump, "He'll stop illegal immigration by building a wall on our southern border that Mexico will pay for." Video footage shows dozens of people streaming across the border, as if they were ants fleeing an anthill.
The clear suggestion is that the footage is of the "southern border" between the United States and Mexico. But it's not -- it's 5,000 miles away, in a small Spanish enclave on the mainland of Morocco.
PolitiFact was able to trace the footage back to the Italian television network RepubblicaTV. On May 3, 2014, the network posted footage of migrants crossing the border into Melilla, one of two enclaves on the Moroccan coast that are held by Spain. Migrants who cross the border there are essentially entering territory held by a European Union nation, even though they are still on the African continent. (It can also be seen posted by a YouTube user here.)
The RepubblicaTV video is time-stamped May 1, 2014. According to the description posted by the network (and using Google Translate) the video was released by the Interior Ministry in Madrid, showing an "onslaught of hundreds of migrants to the wall that separates the Spanish enclave of Melilla from Morocco. About 800 tried to cross the border on May 1st. Those who failed to escape the control of the Civil Guard were hanging on the barriers for six hours before being rejected."
The 2014 RepubblicaTV video resurfaced a year later, in a July 2015 YouTube post titled, "1,000s of immigrants try to cross the border at once." It makes no reference to the location.
By the time the footage made it into Trump's ad, both RepubblicaTV's logo and the 2014 time stamp were no longer visible.
Regardless of Trump's imagery, the Pew Research Center noted last month that "for the first time since the 1940s, more immigrants from Mexico are leaving the U.S. than coming into the country. The shift is due to several reasons, including slow economic recovery after the Great Recession that may have made the U.S. less attractive, as well as stricter enforcement of U.S. immigration laws, particularly at the border."
Trump spokeswoman Hope Hicks said she did not know the source of the video included in the ad and that she doesn't speak for the video production company.
Our ruling
Trump's television ad purports to show Mexicans swarming over "our southern border." However, the footage used to support this point actually shows African migrants streaming over a border fence between Morocco and the Spanish enclave of Melilla, more than 5,000 miles away. We rate the claim Pants on Fire.
After the FactAdded on Jan. 4, 2016, 4:14 p.m.
After we published our fact-check, the Trump campaign released a statement to the media:
"The use of this footage was intentional and selected to demonstrate the severe impact of an open border and the very real threat Americans face if we do not immediately build a wall and stop illegal immigration. The biased mainstream media doesn't understand, but Americans who want to protect their jobs and families do."
NBC News reported that Trump campaign manager put it more colorfully: "Asked about the video, Trump campaign manager Corey Lewandowski told NBC News, 'No sh-- it's not the Mexican border, but that's what our country is going to look like. This was 1,000 percent on purpose.' "
The ad makes no such clarification, and we believe that most viewers -- in the context of the ad and Trump's past statements -- would conclude that it shows the U.S.-Mexico border, not a border in Africa. Our rating of Pants on Fire stands.
A Thorough Fisking Of Obama's Executive Orders On Gun Control | Dana Loesch Radio
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 20:01
Let's examine. First, from the White House:
Over the past decade in America, more than 100,000 people have been killed as a result of gun violence'--and millions more have been the victim of assaults, robberies, and other crimes involving a gun. Many of these crimes were committed by people who never should have been able to purchase a gun in the first place.
And yet the CDC says firearms are is "an important crime deterrent," if you want to put stock in a government entity for an obvious answer. The benefits of firearms vastly outweigh the abuses of them by criminals:
The Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council released the results of their research through the CDC last month. Researchers compiled data from previous studies in order to guide future research on gun violence, noting that ''almost all national survey estimates indicate that defensive gun uses by victims are at least as common as offensive uses by criminals, with estimates of annual uses ranging from about 500,000 to more than 3 million per year.''
More from the White House:
And too many children are killed or injured by firearms every year, often by accident.
I look forward to the President's executive orders on pools, cars, and bikes. I've covered previously:
Cars, pools, bicycles, and other unintentional injuries are the top killers of children.
The leading causes of injury-related death among children ages 14 and under are motor vehicle crashes, suffocation, drowning and fires and/or burns.
More:
Over 1,400 children were killed by cars, almost 260 of those deaths were young pedestrians. Bicycle and space heater accidents take many times more children's lives than guns. Over 90 drowned in bathtubs. The most recent yearly data available indicates that over 30 children under age 5 drowned in five-gallon plastic water buckets.
Furthermore, vastly more children are killed by fire and water than accidentally by firearms.
Back to the White House:
The vast majority of Americans'--including the vast majority of gun owners'--believe we must take sensible steps to address these horrible tragedies.
Who are these people? I get the progressive obsession to speak for every group, but this doesn't speak for gun owners. This claim is also wrong. From Truth Revolt:
According to a CNN poll conducted last month, nearly 60% do not want the types of gun control laws Obama is asking for. In fact since 2013, a majority have felt this way.
Back to the White House once again:
... the President continues to call on Congress to pass the kind of commonsense gun safety reforms supported by a majority of the American people.
What reforms? And why is common sense one word? The "expanded background checks" the President calls for already exist in California, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, the states which most recently endured tragedies. Why didn't those "commonsense" laws reduce anything?
Here comes the line items:
1. Keep guns out of the wrong hands through background checks.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is making clear that it doesn't matter where you conduct your business'--from a store, at gun shows, or over the Internet: If you're in the business of selling firearms, you must get a license and conduct background checks.
"If you're in the business of selling firearms ..." this is already a law and federally regulated. So Obama wants to pass this law again? Or make everyone a FFL thereby creating a defacto registry, something I've previously asked? This is the biggest takeaway.
White House again:
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is overhauling the background check system to make it more effective and efficient. The envisioned improvements include processing background checks 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and improving notification of local authorities when certain prohibited persons unlawfully attempt to buy a gun. The FBI will hire more than 230 additional examiners and other staff to help process these background checks.
The background check system is already flawed and the administration plans to expand it further. John Lott has done some excellent work on the faulty background check system:
If someone is flagged by the NICS system, it is because it appears that they didn't put down something in their background that disqualified them from buying a gun. Yet, an initial denial does not mean that the individual is actually disqualified from owning a gun. Take the numbers for 2009, the latest year with data available. There were 71,010 initial denials. Of those, only 4,681, or 6.6 percent, were referred to the BATF field offices for further investigation. As a report on these denials by the U.S. Department of Justice indicates, ''The remaining denials (66,329 '' 93%) did not meet referral guidelines or were overturned after review by Brady Operations or after the FBI received additional information.'' The last two of these three categories are clearly false positives. The first might involve false positives, but it is possible that the disqualifying offenses are too old (though there are some prosecutions that involve misdemeanor violations that are four decades old so that isn't too obvious). To put it differently, the initial review didn't find that these individuals had a record that prevented them from buying a gun. (Numbers for 2010 are available here.)
Still that isn't the end of the story. Of these 4,681 referrals, over 51 percent, or 2,390 cases, involve ''delayed denials,'' cases where a check hasn't even been completed. Of the rest, 2,291 covered cases where initial reviews indicated that the person should have been denied buying a gun. But the government admits that upon further review another 572 of these referrals were found ''not [to be] a prohibited person,'' leaving about 4,154 cases. That implies an initial false positive rate of roughly 94.2%. And it still doesn't mean that the government hasn't made a mistake on the remaining cases. In some cases for example, a person's criminal record was supposed to be expunged, and it had not been?
Of the cases referred to the BATF field offices there were still a number of false positives. A 2004 sample found out that about 21 percent of these cases were found to be false positives (the percentage is slightly higher if a weighted sample is used).
Furthermore, how do you "improve notifications?" We're talking about improving the consistency with which people do their jobs. It wasn't a lack of manpower that enabled thug Dylann Roof to purchase a firearm and mow down black church-goers. It was a simple FBI error:
According to Comey, on April 13, two days after Roof tried to purchase a gun, a background check examiner ran his criminal history, which brought up a felony drug charge and wrongly listed the arresting agency as Lexington County Sheriff's Office.
Whether or not Roof could even purchase a firearm is moot as he was charged with felony drug possession and in South Carolina, a charge, not even a conviction, is enough to render one a prohibited possessor. Roof couldn't carry much less purchase. But then again, criminals don't follow laws.
Back to the WH:
2. Make our communities safer from gun violence.
The Attorney General convened a call with U.S. Attorneys around the country to direct federal prosecutors to continue to focus on smart and effective enforcement of our gun laws.
The President's FY2017 budget will include funding for 200 new ATF agents and investigators to help enforce our gun laws.
ATF has established an Internet Investigation Center to track illegal online firearms trafficking and is dedicating $4 million and additional personnel to enhance the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network.
ATF is finalizing a rule to ensure that dealers who ship firearms notify law enforcement if their guns are lost or stolen in transit.
It's weird to me that an administration that sold guns to terrorists south of the border proposes more manpower to enforce gun laws. Are these "200 new ATF agents" going to Chicago? St. Louis? DC? NYC? Are they going to any of the areas that serve as the biggest drivers to gun homicide rates to ensure repeat offenders and gang bangers don't obtain illegally procured firearms?
3. Increase mental health treatment and reporting to the background check system.
[...]
The Department of Health and Human Services is finalizing a rule to remove unnecessary legal barriers preventing States from reporting relevant information about people prohibited from possessing a gun for specific mental health reasons.
By "legal barriers" they mean the due process proclaimed as a natural right in our Constitution. We have a legal process in place by which to adjudicate someone mentally unfit for Second Amendment eligibility. The problem is, we don't follow it. I've covered this extensively:
Let's use the case of Jared Loughner as an example. Loughner was suspended from Pima Community College for his behavior, for his outbursts in class; his behavior scared teachers and students alike. From the WSJ:
"Students and faculty at Pima Community College feared for their safety as Jared Lee Loughner's increasingly erratic behavior led to a series of encounters with campus police in the eight months before he was suspended from school last fall, police reports show. After he was accused of shooting 19 people last Saturday, school officials described his behavior while at Pima as odd and disruptive. But police reports show in chilling detail that the behavior frightened students and teachers. In February, a rattled student told school officials she feared he had a knife, after Mr. Loughner upset his Advanced Poetry Writing class by making comments such as, "why don't we just strap bombs to babies." In May, an instructor was so worried about physical violence on Mr. Loughner's part that she requested'--and received'--a police guard outside her class. By June, a dean told the police that students in Mr. Loughner's math class were "afraid of any repercussions that could exist from Loughner being unstable in his actions." The school finally suspended Mr. Loughner in late September, after police officers who removed him from a biology class told the school they believed he had mental health problems. Loughner was not allowed back at school without a mental health clearance."
[...]
A dean at Pima Community College spoke with police about Loughner. Even after Loughner'sfive separate run-ins with college police (pdfs), police saw no reason to act.
"The police told Ms. Houston they would check Mr. Loughner's history and if there was cause for concern, they would talk to him. After looking into Mr. Loughner's background and finding some "prior drug involvement but no warrants," the police decided not to take any action. "For now, this report documents the faculty's concerns but does not in my opinion justify making contact with Loughner by police," wrote Officer D. Simmons.
As it turned out, Pima Community College didn't follow its own guidelines for dealing with such a matter as Loughner:
"Combined with earlier documents obtained by KGUN9 News, the evidence shows that PCC did not strictly adhere to its own internal guidelines in its handling of Loughner. In a public records request filed with PCC on February 22, 9 On Your Side asked to see any documents setting out guidelines or procedures for contacting mental health authorities about a student."
[...]
... the college failed to follow its own protocol, plus failed to follow through after identifying Loughner as such a threat as to be barred from campus. I'd for like Andrew Cuomo to explain how passing stricter gun laws would have forced Pima Community College to act? As it relates to Loughner purchasing a firearm:
"There is no known record that a court had ever declared Loughner mentally unfit or that he had ever been committed to a mental institution. But even if that had been the case, there's no guarantee that Loughner's name would have appeared in the national database.Some states have been slow to report names that belong in the ''do not sell'' list, even after Congress passed a law in 2007 aimed at punishing states with inadequate compliance records and providing incentives to states with good reporting records."
You can read the above excerpted in its entirety here.
More of my coverage:
On April 16, 2007, mentally disturbed Seung-Hui Cho shot and killed 32 people and wounded 17 others at Virginia Tech. He had a lifelong history of mental illness, recorded as far back as his early childhood. Two years before the massacre he was in trouble for stalking female students and was removed from a class by a professor who found him "menacing." In December of 2005 the New River Valley Community Services Board declared that he was mentally ill and "in need of hospitalization." Somehow it was recommended that he receive treatment as an outpatient and he was released but was court-ordered to follow all medical recommendations and continue to seek outpatient treatment. Though the New River Valley Community Services Board was required by the court to monitor him and Cho was ordered to continue treatment, neither party was compliant. Cho never received the court-ordered treatment needed, the board never followed up, and he was never summoned back to court.
Again, for laws to work, people must follow them and those implementing them must do it properly. It's not a money issue.
Next on the WH's list:
4. Shape the future of gun safety technology.
The President has directed the Departments of Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security to conduct or sponsor research into gun safety technology.
The President has also directed the departments to review the availability of smart gun technology on a regular basis, and to explore potential ways to further its use and development to more broadly improve gun safety.
Gun owners by and large roll their eyes at smart gun tech because it's completely errant, unsafe, unpredictable, and frankly a silly choice for defense. Here is one test where the heralded first choice for smart guns failed miserably. Sorry, but if I'm defending myself against a rapist in a parking garage, I don't think he's going to wait for my wristband to take 20 seconds to pair with my gun (that's if it does so successfully, whereas tests of Armatix iP1 struggled to do even this, to say nothing of the difficulties with the trigger). Read the full review. Additionally, smart gun advocates are championing pricing poor people out of their Second Amendment rights. Smart gun tech is as faulty as it is expensive and if the free market supported firearms with bulky tech that made usage impossible we wouldn't need the President executive ordering federal funds to pay for additional research to again prove the obvious. I suppose in keeping with progressive narrative building I have to ask why they are so against allowing poor people in high crime, urban areas to exercise their Second Amendment right? The poor would be the hardest hit.
Now to fact-check the White House's other claims:
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the background check system has prevented more than 2 million guns from getting into the wrong hands.
False. See above on background checks. This figure includes false positives and denials as one figure, which is misleading.
Clarify that it doesn't matter where you conduct your business'--from a store, at gun shows, or over the Internet: If you're in the business of selling firearms, you must get a license and conduct background checks.
Clearly the person who compiled this isn't familiar with firearm law. You can't order a gun on the Internet and have it shipped to your house all Amazon Prime-like. If you purchase online you must go to an FFL and the transaction is only completed after you pass your background check in the store. I've purchased several guns this way.
There is no such thing as a "loophole." Everything is regulated. I've written at length on this:
Background checks already exist for purchases made online. Newsflash to Manchin: When you purchase guns online they aren't shipped to your house like an Amazon delivery. They must be shipped to a FFL where you then go, fill out a 4473, get your background check, and if cleared you can take it home. Period. This law already exists. You cannot carry a firearm, much less purchase one, if you are a prohibited possessor be it at a store, gun show, or Internet. Period. It's already regulated. More from me previously:
What "loophole?" If you are classified by the ATF as a dealer you must have a federal firearms license. Background checks are mandatory. You can't order a gun off of the Internet and have it shipped to your home; it must go through an FFL. No FFL is going to jeopardize their hard-won license for a criminal sale. You may not purchase a firearm from across state lines as dealers are barred via the Gun Control Act of 1968 from selling or transferring firearms sans FLL across state lines.
You may purchase a firearm from an occasional seller, not a dealer (differences matter) in your state of residence if you are legally allowed to own a firearm (no domestic violence record, no felonies, no drug use, et al.) -- meaning you are not a prohibited possessor or even suspected of being a prohibited possessor. If you are a prohibited possessor and you buy a gun regardless you're breaking the law and will be charged with a crime. If a person knowingly sells a prohibited possessor a firearm they are breaking the law and will be charged with a crime. If they claim cluelessness they still may be charged depending on the results of the investigation. That's not a loophole, that's a criminal act. If your driver's license is suspended due to a DUI and yet you continue to drive, that's not a loophole in the law, it is a criminal act. What anti-Second Amendment advocates mean when they use the rhetorical scam term "loophole" is that they want the federal government to treat every single American as a federal firearms dealer, meaning they would have to establish a national, quasi-registry (current law prevents the federal government from compiling a registry based off of the NICS information) to make it work and make your husband doubly-answerable to the ATF if he legally buys your son his first hunting rifle.
There is nothing in the President's executive orders that would have prevented the tragedies we saw this year anor is there anything included in these proposals that isn't already federally regulated.
I asked on Twitter earlier this evening:
A question apropos of these orders.
****
All of this and more are covered and cited in my book, Hands Off My Gun, available here.
Lumosity to Pay $2 Million to Settle FTC Deceptive Advertising Charges for Its ''Brain Training'' Program | Federal Trade Commission
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 19:48
The creators and marketers of the Lumosity ''brain training'' program have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges alleging that they deceived consumers with unfounded claims that Lumosity games can help users perform better at work and in school, and reduce or delay cognitive impairment associated with age and other serious health conditions.
As part of the settlement, Lumos Labs, the company behind Lumosity, will pay $2 million in redress and will notify subscribers of the FTC action and provide them with an easy way to cancel their auto-renewal to avoid future billing.
''Lumosity preyed on consumers' fears about age-related cognitive decline, suggesting their games could stave off memory loss, dementia, and even Alzheimer's disease,'' said Jessica Rich, Director of the FTC's Bureau of Consumer Protection. ''But Lumosity simply did not have the science to back up its ads.''
According to the FTC's complaint, the Lumosity program consists of 40 games purportedly designed to target and train specific areas of the brain. The company advertised that training on these games for 10 to 15 minutes three or four times a week could help users achieve their ''full potential in every aspect of life.'' The company sold both online and mobile app subscriptions, with options ranging from monthly ($14.95) to lifetime ($299.95) memberships.
Lumosity has been widely promoted though TV and radio advertisements on networks including CNN, Fox News, the History Channel, National Public Radio, Pandora, Sirius XM, and Spotify. The defendants also marketed through emails, blog posts, social media, and on their website, Lumosity.com, and used Google AdWords to drive traffic to their website, purchasing hundreds of keywords related to memory, cognition, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease, according to the complaint.
The FTC alleges that the defendants claimed training with Lumosity would 1) improve performance on everyday tasks, in school, at work, and in athletics; 2) delay age-related cognitive decline and protect against mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease; and 3) reduce cognitive impairment associated with health conditions, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, PTSD, ADHD, the side effects of chemotherapy, and Turner syndrome, and that scientific studies proved these benefits.
The complaint also charges the defendants with failing to disclose that some consumer testimonials featured on the website had been solicited through contests that promised significant prizes, including a free iPad, a lifetime Lumosity subscription, and a round-trip to San Francisco.
The proposed stipulated federal court order requires the company and the individual defendants, co-founder and former CEO Kunal Sarkar and co-founder and former Chief Scientific Officer Michael Scanlon, to have competent and reliable scientific evidence before making future claims about any benefits for real-world performance, age-related decline, or other health conditions.
The order also imposes a $50 million judgment against Lumos Labs, which will be suspended due to its financial condition after the company pays $2 million to the Commission. The order requires the company to notify subscribers who signed up for an auto-renewal plan between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 about the FTC action and to provide a means to cancel their subscription.
The Commission vote authorizing the filing of the complaint and proposed stipulated order was 4-0, with Commissioner Julie Brill issuing a separate concurring statement. The FTC filed the complaint and proposed order in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco Division.
The FTC is a member of the National Prevention Council, which provides coordination and leadership at the federal level regarding prevention, wellness, and health promotion practices. This case advances the National Prevention Council's goal of increasing the number of Americans who are healthy at every stage of life. This case is part of the FTC's ongoing efforts to protect consumers from misleading health advertising.
NOTE: The Commission authorizes the filing of a complaint when it has ''reason to believe'' that the law has been or is being violated, and it appears to the Commission that a proceeding is in the public interest. A stipulated order has the force of law when signed by the district court judge.
The Federal Trade Commission works to promote competition, and protect and educate consumers. You can learn more about how competition benefits consumers or file an antitrust complaint. Like the FTC on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, read our blogs and subscribe to press releases for the latest FTC news and resources.
Brain Training App 'Lumosity' to Pay $2 Million to Settle Deceptive Advertising Charges - Mac Rumors
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 19:47
Lumos Labs, the company behind the Lumosity app that promises to "challenge your brain" using a daily training program of cognitive games, will pay out $2 million to settle deceptive advertising charges brought against it by the United States Federal Trade Commission.According to the FTC, Lumos Labs deceived consumers by telling them the games in Lumosity would help them perform better at work, get better scores on standardized tests, and stave off the decline of cognitive impairment related to age or disease. It also claimed its games could help with conditions like dementia and Alzheimer's disease, as well as improving cognitive impairment associated with conditions like stroke, traumatic brain injury, PTSD, ADHD, chemotherapy, and more.
"Lumosity preyed on consumers' fears about age-related cognitive decline, suggesting their games could stave off memory loss, dementia, and even Alzheimer's disease," said Jessica Rich, Director of the FTC's Bureau of Consumer Protection. "But Lumosity simply did not have the science to back up its ads."
Available in the iOS App Store, Lumosity offers a selection of more than 50 cognitive games it claims were developed by scientists and game designers to train the brain. While a basic membership to access a limited number of games is free, a membership costs from $6.70 to $11.95 per month or up to $299.95 for a lifetime pass.Lumosity TV, Internet, radio, and social media advertisements suggested customers could play the games for 10 to 15 minutes three or four times per week to achieve "full potential in every aspect of life," and falsely claimed its health related benefits were backed by scientific studies.
Lumos Labs is facing a $50 million judgement, but the FTC has agreed to suspend the full amount due to Lumos Labs' financial position. Instead, the company will pay $2 million and will agree not to make future health and performance claims without "competent and reliable scientific evidence." Lumos Labs is also ordered to notify subscribers about the FTC action and provide them with a way to cancel their subscriptions.
Lumosity is just one of many "brain training" apps available in the App Store. Elevate, another highly popular brain training app that's been highlighted by Apple, claims its app will help improve "critical cognitive skills" to "boost productivity," but it shies away from making the deceptive health-related claims that got Lumosity in hot water.
Tags: FTC, Lumosity, Lumos Labs
New gun control rule: Some mentally ill patients can be reported by doctor to FBI - POLITICO
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 16:48
The rule, published Jan. 4, was one of a series of steps that President Barack Obama had called for in January 2013 in the wake of the Newtown, Connecticut, shootings. | AP Photo
By David Pittman
01/04/16 06:05 PM EST
Updated 01/04/16 08:21 PM EST
Delivering on its promise to deliver "common sense" gun control, the Obama administration on Monday finalized a rule that enables health care providers to report the names of mentally ill patients to an FBI firearms background check system.
The action was one of a series of steps that President Barack Obama had called for in January 2013 in the wake of the Newtown, Conn., shootings to curb gun violence, but the rule was not published until today.
Story Continued Below
While the 1993 Brady law prohibits gun ownership by individuals who have been involuntarily committed, found incompetent to stand trial or otherwise deemed by a court to be a danger to themselves or others, federal health care privacy rules prohibited doctors and other providers from sharing information without the consent of their patients.
Under the rule, which takes effect next month, for the first time health providers can disclose the information to the background check system without legal repercussions.
''The disclosure is restricted to limited demographic and certain other information needed for NICS purposes,'' the rule states. Disclosure of diagnostic or clinical information is prohibited.
Paul Gionfriddo, chief executive of the mental health rights advocate Mental Health America, said he believes the White House strikes the right balance between the need to have this information shared with the FBI's background check system and protecting individuals' privacy.
Current law allows HIPAA exclusions for law enforcement purposes, but it's a broad exclusion.
''That could be a barn door opened quite wide if an administration really wanted to open it, and they didn't,'' Gionfriddo said. ''The administration has taken great pain to try to clarify that there is very limited information that would be reported only within a very limited group.''
Since the Newtown shootings, the number of mental health records submitted to the FBI system has tripled to more than 3 million records, according to an analysis by Everytown for Gun Safety, a group promoting an end to gun violence. The FBI system resulted in more than 6,000 denials of firearm purchases because of mental health criteria.
Malheur County targeted for gold, uranium mines | OregonLive.com
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 16:20
ONTARIO -- Sprawling Malheur County could soon be in the spotlight as a mining hub -- or a battleground of uranium and gold mining interests vs. environmentalists trying to protect its lonesome sagebrush landscape.Australian-owned Oregon Energy LLC hopes to mine 18 million pounds of yellowcake uranium from the southeastern Oregon high desert 10 miles west of McDermitt near the Oregon-Nevada boundary. The go-ahead to mine the so-called Aurora uranium deposit could bring up to 250 construction jobs to the county, followed by 150 mining jobs.
Meanwhile, Calico Resources USA Corp., a subsidiary of a Vancouver, B.C., company, may seek permits this month to chemically extract microscopic gold from a high desert butte south of Vale called Grassy Mountain, a project likely to create another 100 jobs.
Mining history
Gold: Mining once was a major part of Oregon's economy and the most sought-after mineral was gold. Since its discovery in Oregon in the mid-1800s, miners have wrested an estimated 5.5 million ounces of gold from the state's streams and underground "hardrock" mines. At today's prices, that gold would bring about $1,616 per ounce. Half to two-thirds was found in northeastern Oregon. Baker County and Josephine County have had the most active claims.
Uranium: Uranium was first discovered in Oregon in the 1930s and a small amount was mined on Bear Creek Butte, 40 miles southeast of Bend, in 1960. The White King and Lucky Lass mines near Lakeview came later and there are known deposits of uranium in Baker, Clackamas, Crook, Curry, Harney, Jackson, Lake, Malheur, Polk and Union counties.
The proposals will be the first real test of the 1991 chemical processing mining law passed by the Legislature in response to a debate over mining's future in Oregon, said environmentalist Larry Tuttle. The law ushered in tough new bonding requirements to weed out marginal operators and guarantee environmental cleanup.Approval of the Grassy Mountain project could trigger a deluge of new chemical mining in Malheur County. Up to a dozen gold deposits similar to Grassy Mountain dot the high desert between the Snake River town of Huntington and Jordan Valley.
The county, sparsely populated with only 31,313 people, could use new jobs, said County Commissioner Dan Joyce. Its unemployment rate in November was 10.3 percent, compared with 9.1 percent for Oregon and 8.6 percent for the nation.
Mining companies have passed up the county in the past because of Oregon's environmentally conscious reputation, Joyce said. But this time, the sluggish local and state economies, higher mineral prices and technological advances in mining and cleanup could open a door to mining, he said.
"I'm thinking people are a lot hungrier now than they were," Joyce said.
Uranium mine plan
Oregon Energy's proposal calls for extracting ore from a mile-long, 600-foot wide, 250-foot deep open pit 10 miles west of McDermitt and 3 miles north of the Oregon-Nevada border. The mine, adjoining the former Bretz Mercury Mine, a contaminated open-pit site from the 1960s, would cost $200 million to develop and uranium extraction could continue for up to 20 years, said Oregon Energy President Lachlan Reynolds.
Plans call for the ore to be crushed and mixed with an acid solution in enclosed vats to leach out the uranium, he said. The acid would bond with the uranium and when dry become a sand-like powder called uranium oxide concentrate, or yellowcake. Yellowcake would bring $52 per pound and could fuel nuclear reactors or be processed into weapons.
Tuttle, spokesman for the Portland-based Center for Environmental Equity, foresees environmental problems.
The likelihood of sulfuric acid being used in processing the ore means it could remain in the mine tailings after milling, he said. The snag is that sulfuric acid tends to continuously leach out heavy metals that occur naturally in waste rock and tailings, contaminating ground water.
"Just because you are through with the processing, years later you still have the issue with that interaction," he said.
But probably the biggest environmental hurdle for the Aurora mine would be the release of mercury, Tuttle said. "The whole Owyhee Reservoir has been affected by naturally occurring background mercury," and uranium mining could release more, he said.
Gold mine proposal
Environmental considerations first thrust Grassy Mountain into the consciousness of Oregonians in the late 1980s and early '90s when Newmont Gold Co. proposed introducing Nevada-style open-pit cyanide heap-leach gold mining there.
Low gold prices ultimately prompted Newmont to write off its $33.8 million investment and abandon plans to mine Grassy Mountain in 1995, but only after the site came to symbolize the conflict between economic development and environmental activism in eastern Oregon.
Calico Resources would take a dramatically different approach, said Andrew Bentz of Ontario, spokesman for Calico. The company proposes to sink an 850-foot underground shaft or tunnel to remove 1,000 tons of ore per day from Grassy Mountain, he said.
The operation expects to remove at least 425,000 ounces of gold from the mountain. The company's investment and exploration costs probably will total $100 million before mining begins, said Calico project manager Andy Gaudielle.
Mineral-bearing rock would be milled for microscopic gold in a closed chemical process that wouldn't include the bird-attracting open settling ponds of diluted cyanide that worried Newmont's opponents, said Bentz, a retired Malheur County sheriff.
Mining and reclamation of Grassy Mountain would take about 12 years, unless new gold discoveries are made, he said.
Bentz believes Calico won't face the level of environmental opposition that attended Newmont's proposal.
Reynolds, the Oregon Energy chief, said mining companies no longer can operate in ways that caused the environmental problems of the past. Improvements in mining technology result in more efficient and environmentally responsible operations, he said."We will have to post substantial financial bonds to ensure that there is full reclamation of the site to an approved plan when mining ends," Reynolds said.
Only 5 percent of the nation's domestic-use uranium is produced within U.S. borders, although the United States takes more than 20 percent of its electricity from nuclear power plants, Reynolds said.
The most likely buyer of Aurora uranium would be a U.S. electricity utility, he said. He estimated the mine could become the source of up to 30 percent of uranium produced in the U.S.
What's next
Public hearings will be held after the companies apply for permits to begin mining, said state geologist Vicki McConnell of Portland.
Sixty-one acres of Grassy Mountain is patented, private mining land, but substantial portions of both sites are on federal land administered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Both sites are remnant volcanic regions where geothermal and hydrothermal activity has pulled heavy metals and other substances close to the surface, McConnell said.
Calico hopes to begin taking gold from Grassy Mountain in five years, but the regulatory pathway is likely to be longer for the Aurora mine because uranium is involved.
In addition to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council, the U.S. Department of Energy and the federal Environmental Protection Agency must review the uranium mine.
BLM permits will be required for tailing piles and the use of desert roads for both the uranium and gold mining.
Oregon has a process in place to allow mining to proceed if resources can be extracted profitably and in a way that's environmentally safe, McConnell said.
Whether that's the case here has yet to be determined, she said. "Geologically, we know there is gold in Grassy Mountain and we know there is uranium in the McDermitt area," she said.
-- Richard Cockle
Turner Seeks To Become One Big Native Ad Platform | Media - Advertising Age
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:29
Turner is looking to turn its TV networks into one big platform for native advertising.
Conan O'Brien Credit: TBSThe cable programmer, whose channels include TBS, TNT, CNN and Cartoon Network, among others, is introducing a new native advertising unit at the Consumer Electronics Show this week with the goal of reimagining commercial breaks.
Turner will work with marketers to replace traditional commercials with pods that tell a brand story, said Dan Riess, head of content partnerships at Turner.
"The idea is to turn Turner into a giant native ad platform," Mr. Riess said.
Instead of five to ten 30-second spots during a program, for example, Turner will air long-form branded content that's two to three minutes long, he said.
The company will produce content for marketers, as well as bring clients' existing long-form content, which is often digital-based, to TV. It will then utilize its targeting capabilities to find the right placement for the content across the entire portfolio.
Intel will be one of the first brands to utilize Native Plus in 2016.
Turner has already been experimenting with branded content on CNN. Subaru partnered with CNN's branded content studio, Courageous, last month to create pieces of content for "CNN Heroes." The vignettes, which were about two to three minutes long, told short "CNN Heroes" stories. The content was introduced during the show, was the only piece of content in the commercial break, and led right back into the programming.
"This is less interruptive for consumers and more powerful for brands," Mr. Riess said.
Native Plus will live within Turner's new Ignite division that will focus on both content and data solutions. Ignite will be led by Mr. Riess and Michael Strober, head of content strategy and ad innovation.
The goal for Ignite is to bring content back into conversations involving data. As buying audiences becomes a bigger piece of marketers' TV strategy, the focus is typically on finding target consumers and less on the programming.
"While other companies separate their data and content teams, we believe it's vital to bring them together, allowing advertisers to reimagine the possibilities of advertising in one conversation," said Donna Speciale, president-ad sales, Turner.
"We don't see data and content as separate entities," Mr. Riess added. "You need both of them to make it work. This year we are bringing content into the data conversation. None of the data matters if the content isn't amazing."
Also at CES, Turner will demonstrate its real-time social analytics and promotion product for the first time. The company has been quietly testing Launchpad since October in an effort to help marketers better monetize social conversations.
With Launchpad, Turner claims it is able to identify tribes of like-minded viewers and then see what topics they care about and share. With this information Turner then makes branded content that resonates with the audience a marketer is trying to reach.
Oregon Oathers-DOJ Letter
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:21
'New dimension of crime': Crowd of 'Arab origin' blamed for mass sexual assaults in Cologne on NYE '-- RT News
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 06:13
New Year's celebrations in the western German city of Cologne escalated into chaos with a series of sexual assaults, including a rape, being blamed on an uncontrolled crowd of intoxicated men of ''Arab or North African'' origin.
The mass attack on women that happened ''in the middle of the city'' around Cologne Central Station on New Year's Eve was ''an intolerable situation,'' Chief of Police Wolfgang Albers told reporters.
So far the authorities in Cologne have received 60 complaints. The crowd of around 1,000 men attacked people in the city center in what Albers described as a ''crime of a whole new dimension.''
According to report up to 1,000 heavily intoxicated men of ''Arab or North African'' origin flooded the city's famous square between its central train station and Gothic cathedral. Aged between 15 and 35, the crowd began throwing firecrackers and shooting fireworks as the new year arrived.
While the festivities were happening to the sound of of cheers, some men began sexually assaulting women and pick-pocketing feasters. Some 60 criminal complaints have so far been officially filed, including at least one allegation of rape.
Authorities expect more victims to come forward in the next few days. Local media meanwhile reported that at least 80 people fell victim to the gangs, 35 of whom were subjected to sexual assaults. One of the victims, named only as Katja L, told Der Express about her ordeal with the crowd of men who assaulted her buttocks and breasts.
''I was groped everywhere. It was a nightmare. Although we shouted and beat them, the guys did not stop. I was desperate and think I was touched around 100 times in the 200 meters,'' she said. ''Fortunately I wore a jacket and trousers. A skirt would probably have been torn away from me.''
To quell the New Year's disturbance in Cologne, the police deployed more than 200 officers, involving 143 local policemen in addition to 70 federal officers, The Local reported. On Sunday, police arrested five men at the station who had been accused of threatening and robbing females.
Read more
New Year's attacks has sparked a strong wave of criticism of German handling of the migrant open-door policy introduced by Chancellor Angela Merkel in September that resulted in over a million of refugees intake in Germany.
To address the migrant threat, Cologne's Mayor Henriette Reker called in a crisis meeting for Tuesday, to deal with crimes she called ''monstrous.''
''We cannot tolerate this development of lawlessness,'' Reker told the Kolner Stadt-Anzeiger newspaper.
The state interior minister for North Rhine-Westphalia, said that swift action is needed to stop such crimes from reoccurring.
''We will not accept that groups of North African men gather expressly for the purpose of debasing women by sexually assaulting them,'' Ralf Jager said in an interview with the local 'Express' newspaper.
Meanwhile the leader of the North Rhine-Westphalia branch of Germany's main police union, Arnold Plickert, called the New Year's assaults ''a massive attack on basic rights.''
''Any refugees who have a problem integrating into our open society and respecting the rights of other people'' must be dealt with using the ''full force of the law,'' Plickert told German press agency DPA.
German MP Steffan Bilger from Merkel's Christian Democratic Union used the Cologne event to urge the government to change its refugee policy.
''It can't go on like this,'' he tweeted. ''Urgently needed: reduction of influx, secure borders, intensifying of deportations and meaningful justice.''
Last Wednesday the Saechsische Zeitung daily reported, citing unpublished official figures, that in 2015 Germany had accommodated nearly 1.1 million refugees, five times more than in 2014.
DDoSing a regulator: A how-to manual from Facebook's Free Basics - TOI Blogs
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 01:32
''Facebook is executing a well crafted DDoS on the State'' ''@creativewolf
On December 10, something unprecedented happened that many Indians are yet to realize the significance of: a $300 billion global corporation started 'DDoS-ing' an independent Indian regulator.
The corporation was Facebook and the regulator was India's apex telecom regulator, TRAI.
''What's DDoS?'' you ask?
A DDoS, or Distributed Denial of Service, is a particularly malicious type of cyber attack that can bring down the best of websites by flooding it with an overwhelming amount of unexpected and unrequested traffic from a large number of computers distributed around the world.
To the victim website, each individual DDoS request appears to be legitimate and coming from different PCs and servers. But collectively, once these requests reach hundreds of thousands or millions in number, the victim site gets so overwhelmed that it shuts down or becomes unreachable to its intended users.
Interestingly, the actual ''attackers'' in a DDoS attack are largely unaware of their involvement, as most of their PCs and servers are part of 'botnets', having been compromised through computer viruses.
Facebook's 'DDoS' kicked off on 10th, exactly a day after TRAI published a crucial 9-page document on its website titled ''Consultation Paper on Differential Pricing for Data Services''. The paper was in continuation to an earlier one in April on ''Over The Top Services'' which led over one million Indians to email TRAI their responses. The contentious thread between both papers was ''Net Neutrality'' '' the simple, transparent and fair set of principles atop which the Internet was built: all traffic will be treated equally by ISPs and there shall be no discrimination for or against a website or service.
After 8 pages of fairly elaborate, balanced and nuanced explanations of ''differential pricing'' '' the practice of ISPs discriminating between traffic passing through their networks and charging variable rates from consumers '' TRAI requested comments from stakeholders on four questions.
Written responses were to be emailed to a senior officer's email address before the deadline of December 30.
We do not know why, but within 24 hours Facebook, a powerful corporation with expensive and experienced legal & regulatory teams in every major country '' including India '' decided to ignore the TRAI paper and instead launch the regulatory version of a DDoS attack.
The first signs of Facebook's strategy became apparent on 10th December as unwitting users across India started seeing an alert pop up in their notifications: ''Act Now to Save Free Basics in India''.
The Free Basics DDoS had started.
Those who clicked the alert were taken to a specially designed page where Facebook, using emotion-laden, fear-inducing messaging like ''Without your support, it could be banned in a matter of weeks''; ''Unless you take action now, India could lose access to free basic Internet services'' and ''A small, vocal group of critics are lobbying to have Free Basics banned on the basis of net neutrality'', asked them to register their support for Free Basics send TRAI a pre-drafted email.
Free Basics is Facebook's global zero rating platform, earlier called ''Internet.Org'', through which it makes available its own services plus a small number of third party sites for ''free'' by signing deals with individual ISPs and telcos. In India Free Basics was only available on Reliance Communications mobile network, though that has subsequently been ordered to be shut down by TRAI.
Zero rating is a clear violation of Net Neutrality and India's Department of Telecom had clearly called for a ban on them till India formulated its Net Neutrality laws.
Meanwhile, many Facebook users complained on Twitter that merely scrolling through Facebook's Free Basics page on their phones caused Facebook to record their support, and then message that ''support'' to their friends in turn, thus rapidly spreading the Free Basics campaign across social circles. One user even said Facebook sent him a notification that his deceased uncle had supported Free Basics and so he should too.
A social network was using its own platform to get its users to support its own corporate initiative. But that isn't the story.
Here's the thing '' nowhere in Facebook's messaging was there a single mention of any of the four questions asked by TRAI. Worse, there wasn't even a mention of the phrase ''Differential Pricing'', the title of TRAI's paper.
So every response that Facebook recorded and sent to TRAI was not remotely a response that TRAI was expecting. That such an experienced and powerful corporation chose to wilfully disregard a regulator's due process was astounding.
Over the next few days Facebook started expanding this campaign of deliberate disinformation to other media '' SMSes, roadside hoardings, 2-page advertisements in every major newspaper almost every day, WhatsApp promotions, online video ads and radio. The messaging kept evolving, becoming progressively vague, misleading and emotional.
''Support a connected India''
''Support Ganesh''
An SMS sent to mobile users in Tamil Nadu said, in Tamil, ''Free Basics provides all basic Internet services for free'' asking them to give a missed call to a number to register their support.
Notwithstanding the dishonesty in that statement '' because Free Basics does NOT provide ALL basic Internet services (you cannot access Google, Twitter, Flipkart, Zomato and practically the entire Internet except Facebook and a handful of other sites that have signed up) '' Facebook was now sending responses to TRAI from people's mobile numbers with content that only it had access to.
''A connected India means 65 million new jobs''
''Support Rahul''
With over 130 million users in India alone and given the emotional ''Save India'' pitch of its messaging, it was natural Facebook would get a lot of responses. In a few days it claimed to have sent 3.2 million emails to TRAI.
The current count stands apparently at 5.5 million.
Meanwhile news reports came of even users in the US and Canada being shown Facebook's Free Basics messaging, and asked to email TRAI. How a US or Canadian user would qualify as a ''stakeholder'' to comment on India's Internet regulation process we do not know, but when pointed out, Facebook casually ascribed it to an ''error''.
But what has all of this got to do with a DDoS attack?
Remember, a DDoS attack is one in which the perpetrators use a large number of unwitting PCs and servers to launch an attack on a site, so as to prevent the latter from serving its legitimate users and performing its stated function.
What Facebook had carefully and deliberately crafted in India was a method to overwhelm TRAI with a distributed set of responses that didn't have anything to do with its consultation paper or questions.
But why would they do that?
The real answers only Facebook can give, but we can surmise.
Perhaps because Facebook is aware of the true support for Net Neutrality among Indians, including citizens, entrepreneurs, startups, trade bodies and even political parties. Save The Internet, the volunteer-driven group that had rallied over one million Indians to write to TRAI in support of Net Neutrality in April, is currently running a follow up campaign on the latest consultation paper. By drowning TRAI's email inbox with millions of individual emails that do not have anything to say on ''Differential Pricing'', Facebook is running the regulatory version of a DDoS.
Facebook knows that TRAI will not have the technical knowhow or manpower to sift through millions of responses in order to find the ones that actually have answers to its questions. The Free Basics is designed to dump truckloads of hay on TRAI so that real responses turn into proverbial needles.
But wait, isn't STI also getting people to email TRAI? How is that okay?
Yes, you're right '' the STI too is running a campaign that on the surface seems similar to Facebook's. But unlike Facebook's deliberate campaign of obfuscation and misinformation, the STI is helping Indians understand the full paper and answer each of the four questions in as informed a manner as possible.
This is a serious matter. Because what we have here a social platform that is supposed to be ''neutral'', openly misrepresenting the issues TRAI is trying to formulate policies on and flooding it with non-responses in the possible hope that real responses can be suppressed.
This form of behavior is unprecedented in India's regulatory history. Even Microsoft at the height of its power and facing the prospect of central and state governments switching to open source, did not directly exhort individual Windows or Office users to lobby on its behalf. If Facebook's DDoS attempts go unchecked, why will a Google or Microsoft not want to leverage its Android/Search or Windows/Office users to hijack public policy agendas at scale?
DDoS-ing a website is a criminal activity in most countries, including India. DDoS-ing a regulator should be no less.
DISCLAIMER : Views expressed above are the author's own.
Facebook
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 01:27
Each political note has its own anchor in case you want to link to it.
My intention is to make links only to publicly accessible, stable URLs. If you find a link to a page that requires subscription, please report that as you would report any other broken link.
4 January 2016 (Charlie Hebdo)Correcting ignorant anglophone criticism of Charlie Hebdo.
4 January 2016 (A chance to defeat plutocrats)The 2016 presidential election gives the US a chance to defeat the vicious cycle of plutocracy.
We need to stop being nice to plutocrats. They are trying to impoverish everyone else. They deserve to be crushed.
4 January 2016 (Anti-state militia occupies Oregon building)An anti-state militia has occupied a building at a wildlife refuge in Oregon as a protest.
Setting fire to your grass, with the aim of burning only your grass, may be good or bad, but it is not ethically comparable to setting fire to a building.
On the other hand, occupying a government building with guns is not ethically comparable to a peaceful sit-in.
4 January 2016 (Prison for defaming a food)Michael Mcfeat, expat working at a mine in Kyrgyzstan, faces years in prison for defaming a local food delicacy.
It is impossible to defame Kyrgyzstan's human rights record, which is worse even than Thailand's.
Even "free" countries in Europe are not free of the practice of criminalizing insults.
4 January 2016 (Russian censorship)Russian censorship almost killed a series of detective stories for children.
4 January 2016 (Nonviolent dissident executed)Salafi Arabia's execution of a Shi'ite leader of peaceful protests has aroused threats of violence from Iran.
I hope that we won't let issues of international rivalries bury the really issue here: a repressive regime has murdered a nonviolent dissident. Iran has done likewise. We don't have to choose a side between them. We can demand they both respect dissent.
4 January 2016 (Record-breaking floods)Record-breaking floods have hit many US states. They are especially unusual because of happening in winter, which is not when floods typically occur. This suggests that global heating was part of the cause, which suggests that worse floods are coming.
4 January 2016 (UK flood defenses)The UK government cut spending on flood defenses, knowing that this would double the vulnerability over time.
What use is there in provoking rising seas and unusual heavy rains but then preventing them from actually flooding people's homes?
4 January 2016 (Wolves)Poland saved the wolves, but the right-wing government probably wants to wipe them out, as happens also in the US.
The article gives a clear explanation of why the absence of wolves causes big problems with other ecosystems. (But it might make sense to have more hunting of wild boars, whose meat is in demand from European gourmets.)
4 January 2016 (Facebook and Guber cults)Facebook and Guber can be seen as cults, with the ability to mobilize millions of members to condemn any regulations that protect people from those businesses.
4 January 2016 (In independent press in Rwanda)President Kagame rigs the elections in Rwanda, even including a prearranged small fraction of votes for opposition, and there is no independent press to report on it.
3 January 2016 (Urgent: Endorsement for president)US citizens: call on MoveOn to ask its supporters which Democrat to endorse for president.
3 January 2016 (Urgent: Repeal Hyde amendment)US citizens: call for repeal of the Hyde amendment '-- allow US government to fund abortions.
3 January 2016 (Urgent: File charges against killers)US citizens: call on the Justice Department to file charges against Tamir Rice's killers.
3 January 2016 (Deaths in US wars since 2001)A study estimates that the US's wars since 2001 have killed over a million people.
3 January 2016 (HK publishing company employee missing)Yet another employee of a Hong Kong publishing company has apparently been disappeared by China.
3 January 2016 (Personalized ads at stores)People who have more money than work really love getting personalized ads as they pass the door of a store.
3 January 2016 (Plans to impose seed monopolies)The Gates Foundation and USAID are planning together how to impose commercial seeds monopolies in Africa.
3 January 2016 (Leader of peaceful protest executed)Salafi Arabia executed the leader of a peaceful protest movement.
3 January 2016 (No need to continue security theater)New Years Eve demonstrated that, yet again, Islamist terrorists are such a small threat to Americans that we need not worry about them, and that we don't need to continue security theater.
But we have plenty of feckless fantasy terrorists; the FBI keeps generating them. The latest one has been mentally ill and easily manipulated all his life.
3 January 2016 (ACLU suing Catholic hospital)The ACLU is suing a Catholic hospital to demand permission to give Rebecca Chamorro a tubal ligation as part of her expected birth by cesarean section.
Creeping control of medicine by religion has gone so far that there are no hospitals near her which would do it.
She could get the tubal ligation separately, but that means an added risk to her health.
If a church insists on limiting medicine, it should not be allowed to operate hospitals.
3 January 2016 (Trump in terror group recruiting video)Al-Shabaab, the Islamist terror group in Somalia, has made a recruiting video featuring Donald Trump.
Trump is not responsible for their decision to do this. He is responsible for stirring up sectarian hatred of the sort that helps every sort of fanatic.
3 January 2016 (No charges against Tamir Rice's killers)Protesters are picketing the home of the prosecutor whose underwhelming efforts led to no charges against Tamir Rice's killers.
2 January 2016 (Juniper Networks back door)The secret back door in Juniper Networks firewalls took advantage of a weakness introduced intentionally by the NSA in an encryption standard.
Thus, the argument that "If we let the NSA break it, others will take it" is not mere theory. (People usually state this as, "The bad guys will use it too", but I reject the presumption that the NSA is always a good guy.)
Since the weakness has been publicly known for years, this fact does not prove that the NSA introduced this particular back door. That might have done by various attackers. It's also possible that the back door was inserted by Juniper Networks, or by some of its staff, perhaps in collaboration with the NSA.
Juniper Networks has fixed only part of the known problem. Because the software is proprietary, users are compelled to wait and see if Juniper Networks inserts the presumed one-line fix for the rest of the problem.
If it were free software, these users would be free to insert this change on their own.
2 January 2016 (Privatizing play for children)The next step in privatization of all aspects of life is privatizing play for children. The promotion campaign says that parents who don't pay the high fees for this are short-changing their children.
I am sure the idea that children should never be left unsupervised contributes to this tendency.
2 January 2016 (China's new "snooper's charter")China's new "snooper's charter" does not include the power to demand a backdoor. It stops at demanding companies decrypt messages on demand.
Even this may be impossible if it covers messages encrypted by the users with their own software.
2 January 2016 (Earthquakes in Oklahoma)Injection of oil and gas well wastewater is causing a lot of earthquakes in Oklahoma, and some of them are strong enough to do real damage.
2 January 2016 (Book banned by Israeli schools)Israeli schools have banned a book about a mixed-ethnicity couple.
2 January 2016 (Britons gone to fight for the Peshmerga)Reportedly 100 Britons have gone to fight for the Peshmerga against PISSI.
2 January 2016 (Use of artificial ocean reefs backfires)Artificial ocean reefs, made of used tires, were intended to provide shelters for marine life. They backfired: the metal clips that held them together have rusted, loosing the tires to drift across the sea bottom, destroying life there.
2 January 2016 (Copyright as a system of censorship)Copyright started in England as a system of censorship, and through the end of 2015 it was used in Germany to prohibit publication of Hitler's hate tract, Mein Kampf.
The world would be better off if nobody had ever thought of Hitler's form of hatred, but we can't get rid of it through censorship.
2 January 2016 (Unjust extension of copyright)Unjust extension of copyright in the US has denied us the use of many books and works published in 1959. Here's a list of some.
We should shorten copyright to last 10 years, for old works and new works.
2 January 2016 (Students' privacy)Some states have strict laws about students' privacy, which schools violate by handing students' data to Google. Schools try to defeat these laws by designating Google as a "school official".
One part of the solution is that schools should not accumulate so much data about their students. Personal data, once collected, will be misused.
2 January 2016 (US Planning New Iran Sanctions)US Planning New Iran Sanctions over Ballistic Missile Programme.
2 January 2016 (Facebook's grab for internet control)Comparing Facebook's grab for internet control with Monsanto's control over seeds.
The article gets confused in one point by the incoherent term "intellectual property". The sense of understanding that you get from that term represents a false understanding.
2 January 2016 (Prematurely born fetuses)Due to advances in medicine, it is possible to save a fraction of fetuses born prematurely after as little as 22 weeks.
A 22-week fetus, whether inside of a womb or outside, is not a human being. It is only a potential future human being.
If you give birth to one, you can try to keep it alive until it becomes a human being. But unless we were in a space colony with an urgent need to increase the population, I will not drop anything to help you, and I don't think it's a good use of our tax money. There is a superfluity of babies that are born without such extraordinary efforts '-- and there are millions of real, existing, human beings that already exist and need help. I think real existing human beings should have priority over potential future human beings.
Writers have envisioned artificial wombs in which a zygote can develop into a fetus and eventually into a human being. Perhaps some day we will build them. That won't create an obligation to use them for every zygote.
2 January 2016 ("American Exceptionalism")"American Exceptionalism" allows Americans to believe that the US is so fundamentally morally right that it is still in the right no matter what evils it commits.
1 January 2016 (Urgent: Tamir Rice)Everyone: call for a new grand jury to consider charges against the killers of Tamir Rice.
1 January 2016 (Bush forces' role in creating PISSI)Vincent Emanuele, formerly of the Bush forces in Iraq, reports on how he and his fellow occupier created hatred that manifests in PISSI.
The Bush forces were parts of the US military that were used by Bush to carry out his private war. They signed up to serve their country, but they ended up serving evil instead.
1 January 2016 (TPP's rules about trade secrets)The TPP's rules about trade secrets would require inventors and competitors to treat them as secrets, even after they have leaked.
This reminds me of how the Obama regime treats the Snowden revelations, ordering government employees not to look at them.
1 January 2016 (Thai military holds civilian prisoners)Thailand's military is holding people accused of various crimes in a military base, where they are often kept shackled and blindfolded.
This treatment of prisoners is not quite as bad as the US has done in Guantanamo, but the wrong is broader in the sense that anyone in Thailand could be treated this way. but the wrong is broader in the sense that anyone in Thailand could be treated this way.
1 January 2016 (China blocks foreign press)China almost completely blocks foreign press from Tibet and Xinjiang.
1 January 2016 (UK spying)Tech Companies [will] Face Criminal Charges If They Notify Users of UK Government Spying.
The US committed a similar injustice with Ladar Levison.
1 January 2016 (Poland's public broadcasting)Poland's right-wing governing party is moving to impose direct political control of public broadcasting.
Berlusconi did something similar.
1 January 2016 (FBI)The FBI has protected us from another fantasy terrorist.
1 January 2016 (Marco Rubio)Marco Rubio doesn't mind how the US government snoops on all of us, but he condemns US snooping on Israeli officials.
1 January 2016 (Boston thugs)Boston thugs have aggressively investigated political dissent groups for many years.
This continued with Occupy Boston.
1 January 2016 (Terrorism)Trying to spot terrorists through supposed "behavioral indicators" of terrorists has never had a success, and the evidence that they are useless keeps increasing.
1 January 2016 (California's aquifers)El Ni±o rains will not suffice to refill California's depleted aquifers.
1 January 2016 (Killer thugs)The responsibility of prosecuting killer thugs in the US typically falls on their colleagues, the local prosecutors. No wonder it is so hard to do this.
Thugs accused of killing, or making false accusations, should be prosecuted by others.
1 January 2016 (Ahmed Rajib Haider)Students have been convicted in Bangladesh of killing secular blogger Ahmed Rajib Haider.
I disapprove of the death penalty on principle, but aside from that I welcome this ruling.
1 January 2016 (Facebook)When India's government launched an inquiry about Facebook's drastically unneutral internet access scheme (gratis access to the poor, limited to a specific set of sites), Facebook started a DDOS campaign asking its useds to send nonresponsive answers.
Worse, Facebook's proprietary apps made useds' computers send expressions of support for this campaign, even when the useds did not want to.
Never trust these cr'...apps. They are as dangerous as any other proprietary software.
1 January 2016 (Avoiding taxes)Super-rich Americans avoid millions of dollars in taxes through dodges such as moving money through tax heavens.
1 January 2016 (Plutocracy)How plutocracy took over America, starting with the fiscal power of private banks.
31 December 2015 (Capitalism)Capitalism in America: Giving Crazy a Bad Name While Subverting Democracy.
31 December 2015 (Pete Hoekstra)Former congresscritter Pete Hoekstra supported NSA surveillance consistently while in office. He was shocked to discover recently that the NSA listened to him.
31 December 2015 (Obama's policies)Obama's policies encourage replacement of coal with fracked gas, but some US cities have policies to head toward renewable energy instead.
31 December 2015 (UK's cameras)The UK's parliament was never consulted about setting up cameras to track all car travel.
31 December 2015 (Brussels)Scandal in Brussels! Some soldiers and some thugs had a sex party in the office, while they were sleeping there because transport was shut down.
Why this constitutes a problem or a wrong is not clear to me. It did not hurt anyone.
31 December 2015 (Taliban)Afghan journalists suspect that the attempts on their life come from a Taliban-supporting "fifth column" inside the Afghan government.
31 December 2015 (Global heating)The question is not, "How likely are we to limit global heating to 1.5C," but rather, " How much damage will it cause if we don't?"
31 December 2015 (El Ni±o)Hunger Threatens Millions as El Ni±o Causes Drought And Floods.
El Ni±o events have occurred for a long time, but this one comes on top of the effects of 1C of global heating.
California seals are starving because sardines have had to head for colder water.
31 December 2015 (Putin's attacks)About 1/3 of the casualties of Putin's air attacks in Syria are civilians, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
31 December 2015 (OpenJDK)Google is shifting Android to use OpenJDK rather than its own Java implementation which used a reimplementation of Java based on the proprietary header files of the proprietary Java implementation.
This concrete result is good for the free software community, but the idea that a compatible implementation of an interface spec might infringe the copyright on header files is very very dangerous. Fortunately, the appeals court that made this decision hears copyright cases only in very rare circumstances.
The FSF urged the Supreme Court not to consider the appeal because we feared it might sustain the appeal court's ruling, which would extend this bad decision to the whole US.
31 December 2015 (Marijuana)Roughly half the jobs in the US require urine tests to detect use of marijuana. This policy never made any sense, and it is even more absurd in states which have legalized marijuana.
31 December 2015 (Censorship in universities)2015's notorious censorship attempts in universities.
A school-sponsored sports team is not a person. I think it is legitimate for the school to exercize control over what ateam does, which would be wrong if directed towards an individual student.
31 December 2015 (Google's snooping)As usual, campaigns to limit Google's snooping on students through their schools demand an inadequate remedy.
If the school makes an account in a student's name on a company's server, or stores any unencrypted information there about the student's activity, that is already a violation of the student's privacy.
Parents must go beyond asking "Please sir, may my child have some more privacy" and organize to put an end to these snooping activities.
In addition, Google services nearly all require the user to run nonfree software (written in Javascript).
31 December 2015 (Pentagon)The Pentagon is deliberately obstructing the release of prisoners from Guantanamo with a campaign of persistent non-cooperation.
31 December 2015 (Afghanistan)The US commander in Afghanistan says that the US will needs more troops to continue propping up the Afghan government.
The choice, as I expected, is to keep propping it up ad infinitem or let it fall.
31 December 2015 (Thomas Podgoretsky)The UK's Minister for Cruel Deportation wants to deport Thomas Podgoretsky because he made the mistake of visiting the US, having a stroke and heart attacks there, and staying there until he was well enough to go home to the UK.
31 December 2015 (Tamir Rice)The excuses offered to the grand jury for the shooting of Tamir Rice beg questions that were apparently ignored '-- for instance, why didn't they stay a little further away and take a second to understand the situation.
31 December 2015 (Chronicle of Woe)A Chronicle of Woe: US Policing Culture From Iraq and Vietnam to Jon Burge's Chicago.
31 December 2015 (Flawed terrorism)Is Flawed Terrorism Research Driving Flawed Counterterrorism Policies?
31 December 2015 (US thugs)US thugs shot and killed at least 28 people this year who were holding pellet guns or BB guns.
I wonder what fraction of them were black. I suspect thugs are more likely to take a pellet gun for a real gun when it is held by a black.
31 December 2015 (Hossein Derakhshan)In 2008, Hossein Derakhshan's blog was so influential that Iran imprisoned for it. Released in 2014, he encountered an Internet in which Facebook and Instagram discourage people from looking at any other web sites. Real discussion has been replaced by trivia videos.
31 December 2015 (Squatters in London)In London, squatters occupied the former mint site to protest against homelessness.
31 December 2015 (Syria)A six-month truce between Assad and rebels is holding in parts of Syria.
31 December 2015 (Ramadi)Between US air strikes and PISSI's explosive booby traps, Ramadi is now mostly a ruin.
That's better than what it was a month ago, a stronghold of barbarity. I expect that the civilian survivors will say so. Helping them get their voice out, to show young Muslims what a monster PISSI is, will help them resist radicalization.
31 December 2015 (Success and failure)Evidence that the key to success is dealing in a useful way with failure.
31 December 2015 (UK's budget cuts)The UK's budget cuts have come back as tremendous damage.
31 December 2015 (US and immigration)The US government is concealing parts of its contracts with companies that imprison immigration violators, specifically the parts that show how these contracts financiall pressure the government to imprison more of them.
31 December 2015 (DMCA)Prohibiting farmers from repairing tractors is not a side effect of the DMCA. It is part of the core goal.
31 December 2015 (Encryption)Americans must not stand for officials' advocating China-style attacks on our encryption systems.
Encryption alone can't protect us from all the sorts of digital surveillance that are being set up in the US. Encryption won't stop systems from recognizing your license plate or your face. Encryption won't enable you to pay anonymously with a credit card, or carry a portable phone and not be tracked.
31 December 2015 (Global heating and tornado)It appears that global heating is increasing tornado damage in the US.
31 December 2015 (Zuckerberg)Facebook's Zuckerberg: If You Oppose Our International Power Grab, You're An Enemy Of The Poor.
I have long challenged campaigns that prioritize people's internet access over their freedom.
31 December 2015 (Methan leak)An enormous methane leak from an old gas well in California will take months to shut off.
31 December 2015 (Erdogan)I Revealed the Truth about President Erdogan And Syria. For That, He Had Me Jailed.
31 December 2015 (Obama)Obama's program to help homeowners faced with foreclosure did not function well, and now SCROTUS have abolished it.
31 December 2015 (Global heating)UK governments have repeatedly refused to confront the way global heating effects put Britain in danger.
31 December 2015 (Tamir Rice)The thug that killed Tamir Rice will not be prosecuted.
Prosecutors often intentionally throw the fight in the grand jury. We need a special mechanism for bringing charges against thugs that shoot people, or make falls accusations.
31 December 2015 (Urgent: Protect victims of forced labor)Everyone: urge your government to sign the treaty to protect victims of forced labor.
More information about the treaty.
If you don't run the Javascript code, you won't see anything in your browser to show that you signed, but in my case it did in fact work; you should get a confirmation email.
31 December 2015 (Japan apologizes to Korean women)Japan has apologized to the Korean women that it forced into prostitution during World War II.
The Japanese army did that in other places, too, including what is now Indonesia. After the war, many of these women never went home because they felt ashamed '-- in effect internalizing the blame that (according to their culture) their families would have imposed on them.
31 December 2015 (Internet of Things + DMCA)Combining the Internet of Things with the DMCA creates the Internet without Good Choices.
31 December 2015 (The TPP)The TPP is harmful even if evaluated based on the "free trade" ideology.
Of course, that ideology is a mistake because it reduces the effective power of democracy and increases the effective power of businesses. Existing "free trade" treaties are part of the reason that the US has become a plutocracy. This is why I advocate cancelling them.
Part of the article uses the incoherent term "intellectual property". It is always a mistake, without exception, to group together copyrights and patents as if they were a single issue. And that term includes several other laws as well. If you think they are similar than you don't understand what they really do.
31 December 2015 (The TSA)No Social Security number? No passport. Why? Are TSA Actions Subject to Judicial Review?
31 December 2015 (Polio vaccination in Pakistan and Afghanistan)Polio vaccination is advancing again in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Extremist groups have stopped opposing vaccination, and new infections have gone way down.
31 December 2015 (Seizure of property by thugs)The US has stopped offering local thug departments the chance to seize people's property and split it with the Federal government. Ironically, this is due to budget cuts imposed by SCROTUS.
31 December 2015 (Blockade of Yemen)Taiz, in Yemen, is suffering from a siege imposed by the Houthis, within the general blockade of Yemen imposed by Salafi (*) Arabia and the US.
The US is supporting this blockade (and the bombing and invasion) to suck up to some private interests, since nothing about the intervention serves any national interest.
* Officially "Saudi Arabia", but its global support for the repressive and cruel Salafist form of Islam (which helped inspire al Qa'ida and PISSI) is the most important characteristic of that country.
31 December 2015 (Wind energy)Wind energy is becoming the most efficient investment in power generation.
Now think of how much faster we would progress towards curbing global heating if fossil fuels did not enjoy their present subsidies.
31 December 2015 (Sequestering carbon in the soil)Agriculture may be able to sequester carbon in the soil.
31 December 2015 (Israel's "transparency" law)Israel's "transparency" law requires human rights NGO to disclose their funding, but right-wing NGOs have been given exemptions.
The transparency requirement, per se, is not unjust, but it is being applied selectively to oppose human rights.
31 December 2015 (More Ethiopian journalists arrested)Ethiopia has arrested more journalists and is threatening bloggers.
31 December 2015 (El Ni±o + human-caused climate mayhem)Flooding in Britain, record US temperatures and Australian wildfires result from El Ni±o on top of human-caused climate mayhem.
31 December 2015 (Iraqi army recapturing Ramadi)The Iraqi army is slowly recapturing Ramadi. Most of the PISSI fighters have fled, leaving a rear guard which seems to intend to slow the army's advance.
The Iraqi army is not defeating PISSI's full strength. Nonetheless, the loss of Ramadi may weaken PISSI somewhat.
31 December 2015 (Bernie Sanders)Bernie Sanders: "I can win the backing of Donald Trump supporters."
Trump (and others before him) have distracted them into blaming weak scapegoats. Sanders will show them who they should really be angry at: the plutocrats.
31 December 2015 (Deadly US ground beef)Ground beef in the US, if it isn't "organic grass-fed beef", is quite likely to harbor antibiotic-resistant bacteria that kill people.
The organic grass-fed beef will cost more, but that won't bother you unless you eat too much beef (alas, many Americans do).
31 December 2015 (US airports kicking homeless people out)US airports are kicking homeless people into the cold.
31 December 2015 (China adopts encryption back door law)China has adopted a law requiring services to hand over encryption back doors.
This power seems to exist already in the US; it's what forced Ladar Levison to shut down Lavabit.
31 December 2015 (How Peabody Energy exploits poverty)How Peabody Energy exploits poverty to excuse burning coal.
Coal is not going to make poor people better off, beyond a decade or two. The brunt of climate mayhem will fail mainly on the poor '-- hundreds of millions of them.
31 December 2015 (China adopts law against domestic violence)China has adopted a law against domestic violence.
Chinese society before the revolution was very very sexist.
30 December 2015 (Urgent: Democratic Party debates)US citizens: call on the Democratic Party to schedule more debates and make them more visible.
30 December 2015 (Urgent: Reject measures to "protect" us)US citizens: call on Congress to reject measures to "protect" us at the expense of our human rights.
30 December 2015 (Twitter deletes journalist's tweets)Twitter deleted a journalist's tweets because a bank asked for this.
30 December 2015 (Juniper Networks back doors)Evidence that points to NSA involvement in putting the back door in Juniper Networks products.
30 December 2015 (Taliban in Helmand)The Taliban have taken over most districts in Helmand; Sangin is one of the few still being contested. They may hope to make it their headquarters.
30 December 2015 (System of bail in the US)The system of bail in the US pressures poor people to plead guilty to crimes they didn't commit '-- or else it puts them in debt.
30 December 2015 (Cocaine in "legitimate" capital markets)"Legitimate" capital markets are thoroughly hooked on cocaine; in laundering drug money, London is more important than the Cayman Islands.
30 December 2015 (War on sites that facilitate sharing)The copyright industry's war on sites that facilitate sharing causes harm to users even when not entirely successful.
Please do not use our enemies' smear term, "piracy", to refer to sharing.
30 December 2015 (MPAA Funds Pro-Copyright Scholars)MPAA Funds Pro-Copyright Scholars to Influence Politics.
30 December 2015 (Recognition technology)Advances in recognition technology threaten to enable tracking people easily by cameras through recognizing their faces or irises.
There is no easy solution to this problem, but since it threatens oppression that can make democracy ineffective, it justifies the cost of a difficult solution.
30 December 2015 (Guantanamo)Obama blames Congress for slowing the release of prisoners from Guantanamo, but he and his staff are primarily responsible for the delay.
"Guantanamo" has come to stand for "imprisonment without trial", but they are not the same. Obama talks about "closing Guantanamo prison" but his method of doing so is to move imprisonment without trial to the US mainland. That would make it even more unjust. We could hope that the Supreme Court would consider it more clearly unacceptable '-- but what if it did the opposite?
The US must end its imprisonment without trial. Every prisoner in Guantanamo deserves to get a real, fair trial or be freed.
30 December 2015 (California's diminishing rainfall)California confronts the question of how to manage its diminishing rainfall.
Global heating will make the US midwest hotter and interfere with rain.
The real solution, the efficient solution, is to cut back on CO2 emissions so that the climate won't get more screwed.
30 December 2015 (TSA scanner policy)A lawsuit seeks to make the TSA change its policy of requiring some passengers to go through a scanner.
30 December 2015 (Game cr'...apps)Modern gratis game cr'...apps collect a wide range of data about their users and their users' friends and associates. Even nastier, they do it through ad networks that merge the data collected by various cr'...apps and sites made by different companies.
They use this data to manipulate people to buy things, and hunt for "whales" who can be led to spend a lot of money. They also use a back door to manipulate the game play for specific players.
While the article describes gratis games, games that cost money can use the same tactics.
All this reinforces the point that proprietary software is software for suckers.
30 December 2015 (Warm December)The unusually warm December is making some people concerned about their flowering perennials, some of which are blooming now instead of waiting for spring.
However, what concerns me more is that this warm December will not be so unusual at the end of the century.
30 December 2015 (Listening machines)Beware the Listening Machines.
30 December 2015 (Taking risks during childhood)"Should I let my child take more risks?" Probably yes, up to a point. However, you might consider transporting your child by car to be too dangerous and beyond the limit.
29 December 2015 (Transportation in the US)Most of the US has been restructured around automobiles. As people get older, eventually they can't drive any more, so they become stuck at home.
29 December 2015 (European Patent Office)The European Patent Office hired a surveillance company to snoop on its critics.
29 December 2015 (Corporatization of American Red Cross)The American Red Cross spent millions in Haiti to provide shelter and built just six houses with that money.
This seems to relate to its overall corporatization.
29 December 2015 (US supported creation of Salafist state)In 2013, the US supported the creation of some sort of Salafist "Islamic state" in Syria and Iraq as a way to weaken Assad.
29 December 2015 (Juniper Networks back door)Was it the NSA that put the back door in Juniper Networks firewalls?
It has been trying to attack antivirus software.
29 December 2015 (Fingerprints required for cell phone)Bangladesh demands fingerprints from everyone that has a cell phone.
That would convince me not to visit Bangladesh, if I carried a cell phone.
29 December 2015 (Fluoridation of water)There is no conclusive evidence about whether fluoridation of water supply reduces tooth decay, though there is suggestive evidence that it does.
29 December 2015 (People's movements tracked in Hyde Park)The UK government tracked people's movements in Hyde Park through their mobile phones.
This particular project did not record their names, but that would have been easy to do.
29 December 2015 (Syrian Islamist fighters in Damascus)2000 Syrian Islamist fighters and Assad's forces have made a deal whereby the Islamists will evacuate an area near Damascus, leaving their heavy weapons.
29 December 2015 (Medical uses of marijuana)Ten important medical uses of marijuana.
27 December 2015 (Social isolation)American society pushes people into social isolation, and 1/4 of American adults have no one they can confide in. For old people, loneliness is often fatal.
27 December 2015 (Work-related diseases)Work-related diseases kill 50,000 Americans a year. That's more than are killed by guns, and terrorism is a pinprick by comparison.
Meanwhile, we could do a lot to reduce work-related diseases without limiting anyone's human rights.
27 December 2015 (Endangered species)The US Fish and Wildlife Service has become more active in considering endangered species and establishing protection for them. The case backlog is decreasing.
Measures like the Endangered Species Act are adequate for dealing with local threats in a world that is stable overall. Of course, many countries don't have an Endangered Species Act and many governments are not able to really enforce such laws. But even if they did, that won't be enough in the future. Climate mayhem will swamp these local protection efforts, much as rising oceans will swamp sea walls.
27 December 2015 (Mosquito-borne virus spreading)A mosquito-borne virus in Brazil is spreading, and its spread can be measured by the thousands of babies born with microcephaly.
Global heating effects are indirectly responsible for the spread of the mosquitos that transmit the virus.
27 December 2015 (USAF proposed killing civilians in 1959)In 1959, a US Air Force proposal for how to target nuclear weapons on the Soviet Union treated killing of civilians as a goal.
26 December 2015 (Urgent: Investigate death of Sandra Bland)US citizens: call on Attorney General Lynch to investigate death of Sandra Bland.
26 December 2015 (Urgent: Oregon's national forests)US citizens: Tell Congress not to sell off or cut down Oregon's national forests.
26 December 2015 (Sanders)Polls show Sanders doing considerably better against Trump than Clinton would do.
26 December 2015 (Back Lives Matter protest)A Black Lives Matter protest at the Mall of America was not entirely blocked by the mall management armed with court orders.
Nonetheless, the difficulties they faced show that replacing real public space with pseudo-public space inside malls is dangerous to democracy. People should have the right to protest inside malls.
26 December 2015 (Guber)Seattle has arranged to give Guber drivers a chance to unionize.
This can help the drivers get more pay, but it won't do anything to reduce the surveillance that passengers are subject to, or save them from the requirement to run nonfree software.
26 December 2015 (The range of ideas that fit into Islam)It takes a rather large book to describe the range of ideas that fit into Islam '-- except in the opinion of Salafis.
26 December 2015 (French citizenship)French President Hollande is getting strong criticism for plans to take away citizenship from people who were born citizens of France.
His other plans, such as the permanent state of emergency, seen even worse.
26 December 2015 (Gmail psychological profiles)Google's Gmail and other connected services create psychological profiles of every user '-- and all the people they communicate with by email. A slowly progressing lawsuit claims that this violates California law.
You can opt out of this by changing to some other mail service, running your own mail server, and/or encrypting the text of your emails with the GNU Privacy Guard.
26 December 2015 (US-Korea "free trade" agreement)The US-Korea "free trade" agreement, if evaluated in the conventional terms of exports and imports, has been a big loss for US exports and US employment.
This is on top of the harm that the treaty does to both countries by undermining democracy.
26 December 2015 (School voucher system in Sweden)In 1992, Sweden adopted a school voucher system. Since then the Swedish educational system has become more unequal, and less effective overall.
26 December 2015 (French journalists in China)China seems to plan to expel a French journalist whose articles in France have criticized the regime.
26 December 2015 (The Battle Over Sangin)The Battle Over Sangin Should Teach the West Some Vital Military Lessons. And political lessons, too, about "attempting cultural change on a management consultant timeline."
I still think the US might have achieved a good outcome in Afghanistan if it had refrained from attacking and destroying Iraq.
26 December 2015 (Judaist fanatics)Judaist fanatics in Israel had themselves filmed celebrating the murder of an Arab toddler.
Judaist, Christianist or Islamist, they are all enemies of human rights. The worst of them are killers, but the rest are still bad.
26 December 2015 (India rejects Facebook's power grab)India has blocked Facebook's plan to extend internet service without network neutrality.
Access to the internet can be good or bad, depending on whether the internet respects your freedom. If people make the error of assuming that it is good unconditionally, that can lead them to mistake Facebook's power grab for a real gift.
26 December 2015 (Hunger and homelessness in the US)22 US cities reported high levels of hunger and homelessness for the year Sep '14 '-- Aug '15.
26 December 2015 (Poverty in the US permanently stunts IQ)In the US, poverty permanently stunts childrens' IQ, but not in other developed countries.
It is not clear why the US gets different results.
25 December 2015 (Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in ground beef)Ground beef generally has bacteria all through it, and some of them can make people sick. Consumer Reports found that US ground beef, unless it is from 'grass-fed organic beef', often contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
25 December 2015 (British Muslims blocked from entering US)It appears the US is blocking many British Muslims from entering the US, often in arbitrary last-minute ways that cause unnecessary trouble and expense.
Blocking 10 family members from traveling because of an objection to their one relative is especially nasty, and gratuitous.
Because there is no way to find out in advance if you will be blocked in this way, British Muslims in general are afraid to buy tickets to the US.
It seems to me that the US should offer a way to ask, before buying tickets, "Will you allow me to fly there?" If the US responds that you can go, and blocks you later, it should compensate you for the costs of your flight and other preparations.
And it is unconscionable to block 11 people because of objections about one.
25 December 2015 (Australia's anti-renewable-energy policies)Australia is slowly shifting away from the anti-renewable-energy policies that Abbott set up.
25 December 2015 (Russia dropping cluster bombs on Syria)Amnesty International says Russia is dropping cluster bombs on Syrian cities, even on areas of no military significance.
25 December 2015 (Illegal spying on activists in Ecuador)Leaked documents say that Ecuador's intelligence agency illegally spied on activists who campaigned against oil extraction in the Amazon.
25 December 2015 (Christmas in officially Muslim countries)Some officially Muslim countries have demonstrated their intolerance of non-Muslims by banning visible celebration of Christmas.
Will they ban Grav-Mass, too?
25 December 2015 (The "no fly list")The "no fly list" punishes people by surprise, and people are put in the list based on "predictive judgments" which can be based on nothing but noise.
25 December 2015 (Raid in Sangin)Afghan army reinforcements may kick the Taliban out of Sangin.
If the Taliban melt away when confronted by a relief force, that will not constitute a victory for the Afghan government. Rather, it will mean that the Taliban are following through after a large, successful raid, in accord with standard guerrilla tactics.
To turn this raid into a victory, the Afghan army would need to surround Sangin and kill the Taliban fighters caught in the trap. I don't think they will try it.
25 December 2015 (Shot dead by Georgia thugs)44% of the people shot dead by Georgia thugs (since 2010) were either unarmed or shot in the back. That's just the beginning of it.
25 December 2015 (Prison for throwing stones at car)Israel sentenced Palestinian teenagers to 15 years in prison after they confessed under pressure to throwing stones at a car.
The car was driven by a family that lives in an Israeli colony in Palestinian territory. One of the children in the car died from the attack. The killing was a serious crime, but there is no credible evidence about who did it.
25 December 2015 (Israel violates international law)Israel violates international law by taking Palestinian prisoners out of Palestine. Here's why that violation is important.
25 December 2015 (Israel on foreign funding)To the Israeli right-wing, foreign funding for Breaking the Silence is an outrage; foreign funding for extending colonies in Palestine is just fine.
After Israel arrested Jews who killed Palestinians, fanatical colonists attacked another Palestinian family. Fortunately not fatally this time.
25 December 2015 (Palestinian Christians)Palestinian Christians suffer from the occupation like Palestinian Muslims, but find it easier to move elsewhere.
25 December 2015 (Mennonites on occupation of Palestine)Mennonites who visited Palestine defend the need for boycott, divestment and sanctions against Israel's occupation of Palestine.
24 December 2015 (Urgent: Tesoro-Savage oil export terminal)US citizens: oppose building the Tesoro-Savage oil export terminal in Washington State.
24 December 2015 (Urgent: toy factories in China)Everyone: call on major toy branding companies to improve wages and working conditions in their factories in China.
24 December 2015 (Urgent: drone registration site)Does it work to use the US government drone registration site with LibreJS enabled to block nonfree Javascript code? Please email your answer to rms on the site gnu.org.
24 December 2015 (Urgent: stand with Nagpur)Everyone: Stand with the people of Nagpur and tell the World Bank to stop pushing privatization of water.
24 December 2015 (Charging more for products)Companies tend to charge more for their products aimed at women or girls than for comparable products aimed at men or boys.
Why should scooters be meant specifically for one sex? There is no good reason for that. That too is a marketing ploy. Give a girl a blue scooter, and fight against creeping genderization of everything, while also saving money.
24 December 2015 (Adelson buys your newspaper)What If Sheldon Adelson Buys Your Newspaper? Write About Him, Then Leave.
24 December 2015 (Obama's support for "moderate" Syrian resistance)The US military thought Obama's support for "moderate" Syrian resistance was only helping Jihadis, so it began feeding intelligence indirectly to Assad to help him fight those rebels.
24 December 2015 (Physical search instead of body scanning)The TSA may stop some passengers from requesting a physical search instead of body scanning.
I don't object to the millimeter-wave scanners now in use, but I still consider this change dangerous. What if they move to another machine that is potentially dangerous, as the x-ray scanners were?
24 December 2015 (Colonies in Palestine)Israel's ambassador to the US has gone out of his way to send holiday gifts made by colonies in Palestine.
24 December 2015 (Bogus opinion polls)Thailand's dictators don't have elections, but they have bogus opinion polls.
24 December 2015 (Wearing makeup to appear Asian (or black))Is it wrong for Caucasian actors to wear makeup to appear Asian (or black)?
The article presents an incoherent mixture of perceived insult, lack of Asian role models on TV, and loss of work for Asian actors. Any or all of those issues might be valid, but they are all different, and mixing them up produces only confusion.
If it is a matter of work discrimination, how about making up nonwhite actors up to appear Caucasian? All actors' race would cease to matter.
If it is a matter of visible role models on TV, that's a matter of appearance only. Why does it matter what the actor's real skin color or appearance is, beneath the makeup?
If you feel insulted, please explain why an actor's makeup constitutes a statement about Asians, because I don't see that.
24 December 2015 (Poland's Christianist extremist government)Poland's Christianist extremist government is undermining the Supreme Court, apparently to facilitate a total ban on abortions.
I support ending subsidies for IVF; the world has an excess of human babies and it makes no sense at all to spend public funds on making more.
Once babies are born, we must make sure they get good food, medical care, education, and a good home with parents that are not stressed about a lack of money.
Naturally, the right-wing government plans to cut that. Christianist extremist don't care about real babies.
24 December 2015 (The atmosphere as public trust)Officially designating the atmosphere as a public trust might help get some countries to act against global heating.
24 December 2015 (Exxon's global heating research)Exxon shared its global heating research with other major oil companies as far back as 1980.
They have all been knowingly working to make sure the US government does not avoid disaster.
24 December 2015 (Loss of manufacturing jobs)The loss of manufacturing jobs in the US is not inevitable. It is the result of political choices.
24 December 2015 (Spending public assistance)The US and various states are prohibiting poor people from spending public assistance on various expensive habits that they can't afford anyway.
The motive might be to fool the public into believing that welfare recipients really have money for luxury foods such as lobster, on ocean cruises, or even on tattoos.
If you can barely afford food at all, you will do without those things anyway.
24 December 2015 (ARM and IBM teamed up)ARM and IBM have teamed up to make devices that monitor and surveil their users.
24 December 2015 (Libya's new unified government)The UN is moving towards authorizing Libya's new unified government to invite Western help to fight PISSI.
An intervention in support of Libyan ground troops has a reasonable chance of success.
24 December 2015 (Israel considering Putin-style law)Israel is considering a Putin-style law to restrict human-rights NGOs that receive support from European governments. The President of Israel was called a traitor for meeting with the New Israel Fund.
24 December 2015 (Fall of Sangin)The fall of Sangin demonstrates the futility of NATO's trying to hold it.
Once the Taliban started to resurge, the US