927: Meme Fumes

Adam Curry & John C. Dvorak

3h 3m
May 7th, 2017
Share at 0:00

Executive Producers: Sir John of Shinglehouse, Sir Chris Speers, Nick Del Grande, Peter J Boyle Jr., John Koch

Associate Executive Producers: Sir Johnnyo, Knight of Armament, Sir Trevor Murkin, Dennis Covell, Sir Gray

Cover Artist: Comic Strip Blogger

Chapters

0:00
Start of Show
Woodstock
Suggest a new chapter
AHCA
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AHCA Analysis
I just kept asking "Wher his this option represented in the text of the legislation"?
Perfect Parallel Universe Issue
FaceBag Research
Only Articles or Merit from each dimension
DIMENSION A:AHCA: Myth vs. Fact - Press Releases - U.S. Congressman Hal Rogers
Archived Version
Sat, 06 May 2017 23:42
I have a pre-existing condition. How does this bill affect me?
Under our plan, insurance companies cannot deny you coverage based on pre-existing conditions. And your health status cannot affect your premiums, unless your state asks for and receives a waiver'--a condition of which is the state having other protections in place for those with pre-existing conditions. Even if your state does obtain a waiver, so long as you've been continuously covered, you still cannot be charged more. And the bill provides added resources to help people in waiver states who have not been continuously covered to gain coverage. Bottom line, there are many levels of protection for those with pre-existing conditions in the legislation.
I heard about the MacArthur amendment allowing states to waive protections for pre-existing conditions. If this happens, will I lose all my benefits?
No. This amendment preserves protections for people with pre-existing conditions while giving states greater flexibility to lower premiums and stabilize the insurance market. To obtain a waiver, states will have to establish programs to serve people with pre-existing conditions. And no matter what, insurance companies cannot deny you coverage based on pre-existing conditions.
And what about the Upton amendment?
The Upton amendment provides an additional $8 billion for states seeking a waiver. These resources will allow people with pre-existing conditions who haven't maintained continuous coverage to acquire affordable care.
Are Members of Congress exempt from this provision?
No. Members will not be exempt. This was initially included for technical reasons to comply with Senate rules, but the House is voting to fix this before voting on the AHCA.
Why are you cutting women's health services?
We're not. In fact, we're expanding women's access to health services by redirecting Planned Parenthood dollars to community health centers, which vastly outnumber Planned Parenthood clinics.
Why are you voting to kick 24 million people off health care?
We're not. AHCA will ensure everyone has access to affordable, quality health care, but we're just not forcing people to buy insurance. Moreover, that estimate failed to take into account other planned legislative and administrative actions, which will help bring down costs and expand coverage.
********
REFUNDABLE TAX CREDITS
Refundable tax credits are an important component of the AHCA, designed to give people who don't receive health care at work the same tax benefits as those who do so they can purchase the kind of coverage that is right for their family.
It equalizes the tax treatment of health care regardless of where you buy it and helps create a vibrant individual market. These credits are longstanding conservative policy goals.
REFORMS MEDICAID
One in three physicians are unwilling to accept new Medicaid patients. Unfortunately, Obamacare simply added more people to a broken system. The AHCA is a historic shift of power back to the states so that we can make it work for those who need it. It reforms Medicaid so that it is flexible and responsive to those it was created to serve.
It prohibits states from expanding into the current broken Medicaid system.
It maximizes state flexibility. It gives states the choice between a per capita allotment or a traditional block grant and provides the option for states to implement work requirements for Medicaid recipients.
It ensures the rug isn't pulled from underneath any able-bodied patient as he or she transitions to other coverage, like a plan purchased with refundable tax credits.
EXPANDS HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) are tax-free health care savings accounts for Americans with high-deductible health plans. HSAs are critical for helping Americans save and spend their health care dollars more wisely.
The AHCA would nearly double the amount Americans can contribute to their accounts, which will give greater choice and flexibility in purchasing coverage. Conservatives agree: HSAs must be a focal point of health care reform.
PROTECTS PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS
First and foremost, the bill contains numerous protections for people with pre-existing conditions. The law is clear: Under no circumstance can people be denied coverage because of a pre-existing condition. The latest draft contains two more layers of security for these individuals:
The MacArthur amendment gives flexibility to states to tackle premium prices. However, there is a very strict process for obtaining that waiver. It will only be given to states with high-risk pools and other protections in place.
For states seeking a waiver, the Upton amendment provides an additional $8 billion to allow people with pre-existing conditions who haven't maintained continuous coverage acquire affordable care.
RESTORES PRO-LIFE PRINCIPLES
The AHCA defunds Planned Parenthood, the largest abortion provider in the country, for one year by blocking more than $500 million of federal dollars. It redirects the money to community health centers, which far outnumber Planned Parenthood clinics.
Let's pass the American Health Care Act. After all, seven years of Obamacare is enough.
DIMENSION B:Amendment to House ACA Repeal Bill Guts Protections for People with Pre-Existing Conditions | Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
Archived Version
Sat, 06 May 2017 23:49
Representative Mark Meadows, head of the House Freedom Caucus, and Representative Tom MacArthur, co-chair of the House Tuesday Group, have reportedly reached agreement on an amendment to the House Republicans' Affordable Care Act (ACA) repeal bill, the American Health Care Act (AHCA).[1] Freedom Caucus members rejected earlier versions of the AHCA because they retained many of the ACA's insurance market reforms, most notably its protections for people with pre-existing health conditions. Meanwhile, other House Republicans rejected the bill because it would have caused 24 million people to lose health insurance and made coverage weaker or less affordable for millions more. Many of these opponents of the bill also promised to maintain the ACA's pre-existing conditions protections '-- as did President Trump and other Republican leaders.
The Meadows-MacArthur amendment is not a compromise between these views. It does nothing to mitigate the AHCA's coverage losses, $839 billion in Medicaid cuts, or large increases in premiums and out-of-pocket costs for moderate-income and older individual-market consumers. But it does give the Freedom Caucus what it has demanded from the beginning: elimination of key ACA protections for people with pre-existing health conditions. Under the amendment, states could waive both the ACA's standards for what health benefits insurance plans must offer and its prohibition on charging people more based on their medical history. Supposedly, the latter waiver would only affect people who do not maintain continuous health coverage. But in practice, as explained below, it would mean higher '-- and often unaffordable '-- premiums for people with pre-existing conditions, even if they had no break in coverage.
The Meadows-MacArthur amendment would largely restore pre-ACA rules for people with pre-existing conditions. Just like before the ACA, insurers could discriminate based on medical history, eliminate coverage for key health services, and impose annual and lifetime limits on benefits, except in states that chose to prohibit these practices '-- which few chose to do before the ACA. For congressional Republicans who have promised to maintain the ACA's pre-existing conditions protections, it should be clear that this amendment violates that commitment.
Amendment Restores Key Elements of Pre-ACA Status QuoThe Meadows-MacArthur amendment would allow states to request waivers of key pre-existing conditions protections for both the individual and small-group markets. States would receive automatic approval for waivers within 60 days as long as they attested that the waiver would lower premiums, increase coverage levels, stabilize the market, stabilize premiums for people with pre-existing conditions, or increase the choice of health plans in the state. There would be no federal review to determine whether such a waiver would actually achieve any of those goals. ''Essentially, any state that wanted a waiver would get one,'' Washington and Lee University School of Law professor Tim Jost concludes.[2]
Waivers of Community Rating RequirementsThe amendment would allow states to waive the ACA's ''community rating'' requirements.[3] ''Community rating'' refers to the ACA's prohibition against charging people higher premiums for coverage based on their health, a practice referred to as ''medical underwriting.''
Waiving community rating means insurers could once again discriminate against people based on their medical history. Insurers could increase premiums by unlimited amounts for people with a history of cancer, hypertension, asthma, depression, or other conditions. If insurers charged people the full expected cost of their conditions, that would mean premiums exceeding $100,000 per year for people with metastatic cancer, premiums in the tens of thousands per year for people who are pregnant or need treatment for substance use disorders, and large premium increases for people with common pre-existing conditions like asthma, depression, or diabetes.[4]
Under the amendment, waivers of community rating are technically limited in two respects '-- but neither limitation would have much practical impact: all states could get waivers, and waivers would affect all people with pre-existing conditions.
First, states could only waive community rating if they had a program in place for people with pre-existing conditions. But states could meet that requirement just by participating in the House bill's modestly funded ''Federal Invisible Risk Sharing Program'' or by using any of the funding in the bill's Patient and State Stability Fund for anything that they argue assists high-risk individuals or stabilizes premiums. Presumably, that would include high-risk pools, reinsurance, or any other program states claim will help reduce premiums or help those with pre-existing conditions '-- irrespective of the program's funding levels, benefits, or overall effectiveness in terms of affordability, access, and coverage. This is an exceedingly low bar.
Second, while the amendment says that insurers in states with waivers could base premiums on medical history only for people who fail to show they have maintained continuous health coverage, this would not protect people with pre-existing conditions. Even if that limitation were binding '-- which it almost certainly would not be in practice, as explained below '-- it would leave out many people with pre-existing conditions: nearly one-third of people with pre-existing conditions experience a gap in coverage over a two-year period due to job changes, other life transitions, or periods of financial difficulty.[5]
Moreover, in practice, the limitation almost certainly wouldn't bind: people with pre-existing conditions who maintained continuous coverage would still end up being charged more, often far more, as a result of the waiver '-- because they would end up being pooled primarily with sick people rather than with a mix of sick and healthy people, as at present.
Here's why this would occur. The current rules require ''community rating,'' which means that insurers can't set premiums based on an applicant's health status. Instead, insurers must pool healthy and sick people together and charge them the same rates. But under the Meadows-MacArthur amendment, in states obtaining a waiver, community rating would be limited to people who demonstrate continuous coverage (that they had coverage for all but 63 days of the prior 12 months). Anyone not doing so would be medically ''underwritten'' '-- that is, their premium would be based on their health status.
The key point here is that for people who are healthy and low cost,medical underwriting would result in lower premiums than if they were part of a ''community rated'' pool that also includes sicker, higher-cost individuals. As a result, most healthy people who were continuously insured would choose (and be advised by insurers and brokers) not to submit proof of continuous coverage, so that they could obtain lower premiums by being medically underwritten. (Exacerbating this problem, some healthier-than-average people who have been enrolled in individual market plans could decide to leave the market entirely, as they would no longer be subject to the individual mandate to pay a penalty if they are uninsured.)
The result is that the people choosing to provide proof of continuous coverage would largely be those who are sicker than average. And to avoid losing money, insurers would have to raise their premiums substantially for these people. The bottom line is that coverage would become much less affordable for people who have pre-existing conditions and are in poor health, whether or not they maintained continuous coverage, because community rating would essentially exist in name only: sick people would mostly be pooled with other sick people.[6]
Moreover, this problem could grow worse over time. Once community-rated plans were priced for a sicker-than-average pool of enrollees, new applicants with moderately expensive conditions like hypertension often would find that they could obtain lower premiums by undergoing medical underwriting than by being pooled with people with much costlier conditions like cancer. As a result, over time more and more individual-market consumers would be charged premiums that effectively were based on their health status, either because they chose to undergo medical underwriting (because they were healthier than the people in the ''community rated'' pool) or because they were part of a ''community rated'' risk pool that consisted largely of sick people and for which premiums were set accordingly.
As the American Academy of Actuaries concluded in analyzing a similar proposal, ''healthy individuals, even those who had continuous coverage, would have an incentive to undergo underwriting. As a result, healthy individuals would be charged lower premiums and less healthy individuals would face higher premiums and potentially less generous or no coverage options.''[7]
Waivers of Essential Health BenefitsThe amendment also allows states to waive the ACA's ''Essential Health Benefits'' standards starting in 2020. Under the ACA, health plans in the individual and small-group markets must cover key services, such as inpatient and outpatient care, prescription drugs, mental health treatment, substance use disorder treatment, and maternity care.[8] In contrast, before the ACA, states set their own benefits standards, with the result that 62 percent of individual-market consumers had plans that didn't cover maternity care, 18 percent had plans that didn't cover mental health treatment, 34 percent had plans that didn't cover substance use treatment, and 9 percent had plans that didn't cover prescription drugs.[9]
Even without changes to community rating, waiving Essential Health Benefits would itself effectively end pre-existing conditions protections. That's because it would drive a race to the bottom, creating strong incentives for insurers to drop coverage for expensive services such as cancer treatment, high-cost drugs, or mental health treatment in order to discourage sicker, high-cost people from enrolling. As a result, people with pre-existing conditions, who need these and other costly services, often would not be able to find an individual-market plan covering the services they need at any price, much less an affordable one.
In addition, allowing states to waive Essential Health Benefits would effectively let them waive other provisions not explicitly waivable under the Meadows-MacArthur amendment. These include:
Prohibitions on annual and lifetime limits on coverage '-- including for people with coverage through their jobs. The ACA prohibited plans from imposing annual or lifetime limits on coverage, but only on coverage of Essential Health Benefits. Plans can still impose coverage limits on services not classified as Essential Health Benefits (for example, adult dental coverage). This means that in states that eliminated or greatly weakened Essential Health Benefits standards, plans could once again impose coverage limits on anything from emergency services to inpatient care to prescription drugs.[10]
Before the ACA, 105 million people with private health insurance '-- the large majority of whom had employer plans '-- had policies that imposed lifetime limits on coverage.[11]
Requirements that plans limit out-of-pocket costs '-- including for people with coverage through their jobs. Similarly, plans would also no longer have to cap consumers' out-of-pocket costs, since that ACA requirement also applies only to out-of-pocket costs for Essential Health Benefits.
Before the ACA, nearly one-fifth of people with employer plans had policies with no limit on total out-of-pocket costs.[12] That means that millions of people with health coverage were one major illness away from medical bankruptcy.
Prohibitions on charging women more than men. Eliminating Essential Health Benefit requirements means that women would once again have to pay more for plans that included maternity coverage.Republican Claims About These Changes Don't Hold UpRepublicans have claimed that their amendment maintains some protections for people with pre-existing conditions. In fact, Rep. MacArthur has claimed that his amendment would ''make coverage of pre-existing conditions sacrosanct for all Americans.''[13] Such claims ignore the amendment's actual impacts.
People with pre-existing conditions would be charged more, even if they had continuous coverage. Supporters of the amendment may claim that it protects people with pre-existing conditions as long as they maintain continuous coverage. Even if that were true, the amendment would leave millions of people without access to affordable health insurance: as noted, almost one third of people with pre-existing conditions experience a gap in coverage over a two-year period, due to job changes, other life transitions, or periods of financial difficulty.
But in practice, as explained above, even people who maintain continuous coverage would end up getting charged more. Healthier people would prefer to be charged lower premiums based on their medical history, and so would decline to provide proof of continuous coverage. Ultimately, the only people not opting for premiums based on health status would be those with costly pre-existing conditions, and insurers would set their ''community rated'' premiums accordingly, at very high levels.
Exorbitant premiums and coverage exclusions are, in practice, no different than coverage denials. Rep. MacArthur has stressed that, under the amendment, insurers couldn't deny coverage altogether to people with pre-existing conditions. But an insurer that wanted to deny someone coverage could simply offer her a plan with a premium of tens of thousands of dollars per month and without coverage for hospitalizations, prescription drugs, or various other basic health services. For a consumer, such an ''offer'' is no different than a denial.Leaving protections for pre-existing conditions up to the states means a return to the pre-ACA status quo, when most people were unprotected. Republicans may argue that states can keep protections in place if they choose. However, states always had the option before the ACA to regulate their health insurance markets to protect people with pre-existing conditions and very few chose to do so '-- in part because they would have been criticized for increasing premiums for healthy people.[14]
The ACA took on this challenge through a combination of pre-existing conditions protections, premium tax credits to help pay for coverage, and the individual mandate, which together enable both sick and healthy people to get affordable coverage. But the AHCA would eliminate the individual mandate and slash subsidies, so premiums and out-of-pocket costs for individual-market consumers would increase substantially. [15] As a result, states would be under substantial pressure to seek waivers to eliminate the ACA's pre-existing conditions protections, even though doing so would only lower premiums for healthy people at the expense of those with more serious health needs.
AHCA's Underlying Flaws RemainThe reported amendment makes no changes to the underlying AHCA. Under the underlying bill:[16]
24 million more people would be uninsured by 2026 '-- meaning 1 of every 10 non-elderly Americans who have health insurance coverage under current law would lose it under the AHCA. This would eliminate all of the coverage gains made under the ACA.Medicaid would be cut by $839 billion over ten years. The bill would effectively end the ACA's Medicaid expansion and radically restructure the entire Medicaid program by converting it to a per capita cap or block grant. Under the House bill, 14 million fewer people would be enrolled in Medicaid by 2026.People who currently purchase coverage through the ACA marketplaces would see large increases in their premiums, deductibles, and other out-of-pocket costs. Total out-of-pocket costs (premiums, deductibles, copays, and coinsurance) would increase by an average of $3,600 for current HealthCare.gov marketplace consumers, with larger increases for older and lower-income consumers and consumers in high-cost states.High-income people would receive billions of dollars in tax cuts, averaging over $50,000 per year for people with incomes exceeding $1 million.
The Problem:
What we have is a rash of people who want to be YouTube stars
It's a public that is running on meme fumes
Understanding how the insurance industry works
Insurance companies reimburse practitioners for max 28 cents on the dollar.
Fight months to get it
180 days? Expired, too long
All must be done according to protocol = The codes
Step logic in the protocols to determine reimbursement
Huge hassle for doctors
The look like dicks for their fees
People stiff them on co-pays
Can't drop the patient for non payment of co-pays
EMR's
EMR - Electronic Medical Record
Mandated to have
Costs about $100K to implement
Subsidized but practitioners must take 33% of patients from medicare
Medicare office visit reimbursement is $7
Another insurance scam. Intended to connect to the patient codes for constant monitoring of the practitioners.
So called "Quality Measurements", again, through 'protocol'
Doctors are ranked in "tiers" where tier 1 is the doc who even does a toenail exam and a referral
Docs incentivized for this ongoing low level healthy people pipeline, so they can be pooled into lower premium groups
Unhealthy people go into a high risk pool, with high premiums.
Patients are begging practitioners not to reports certain things, like overweight, do avoid being thrown in to a higher risk/premium pool- THANKS OBAMA
Patient Portals are problem
The create unnecessary speculation by webMD experts
Hospitals are buying up all practices at a 1.5 valuation. The docs phase out (retiring anyway) so they assimilated the staff they wanted and already have the patients i their Roach Motel
Winning out the competition
Trump's Possible Strategy:
Can't regulate the Insurance industry, but can certainly shame them publicly, because of the precise language in the amendment
Opening top interstate competition
The rise of Concierge Medicine - circumvent the whole system
Single Payer
Single Payer = VA |||| VA 4 EVERYONE! ||||
Ziekenfonds Brilletje
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AHCA: Myth vs. Fact - Press Releases - U.S. Congressman Hal Rogers
Sat, 06 May 2017 23:42
I have a pre-existing condition. How does this bill affect me?
Under our plan, insurance companies cannot deny you coverage based on pre-existing conditions. And your health status cannot affect your premiums, unless your state asks for and receives a waiver'--a condition of which is the state having other protections in place for those with pre-existing conditions. Even if your state does obtain a waiver, so long as you've been continuously covered, you still cannot be charged more. And the bill provides added resources to help people in waiver states who have not been continuously covered to gain coverage. Bottom line, there are many levels of protection for those with pre-existing conditions in the legislation.
I heard about the MacArthur amendment allowing states to waive protections for pre-existing conditions. If this happens, will I lose all my benefits?
No. This amendment preserves protections for people with pre-existing conditions while giving states greater flexibility to lower premiums and stabilize the insurance market. To obtain a waiver, states will have to establish programs to serve people with pre-existing conditions. And no matter what, insurance companies cannot deny you coverage based on pre-existing conditions.
And what about the Upton amendment?
The Upton amendment provides an additional $8 billion for states seeking a waiver. These resources will allow people with pre-existing conditions who haven't maintained continuous coverage to acquire affordable care.
Are Members of Congress exempt from this provision?
No. Members will not be exempt. This was initially included for technical reasons to comply with Senate rules, but the House is voting to fix this before voting on the AHCA.
Why are you cutting women's health services?
We're not. In fact, we're expanding women's access to health services by redirecting Planned Parenthood dollars to community health centers, which vastly outnumber Planned Parenthood clinics.
Why are you voting to kick 24 million people off health care?
We're not. AHCA will ensure everyone has access to affordable, quality health care, but we're just not forcing people to buy insurance. Moreover, that estimate failed to take into account other planned legislative and administrative actions, which will help bring down costs and expand coverage.
********
REFUNDABLE TAX CREDITS
Refundable tax credits are an important component of the AHCA, designed to give people who don't receive health care at work the same tax benefits as those who do so they can purchase the kind of coverage that is right for their family.
It equalizes the tax treatment of health care regardless of where you buy it and helps create a vibrant individual market. These credits are longstanding conservative policy goals.
REFORMS MEDICAID
One in three physicians are unwilling to accept new Medicaid patients. Unfortunately, Obamacare simply added more people to a broken system. The AHCA is a historic shift of power back to the states so that we can make it work for those who need it. It reforms Medicaid so that it is flexible and responsive to those it was created to serve.
It prohibits states from expanding into the current broken Medicaid system.
It maximizes state flexibility. It gives states the choice between a per capita allotment or a traditional block grant and provides the option for states to implement work requirements for Medicaid recipients.
It ensures the rug isn't pulled from underneath any able-bodied patient as he or she transitions to other coverage, like a plan purchased with refundable tax credits.
EXPANDS HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) are tax-free health care savings accounts for Americans with high-deductible health plans. HSAs are critical for helping Americans save and spend their health care dollars more wisely.
The AHCA would nearly double the amount Americans can contribute to their accounts, which will give greater choice and flexibility in purchasing coverage. Conservatives agree: HSAs must be a focal point of health care reform.
PROTECTS PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS
First and foremost, the bill contains numerous protections for people with pre-existing conditions. The law is clear: Under no circumstance can people be denied coverage because of a pre-existing condition. The latest draft contains two more layers of security for these individuals:
The MacArthur amendment gives flexibility to states to tackle premium prices. However, there is a very strict process for obtaining that waiver. It will only be given to states with high-risk pools and other protections in place.
For states seeking a waiver, the Upton amendment provides an additional $8 billion to allow people with pre-existing conditions who haven't maintained continuous coverage acquire affordable care.
RESTORES PRO-LIFE PRINCIPLES
The AHCA defunds Planned Parenthood, the largest abortion provider in the country, for one year by blocking more than $500 million of federal dollars. It redirects the money to community health centers, which far outnumber Planned Parenthood clinics.
Let's pass the American Health Care Act. After all, seven years of Obamacare is enough.
Amendment to House ACA Repeal Bill Guts Protections for People with Pre-Existing Conditions | Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
Sat, 06 May 2017 23:49
Representative Mark Meadows, head of the House Freedom Caucus, and Representative Tom MacArthur, co-chair of the House Tuesday Group, have reportedly reached agreement on an amendment to the House Republicans' Affordable Care Act (ACA) repeal bill, the American Health Care Act (AHCA).[1] Freedom Caucus members rejected earlier versions of the AHCA because they retained many of the ACA's insurance market reforms, most notably its protections for people with pre-existing health conditions. Meanwhile, other House Republicans rejected the bill because it would have caused 24 million people to lose health insurance and made coverage weaker or less affordable for millions more. Many of these opponents of the bill also promised to maintain the ACA's pre-existing conditions protections '-- as did President Trump and other Republican leaders.
The Meadows-MacArthur amendment is not a compromise between these views. It does nothing to mitigate the AHCA's coverage losses, $839 billion in Medicaid cuts, or large increases in premiums and out-of-pocket costs for moderate-income and older individual-market consumers. But it does give the Freedom Caucus what it has demanded from the beginning: elimination of key ACA protections for people with pre-existing health conditions. Under the amendment, states could waive both the ACA's standards for what health benefits insurance plans must offer and its prohibition on charging people more based on their medical history. Supposedly, the latter waiver would only affect people who do not maintain continuous health coverage. But in practice, as explained below, it would mean higher '-- and often unaffordable '-- premiums for people with pre-existing conditions, even if they had no break in coverage.
The Meadows-MacArthur amendment would largely restore pre-ACA rules for people with pre-existing conditions. Just like before the ACA, insurers could discriminate based on medical history, eliminate coverage for key health services, and impose annual and lifetime limits on benefits, except in states that chose to prohibit these practices '-- which few chose to do before the ACA. For congressional Republicans who have promised to maintain the ACA's pre-existing conditions protections, it should be clear that this amendment violates that commitment.
Amendment Restores Key Elements of Pre-ACA Status QuoThe Meadows-MacArthur amendment would allow states to request waivers of key pre-existing conditions protections for both the individual and small-group markets. States would receive automatic approval for waivers within 60 days as long as they attested that the waiver would lower premiums, increase coverage levels, stabilize the market, stabilize premiums for people with pre-existing conditions, or increase the choice of health plans in the state. There would be no federal review to determine whether such a waiver would actually achieve any of those goals. ''Essentially, any state that wanted a waiver would get one,'' Washington and Lee University School of Law professor Tim Jost concludes.[2]
Waivers of Community Rating RequirementsThe amendment would allow states to waive the ACA's ''community rating'' requirements.[3] ''Community rating'' refers to the ACA's prohibition against charging people higher premiums for coverage based on their health, a practice referred to as ''medical underwriting.''
Waiving community rating means insurers could once again discriminate against people based on their medical history. Insurers could increase premiums by unlimited amounts for people with a history of cancer, hypertension, asthma, depression, or other conditions. If insurers charged people the full expected cost of their conditions, that would mean premiums exceeding $100,000 per year for people with metastatic cancer, premiums in the tens of thousands per year for people who are pregnant or need treatment for substance use disorders, and large premium increases for people with common pre-existing conditions like asthma, depression, or diabetes.[4]
Under the amendment, waivers of community rating are technically limited in two respects '-- but neither limitation would have much practical impact: all states could get waivers, and waivers would affect all people with pre-existing conditions.
First, states could only waive community rating if they had a program in place for people with pre-existing conditions. But states could meet that requirement just by participating in the House bill's modestly funded ''Federal Invisible Risk Sharing Program'' or by using any of the funding in the bill's Patient and State Stability Fund for anything that they argue assists high-risk individuals or stabilizes premiums. Presumably, that would include high-risk pools, reinsurance, or any other program states claim will help reduce premiums or help those with pre-existing conditions '-- irrespective of the program's funding levels, benefits, or overall effectiveness in terms of affordability, access, and coverage. This is an exceedingly low bar.
Second, while the amendment says that insurers in states with waivers could base premiums on medical history only for people who fail to show they have maintained continuous health coverage, this would not protect people with pre-existing conditions. Even if that limitation were binding '-- which it almost certainly would not be in practice, as explained below '-- it would leave out many people with pre-existing conditions: nearly one-third of people with pre-existing conditions experience a gap in coverage over a two-year period due to job changes, other life transitions, or periods of financial difficulty.[5]
Moreover, in practice, the limitation almost certainly wouldn't bind: people with pre-existing conditions who maintained continuous coverage would still end up being charged more, often far more, as a result of the waiver '-- because they would end up being pooled primarily with sick people rather than with a mix of sick and healthy people, as at present.
Here's why this would occur. The current rules require ''community rating,'' which means that insurers can't set premiums based on an applicant's health status. Instead, insurers must pool healthy and sick people together and charge them the same rates. But under the Meadows-MacArthur amendment, in states obtaining a waiver, community rating would be limited to people who demonstrate continuous coverage (that they had coverage for all but 63 days of the prior 12 months). Anyone not doing so would be medically ''underwritten'' '-- that is, their premium would be based on their health status.
The key point here is that for people who are healthy and low cost,medical underwriting would result in lower premiums than if they were part of a ''community rated'' pool that also includes sicker, higher-cost individuals. As a result, most healthy people who were continuously insured would choose (and be advised by insurers and brokers) not to submit proof of continuous coverage, so that they could obtain lower premiums by being medically underwritten. (Exacerbating this problem, some healthier-than-average people who have been enrolled in individual market plans could decide to leave the market entirely, as they would no longer be subject to the individual mandate to pay a penalty if they are uninsured.)
The result is that the people choosing to provide proof of continuous coverage would largely be those who are sicker than average. And to avoid losing money, insurers would have to raise their premiums substantially for these people. The bottom line is that coverage would become much less affordable for people who have pre-existing conditions and are in poor health, whether or not they maintained continuous coverage, because community rating would essentially exist in name only: sick people would mostly be pooled with other sick people.[6]
Moreover, this problem could grow worse over time. Once community-rated plans were priced for a sicker-than-average pool of enrollees, new applicants with moderately expensive conditions like hypertension often would find that they could obtain lower premiums by undergoing medical underwriting than by being pooled with people with much costlier conditions like cancer. As a result, over time more and more individual-market consumers would be charged premiums that effectively were based on their health status, either because they chose to undergo medical underwriting (because they were healthier than the people in the ''community rated'' pool) or because they were part of a ''community rated'' risk pool that consisted largely of sick people and for which premiums were set accordingly.
As the American Academy of Actuaries concluded in analyzing a similar proposal, ''healthy individuals, even those who had continuous coverage, would have an incentive to undergo underwriting. As a result, healthy individuals would be charged lower premiums and less healthy individuals would face higher premiums and potentially less generous or no coverage options.''[7]
Waivers of Essential Health BenefitsThe amendment also allows states to waive the ACA's ''Essential Health Benefits'' standards starting in 2020. Under the ACA, health plans in the individual and small-group markets must cover key services, such as inpatient and outpatient care, prescription drugs, mental health treatment, substance use disorder treatment, and maternity care.[8] In contrast, before the ACA, states set their own benefits standards, with the result that 62 percent of individual-market consumers had plans that didn't cover maternity care, 18 percent had plans that didn't cover mental health treatment, 34 percent had plans that didn't cover substance use treatment, and 9 percent had plans that didn't cover prescription drugs.[9]
Even without changes to community rating, waiving Essential Health Benefits would itself effectively end pre-existing conditions protections. That's because it would drive a race to the bottom, creating strong incentives for insurers to drop coverage for expensive services such as cancer treatment, high-cost drugs, or mental health treatment in order to discourage sicker, high-cost people from enrolling. As a result, people with pre-existing conditions, who need these and other costly services, often would not be able to find an individual-market plan covering the services they need at any price, much less an affordable one.
In addition, allowing states to waive Essential Health Benefits would effectively let them waive other provisions not explicitly waivable under the Meadows-MacArthur amendment. These include:
Prohibitions on annual and lifetime limits on coverage '-- including for people with coverage through their jobs. The ACA prohibited plans from imposing annual or lifetime limits on coverage, but only on coverage of Essential Health Benefits. Plans can still impose coverage limits on services not classified as Essential Health Benefits (for example, adult dental coverage). This means that in states that eliminated or greatly weakened Essential Health Benefits standards, plans could once again impose coverage limits on anything from emergency services to inpatient care to prescription drugs.[10]
Before the ACA, 105 million people with private health insurance '-- the large majority of whom had employer plans '-- had policies that imposed lifetime limits on coverage.[11]
Requirements that plans limit out-of-pocket costs '-- including for people with coverage through their jobs. Similarly, plans would also no longer have to cap consumers' out-of-pocket costs, since that ACA requirement also applies only to out-of-pocket costs for Essential Health Benefits.
Before the ACA, nearly one-fifth of people with employer plans had policies with no limit on total out-of-pocket costs.[12] That means that millions of people with health coverage were one major illness away from medical bankruptcy.
Prohibitions on charging women more than men. Eliminating Essential Health Benefit requirements means that women would once again have to pay more for plans that included maternity coverage.Republican Claims About These Changes Don't Hold UpRepublicans have claimed that their amendment maintains some protections for people with pre-existing conditions. In fact, Rep. MacArthur has claimed that his amendment would ''make coverage of pre-existing conditions sacrosanct for all Americans.''[13] Such claims ignore the amendment's actual impacts.
People with pre-existing conditions would be charged more, even if they had continuous coverage. Supporters of the amendment may claim that it protects people with pre-existing conditions as long as they maintain continuous coverage. Even if that were true, the amendment would leave millions of people without access to affordable health insurance: as noted, almost one third of people with pre-existing conditions experience a gap in coverage over a two-year period, due to job changes, other life transitions, or periods of financial difficulty.
But in practice, as explained above, even people who maintain continuous coverage would end up getting charged more. Healthier people would prefer to be charged lower premiums based on their medical history, and so would decline to provide proof of continuous coverage. Ultimately, the only people not opting for premiums based on health status would be those with costly pre-existing conditions, and insurers would set their ''community rated'' premiums accordingly, at very high levels.
Exorbitant premiums and coverage exclusions are, in practice, no different than coverage denials. Rep. MacArthur has stressed that, under the amendment, insurers couldn't deny coverage altogether to people with pre-existing conditions. But an insurer that wanted to deny someone coverage could simply offer her a plan with a premium of tens of thousands of dollars per month and without coverage for hospitalizations, prescription drugs, or various other basic health services. For a consumer, such an ''offer'' is no different than a denial.Leaving protections for pre-existing conditions up to the states means a return to the pre-ACA status quo, when most people were unprotected. Republicans may argue that states can keep protections in place if they choose. However, states always had the option before the ACA to regulate their health insurance markets to protect people with pre-existing conditions and very few chose to do so '-- in part because they would have been criticized for increasing premiums for healthy people.[14]
The ACA took on this challenge through a combination of pre-existing conditions protections, premium tax credits to help pay for coverage, and the individual mandate, which together enable both sick and healthy people to get affordable coverage. But the AHCA would eliminate the individual mandate and slash subsidies, so premiums and out-of-pocket costs for individual-market consumers would increase substantially. [15] As a result, states would be under substantial pressure to seek waivers to eliminate the ACA's pre-existing conditions protections, even though doing so would only lower premiums for healthy people at the expense of those with more serious health needs.
AHCA's Underlying Flaws RemainThe reported amendment makes no changes to the underlying AHCA. Under the underlying bill:[16]
24 million more people would be uninsured by 2026 '-- meaning 1 of every 10 non-elderly Americans who have health insurance coverage under current law would lose it under the AHCA. This would eliminate all of the coverage gains made under the ACA.Medicaid would be cut by $839 billion over ten years. The bill would effectively end the ACA's Medicaid expansion and radically restructure the entire Medicaid program by converting it to a per capita cap or block grant. Under the House bill, 14 million fewer people would be enrolled in Medicaid by 2026.People who currently purchase coverage through the ACA marketplaces would see large increases in their premiums, deductibles, and other out-of-pocket costs. Total out-of-pocket costs (premiums, deductibles, copays, and coinsurance) would increase by an average of $3,600 for current HealthCare.gov marketplace consumers, with larger increases for older and lower-income consumers and consumers in high-cost states.High-income people would receive billions of dollars in tax cuts, averaging over $50,000 per year for people with incomes exceeding $1 million.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Democrats and Media Go into Hysterics over Healthcare Bill, Just Like Everything Else
Sat, 06 May 2017 23:48
Apparently we're all going to die. We're all going to die here in short order and we'll all have Republicans, who were elected to Congress in record majorities, to blame. Good job everyone.
That's the message coming out of Democrats and duly picked up by national media after yesterday's House passage of the amended American Health Care Act. ''Families will go bankrupt. People will die,'' Chief Elizabeth Warren signaled on Twitter. ''''This will cost American lives if it ever becomes law,'' claimed Cory Booker on MSNBC. ''This will mean death, pain, and suffering to people's families.'' Chris Murphy, never one to be outdone in using death to exploit, tweeted: ''House GOP, I hope you slept well last night. Because after this vote, you will have the death of thousands of your conscience forever.''
The Daily Kos shouted: ''House Republicans vote to sentence millions of Americans to death!'' The newly 'elected' head of the DNC, Tom Perez said: ''Trump and Republicans will own every preventable death.''. Perez is somehow allowed to go unchallenged on what constitutes a preventable death.
MoreHorror Mugshot Shows Second Grade Female Teacher, 27, After Descent Into DrugsWoman, 64, Filmed Having Sex With Dogs in Vile 'Bestiality Party' Claims She Didn't Know it was IllegalMan Killed Female Neighbor 'Who Taught Parrot to Insult Him'Porn Star Attacked by Shark After Sexy Underwater Shoot Goes Terribly WrongFemale Science Teacher, 26, Arrested For 'Showing Her Genitals' to a 13 Year Old BoyDemocrats have been riding the death wave now for awhile. When it comes to the climate cycles of the planet, we're all going to die. Healthcare, all dead. Soda tax? Gotta do it or we're all dead. A Donald Trump tweet about North Korea? Now he really went and killed everyone.
As Democrats ''fueled more and more by a willing media and celebrity microphones'' have amplified their dire warnings, the smaller and smaller their electorate has become. Their entire party philosophy for almost a decade now has become ''Vote for us or people will die''. On top of these childish hysterics, popular media is all too willing to oblige them. Vox continues to roll out story after story of people who really love Obamacare, and who are all going to die without it. The Washington Post got on the ball with a story of a rape survivor who now is going to die.
(L-R)U.S. House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, U.S. House Speaker Paul Ryan, and U.S. Representative Greg Walden hold a news conference on the American Health Care Act on Capitol Hill in Washington, U.S. March 7, 2017. REUTERS/Eric Thayer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAYThe primary problem, among many others with this strategy, is simple: Nobody believes them anymore. When everything is an imminent catastrophe, nothing is and life now moves at the speed of Twitter. Of course, quoting Chuck Palahniuk, ''In the Tibetan philosophy, Sylvia Plath sense of the word I know we're all dying'...''
But the party of the happy grim reaper (on everything it seems except Planned Parenthood) is missing historical context. When almost six million Americans received policy cancellation notices in 2013''a shock to many as they were promised by Barack Obama they wouldn't be getting those letters''there were not dire warnings of bodies in the streets from ''the party of compassion''. Americans were told they would simply be receiving something better in return. Their old policies were outdated. There were no cable news hysterics.
Another point: for every Democrats' story of someone affected by losing their Obamacare plan that Vox puts up in lights, there are stories of people either losing their own life saving insurance or not being able to afford their new plan. For every cancer patient with a reporter in their living room now, there is a family member of one who lost their own oncologist during treatment. Democracy dying in darkness, indeed.
These people were resoundingly ignored by mainstream outlets from 2010 to about 2014 when they didn't make their point to The Washington Post, The New York Times or Buzzfeed. They made it in the voting booth. As Hillary Clinton continues to limp from one post election pity party to the other groaning about James Comey or Russia, the media continues to ignore the effect of the news four days prior to the Comey letter to Congress, about Obamacare premiums spiking almost 20%. Mrs. Clinton had no answer for it. On October 24th, when news broke of Obamacare premiums once again skyrocketing in 2017, Hillary Clinton was tweeting out another celebrity video .
There is another aspect to shouting everyone's going to die that Democrats and media simply won't face: Health insurance just isn't a top priority for healthy individuals and families.
Democrats can argue the point day after day that it should be, but this isn't a priority that is aligned with many day to day voters. What people care about is not having the $700 to fix their car or house, or take a vacation or improve the quality of day to day life for their family, that they are simply pissing away to an Obamacare fine or for a premium or deductible they can't afford.
This was a key part of Bill Kristol's seminal 1993 memo that rallied the opposition to Hillarycare ('member Hillarycare? 2016 voters 'member!). The healthcare crisis was largely blown out of proportion to push expanded government coverage onto people who for the most part were satisfied with their coverage.
Just because Barack Obama and the Democratic Party demanded that Americans prioritize health insurance didn't mean Americans were going to''and forcing it upon them only ended in the complete decimation of the Democrats at both the state and federal levels. This point was also directed more specifically over at Marginal Revolution :
The somewhat depressing and underexplored implication is that the beneficiaries do not love Obamacare as much as some of you do. In fact you may remember a result from last year, from the research of Mark Pauly, indicating that ''close to half'' of households covered by the unsubsidized mandate, by the standards of their own preferences, would prefer not to purchase health insurance. And that was before some of the recent rounds of premium increases, and overall these new results seem to imply even lower demands for health insurance relative to cash.
This also coincides with a recent poll that shows the Democratic Party out of touch with the needs of almost two thirds of all Americans. Combine that with a media-at-large ignoring massive market problems with Obamacare who now act all too eager to echo the Democrats' declarations of bodies in the streets.
There can be measured opposition to the AHCA, now that House Republicans have now forever ceded the argument that big government is not the solution to rising healthcare costs and a shrinking Obamacare market. Democrats and their media allies aren't interested in that kind of opposition. Both are preoccupied with the viral soundbite and shock quick clicks. This hasn't worked out too well for them thus far.
The other Stephen Miller. I've recently converted over to an electric toothbrush to cut down on carbon pollution from coming out of my mouth.
Follow on twitter @redsteeze
Trumpcare could make sexual assault a pre-existing condition again '-- depending on where you live
Sat, 06 May 2017 15:25
WATCH: Kellyanne Conway bizarrely blames Democrats after Trumpcare threatens veterans' benefits
'This is not the story we want': Reporters chased out of meeting with Kushner family fleecing Chinese investors
WATCH: Idaho town hall erupts after GOP lawmaker says 'no one dies' from lack of health care
'You're dead to me': Arkansas father calls daughter 'f*ckin whore' for taking black man to prom
'Reporters are openly f*cking with Spicer': Seth Meyers hilariously taunts a White House 'detached from reality'
'Carter Page is chump change': Ex-CIA officer claims feds are focusing on White House higher-ups
If you want to know how deeply Russia had its hooks into the Trump campaign, you need to follow the money
'It's f*cking racist': Watch a black teen confront his white teacher who insists on using the N-word
'Go f*ck yourself with a locally grown organic cucumber': Maher blasts extreme liberals equating Clinton with Trump
WATCH: Keith Olbermann lays out evidence that a Trump-Russia grand jury has already been convened
Congressional exemption from GOP healthcare plan to be addressed separately | TheHill
Sat, 06 May 2017 02:57
As Republicans rush to vote on their latest ObamaCare repeal-and-replace plan, it appears to still include an item exempting members of Congress and their staffs from losing the healthcare bill's popular provisions.
House GOP leaders worked Wednesday night to fast-track consideration of an amended American Health Care Act without posting the bill text and without a Congressional Budget Office analysis detailing the effects of the latest changes to the legislation.
ADVERTISEMENT
After Vox reported that the bill appeared to still include the exemption for lawmakers, Rep. Tom MacArthur's (R-N.J.) office said separate legislation would close that loophole. House rule for AHCA & Member of Congress health care waiver exemption bills were issued tonight. Both will be voted on by House Thursday. pic.twitter.com/TYWD7qO17n
'-- Craig Caplan (@CraigCaplan) May 4, 2017All members of Congress and their staff are required, like every other ObamaCare enrollee, to buy coverage through the ObamaCare marketplace.
The House Rules Committee approved procedural rules Wednesday night to fast-track consideration of both the GOP healthcare bill and the separate measure to address the potential congressional exemption.
BREAKING: House Narrowly Passes Healthcare Bill -- Here's What You Need to Know - Guy Benson
Sat, 06 May 2017 02:49
UPDATE - By the skin of their teeth, House Republicans passed the American Health Care Act this afternoon. They had just one vote to spare; 20 members of the GOP conference voted no, along with every Democrat. The bill now advances to the United States Senate where inevitable changes will be made (see more analysis below). As I said on Fox News as the news broke, this is the legislative equivalent of a first down -- but not a touchdown. More work is needed, as I've outlined in this piece. The House also unanimously passed a measure explicitly not exempting themselves from the law, which fixes the issue raised here. It's a big day, but there's an arduous road ahead for this legislation.
*** Original Post ***
In March, they didn't have the votes, and the bill was pulled. Today, they appear to have the votes, so they're moving forward on the floor. I have both practical policy concerns about the legislation, as well as good-government procedural objections to the nature of the process -- but let's start with what is actually in the refurbished American Health Care Act:
INDIVIDUAL MARKET: The AHCA repeals Obamacare's individual mandate tax, which requires every American to purchase a product, fining millions who won't or cannot afford to comply. It rolls back the employer mandate, which has had negative economic impacts, including curtailing some workers' hours. It rolls back, repeals, and delays many of Obamacare's taxes, such as the innovation-stifling medical device tax. It undoes the current law's subsidy system starting in 2020, replacing it with an "age-adjusted, advanceable, refundable" refundable tax credit for individuals and households, raging from $2,000 to $14,000 per year (with generosity levels phasing out for wealthier recipients). It doubles the allowed tax-free annual contribution to Health Savings Accounts, and it shifts the ratio of "age bands" to pre-Obamacare levels, allowing carriers to offer cheaper plans to younger consumers.
MEDICAID REFORM: The AHCA grandfathers in everyone who has been included in Obamacare's expansion of Medicaid, then "transition[s] Medicaid into a system in which each state receives a certain amount of money for each of its residents in the program and has more flexibility over how the program functions. That allocation would revert to per person spending levels from 2016 and then grow each year at the rate of medical inflation. However, states would still receive enhanced Obamacare-levels of spending for individuals who were grandfathered in by having enrolled in expanded Medicaid before 2020." Medicaid already suffered from major flaws such as poor health outcomes and seriously constricted access to care before Obamacare expanded it significantly. One-in-three doctors are not accepting new Medicaid patients. The status quo is hugely expensive, putting major strains on state budgets, and not working well. The whole program cries out for reform, which the AHCA delivers.
PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS: The legislation maintains several of the more popular mandates and protections under Obamacare (although it's worth noting that some of those requirements become much less popular once people are told how much they cost). People with pre-existing conditions must be covered, adult children can stay on their parents' plans through age 26, coverage plans must comply with Obamacare's categories of "essential health benefits," and consumers with pre-existing conditions cannot be charged more than others. On the latter two mandate categories, states have the option to seek waivers from some of the EHB's and "community rating" restrictions. In order to be granted a waiver, states must attest and demonstrate that they are doing so in pursuit of lowering premiums and/or covering more people. Recall that before Obamacare, every single state had a set of mandates and regulations in place. So even if some states apply for and receive voluntary waivers, there will be protections and requirements for consumers who live there. Fear-mongering about a return to the "wild west" are exaggerated.
No matter where they live, anyone who has continuous coverage (including people with pre-existing conditions who signed up for plans under Obamacare) cannot be impacted by a "community rating" waiver, immediately or in the future. And those consumers without coverage who decide to obtain it must be able to purchase to it. Average consumers who do this will be charged a one-time 30 percent surcharge on their plan for one year. Consumers with pre-existing conditions must have access to a high risk pool, which will be especially important in so-called waiver states. The AHCA directs upwards of $130 billion to these and similar funds. I strongly recommend this piece by Avik Roy, who argues that the fixation on pre-existing conditions (a worthwhile and compassionate concern) has taken on an outsized role in these debates. Part of his evidence is the fact that enrollment in Obamacare's "bridge" program to help bring Americans with pre-existing ailments into the insurance fold between the law's passage in 2010 and implementation barely broke into six figures.
POLICY CONCERNS: This legislation is far from perfect, and the Senate's open-ended amendment process must and will be used to alter the bill. My biggest worries about the policy impact are as follows. (1) It's widely recognized that a critical mass of older Americans approaching retirement age will be priced out of affordable plans, based on the level of assistance provided in the AHCA tax credits. Axios reports that GOP Senators, led by John Thune, plan to address this shortcoming. It is an urgent priority. (2) I've been told by senior Republican sources that health insurance actuaries have blessed the '30 percent surcharge' mechanism for incentivizing continuous coverage (especially among younger, healthier people) as effective, but I remain skeptical. If the only slap on the wrist for waiting to get sick or injured before showing up to buy "insurance" is a one-time, quickly-expiring uptick in cost, why wouldn't these consumers just save the money and wait?
This is precisely the dynamic that is dooming Obamacare's risk pools. More affordable, less mandate-laden coverage offerings to younger folks may attract more 'young invincibles' to the market, but the Senate should explore whether or not pro-rating the surcharge to reflect the amount of time a new consumer was uninsured might work better. This idea from two conservative policy experts, featuring automatically enrolling people (with an opt-out) into basic plans with costs that align with their tax credits, should also get a look. Cost could be a problematic factor, however. (3) Despite several layers of pre-existing condition protections, some studies suggest that even the AHCA's nine-figure allocation for high risk pools may not be sufficient to help those who fall through the cracks. The issue is that we don't know what the patchwork of waivers might look like. Experts should be consulted on this matter, taking into account the number of currently-uninsured people with pre-existing conditions living in states most likely to pursue "community rating" waivers.
PROCESS CONCERNS: The House's legislative process has been a mess. Having had years to develop a unified Obamacare alternative (I'd note that many bills were filed, in spite of the Democratic talking point that Republicans had "no ideas"), the GOP struggled to rally around a bill that achieved key goals and attracted the support of various factions of the party. The March debacle was a nadir. Now, the House is going to vote on a bill without the finalized text being available to the public (or even members!) for any reasonable amount of time, and without a fiscal score from the Congressional Budget Office. This is bad practice and bad precedent. Yes, CBO's projections on Obamacare have been pretty terrible on several key measures, and its preliminary judgments on the AHCA were overly alarmist, but those are not good enough excuses. In fact, the lack of a CBO score will likely delay any action in the Senate. If the upper chamber eventually passes an updated (and I'd guess significantly revamped) bill later this year, there must be a CBO score prior to final passage. The healthcare sector represents one-sixth of the US economy. I'll leave you with a flashback to Paul Ryan rightly complaining about Democrats' legislative methods in 2009, as well as the latest drop in the drip, drip, drip of Obamacare's ongoing failure:
The American Health Care Act is flawed and needs fixing. It will not become law as-is, period. Republicans campaigned on uprooting and overhauling Obamacare for seven years, winning three national elections in the process. They must deliver on their promise because the alternative would mean the abandonment of millions of people being harmed by the imploding status quo. Data has consistently shown that Obamacare has hurt more people than it's helped. Today's vote, assuming passage, is an important first step in the process of cleaning up the unsustainable mess created exclusively by Democrats in 2009 and 2010. Yes, it is fraught with political risk, but so is failing to act. Moving forward, Republicans must be open to empirical data and expertise in plugging policy holes in this proposal. They must be cognizant of the reality that healthcare policy impacts real people in real ways. They should also not retreat in the face of nasty, demagogic hyperventilation from the Left, which is screaming about GOP policies 'killing' people. As a reminder, though the Democrats' law has undoubtedly helped some Americans, the evidence shows that it not been a life-saver in the aggregate -- with death rates increasing (at a higher rate in Medicaid-expanding states, by the way) and American life expectancy dropping for the first time in decades since its implementation. Finally, this is misleading:
Here's my reporting and explanation on why.
Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.
Fact Check: It's a Lie That the GOP Healthcare Bill Abandons People With Pre-Existing Conditions - Guy Benson
Sat, 06 May 2017 02:43
As we described yesterday, there are some concerning policy elements of the House-passed American Health Care Act, which the Senate would be wise to explore and rectify over the coming weeks. The bill -- and that's all it is at this point: a work in progress -- repeals and alters significant portions of the Democratic Party's failing experiment in "affordability." But based on rhetoric from elected Democrats and the Left generally, one might assume that Obamacare was called the "Pre-existing Conditions Coverage Act" (side-stepping the whole "choice and affordability" fairy tale they peddled), and that the Republican bill obliterates those protections. The proposed law would be a "death warrant" for sick women and children, they shriek, casting Obamacare opponents as the moral equivalent of accessories to murder. This is demagogic, hyperbolic, inaccurate nonsense. To review the actual facts, even under an exceedingly unlikely scenario in which the Senate passed the House bill without making a single alteration, people with pre-existing conditions are offered several layers of protection:
Layer One: Insurers are required to sell plans to all comers, including those with pre-existing conditions. This is known as "guaranteed issue," and it's mandated in the AHCA. No exceptions, no waivers. I spoke with an informed conservative news consumer earlier who was stunned to learn that this was the case, having been subjected to 24 hours of unhinged rhetoric from the Left.
Layer Two: Anyone with a pre-existing condition and who lives in a state that does not seek an optional waiver from the AHCA's (and Obamacare's) "community rating" regulation cannot be charged more than other people for a new plan when they seek to purchase one -- which, as established above, insurers are also required to sell them.
Layer Three: Anyone who is insured and remains continuously insured cannot be dropped from their plan due to a pre-existing condition, and cannot be charged more after developing one. So if you've been covered, then you change jobs or want to switch plans, carriers must sell you the plan of your choice at the same price point as everyone else. Regardless of your health status. This is true of people in non-waiver and waiver states alike.
Layer Four: If you are uninsured and have a pre-existing condition and live in a state that pursued (and obtained after jumping through hoops) a "community rating" waiver, your state is required to give you access to a "high risk pool" fund to help you pay for higher premiums. The AHCA earmarks nearly $130 billion for these sorts of patient stability funds over ten years.
It is simply a lie to say that the AHCA guts protections for people with pre-existing conditions. One can argue that perhaps $130 billion (not $8 billion, as some are dishonestly pretending) might at some point prove insufficient to covering the people described in layer four, but I think any such assessment is at best hypothetical and premature. Either way, it's a very different critique than the scare-mongering going around right now. Also, I'll repeat: The number of "uninsurable" Americans with pre-existing conditions within the individual market represents a tiny sliver of the overall population. Helping these people was one of the few credibly-popular selling points and actual achievements of Obamacare. But the existing law's track record on this front helps illustrate how limited the scope of that particular problem is:
Obamacare created a "bridge" program that allowed previously-uninsurable consumers with pre-existing conditions to get coverage in between the law's 2010 passage and full implementation a few years later. At its peak, it attracted less than 115,000 takers. Those people matter, and they were helped. But that statistic helps contextualize the problem, especially compared to Obamacare's overriding flaw: Unaffordability, leading to lack of participation, leading to unsustainable risk pools, leading to insurers pulling out and hiking premiums, leading to unaffordability, leading to further lack of participation, etc. As for the moral bullying about the AHCA supposedly leading to thousands of deaths (with these pronouncements coming from the very same people who lied incessantly and made spectacularly wrong predictions about Obamacare, by the way), consider this data-based evidence:
Public-health data from the Centers for Disease Control confirm what one might expect from a health-care reform that expanded Medicaid coverage for adults: no improvement. In fact, things have gotten worse. Age-adjusted death rates in the U.S. have consistently declined for decades, but in 2015 '-- unlike in 19 of the previous 20 years '-- they increased. For the first time since 1993, life expectancy fell. Had mortality continued to decline during ACA implementation in 2014 and 2015 at the same rate as during the 2000''13 period, 80,000 fewer Americans would have died in 2015 alone. Of course, correlation between ACA implementation and increased mortality does not prove causation. Researchers hypothesize that increases in obesity, diabetes, and substance abuse may be responsible. But thanks to the roughly half of states that refused the ACA's Medicaid expansion, a good control group exists. Surely the states that expanded Medicaid should at least perform better in this environment of rising mortality? Nope. Mortality in 2015 rose more than 50 percent faster in the 26 states (and Washington, D.C.) that expanded Medicaid during 2014 than in the 24 states that did not.
If conservatives wanted to turn liberals' demagoguery against them, they could cite these numbers to claim that Obamacare is killing tens of thousands of people -- especially in Medicaid expansion states -- and that Democrats have blood on their hands. Murderers! Let's not match their repugnant hackery. But we should make them aware of evidence that could build that deeply uncharitable and specious narrative. And speaking of Medicaid, I've seen a lot of hyperventilating about "deep cuts" to the program, which was already suffering poor health outcomes and restricted access before Obamacare's huge expansion of it. The AHCA does eventually transition to a major reform of the dysfunctional program, but it does so via a gradual tapering and eventual halt of Medicaid's expansion several years from now, with existing recipients (including new additions under the continued expansion) grandfathered in. May I repeat: There are flaws in the bill that need to be addressed. But the fact-challenged, emotional, manipulate meltdown on the Left is designed to scare people, not inform them. And it has the side effect of distracting from the spiraling betrayals of Obamacare, a program the Left put in place last time they were in charge. I'll leave you with this strong editorial from the Wall Street Journal:
Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.
Hospitals, doctors and insurers criticize health bill | Hillary Clinton to launch 'resistance' PAC - MarketWatch
Sat, 06 May 2017 14:51
ReutersPresident Donald Trump congratulates House Speaker Paul Ryan at a White House celebration after the House passed the American Health Care Act on Thursday. Hospitals and doctors, among others, are criticizing the bill.In a rare moment of unity, hospitals, doctors, health insurers and some consumer groups are urging significant changes, at minimum, to the Republican health-care bill that passed the House on Thursday, writes the New York Times.
The prospect of millions of people being unable to afford coverage if the bill becomes law led to an outcry from the health-care industry as well as consumer groups. They found an ally in some insurers, who rely heavily on Medicare and Medicaid as mainstays of their business. The bill, which is expected to undergo changes in the Senate, makes deep cuts to Medicaid.
Also read:Opinion: Republicans' health-care bill would be comical if it weren't so dangerous.
And:Say what? Trump praises Australia's universal health care.
Senate readies own bill: Senators aren't content to just take up the House-passed bill, as comments collected by the Washington Post indicate. ''I think there will be essentially a Senate bill,'' said Sen. Roy Blunt of Missouri, the fourth-ranking Senate Republican.
One potential area for change: Republican senators from states that have expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act '-- also known as Obamacare '-- have voiced concerns about rollbacks to that program in the House bill. Those senators include Rob Portman of Ohio and Shelley Moore Capito of West Virginia.
Clinton's 'resistance' PAC: CNN reports Hillary Clinton will soon launch a political organization aimed at funding ''resistance'' groups that are standing up to President Donald Trump. Trump's Democratic foe in the 2016 presidential election is working with former aides and donors to build an organization that will look to fund and invest in groups that have impressed her since she lost the contest, CNN says.
Also read:Losing to Trump in November took some doing on Clinton's part, says Obama strategist Axelrod.
Freedom Caucus working on tax plan: The conservative House Freedom Caucus is crafting a tax-reform bill as the subject heats up in Congress, Politico reports. The caucus, which roiled an early effort to repeal and replace Obamacare, would be parachuting into what promises to be a pitched battle over another marquee issue. Politico says members appear to be more aligned with the Trump administration on how deep tax cuts should be.
Two-thirds of Americans think that the Democratic Party is out of touch with the country - The Washington Post
Sun, 07 May 2017 00:24
Sen. Bernie Sanders, center, listens as Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton speaks during the final day of the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia on July 28, 2016. (Tannen Maury/EPA)
You might not be surprised if I were to tell you that a majority of Americans think that President Trump is out of touch with the concerns of most people in the United States today. Sure, he won the election, but a plurality of voters opposed him, and a new Washington Post-ABC News poll shows that he hasn't expanded his base of support significantly since then. You certainly wouldn't be surprised to learn that there's a broad partisan split on the question, as there is on nearly everything in politics these days.
Only 1 in 10 of those who voted for Trump in November think he's out of touch '-- but 90 percent of Hillary Clinton voters do. Partisan views are slightly more moderate, with 20 percent of Republicans and 87 percent of Democrats holding that position.
When it comes to the Republican Party, the numbers are a bit worse. Sixty-two percent of Americans, and 30 percent of Republicans themselves, think that the GOP is out of touch with the concerns of most people in the United States.
But none of this means that Democrats are seen as echoing the concerns of the common man. In fact, the Democratic Party is viewed as more out of touch than either Trump or the party's political opponents. Two-thirds of Americans think the Democrats are out of touch '-- including nearly half of Democrats themselves.
It's worth highlighting that last point. While the political opposition generally views Trump or either party as about equally out of touch '-- with about 80 to 90 percent saying so '-- the Democratic Party is viewed as far more out of touch by Democrats than Trump or the GOP are by Republicans.
Last week, we noted that Trump's party is seen as more divided than the opposition, according to data from the Pew Research Center. Sixty-eight percent of Americans think the Republican Party is more divided than united, including 57 percent of Republicans. Most Democrats, by contrast, say their party is united.
How does that comport with the findings from the Post-ABC poll? It's tricky to determine, certainly, but one way may be that a large chunk of Democrats feel that their party is united in a vision '... that's at odds with the concerns of the American public. That would certainly align with the main tension in the party, between the vision of supporters of Bernie Sanders and that of Clinton backers '-- which was made manifest during last year's Democratic primary.
Some portion of this, too, is probably a function of Clinton's loss in November (as is the shift in how people say they would have changed their vote). But it's clear that the Democratic Party is cognizant, to some extent, of the discontent at the grass roots. When Tom Perez, the newly elected leader of the party, headed out on a listening tour this month, he brought along a special guest: Sanders.
Philip Bump is a correspondent for The Post based in New York City.
Follow @pbump
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Leadership - Senior Leadership - Maya Wiley, Senior Vice President for Social Justice | The New School in New York City
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:31
MayaWiley is a nationally renowned expert on racial justice and equity. She has litigated, lobbied the U.S. Congress, and developed programs to challenge structural racism in the United States and South Africa. Wiley is currently the senior vice president for Social Justice at The New School and the Henry Cohen Professor of Urban Policy and Management at The New School's Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy. She is also the chair of the New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB), the independent oversight agency for the city's police department.
Prior to her roles with the New School and the CCRB, from 2014 to 2016, Wiley served as counsel to the mayor of the City of New York. As Mayor Bill de Blasio's chief legal advisor and a member of his Senior Cabinet, Wiley was placed at the helm of the Mayor's effort to expand affordable broadband access across New York City, advance civil and human rights and gender equity, and increase the effectiveness of the city's support for minority- and women-owned business enterprises. During her tenure, she also served as the mayor's liaison to the Mayor's Advisory Committee on the Judiciary.
Earlier Wiley was the founder and president of the Center for Social Inclusion. She has also worked for the Open Society Foundation in the United States and in South Africa; the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.; the American Civil Liberties Union; and the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York.
City & State New York magazine named Wiley one of the 100 most powerful people in New York City in 2014 and 2015. Wiley was named one of 20 Leading Black Women Social Activists Advocating Change by TheRoot.com in 2011 and a Moves Power Woman by Moves magazine in 2009.
Wiley holds a JD from Columbia University School of Law and a BA in Psychology from Dartmouth College. She lives in Brooklyn with her two daughters and her partner.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Patient & Prescription Assistance Programs | Pfizer: One of the world's premier biopharmaceutical companies
Sun, 07 May 2017 03:56
Patient & Prescription Assistance ProgramsPfizer invests heavily in research and development to discover new treatments that will alleviate suffering and give hope to patients around the world. But inventing medicines isn't enough if the people who need them can't get them. Pfizer believes that having a limited income should not limit access to medicines, so Pfizer is taking steps to improve access to prescription drugs.
Key Points Pfizer, along with other drug companies, supports the broadest access possible to medicines.Pfizer has established its own programs to help patients who need but cannot afford our drugs.Pfizer and other pharmaceutical companies have established special programs to help ensure that patients on limited incomes and those without insurance can obtain needed drugs. Pfizer RxPathways', formerly Pfizer Helpful Answers®, helps eligible patients get access to their Pfizer medicines by offering a range of support services, including insurance counseling, co-pay help, providing Pfizer medicines for free or at a savings, and more.
Pfizer's patient assistance programs have helped millions of uninsured and underinsured patients get access to the medications they need. For more information on Pfizer RxPathways, please visit www.PfizerRxPathways.com.
Pfizer's programs build on health insurance programs available through state and federal governments. Many low-income Americans are eligible for health insurance coverage through the Medicaid program, administered by the states. The Medicaid program includes a drug benefit that offers prescription drugs at little-to-no cost. Most Americans over the age of 65, regardless of income, are eligible for Medicare, which now offers a prescription drug benefit.
Pfizer actively supported the Medicare Prescription Drug benefit which became law in 2003. Under the new Medicare law, Medicare beneficiaries have all or part of their prescription drug costs covered by the government. Learn More About Medicare Drug Benefits.
Pfizer Rx Pathways is a joint program of Pfizer Inc and the Pfizer Patient Assistance Foundation'.
Women's Sexual Health | Understand your Reproductive Health
Sun, 07 May 2017 02:36
There are many health issues that only affect women. This section focuses on women's health issues.
You may also want to read about other women's sexual health topics, such as abortion, birth control, pregnancy, and STDs.
There is much we can do to protect our health. Routine visits with a health care provider can help prevent illness and can find problems that may need treatment. Pelvic exams, Pap tests, and screenings for breast cancer are all vital health care needs for women. And for women with abnormal Pap test results, tests and treatments used to prevent cervical cancer '-- colposcopy, cryotherapy, and LEEP '-- can save lives.
Our goal at Planned Parenthood is to give you up-to-date, clear information that helps you better understand your reproductive health. We hope these pages give you the facts and tools you need to protect your health and the health of women you care about.
If you have more questions or concerns about your health, we can help. Staff at your local Planned Parenthood health center can talk with you and help you get the care you need.
Mission Statement Planned Parenthood
Sun, 07 May 2017 02:33
Planned Parenthood Federation of America
Mission Statement: A Reason for Being
Planned Parenthood believes in the fundamental right of each individual, throughout the world, to manage his or her fertility, regardless of the individual's income, marital status, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, national origin, or residence. We believe that respect and value for diversity in all aspects of our organization are essential to our well-being. We believe that reproductive self-determination must be voluntary and preserve the individual's right to privacy. We further believe that such self-determination will contribute to an enhancement of the quality of life and strong family relationships.
Based on these beliefs, and reflecting the diverse communities within which we operate, the mission of Planned Parenthood is
to provide comprehensive reproductive and complementary health care services in settings which preserve and protect the essential privacy and rights of each individual to advocate public policies which guarantee these rights and ensure access to such services to provide educational programs which enhance understanding of individual and societal implications of human sexuality to promote research and the advancement of technology in reproductive health care and encourage understanding of their inherent bioethical, behavioral, and social implications (C) 2017 Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. 1-800-230-PLAN (C) 2014 Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EuroLand
Are Emmanuel Macron's Tax Evasion Documents Real? - GotNews - Linkis.com
Sun, 07 May 2017 12:55
Return our great Nation to the Vision, Principles, and Ideals of our Founders. Christian; Fiscal Responsibility; Constitutional Conservative; United States Air Force Veteran. #TCOT #CCOT #PJNET #ProLife #MAGA
Find me hererebelmouse.com/ConstitutionalWarriors
#MacronLeaks Viewers Claim To Find Evidence Macron Is On Gay Mailing List, Aide Buys Hard Drugs With Bitcoin '' MILO NEWS
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:47
The large-scale leak of confidential data related to French presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron continues to make headlines today, with some claiming to have found dubious information in the 9 gigabytes of files. While the veracity of the leaks was unclear yesterday, it has apparently been confirmed by multiple outlets, including Reuters, which describes the drop as containing ''emails and other campaign documents that Macron's campaign said on Friday had been stolen.''
According to the BBC, the French media and public have been warned that spreading the data in advance of tomorrow's election ''would breach strict election rules and could bring criminal charges.''
But while the French are keeping relatively mum on the leaks, social media users from the United States are speaking about them loud and clear, sharing some information that '' if true '' could prove rather embarrassing for Macron.
For example, Got News claims to have found among the leaked files evidence that Emmanuel Macron is on the mailing list of 'VestiareGay.'
''Mailing lists like this are opt-in only,'' the outlet claims. ''This image was found in an e-mail addressed to Emmanuel Macron.''
The outlet also declares, ''the rumors circulated about French presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron's inner circle are true,'' in reference to apparently yet-unfounded allegations that Macron is gay.
Got News also claims to have found evidence that Macron's senior campaign member Alain Tourret once ordered a ''designer drug'' using bitcoin. Presenting the screenshot below, the outlet alleges that Tourret purchased MMC-3, ''a combination of effects similar to ecstasy and crystal meth.''
''He had his package sent to a government address, which may not be as reckless as it first appears,'' states the outlet in an apparent reference to the address that has been blurred in the document screenshot above.
''If this is sent to his public address, as opposed to a home address not known to the public, then, if caught, he can claim to be victims of a prank.''
The outlet goes on to cite this screenshot, which was allegedly ''retrieved by researchers who are experts in illicit online transactions such as this drug purchase.''
The screenshot allegedly confirms that the transaction detailed in the previous screenshot took place.
Needless to say, allegations like these have caused quite a stir online '' especially since conservative social media heavyweights like Mike Cernovich are discussing them. @Cernovich This is getting better and better what documentary
'-- Melody???????????????????????? (@Melody00468759) May 6, 2017
@Cernovich#MacronLeaks Show @EmmanuelMacron Is On Gay Mailing List, Top Aides Buying Drugs Online, And More
'-- Trump Florida (@trumpflorida1) May 6, 2017
@Cernovich@duke_sauceda Finance Ministry under #EmmanuelMacron apparently hub of gay internet surfing, designer drugs and corporate gimmies #MarineLePen#Marine2017
'-- PaulFrantizek (@FrantizekPaul) May 6, 2017
@Cernovich Well, he's utterly screwed if this reaches the ISIS operatives there.
'-- ????????Jacob Dillon???????? (@ADudeFromNowere) May 6, 2017
According to AFP, current French President Francois Hollande has vowed ''a response'' to the massive hack. The agency states that Hollande said, ''we knew there were these risks during the presidential campaign because it happened elsewhere. Nothing will go without a response.''
The Independent, meanwhile, cites cyber intelligence firm Flashpoint's director Vitali Kremez, who claims a group tied to a Russian military intelligence directorate is behind the leak.
Sources:
The Independent
AFP
Wesearchr
BBC
Reuters
Got News
Emmanuel Macron Campaign Says Victim of 'Massive Hacking' - WSJ
Sun, 07 May 2017 14:06
PARIS'--The political party of French presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron said its computer systems had been hacked, after thousands of emails and electronic documents purporting to come from the party were posted anonymously on the internet Friday evening.
The files were obtained several weeks ago from the personal and work email accounts of party officials, according to a statement from Mr. Macron's party, En Marche, or On the...
SJW BLM LGBBTQQIAAP
Dogs' excessive barking could peg owners with fine in Hillsborough
Fri, 05 May 2017 16:54
HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY -- Hillsborough County residents could soon be fined if their dog barks too loudly for too long.
Dog's excessive barking could peg owners with fine in Hillsborough County leaders passed noise ordinance this week Neighbors can report loud pets who make noise for more than 20 mins. County leaders passed a noise ordinance this week that allows neighbors to report loud pets'--including dogs and cats'--if they make noise for more than 20 minutes.
Officials said the noise ordinance only applies to unincorporated Hillsborough County where residents with pets could face up to $500 in fines.
As you can imagine, some pet owners aren't too happy with the new rules.
''To me that's just ridiculous,'' said one woman at a Tampa dog park. ''If someone else is being too loud can I call the cops on them and can they get a $500 fine?''
Dog owner Nicole Beissel said she understands the loud noise being a problem, but thinks being fined for the excessive barking and meowing is the real problem.
''I mean I understand that it's really annoying. Maybe they should have different times that it could happen'--like maybe after 10 p.m. or something. But during the day when your dog is barking and maybe your neighbor is not like the most friendliest person, that might not be a very good thing to do,'' Beissel said.
The county's pet resources department will enforce the ordinance during the day, and the sheriff's office will enforce it after hours.
Nock Buchanan lives in a high rise with his dog and thinks this is a matter for his building, not the authorities.
''I know there are buildings that do have maybe some dogs that bark throughout the day so maybe it's a little more. The HOA's can get involved a little bit more and kind of educate the people that live there,'' Buchanan said.
To report a loud dog, the complainant would have to record the animal for 20 minutes. They would then take that recording to either the sheriff's office or the county's pet resources department.
The authorities would then rely on affidavits from the neighbors about the dog complaints.
At a commission meeting, it was asked if someone called the sheriff's office at 3 a.m. and they didn't record the nuisance animal, what would happen. The response was that there is probably not going to be a deputy who is able to spend 20 minutes listening to a dog barking because he has other calls to go to'--which is why the county is enforcing the affidavit system.
Residents could also face 60 days in prison, or both the fine and prison time.
LATEST NEWS: HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY
Hate Trumps Love
Trump has a dangerous disability - The Washington Post
Sat, 06 May 2017 13:14
(Jenny Starrs/The Washington Post)
It is urgent for Americans to think and speak clearly about President Trump's inability to do either. This seems to be not a mere disinclination but a disability. It is not merely the result of intellectual sloth but of an untrained mind bereft of information and married to stratospheric self-confidence.
In February, acknowledging Black History Month, Trump said that ''Frederick Douglass is an example of somebody who's done an amazing job and is getting recognized more and more, I notice.'' Because Trump is syntactically challenged, it was possible and tempting to see this not as a historical howler about a man who died 122 years ago, but as just another of Trump's verbal fender benders, this one involving verb tenses.
Now, however, he has instructed us that Andrew Jackson was angry about the Civil War that began 16'‰years after Jackson's death. Having, let us fancifully imagine, considered and found unconvincing William Seward's 1858 judgment that the approaching Civil War was ''an irrepressible conflict,'' Trump says:
''People don't realize, you know, the Civil War, if you think about it, why? People don't ask that question, but why was there the Civil War? Why could that one not have been worked out?''
[When is it okay to say the president might be nuts?]
(Adriana Usero/The Washington Post)
Library shelves groan beneath the weight of books asking questions about that war's origins, so who, one wonders, are these ''people'' who don't ask the questions that Trump evidently thinks have occurred to him uniquely? Presumably they are not the astute ''lot of,'' or at least ''some,'' people Trump referred to when speaking about his February address to a joint session of Congress: ''A lot of people have said that, some people said it was the single best speech ever made in that chamber.'' Which demotes Winston Churchill, among many others.
What is most alarming (and mortifying to the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated) is not that Trump has entered his eighth decade unscathed by even elementary knowledge about the nation's history. As this column has said before, the problem isn't that he does not know this or that, or that he does not know that he does not know this or that. Rather, the dangerous thing is that he does not know what it is to know something.
The United States is rightly worried that a strange and callow leader controls North Korea's nuclear arsenal. North Korea should reciprocate this worry. Yes, a 70-year-old can be callow if he speaks as sophomorically as Trump did when explaining his solution to Middle Eastern terrorism: ''I would bomb the s--- out of them. . . . I'd blow up the pipes, I'd blow up the refineries, I'd blow up every single inch, there would be nothing left.''
As a candidate, Trump did not know what the nuclear triad is. Asked about it, he said: ''We have to be extremely vigilant and extremely careful when it comes to nuclear. Nuclear changes the whole ballgame.'' Invited to elaborate, he said: ''I think '-- I think, for me, nuclear is just the power, the devastation is very important to me.'' Someone Trump deemed fit to be a spokesman for him appeared on television to put a tasty dressing on her employer's word salad: ''What good does it do to have a good nuclear triad if you're afraid to use it?'' To which a retired Army colonel appearing on the same program replied with amazed asperity: ''The point of the nuclear triad is to be afraid to use the damn thing.''
[Trump has been sued. Here's why the Justice Department shouldn't represent him.]
As president-elect, Trump did not know the pedigree and importance of the one-China policy. About such things he can be, if he is willing to be, tutored. It is, however, too late to rectify this defect: He lacks what T.S. Eliot called a sense ''not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence.'' His fathomless lack of interest in America's path to the present and his limitless gullibility leave him susceptible to being blown about by gusts of factoids that cling like lint to a disorderly mind.
Americans have placed vast military power at the discretion of this mind, a presidential discretion that is largely immune to restraint by the Madisonian system of institutional checks and balances. So, it is up to the public to quarantine this presidency by insistently communicating to its elected representatives a steady, rational fear of this man whose combination of impulsivity and credulity render him uniquely unfit to take the nation into a military conflict.
Read more from George F. Will's archive or follow him on Facebook.
Hillary's Hitlist
Hillary Clinton to launch political group as soon as next week - POLITICO
Sat, 06 May 2017 14:54
Hillary Clinton has been working with Dennis Cheng, her campaign's finance director who was previously the Clinton Foundation's chief development officer, to bring donors into the fold. | Getty
Six months after losing the presidential election, Hillary Clinton is ready to wade back into politics.
The former secretary of state is building a new political group to fund organizations working on the resistance to President Donald Trump's agenda, spending recent weeks in Washington, New York City, and Chappaqua, N.Y., meeting with donors and potential groups to invest in, and recruiting individuals for the group's board of directors, multiple people close to the two-time White House hopeful and people familiar with the group's planning told POLITICO.
Story Continued Below
She is looking to launch the group, expected to be called Onward Together '-- a nod to her campaign slogan, Stronger Together '-- as soon as next week, they say. Clinton's spokesman declined to comment for this story.
Clinton has been working with Dennis Cheng, her campaign's finance director who was previously the Clinton Foundation's chief development officer, to bring donors into the fold.
Meanwhile, Judith McHale, who served as an undersecretary of state under Clinton, has been working with her to find groups to fund, as has former Democratic National Committee chairman, presidential candidate, and Vermont Gov. Howard Dean.
Clinton has started to fill out the board, which will include longtime ally and leading party strategist Minyon Moore.
Intelligence and analysis on lobbying '-- weekday mornings, in your inbox.
By signing up you agree to receive email newsletters or alerts from POLITICO. You can unsubscribe at any time.
She has been in conversation with a wide range of political allies to discuss her next steps for months, but along with her upcoming book, the group '-- whose existence was first reported by Axios '-- is the most concrete step. The new organization is not expected to have a large staff, but will instead focus on sending money to other organizations at a time that Democratic donors are largely unsure about how they should be spending their cash.
The effort is starting to come together as its leader is increasingly stepping back into the public spotlight '-- and while her party is still searching for its path ahead. After going quiet for a stretch after the campaign, Clinton has started publicly supporting groups aligned with her main goals, and is now not hesitating to jab at Trump when asked about him.
On Tuesday, for example, she appeared at a Women for Women International event in New York, forcefully repeating to CNN's Christiane Amanpour her belief that Russian interference and FBI Director James Comey's intervention were the proximate reasons for her loss in 2016.
Missing out on the latest scoops? Sign up for POLITICO Playbook and get the latest news, every morning '-- in your inbox.
Minyon Moore - Wikipedia
Sat, 06 May 2017 14:55
Minyon Moore (born May 16, 1958 in Chicago, Illinois) is a founder of Women Building for the Future, and heads Dewey Square Group's state and local practice. She was formerly chief executive officer and before that chief operating officer of the Democratic National Committee, and before that, assistant to the President of the United States, director of the White House Office of Public Liaison, and director of White House political affairs under President Bill Clinton.[1]
Previously, Moore worked as an advisor to the presidential campaigns of Rev. Jesse Jackson in 1984 and 1988. She also served as Governor Michael Dukakis' national deputy field director.
Moore was a senior political consultant to the 2008 Hillary Rodham Clinton presidential campaign, and was considered a member of her inner circle, "Hillaryland". Moore has been called a power player in Hillary Clinton's inner circle as Hillary Clinton began her 2016 campaign for president as well.[2]
Moore serves on the Democratic National Committee's executive committee. On February 21, 2015 they unanimously voted to adopt a resolution calling for ''Right to Vote'' Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to explicitly guarantee an individual's right to vote.[3]
Moore is a native of Chicago and has been a guest lecturer at the Harvard University Kennedy School of Government. Minyon Moore graduated from Boston University's Film School with a certificate in digital film-making and sits on the board of the Writers' Guild Foundation with leaders in the film and television industry such as Shonda Rhimes, Matthew Weiner, and Sally Wilcox.[4]
Together with Donna Brazile, Leah Daughtry, Tina Flournoy and Yolanda Caraway, Moore is a member of the informal group the "Colored Girls," described by political columnist Matt Bai as "several African-American women who had reached the highest echelons of Democratic politics."[5] Governor Howard Dean, former chair of the DNC, who had one of his dinners with the Colored Girls on the night of the 2014 midterm elections, said their perspective was important. ''They're very rare Washington insiders who understand the rest of the country,'' Mr. Dean said. ''That's part of what makes them so valuable. These women have not lost their connections with where they came from.''[6]
Moore was named as a Most Influential Leader by Rainbow Push in December, 2014.[7]
She was named one of the 100 Most Powerful Women in Washington by Washingtonian Magazine.[8]
Winner of the Tin Cup award by Washington Government Relations Group for her ''proven commitment to the enrichment of African American government relations professionals''.[9]
Honored with the Spirit of Democracy Award from the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation, award given to leaders who are unselfishly dedicated to education, social and economic justice.[10]
Winner of the Uncommon Height Award: Each year an Uncommon Height Award is presented to one or more individuals who have achieved uncommon heights in excellence of service to others. Awardees are recognized for their ability to exceed far above and beyond oneself in the same spirit and tradition of Dr. Dorothy Height.[11]
Hollywood Whackers
Former MTV VJ - Adam Curry - Conspiracy Crackpot
Sun, 07 May 2017 14:00
LaPorte may be an atheist (I think he's Jewish) but a skeptic he certainly is not. Just listen to his podcast anytime an Apple product launches.
You must have missed just about every episode of TWiT, MacBreak Weekly, and The Tech Guy in the past three weeks. He calls Snow Leopard "Snow Job" and says it should have been released as a service pack. He also rails on David Pogue, who got the exclusive interview with Steve Jobs after the 9.9.09 event, for not following up on questions about why the new iPod Touch doesn't have a camera even though leaked pictures of the internals from early this summer showed the camera and on the released version the spot for the camera hardware is simply empty. If Leo seems like a Fanboy it must be because Apple generally makes good products.
You are correct about Leo's religious beliefs:
@randypeterman I'm an atheist, but any educated westerner should know the
Bible.8:36 AM Jun 11th, 2008 from web in reply to randypeterman
http://twitter.com/LeoLaporte/status/832258143
Michael Jackson sent letters predicting he would be killed | Daily Mail Online
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:59
In notes to a friend before he died Michael Jackson said he would be murderedHe sent the messages to German businessman and friend Michael JacobshagenIn 13 messages Jackson said 'they are trying to murder me' and 'I am scared' Jacobshagen told an Australian television show that Jackson called him crying By Caroline Graham for The Mail on Sunday
Published: 19:07 EDT, 6 May 2017 | Updated: 19:58 EDT, 6 May 2017
6.4k shares
646
View
comments
Michael Jackson predicted he would be murdered in handwritten notes he gave to a friend weeks before his death
Michael Jackson predicted he would be murdered in handwritten notes he gave to a friend weeks before his death of a drugs overdose in 2009.
The letters will bolster the belief of many, including Jackson's daughter Paris and sister La Toya, that the King of Pop was unlawfully killed.
In the 13 messages he declared: 'They are trying to murder me' and 'I am scared about my life.'
Their existence has been revealed for the first time by German businessman Michael Jacobshagen, 34 '' who maintained a two-decade-long friendship with the star '' in an interview with broadcaster Daphne Barak for Australian TV show Sunday Night.
Jacobshagen tells Barak how a tearful Jackson called him from a Las Vegas hideaway. The star was preparing for a tour at London's O2 but begged his friend to fly from Germany to the US to be with him.
'He was in emotional meltdown saying, 'They are going to murder me,' ' Jacobshagen recalled. After he flew out and spent three days with the troubled star, Jackson handed Jacobshagen the notes. Jacobshagen said that the notes kept telling him 'they' were trying to murder Jackson.
The singer never clarified who 'they' were but some notes refer to concert promoters AEG, which was organising concerts in London that he was shortly due to perform.
One said: 'AEG. Make so much pressure to me'... I'm scared about my life.'
The Thriller singer was found dead just weeks later.
The official cause of death was an overdose of the sedative propofol. His personal doctor Conrad Murray served two years of a four-year jail sentence after being found guilty of involuntary manslaughter for administering a lethal dose of the drug.
Jackson's daughter Paris, 19, recently claimed her father was murdered
But Jacobshagen claims Jackson had been using propofol for more than a decade to treat his insomnia.
He says he has gone public with the notes now to support Jackson's daughter Paris, 19, who recently claimed her father was murdered. The interview will be broadcast next month in Australia, the US and other markets to coincide with the anniversary's of the star's death.
Share or comment on this article
Shut Up Slave!
Little Sisters of the Poor v. Price - Becket
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:01
AmiciAuthorsTopics13 Law ProfessorsMcGuireWoodsThe contraceptive mandate burdens petitioners' religion by commandeering their property and using it to distribute contraceptives and life-terminating drugs and devices20 StatesAttorney General of TexasThe mandate's alternative method of compliance is not the least restrictive means of providing no-cost contraceptives to petitioners' employees50 Catholic Theologians and EthicistsJames Otis Law GroupAnalysis of Catholic moral theology regarding the Mandate207 Members of CongressCovington & BurlingRFRA reflects our broad tradition of religious liberty protectionAgudas Harabbanim of the United States and Canada, Agudath Israel of America, National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs, National Council of Young Israel, Orthodox Union, Rabbinical Alliance of America, Rabbinical Council of America, Torah UmesorahLewin & LewinProblems from Orthodox Jewish perspective of treating houses of worship as of greater sanctity than yeshivasAmerican Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Association of American Physicians & Surgeons, Catholic Medical Association, Christian Medical Association, National Association of Pro Life Nurses, National Association of Catholic Nurses U.S.A., National Catholic Bioethics Center, and Physicians for LifeAmericans United for LifeCertain FDA-approved drugs and devices covered by the Mandate can terminate an embryoAmerican Center for Law & JusticeAmerican Center for Law & Justice; Center for the Study of Law and Religion, Emory University School of LawReligious organizations provide numerous secular benefits to society and a rejection of petitioners' RFRA claim will negatively impact their ability to provide services to those in need.American Islamic Congress, Chaplain Alliance for Religious Liberty, Church of God in Christ, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Lutheran Church'--Missouri Synod, Orthodox Church in America, Queens Federation of ChurchesSchaerr Law Group; Church of God in Christ, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Orthodox Church in AmericaTo avoid government intrusion into religious affairs, the test for ''substantial burden'' should focus on the sincerity of the religious belief and the objective seriousness of the penalty for non-complianceAnglican Church in North America Jurisdiction of the Armed Forces and Chaplaincy, Ave Maria UniversityProf. Scott GaylordCourts may not usurp the right of religious adherents to determine their own views regarding moral complicityAssemblies of God, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Colorado Christian University, National Association of Evangelicals, Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual AdorationKirton McConkieRFRA properly accounts for the concerns of third parties by means of its balancing testAssociation of Catholic Colleges and Universities, Cardinal Newman Society, Catholic Relief Services, Family Research Council, Institutional Religious Freedom Alliance, Thomas More Society, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, World VisionUnited States Conference of Catholic BishopsFaith-based organizations do a great amount of good and should not be forced out of providing social servicesDavid BoyleDavid BoyleAmicus' musings on religious discordBreast Cancer Prevention InstituteBioethics Defense Fund; Life Legal Defense FundMedical research regarding mandated itemsCarmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles, Religious Sisters of Mercy of Alma, Michigan, School Sisters of Christ the King of Lincoln, NebraskaGibson, Dunn & CrutcherHHS's discriminatory regulations raise serious constitutional problems that can be avoided only by adopting petitioners' construction of RFRACatholic Benefits AssociationLewis Roca Rothgerber ChristieThe accommodation burdens employers' religious exercise by hijacking their health plans for the delivery of morally objectionable drugs and devicesCatholic Defense LeagueAndrew SchlaflyThe mandate violates Catholic beliefsCato Institute and Independent Women's ForumCato Institute, Prof. Josh Blackman, Prof. Erin Hawley, Prof. Joshua HawleyThe ACA does not delegate to the Departments the authority to discriminate among religious nonprofitsChristian and Missionary AllianceO'Melveny & Myers; Liberty InstituteHHS impermissibly distinguishes between religious believers, fully protecting only those groups it deems sufficiently ''religious''Christian Legal Society, Association of Christian Schools International, American Association of Christian SchoolsWilmer HaleDevastating effects on religious liberty if lower courts' interpretation of the substantial burden standard is allowed to remainChurch of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Islamic Center of Murfreesboro, Pastor Robert Soto and other members of the Lipan Apache TribeBaker BottsThe experience of Amici shows that allowing government to second-guess religious beliefs and favor some religious groups over others uniquely harms the very minority religions that RFRA was designed to protectCollege of the OzarksHusch BlackwellThe HHS regulations impose a substantial burden on the College's religious beliefsCNS International Ministries and Heartland Christian CollegeOttsen, Leggat & BelzHistory of the government's eight changes to the contraceptive mandate, each time claiming the latest iteration was the least restrictive means availableConcerned Women for AmericaNational Legal FoundationWomen value religious freedom, ministry, and serviceConstitutional Law ScholarsHunton & WilliamsRFRA properly balances religious freedom and third-party interestsCouncil for Christian Colleges and UniversitiesWarner Norcross & JuddThe government's decision to exempt churches, but not religious colleges like Petitioners, is arbitrary and cannot survive strict scrutinyDominican Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist, Sisters of Life, Judicial Education ProjectPillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman; Judicial Crisis NetworkThe Government intentionally used Section 6033 to gerrymander the religious exemptionEagle Forum Education & Legal Defense FundLawrence JosephThe Mandate burdens religion and there is no compelling governmental interestEternal Word Television NetworkDuncan PLLCThe religious exercise at issue is avoiding complicity in someone else's wrongdoing and the so-called ''accommodation'' does nothing to diminish that complicityEthics and Public Policy CenterMunger, Tolles & OlsonConsistent with familiar strict scrutiny principles, RFRA includes stringent standards with respect to compelling governmental interest and least restrictive means; the government does not meet these standardsEthics & Religious Liberty Commission, the International Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, Dr. R. Albert Mohler, Jr., Southern Baptist Theological SeminaryNelson Mullins; International Mission Board of the Southern Baptist ConventionAnalysis of Christian doctrine and Southern Baptist teaching regarding the MandateFamilies of Residents at Homes of the Little Sisters of the PoorDwight DuncanStories of how the Little Sisters of the Poor have ministered to the elderly poorFormer Justice Department OfficialsKirkland & Ellis, Prof. Michael McConnellThe federal government's arguments in these cases contradict the federal government's arguments regarding moral complicity in the context of criminal prosecutionsFormer Rep. Bart Stupak and Center for Constitutional JurisprudenceCenter for Constitutional JurisprudenceUnelected, unaccountable regulatory agencies cannot create a compelling interest without clear authority from Congress, and that authority is lacking hereFoundation for Moral LawFoundation for Moral LawExempting the Little Sisters from the contraceptive mandate is a less restrictive alternativeInternational Conference of Evangelical Chaplain EndorsersChaplains' CounselThe mandate is a direct attack on freedom of conscienceJustice and Freedom FundJames Hirsen, Deborah DewartAccommodating religious employers does not constitute invidious discriminationKnights of ColumbusLewis Roca Rothgerber Christie; Knights of ColumbusThe government cannot have a compelling interest in forcing some ministries to comply with the Mandate when it has voluntarily excused others that are essentially identical; Title X is a less restrictive alternativeLiberty CounselLiberty CounselHistorical underpinnings of religious libertyDr. Michael New, Charlotte Lozier InstituteLangdon Law, Thomas MessnerStatistical research shows that increasing access to contraceptives does not decrease number of unintended pregnanciesOrthodox Jewish RabbisHoward SlughAs a minority within a minority, Orthodox Jews will experience deprivations of their religious liberty if judges second-guess their sincerely held religious beliefsThomas More Law CenterThomas More Law CenterThe Mandate substantially burdens Petitioners' religious exerciseU.S. Justice Foundation, Eberle Communications Group, Public Advocate of the U.S., Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, Institute on the Constitution, Policy Analysis Center, Southwest Prophecy Ministries, Daniel Chapter One, and Virginia Del. Bob MarshallWilliam J. Olson, U.S. Justice FoundationCongress never mandated that contraceptives, including abortifacients, be provided to womenWomen Speak for ThemselvesProf. Helen Alvar(C)The government has not shown a compelling interest or a causal relationship between the mandate and improved health for women, nor has the government proven its claims about the mandate's effects on women's access to health services
Presidential Executive Order Promoting Free Speech and Religious Liberty | whitehouse.gov
Sun, 07 May 2017 04:56
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release
May 04, 2017
EXECUTIVE ORDER
- - - - - - -
PROMOTING FREE SPEECH AND RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to guide the executive branch in formulating and implementing policies with implications for the religious liberty of persons and organizations in America, and to further compliance with the Constitution and with applicable statutes and Presidential Directives, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. It shall be the policy of the executive branch to vigorously enforce Federal law's robust protections for religious freedom. The Founders envisioned a Nation in which religious voices and views were integral to a vibrant public square, and in which religious people and institutions were free to practice their faith without fear of discrimination or retaliation by the Federal Government. For that reason, the United States Constitution enshrines and protects the fundamental right to religious liberty as Americans' first freedom. Federal law protects the freedom of Americans and their organizations to exercise religion and participate fully in civic life without undue interference by the Federal Government. The executive branch will honor and enforce those protections.
Sec. 2. Respecting Religious and Political Speech. All executive departments and agencies (agencies) shall, to the greatest extent practicable and to the extent permitted by law, respect and protect the freedom of persons and organizations to engage in religious and political speech. In particular, the Secretary of the Treasury shall ensure, to the extent permitted by law, that the Department of the Treasury does not take any adverse action against any individual, house of worship, or other religious organization on the basis that such individual or organization speaks or has spoken about moral or political issues from a religious perspective, where speech of similar character has, consistent with law, not ordinarily been treated as participation or intervention in a political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) a candidate for public office by the Department of the Treasury. As used in this section, the term "adverse action" means the imposition of any tax or tax penalty; the delay or denial of tax-exempt status; the disallowance of tax deductions for contributions made to entities exempted from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26, United States Code; or any other action that makes unavailable or denies any tax deduction, exemption, credit, or benefit.
Sec. 3. Conscience Protections with Respect to Preventive-Care Mandate. The Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall consider issuing amended regulations, consistent with applicable law, to address conscience-based objections to the preventive-care mandate promulgated under section 300gg-13(a)(4) of title 42, United States Code.
Sec. 4. Religious Liberty Guidance. In order to guide all agencies in complying with relevant Federal law, the Attorney General shall, as appropriate, issue guidance interpreting religious liberty protections in Federal law.
Sec. 5. Severability. If any provision of this order, or the application of any provision to any individual or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this order and the application of its other provisions to any other individuals or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
DONALD J. TRUMP
THE WHITE HOUSE,
May 4, 2017.
Australia Trip Update
Adam's Junk
Perth
Melbourne
Auckland
Wellington
Christchurch
Brisbane
Gold Coast
Sydney
Home
NA-Tech News
Proprietary Software - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation
Sun, 07 May 2017 06:02
Proprietary software, also called nonfree software, means software that doesn't respect users' freedom and community. A proprietary program puts its developer or owner in a position of power over its users. This power is in itself an injustice.
The point of this page is that the initial injustice of proprietary software often leads to further injustices: malicious functionalities.
Power corrupts; the proprietary program's developer is tempted to design the program to mistreat its users. (Software whose functioning mistreats the user is called malware.) Of course, the developer usually does not do this out of malice, but rather to profit more at the users' expense. That does not make it any less nasty or more legitimate.
Yielding to that temptation has become ever more frequent; nowadays it is standard practice. Modern proprietary software is typically a way to be had.
As of April, 2017, the files in this directory list around 300 instances of malicious functionalities, but there are surely thousands more we don't know about.
Company or type of productUsers of proprietary software are defenseless against these forms of mistreatment. The way to avoid them is by insisting on free (freedom-respecting) software. Since free software is controlled by its users, they have a pretty good defense against malicious software functionality.
Intel x86s hide another CPU that can take over your machine (you can't audit it) / Boing Boing
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:53
Recent Intel x86 processors implement a secret, powerful control mechanism that runs on a separate chip that no one is allowed to audit or examine. When these are eventually compromised, they'll expose all affected systems to nearly unkillable, undetectable rootkit attacks. I've made it my mission to open up this system and make free, open replacements, before it's too late.
The Intel Management Engine (ME) is a subsystem composed of a special 32-bit ARC microprocessor that's physically located inside the chipset. It is an extra general purpose computer running a firmware blob that is sold as a management system for big enterprise deployments.
When you purchase your system with a mainboard and Intel x86 CPU, you are also buying this hardware add-on: an extra computer that controls the main CPU. This extra computer runs completely out-of-band with the main x86 CPU meaning that it can function totally independently even when your main CPU is in a low power state like S3 (suspend).
On some chipsets, the firmware running on the ME implements a system called Intel's Active Management Technology (AMT). This is entirely transparent to the operating system, which means that this extra computer can do its job regardless of which operating system is installed and running on the main CPU.
The purpose of AMT is to provide a way to manage computers remotely (this is similar to an older system called "Intelligent Platform Management Interface" or IPMI, but more powerful). To achieve this task, the ME is capable of accessing any memory region without the main x86 CPU knowing about the existence of these accesses. It also runs a TCP/IP server on your network interface and packets entering and leaving your machine on certain ports bypass any firewall running on your system.
While AMT can be a great value-add, it has several troubling disadvantages. ME is classified by security researchers as "Ring -3". Rings of security can be defined as layers of security that affect particular parts of a system, with a smaller ring number corresponding to an area closer to the hardware. For example, Ring 3 threats are defined as security threats that manifest in ''userspace'' mode. Ring 0 threats occur in ''kernel'' level, Ring -1 threats occur in a ''hypervisor'' level, one level lower than the kernel, while Ring -2 threats occur in a special CPU mode called ''SMM'' mode. SMM stands for System-Management-Mode, a special mode that Intel CPUs can be put into that runs a separately defined chunk of code. If attackers can modify the SMM code and trigger the mode, they can get arbitrary execution of code on a CPU.
Although the ME firmware is cryptographically protected with RSA 2048, researchers have been able to exploit weaknesses in the ME firmware and take partial control of the ME on early models. This makes ME a huge security loophole, and it has been called a very powerful rootkit mechanism. Once a system is compromised by a rootkit, attackers can gain administration access and undetectably attack the computer.
report this ad
On systems newer than the Core2 series, the ME cannot be disabled. Intel systems that are designed to have ME but lack ME firmware (or whose ME firmware is corrupted) will refuse to boot, or will shut-down shortly after booting.There is no way for the x86 firmware or operating system to disable ME permanently. Intel keeps most details about ME absolutely secret. There is absolutely no way for the main CPU to tell if the ME on a system has been compromised, and no way to "heal" a compromised ME. There is also no way to know if malicious entities have been able to compromise ME and infect systems.
A large portion of ME's security model is "security through obscurity", a practice that many researchers view as the worst type of security. If ME's secrets are compromised (and they will eventually be compromised by either researchers or malicious entities), then the entire ME security model will crumble, exposing every recent Intel system to the worst rootkits imaginable.
Around 2013, we figured out some of the nitty-gritty details regarding how the ME firmware was packaged up into a blob. The ME firmware is verified by a secret boot ROM embedded in the chipset that first checks that the SHA256 checksum of the public key matches the one from the factory, and then verifies the RSA signature of the firmware payload by recalculating it and comparing to the stored signature. This means that there is no obvious way to bypass the signature checking, since the checking is done by code stored in a ROM buried in silicon, even though we have the public key and signature. However, there still might be an exploitable bug in the ROM bootloader.
We also discovered that the critical parts of the ME firmware are stored in a non-standard compressed format, which gets decompressed by a special hardware decompressor. My initial attempts to brute-force the decompression scheme failed miserably. Another group had better success and they have now completed a working decompression routine for all versions of ME up to but not including version 11. Kudos to them!
Our goal is to implement a completely libre software replacement for ME. When the implementation of such a security-critical component is available for scrutiny, it will be peer-reviewed and audited by persons around the world. This generally results in stronger security.
Our goal isn't to replace Intel's ME, but to provide a minimal libre alternative firmware for users who choose to use it. Unfortunately, since the firmware is protected by RSA 2048, we currently have no way to execute our own code on the ME hardware because it fails validation. We have no way to move forward, even if we wanted to.
This is scary. Most digital handcuffs are so easy to break that it's not an issue how to break it, more so an issue of the penalty one might face for actually breaking it. In this case, it is impossible to break unless you have a way to factorize semi-primes with approximately 600 decimal digits in a reasonable time. (At the time of writing this article, pretty much impossible in one human lifetime for anyone with the biggest supercomputer).
So in conclusion, Intel has so far stopped anyone from tinkering with ME firmware in practice, and there is no way to trust the code running on your ME because it's proprietary. So we are back to the days of the Sony Playstation, but for general purpose computers based on Intel x86. Matters only get worse now that Intel has squeezed a whole system into a chip, SoCs. We have no physical separation between the components that we can trust and the untrusted ME components, so we can't even cut them off the mainboard anymore.
Below is a highly simplified diagram describing how some of the older ME hardware fits into a system:
Personally, I would like if my ME only did the most basic task it was designed for, set up the bus clocks, and then shut off. This way, it would never be able to talk out of the network card with some of my personal data. I refer to the ME as the Damagement Engine, since it is a hardware add-on that damages your security.
(Banner: PIC12C508-HD, ZeptoBars, CC-BY; Diagram, CC0)
report this ad
report this ad
The SS7 vulnerability has long been understood and publicized: anyone who spends $1000 or so for a mobile data roaming license can use the SS7 protocol to tell your phone company that your phone just showed up on their network and hijack all the traffic destined for your phone, including those handy SMSes used to ['...]
READ THE RESTIn a federal complaint against Fox News, former Outnumbered host Andrea Tantaros claims that after she filed a sexual harassment claim against the former CEO Roger Ailes, Fox News contracted with a psyops team to set up a ''black room'' to run a hate campaign that targeted her by cyberstalking her, implanting malware on her ['...]
READ THE RESTYesterday I went to FedEx.com to order some printed fliers from my desktop. Sounds easy enough, right? Wrong. Along with other idiots committed to proprietary Flash UI, FedEx is one of the last holdouts who won't let customers give them money unless they install Flash. So VistaPrint got my business.
READ THE RESTAlthough it can be tough to talk to Alexa when your Echo is blasting music at full volume, Amazon's voice-activated cloud assistant works remarkably well. But there's a lot of uncharted territory in the realm of conversational interfaces, and Alexa is still limited to services that have integrated her abilities. If you have an amazing ['...]
READ THE RESTMaintaining an avid reading habit is one of the best workouts your brain can get, but actually following through with that degree of literary ambition usually involves lugging around a bag full of paperbacks. To keep up with the newest books without breaking your back (and bypassing your laziness), Instaread gives you access to hundreds of ['...]
READ THE RESTThe greatest thing about technology seems to be its ability to make itself less technical. Ground zero of this phenomena is in website-building, where tools like Dragify make it easy for the less tech-savvy of us to build sites without code. Dragify is a completely visual, drag-and-drop creator that is currently available in the Boing Boing Store.Dragify's interface was ['...]
READ THE REST
Libreboot '' Frequently Asked Questions
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:52
Libreboot '' Frequently Asked QuestionsBack to previous index
What version of libreboot do I have?See ../docs/#version
Flashrom complains about DEVMEM accessIf running flashrom -p internal for software based flashing, and you get an error related to /dev/mem access, you should reboot with iomem=relaxed kernel parameter before running flashrom, or use a kernel that has CONFIG_STRICT_DEVMEM not enabled.
The backlight is darker on the left side of the screen when lowering the brightness on my X200/T400/T500/R400We don't know how to detect the correct PWM value to use in coreboot-libre, so we just use the default one in coreboot which has this issue on some CCFL panels, but not LED panels.
You can work around this in your distribution, by following the notes at ../docs/misc/#backlight%20control.
The ethernet doesn't work on my X200/T400/X60/T60 when I plug in itThis was observed on some systems using network-manager. This happens both on the original BIOS and in libreboot. It's a quirk in the hardware. On debian systems, a workaround is to restart the networking service when you connect the ethernet cable:
sudo service network-manager restartOn Parabola, you can try:
sudo systemctl restart network-manager(the service name might be different for you, depending on your configuration)
My KCMA-D8 or KGPE-D16 doesn't boot with the PIKE2008 module installedLibreboot 20160818, 20160902 and 20160907 all have a bug: in SeaBIOS, PCI options ROMs are loaded when available, by default. This is not technically a problem, because an option ROM can be free or non-free. In practise, though, they are usually non-free.
Loading the option ROM from the PIKE2008 module on either ASUS KCMA-D8 or KGPE-D16 causes the system to hang at boot. It's possible to use this in the payload (if you use a linux kernel payload, or petitboot), or to boot (with SeaGRUB and/or SeaBIOS) from regular SATA and then use it in GNU+Linux. The Linux kernel is capable of using the PIKE2008 module without loading the option ROM.
Libreboot-unstable (or git) now disables loading PCI option ROMs, but previous releases with SeaGRUB (20160818-20160907) do not. You can work around this by running the following command:
./cbfstool yourrom.rom add-int -i 0 -n etc/pci-optionrom-execYou can find cbfstool in the _util archive with the libreboot release that you are using.
What systems are compatible with libreboot?See ../docs/hardware/.
Why is the latest Intel hardware unsupported in libreboot?It is unlikely that any post-2008 Intel hardware will ever be supported in libreboot, due to severe security and freedom issues; so severe, that the libreboot project recommends avoiding all modern Intel hardware. If you have an Intel based system affected by the problems described below, then you should get rid of it as soon as possible. The main issues are as follows:
Intel Management Engine (ME)Introduced in June 2006 in Intel's 965 Express Chipset Family of (Graphics and) Memory Controller Hubs, or (G)MCHs, and the ICH8 I/O Controller Family, the Intel Management Engine (ME) is a separate computing environment physically located in the (G)MCH chip. In Q3 2009, the first generation of Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Nehalem) CPUs and the 5 Series Chipset family of Platform Controller Hubs, or PCHs, brought a more tightly integrated ME (now at version 6.0) inside the PCH chip, which itself replaced the ICH. Thus, the ME is present on all Intel desktop, mobile (laptop), and server systems since mid 2006.
The ME consists of an ARC processor core (replaced with other processor cores in later generations of the ME), code and data caches, a timer, and a secure internal bus to which additional devices are connected, including a cryptography engine, internal ROM and RAM, memory controllers, and a direct memory access (DMA) engine to access the host operating system's memory as well as to reserve a region of protected external memory to supplement the ME's limited internal RAM. The ME also has network access with its own MAC address through an Intel Gigabit Ethernet Controller. Its boot program, stored on the internal ROM, loads a firmware ''manifest'' from the PC's SPI flash chip. This manifest is signed with a strong cryptographic key, which differs between versions of the ME firmware. If the manifest isn't signed by a specific Intel key, the boot ROM won't load and execute the firmware and the ME processor core will be halted.
The ME firmware is compressed and consists of modules that are listed in the manifest along with secure cryptographic hashes of their contents. One module is the operating system kernel, which is based on a proprietary real-time operating system (RTOS) kernel called ''ThreadX''. The developer, Express Logic, sells licenses and source code for ThreadX. Customers such as Intel are forbidden from disclosing or sublicensing the ThreadX source code. Another module is the Dynamic Application Loader (DAL), which consists of a Java virtual machine and set of preinstalled Java classes for cryptography, secure storage, etc. The DAL module can load and execute additional ME modules from the PC's HDD or SSD. The ME firmware also includes a number of native application modules within its flash memory space, including Intel Active Management Technology (AMT), an implementation of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), Intel Boot Guard, and audio and video DRM systems.
The Active Management Technology (AMT) application, part of the Intel ''vPro'' brand, is a Web server and application code that enables remote users to power on, power off, view information about, and otherwise manage the PC. It can be used remotely even while the PC is powered off (via Wake-on-Lan). Traffic is encrypted using SSL/TLS libraries, but recall that all of the major SSL/TLS implementations have had highly publicized vulnerabilities. The AMT application itself has known vulnerabilities, which have been exploited to develop rootkits and keyloggers and covertly gain encrypted access to the management features of a PC. Remember that the ME has full access to the PC's RAM. This means that an attacker exploiting any of these vulnerabilities may gain access to everything on the PC as it runs: all open files, all running applications, all keys pressed, and more.
Intel Boot Guard is an ME application introduced in Q2 2013 with ME firmware version 9.0 on 4th Generation Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Haswell) CPUs. It allows a PC OEM to generate an asymmetric cryptographic keypair, install the public key in the CPU, and prevent the CPU from executing boot firmware that isn't signed with their private key. This means that coreboot and libreboot are impossible to port to such PCs, without the OEM's private signing key. Note that systems assembled from separately purchased mainboard and CPU parts are unaffected, since the vendor of the mainboard (on which the boot firmware is stored) can't possibly affect the public key stored on the CPU.
ME firmware versions 4.0 and later (Intel 4 Series and later chipsets) include an ME application for audio and video DRM called ''Protected Audio Video Path'' (PAVP). The ME receives from the host operating system an encrypted media stream and encrypted key, decrypts the key, and sends the encrypted media decrypted key to the GPU, which then decrypts the media. PAVP is also used by another ME application to draw an authentication PIN pad directly onto the screen. In this usage, the PAVP application directly controls the graphics that appear on the PC's screen in a way that the host OS cannot detect. ME firmware version 7.0 on PCHs with 2nd Generation Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Sandy Bridge) CPUs replaces PAVP with a similar DRM application called ''Intel Insider''. Like the AMT application, these DRM applications, which in themselves are defective by design, demonstrate the omnipotent capabilities of the ME: this hardware and its proprietary firmware can access and control everything that is in RAM and even everything that is shown on the screen.
The Intel Management Engine with its proprietary firmware has complete access to and control over the PC: it can power on or shut down the PC, read all open files, examine all running applications, track all keys pressed and mouse movements, and even capture or display images on the screen. And it has a network interface that is demonstrably insecure, which can allow an attacker on the network to inject rootkits that completely compromise the PC and can report to the attacker all activities performed on the PC. It is a threat to freedom, security, and privacy that can't be ignored.
Before version 6.0 (that is, on systems from 2008/2009 and earlier), the ME can be disabled by setting a couple of values in the SPI flash memory. The ME firmware can then be removed entirely from the flash memory space. libreboot does this on the Intel 4 Series systems that it supports, such as the Libreboot X200 and Libreboot T400. ME firmware versions 6.0 and later, which are found on all systems with an Intel Core i3/i5/i7 CPU and a PCH, include ''ME Ignition'' firmware that performs some hardware initialization and power management. If the ME's boot ROM does not find in the SPI flash memory an ME firmware manifest with a valid Intel signature, the whole PC will shut down after 30 minutes.
Due to the signature verification, developing free replacement firmware for the ME is basically impossible. The only entity capable of replacing the ME firmware is Intel. As previously stated, the ME firmware includes proprietary code licensed from third parties, so Intel couldn't release the source code even if they wanted to. And even if they developed completely new ME firmware without third-party proprietary code and released its source code, the ME's boot ROM would reject any modified firmware that isn't signed by Intel. Thus, the ME firmware is both hopelessly proprietary and ''tivoized''.
In summary, the Intel Management Engine and its applications are a backdoor with total access to and control over the rest of the PC. The ME is a threat to freedom, security, and privacy, and the libreboot project strongly recommends avoiding it entirely. Since recent versions of it can't be removed, this means avoiding all recent generations of Intel hardware.
More information about the Management Engine can be found on various Web sites, including me.bios.io, unhuffme, coreboot wiki, and Wikipedia. The book Platform Embedded Security Technology Revealed describes in great detail the ME's hardware architecture and firmware application modules.
If you're stuck with the ME (non-libreboot system), you might find this interesting: http://hardenedlinux.org/firmware/2016/11/17/neutralize_ME_firmware_on_sandybridge_and_ivybridge.html
Also see (effort to disable the ME): https://www.coreboot.org/pipermail/coreboot/2016-November/082331.html - look at the whole thread
Firmware Support Package (FSP)On all recent Intel systems, coreboot support has revolved around integrating a blob (for each system) called the FSP (firmware support package), which handles all of the hardware initialization, including memory and CPU initialization. Reverse engineering and replacing this blob is almost impossible, due to how complex it is. Even for the most skilled developer, it would take years to replace. Intel distributes this blob to firmware developers, without source.
Since the FSP is responsible for the early hardware initialization, that means it also handles SMM (System Management Mode). This is a special mode that operates below the operating system level. It's possible that rootkits could be implemented there, which could perform a number of attacks on the user (the list is endless). Any Intel system that has the proprietary FSP blob cannot be trusted at all. In fact, several SMM rootkits have been demonstrated in the wild (use a search engine to find them).
CPU microcode updatesAll modern x86 CPUs (from Intel and AMD) use what is called microcode. CPUs are extremely complex, and difficult to get right, so the circuitry is designed in a very generic way, where only basic instructions are handled in hardware. Most of the instruction set is implemented using microcode, which is low-level software running inside the CPU that can specify how the circuitry is to be used, for each instruction. The built-in microcode is part of the hardware, and read-only. Both the circuitry and the microcode can have bugs, which could cause reliability issues.
Microcode updates are proprietary blobs, uploaded to the CPU at boot time, which patches the built-in microcode and disables buggy parts of the CPU to improve reliability. In the past, these updates were handled by the operating system kernel, but on all recent systems it is the boot firmware that must perform this task. Coreboot does distribute microcode updates for Intel and AMD CPUs, but libreboot cannot, because the whole point of libreboot is to be 100% free software.
On some older Intel CPUs, it is possible to exclude the microcode updates and not have any reliability issues in practise. All current libreboot systems work without microcode updates (otherwise, they wouldn't be supported in libreboot). However, all modern Intel CPUs require the microcode updates, otherwise the system will not boot at all, or it will be extremely unstable (memory corruption, for example).
Intel CPU microcode updates are signed, which means that you could not even run a modified version, even if you had the source code. If you try to upload your own modified updates, the CPU will reject them.
The microcode updates alter the way instructions behave on the CPU. That means they affect the way the CPU works, in a very fundamental way. That makes it software. The updates are proprietary, and are software, so we exclude them from libreboot. The microcode built into the CPU already is not so much of an issue, since we can't change it anyway (it's read-only).
Intel is uncooperativeFor years, coreboot has been struggling against Intel. Intel has been shown to be extremely uncooperative in general. Many coreboot developers, and companies, have tried to get Intel to cooperate; namely, releasing source code for the firmware components. Even Google, which sells millions of chromebooks (coreboot preinstalled) have been unable to persuade them.
Even when Intel does cooperate, they still don't provide source code. They might provide limited information (datasheets) under strict corporate NDA (non-disclosure agreement), but even that is not guaranteed. Even ODMs and IBVs can't get source code from Intel, in most cases (they will just integrate the blobs that Intel provides).
Recent Intel graphics chipsets also require firmware blobs.
Intel is only going to get worse when it comes to user freedom. Libreboot has no support recent Intel platforms, precisely because of the problems described above. The only way to solve this is to get Intel to change their policies and to be more friendly to the free software community. Reverse engineering won't solve anything long-term, unfortunately, but we need to keep doing it anyway. Moving forward, Intel hardware is a non-option unless a radical change happens within Intel.
Basically, all Intel hardware from year 2010 and beyond will never be supported by libreboot. The libreboot project is actively ignoring all modern Intel hardware at this point, and focusing on alternative platforms.
Why is the latest AMD hardware unsupported in libreboot?It is extremely unlikely that any post-2013 AMD hardware will ever be supported in libreboot, due to severe security and freedom issues; so severe, that the libreboot project recommends avoiding all modern AMD hardware. If you have an AMD based system affected by the problems described below, then you should get rid of it as soon as possible. The main issues are as follows:
We call on AMD to release source code and specs for the new AMD Ryzen platforms! We call on the community to put pressure on AMD. Click here to read more
AMD Platform Security Processor (PSP)This is basically AMD's own version of the Intel Management Engine. It has all of the same basic security and freedom issues, although the implementation is wildly different.
The Platform Security Processor (PSP) is built in on all Family 16h + systems (basically anything post-2013), and controls the main x86 core startup. PSP firmware is cryptographically signed with a strong key similar to the Intel ME. If the PSP firmware is not present, or if the AMD signing key is not present, the x86 cores will not be released from reset, rendering the system inoperable.
The PSP is an ARM core with TrustZone technology, built onto the main CPU die. As such, it has the ability to hide its own program code, scratch RAM, and any data it may have taken and stored from the lesser-privileged x86 system RAM (kernel encryption keys, login data, browsing history, keystrokes, who knows!). To make matters worse, the PSP theoretically has access to the entire system memory space (AMD either will not or cannot deny this, and it would seem to be required to allow the DRM ''features'' to work as intended), which means that it has at minimum MMIO-based access to the network controllers and any other PCI/PCIe peripherals installed on the system.
In theory any malicious entity with access to the AMD signing key would be able to install persistent malware that could not be eradicated without an external flasher and a known good PSP image. Furthermore, multiple security vulnerabilities have been demonstrated in AMD firmware in the past, and there is every reason to assume one or more zero day vulnerabilities are lurking in the PSP firmware. Given the extreme privilege level (ring -2 or ring -3) of the PSP, said vulnerabilities would have the ability to remotely monitor and control any PSP enabled machine completely outside of the user's knowledge.
Much like with the Intel Boot Guard (an application of the Intel Management Engine), AMD's PSP can also act as a tyrant by checking signatures on any boot firmware that you flash, making replacement boot firmware (e.g. libreboot, coreboot) impossible on some boards. Early anecdotal reports indicate that AMD's boot guard counterpart will be used on most OEM hardware, disabled only on so-called ''enthusiast'' CPUs.
AMD IMC firmwareRead https://www.coreboot.org/AMD_IMC.
AMD SMU firmwareHandles some power management for PCIe devices (without this, your laptop will not work properly) and several other power management related features.
The firmware is signed, although on older AMD hardware it is a symmetric key, which means that with access to the key (if leaked) you could sign your own modified version and run it. Rudolf Marek (coreboot hacker) found out how to extract this key in this video demonstration, and based on this work, Damien Zammit (another coreboot hacker) partially replaced it with free firmware, but on the relevant system (ASUS F2A85-M) there were still other blobs present (Video BIOS, and others) preventing the hardware from being supported in libreboot.
AMD AGESA firmwareThis is responsible for virtually all core hardware initialization on modern AMD systems. In 2011, AMD started cooperating with the coreboot project, releasing this as source code under a free license. In 2014, they stopped releasing source code and started releasing AGESA as binary blobs instead. This makes AGESA now equivalent to Intel FSP.
AMD CPU microcode updatesRead the Intel section practically the same, though it was found with much later hardware in AMD that you could run without microcode updates. It's unknown whether the updates are needed on all AMD boards (depends on CPU).
AMD is incompetent (and uncooperative)AMD seemed like it was on the right track in 2011 when it started cooperating with and releasing source code for several critical components to the coreboot project. It was not to be. For so-called economic reasons, they decided that it was not worth the time to invest in the coreboot project anymore.
For a company to go from being so good, to so bad, in just 3 years, shows that something is seriously wrong with AMD. Like Intel, they do not deserve your money.
Given the current state of Intel hardware with the Management Engine, it is our opinion that all performant x86 hardware newer than the AMD Family 15h CPUs (on AMD's side) or anything post-2009 on Intel's side is defective by design and cannot safely be used to store, transmit, or process sensitive data. Sensitive data is any data in which a data breach would cause significant economic harm to the entity which created or was responsible for storing said data, so this would include banks, credit card companies, or retailers (customer account records), in addition to the ''usual'' engineering and software development firms. This also affects whistleblowers, or anyone who needs actual privacy and security.
What can I use, then?Libreboot has support for fam15h AMD hardware (~2012 gen) and some older Intel platforms (~2006-2009 gen). We also have support for some ARM chipsets (rk3288). On the Intel side, we're also interested in some of the chipsets that use Atom CPUs (rebranded from older chipsets, mostly using ich7-based southbridges).
Will libreboot work on a ThinkPad T400 or T500 with an ATI GPU?Short answer: yes. These laptops also have an Intel GPU inside, which libreboot uses. The ATI GPU is ignored by libreboot.
These laptops use what is called switchable graphics, where it will have both an Intel and ATI GPU. Coreboot will allow you to set (using nvramtool) a parameter, specifying whether you would like to use Intel or ATI. The ATI GPU lacks free native graphics initialization in coreboot, unlike the Intel GPU.
Libreboot modifies coreboot, in such a way where this nvramtool setting is ignored. Libreboot will just assume that you want to use the Intel GPU. Therefore, the ATI GPU is completely disabled on these laptops. Intel is used instead, with the free native graphics initialization (VBIOS replacement) that exists in coreboot.
Will desktop/server hardware be supported?Libreboot now supports desktop hardware: ../docs/hardware/#supported_desktops_x86amdintel (with full native video initialization).
A common issue with desktop hardware is the Video BIOS, when no onboard video is present, since every video card has a different Video BIOS. Onboard GPUs also require one, so those still have to be replaced with free software (non-trivial task). Libreboot has to initialize the graphics chipset, but most graphics cards lack a free Video BIOS for this purpose. Some desktop motherboards supported in coreboot do have onboard graphics chipsets, but these also require a proprietary Video BIOS, in most cases.
Hi, I have , is it supported?Most likely not. First, you must consult coreboot's own hardware compatibility list at http://www.coreboot.org/Supported_Motherboards and, if it is supported, check whether it can run without any proprietary blobs in the ROM image. If it can: wonderful! Libreboot can support it, and you can add support for it. If not, then you will need to figure out how to reverse engineer and replace (or remove) those blobs that do still exist, in such a way where the system is still usable in some defined way.
For those systems where no coreboot support exists, you must first port it to coreboot and, if it can then run without any blobs in the ROM image, it can be added to libreboot. See: Motherboard Porting Guide (this is just the tip of the iceberg!)
Please note that board development should be done upstream (in coreboot) and merged downstream (into libreboot). This is the correct way to do it, and it is how the libreboot project is coordinated so as to avoid too much forking of the coreboot source code.
What about ARM?Libreboot has support for some ARM based laptops, using the Rockchip RK3288 SoC. Check the libreboot hardware compatibility list, for more information.
How do I install libreboot?See ../docs/install/
How do I program an SPI flash chip?SPI flash chips can be programmed with the BeagleBone Black or the Raspberry Pi.
How do I set a boot password?If you are using the GRUB payload, you can add a username and password (salted, hashed) to your GRUB configuration that resides inside the flash chip. The following guides (which also cover full disk encryption, including the /boot/ directory) show how to set a boot password in GRUB: ../docs/gnulinux/encrypted_debian.html and ../docs/gnulinux/encrypted_parabola.html
How do I write-protect the flash chip?By default, there is no write-protection on a libreboot system. This is for usability reasons, because most people do not have easy access to an external programmer for re-flashing their firmware, or they find it inconvenient to use an external programmer.
On some systems, it is possible to write-protect the firmware, such that it is rendered read-only at the OS level (external flashing is still possible, using dedicated hardware). For example, on current GM45 laptops (e.g. ThinkPad X200, T400), you can write-protect (see ../docs/hardware/gm45_remove_me.html#ich9gen).
It's possible to write-protect on all libreboot systems, but the instructions need to be written. The documentation is in the main git repository, so you are welcome to submit patches adding these instructions.
How do I change the BIOS settings?Libreboot actually uses the GRUB payload. More information about payloads can be found at coreboot.org/Payloads.
Libreboot inherits the modular payload concept from coreboot, which means that pre-OS bare-metal BIOS setup programs are not very practical. Coreboot (and libreboot) does include a utility called nvramtool, which can be used to change some settings. You can find nvramtool under coreboot/util/nvramtool/, in the libreboot source archives.
The -a option in nvramtool will list the available options, and -w can be used to change them. Consult the nvramtool documentation on the coreboot wiki for more information.
In practise, you don't need to change any of those settings, in most cases.
Libreboot locks the CMOS table, to ensure consistent functionality for all users. You can use:
nvramtool -C yourrom.rom -w somesetting=somevalueThis will change the default inside that ROM image, and then you can re-flash it.
Do I need to install a bootloader when installing a distribution?Libreboot integrates the GRUB bootloader already, as a payload. This means that the GRUB bootloader is actually flashed, as part of the boot firmware (libreboot). This means that you do not have to install a boot loader on the HDD or SSD, when installing a new distribution. You'll be able to boot just fine, using the bootloader (GRUB) that is in the flash chip.
This also means that even if you remove the HDD or SSD, you'll still have a functioning bootloader installed which could be used to boot a live distribution installer from a USB flash drive. See .../docs/gnulinux/grub_boot_installer.html
Do I need to re-flash when I re-install a distribution?Not anymore. Recent versions of libreboot (using the GRUB payload) will automatically switch to a GRUB configuration on the HDD or SSD, if it exists. You can also load a different GRUB configuration, from any kind of device that is supported in GRUB (such as a USB flash drive). For more information, see ../docs/gnulinux/grub_cbfs.html
What does a flash chip look like?SOIC-8 SPI flash chip:
SOIT-8 SPI flash chip
SOIC-16 SPI flash chip:
SOIT-8 SPI flash chip
Who did the logo?See the license information.
The Libreboot logo is available as a bitmap, a vector, or a greyscale vector.
Libreboot Inside stickers are available as a PDF or a vector
The main freedom issue on any system, is the boot firmware (usually referred to as a BIOS or UEFI). Libreboot replaces the boot firmware with fully free code, but even with libreboot, there may still be other hardware components in the system (e.g. laptop) that run their own dedicated firmware, sometimes proprietary. These are on secondary processors, where the firmware is usually read-only, written for very specific tasks. While these are unrelated to libreboot, technically speaking, it makes sense to document some of the issues here.
Note that these issues are not unique to libreboot systems. They apply universally, to most systems. The issues described below are the most common (or otherwise critical).
Dealing with these problems will most likely be handled by a separate project.
External GPUsThe Video BIOS is present on most video hardware. On all current libreboot systems, this is implemented using free software. The Video BIOS is responsible for initializing any sort of visual display; without it, you'd have what's called a headless system.
For integrated graphics, the VBIOS is usually embedded as an option ROM in the main boot firmware. For external graphics, the VBIOS is usually on the graphics card itself. This is usually proprietary; the only difference is that SeaBIOS executes it (alternatively, you embed it in a coreboot ROM image and have coreboot executes it, if you use a different payload, such as GRUB).
We're going to tentatively say no, they're not OK. Unless you're actively working to replace the VBIOS, or find out how to get a visual display without it (possible in some cases, if the kernel driver can be modified to work without it, possibly only needing certain non-executable data).
EC (embedded controller) firmwareMost (all?) laptops have this. The EC (embedded controller) is a small, separate processor that basically processes inputs/outputs that are specific to laptops. For example:
When you flick the radio on/off switch, the EC will enable/disable the wireless devices (wifi, bluetooth, etc) and enable/disable an LED that indicates whether it's turned on or notListen to another chip that produces temperature readings, adjusting fan speeds accordingly (or turning the fan(s) on/off).Takes certain inputs from the keyboard, e.g. brightness up/down, volume up/down.Detect when the lid is closed or opened, and send a signal indicating this.Etc.Alexander Couzens from coreboot (lynxis on coreboot IRC) is working on a free EC firmware replacement for the ThinkPads that are supported in libreboot. See: https://github.com/lynxis/h8s-ec (not ready yet).
Most (all?) chromebooks have free EC firmware. Libreboot is currently looking into supporting a few ARM-based chromebooks.
EC is only present on laptops. On desktop/server boards it is absent (not required).
HDD/SSD firmwareHDDs and SSDs have firmware in them, intended to handle the internal workings of the device while exposing a simple, standard interface (such as AHCI/SATA) that the OS software can use, generically. This firmware is transparent to the user of the drive.
HDDs and SSDs are quite complex, and these days contain quite complex hardware which is even capable of running an entire operating system (by this, we mean that the drive itself is capable of running its own embedded OS), even GNU+Linux or BusyBox/Linux.
SSDs and HDDs are a special case, since they are persistent storage devices as well as computers.
Example attack that malicious firmware could do: substitute your SSH keys, allowing unauthorized remote access by an unknown adversary. Or maybe substitute your GPG keys. SATA drives can also have DMA (through the controller), which means that they could read from system memory; the drive can have its own hidden storage, theoretically, where it could read your LUKS keys and store them unencrypted for future retrieval by an adversary.
With proper IOMMU and use of USB instead of SATA, it might be possible to mitigate any DMA-related issues that could arise.
Some proof of concepts have been demonstrated. For HDDs: https://spritesmods.com/?art=hddhack&page=1 For SSDs: http://www.bunniestudios.com/blog/?p=3554
Viable free replacement firmware is currently unknown to exist. For SSDs, the OpenSSD project may be interesting.
Apparently, SATA drives themselves don't have DMA but can make use of it through the controller. This http://www.lttconn.com/res/lttconn/pdres/201005/20100521170123066.pdf (pages 388-414, 420-421, 427, 446-465, 492-522, 631-638) and this http://www.intel.co.uk/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/technical-specifications/serial-ata-ahci-spec-rev1_3.pdf (pages 59, 67, 94, 99).
The following is based on discussion with Peter Stuge (CareBear\) in the coreboot IRC channel on Friday, 18 September 2015, when investigating whether the SATA drive itself can make use of DMA. The following is based on the datasheets linked above:
According to those linked documents, FIS type 39h is ''DMA Activate FIS - Device to Host''. It mentions ''transfer of data from the host to the device, and goes on to say: Upon receiving a DMA Activate, if the host adapter's DMA controller has been programmed and armed, the host adapter shall initiate the transmission of a Data FIS and shall transmit in this FIS the data corresponding to the host memory regions indicated by the DMA controller's context.'' FIS is a protocol unit (Frame Information Structure). Based on this, it seems that a drive can tell the host controller that it would like for DMA to happen, but unless the host software has already or will in the future set up this DMA transfer then nothing happens. A drive can also send DMA Setup. If a DMA Setup FIS is sent first, with the Auto-Activate bit set, then it is already set up, and the drive can initiate DMA. The document goes on to say ''Upon receiving a DMA Setup, the receiver of the FIS shall validate the received DMA Setup request.'' - in other words, the host is supposed to validate; but maybe there's a bug there. The document goes on to say ''The specific implementation of the buffer identifier and buffer/address validation is not specified'' - so noone will actually bother. ''the receiver of the FIS'' - in the case we're considering, that's the host controller hardware in the chipset and/or the kernel driver (most likely the kernel driver). All SATA devices have flash-upgradeable firmware, which can usually be updated by running software in your operating system; malicious software running as root could update this firmware, or the firmware could already be malicious. Your HDD or SSD is the perfect place for a malicious adversary to install malware, because it's a persistent storage device as well as a computer.
Based on this, it's safe to say that use of USB instead of SATA is advisable if security is a concern. USB 2.0 has plenty of bandwidth for many HDDs (a few high-end ones can use more bandwidth than USB 2.0 is capable of), but for SSDs it might be problematic (unless you're using USB 3.0, which is not yet usable in freedom. See
Use of USB is also not an absolute guarantee of safety, so do beware. The attack surface becomes much smaller, but a malicious drive could still attempt a ''fuzzing'' attack (e.g. sending malformed USB descriptors, which is how the tyrant DRM on the Playstation 3 was broken, so that users could run their own operating system and run unsigned code). (you're probably safe, unless there's a security flaw in the USB library/driver that your OS uses. USB is generally considered one of the safest protocols, precisely because USB devices have no DMA)
Other links:
It is recommended that you use full disk encryption, on HDDs connected via USB. There are several adapters available online, that allow you to connect SATA HDDs via USB. Libreboot documents how to install several distributions with full disk encryption. You can adapt these for use with USB drives:
The current theory (unproven) is that this will at least prevent malicious drives from wrongly manipulating data being read from or written to the drive, since it can't access your LUKS key if it's only ever in RAM, provided that the HDD doesn't have DMA (USB devices don't have DMA). The worst that it could do in this case is destroy your data. Of course, you should make sure never to put any keyfiles in the LUKS header. Take what this paragraph says with a pinch of salt. This is still under discussion, and none of this is proven.
NIC (ethernet controller)Ethernet NICs will typically run firmware inside, which is responsible for initializing the device internally. Theoretically, it could be configured to drop packets, or even modify them.
With proper IOMMU, it might be possible to mitigate the DMA-related issues. A USB NIC can also be used, which does not have DMA.
CPU microcodeImplements an instruction set. See description. Here we mean microcode built in to the CPU. We are not talking about the updates supplied by the boot firmware (libreboot does not include microcode updates, and only supports systems that will work without it) Microcode can be very powerful. No proof that it's malicious, but it could theoretically
There isn't really a way to solve this, unless you use a CPU which does not have microcode. (ARM CPUs don't, but most ARM systems require blobs for the graphics hardware at present, and typically have other things like soldered wifi which might require blobs)
CPUs often on modern systems have a processor inside it for things like power management. ARM for example, has lots of these.
Sound cardSound hardware (integrated or discrete) typically has firmware on it (DSP) for processing input/output. Again, a USB DAC is a good workaround.
WebcamWebcams have firmware integrated into them that process the image input into the camera; adjusting focus, white balancing and so on. Can use USB webcam hardware, to work around potential DMA issues; integrated webcams (on laptops, for instance) are discouraged by the libreboot project.
USB host controllerDoesn't really apply to current libreboot systems (none of them have USB 3.0 at the moment), but USB 3.0 host controllers typically rely on firmware to implement the XHCI specification. Some newer coreboot ports also require this blob, if you want to use USB 3.0.
This doesn't affect libreboot at the moment, because all current systems that are supported only have older versions of USB available. USB devices also don't have DMA (but the USB host controller itself does).
With proper IOMMU, it might be possible to mitigate the DMA-related issues (with the host controller).
WWAN firmwareSome laptops might have a simcard reader in them, with a card for handling WWAN, connecting to a 3g/4g (e.g. GSM) network. This is the same technology used in mobile phones, for remote network access (e.g. internet).
NOTE: not to be confused with wifi. Wifi is a different technology, and entirely unrelated.
The baseband processor inside the WWAN chip will have its own embedded operating system, most likely proprietary. Use of this technology also implies the same privacy issues as with mobile phones (remote tracking by the GSM network, by triangulating the signal).
On some laptops, these cards use USB (internally), so won't have DMA, but it's still a massive freedom and privacy issue. If you have an internal WWAN chip/card, the libreboot project recommends that you disable and (ideally, if possible) physically remove the hardware. If you absolutely must use this technology, an external USB dongle is much better because it can be easily removed when you don't need it, thereby disabling any external entities from tracking your location.
Use of ethernet or wifi is recommended, as opposed to mobile networks, as these are generally much safer.
On all current libreboot laptops, it is possible to remove the WWAN card and sim card if it exists. The WWAN card is next to the wifi card, and the sim card (if installed) will be in a slot underneath the battery, or next to the RAM.
Can I use GNU+Linux?Absolutely! It is well-tested in libreboot, and highly recommended. See installing GNU+Linux and booting GNU+Linux.
Any recent distribution should work, as long as it uses KMS (kernel mode setting) for the graphics.
Can I use BSD?Absolutely! Libreboot has native support for NetBSD, OpenBSD and LibertyBSD. Other distros are untested.
See: docs/bsd/
Are other operating systems compatible?Unknown. Probably not.
License '' Template '' Authors '' Conduct Guidelines '' Management Guidelines '' Peers Community
Libreboot '' Frequently Asked QuestionsBack to previous index
What version of libreboot do I have?See ../docs/#version
Flashrom complains about DEVMEM accessIf running flashrom -p internal for software based flashing, and you get an error related to /dev/mem access, you should reboot with iomem=relaxed kernel parameter before running flashrom, or use a kernel that has CONFIG_STRICT_DEVMEM not enabled.
The backlight is darker on the left side of the screen when lowering the brightness on my X200/T400/T500/R400We don't know how to detect the correct PWM value to use in coreboot-libre, so we just use the default one in coreboot which has this issue on some CCFL panels, but not LED panels.
You can work around this in your distribution, by following the notes at ../docs/misc/#backlight%20control.
The ethernet doesn't work on my X200/T400/X60/T60 when I plug in itThis was observed on some systems using network-manager. This happens both on the original BIOS and in libreboot. It's a quirk in the hardware. On debian systems, a workaround is to restart the networking service when you connect the ethernet cable:
sudo service network-manager restartOn Parabola, you can try:
sudo systemctl restart network-manager(the service name might be different for you, depending on your configuration)
My KCMA-D8 or KGPE-D16 doesn't boot with the PIKE2008 module installedLibreboot 20160818, 20160902 and 20160907 all have a bug: in SeaBIOS, PCI options ROMs are loaded when available, by default. This is not technically a problem, because an option ROM can be free or non-free. In practise, though, they are usually non-free.
Loading the option ROM from the PIKE2008 module on either ASUS KCMA-D8 or KGPE-D16 causes the system to hang at boot. It's possible to use this in the payload (if you use a linux kernel payload, or petitboot), or to boot (with SeaGRUB and/or SeaBIOS) from regular SATA and then use it in GNU+Linux. The Linux kernel is capable of using the PIKE2008 module without loading the option ROM.
Libreboot-unstable (or git) now disables loading PCI option ROMs, but previous releases with SeaGRUB (20160818-20160907) do not. You can work around this by running the following command:
./cbfstool yourrom.rom add-int -i 0 -n etc/pci-optionrom-execYou can find cbfstool in the _util archive with the libreboot release that you are using.
What systems are compatible with libreboot?See ../docs/hardware/.
Why is the latest Intel hardware unsupported in libreboot?It is unlikely that any post-2008 Intel hardware will ever be supported in libreboot, due to severe security and freedom issues; so severe, that the libreboot project recommends avoiding all modern Intel hardware. If you have an Intel based system affected by the problems described below, then you should get rid of it as soon as possible. The main issues are as follows:
Intel Management Engine (ME)Introduced in June 2006 in Intel's 965 Express Chipset Family of (Graphics and) Memory Controller Hubs, or (G)MCHs, and the ICH8 I/O Controller Family, the Intel Management Engine (ME) is a separate computing environment physically located in the (G)MCH chip. In Q3 2009, the first generation of Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Nehalem) CPUs and the 5 Series Chipset family of Platform Controller Hubs, or PCHs, brought a more tightly integrated ME (now at version 6.0) inside the PCH chip, which itself replaced the ICH. Thus, the ME is present on all Intel desktop, mobile (laptop), and server systems since mid 2006.
The ME consists of an ARC processor core (replaced with other processor cores in later generations of the ME), code and data caches, a timer, and a secure internal bus to which additional devices are connected, including a cryptography engine, internal ROM and RAM, memory controllers, and a direct memory access (DMA) engine to access the host operating system's memory as well as to reserve a region of protected external memory to supplement the ME's limited internal RAM. The ME also has network access with its own MAC address through an Intel Gigabit Ethernet Controller. Its boot program, stored on the internal ROM, loads a firmware ''manifest'' from the PC's SPI flash chip. This manifest is signed with a strong cryptographic key, which differs between versions of the ME firmware. If the manifest isn't signed by a specific Intel key, the boot ROM won't load and execute the firmware and the ME processor core will be halted.
The ME firmware is compressed and consists of modules that are listed in the manifest along with secure cryptographic hashes of their contents. One module is the operating system kernel, which is based on a proprietary real-time operating system (RTOS) kernel called ''ThreadX''. The developer, Express Logic, sells licenses and source code for ThreadX. Customers such as Intel are forbidden from disclosing or sublicensing the ThreadX source code. Another module is the Dynamic Application Loader (DAL), which consists of a Java virtual machine and set of preinstalled Java classes for cryptography, secure storage, etc. The DAL module can load and execute additional ME modules from the PC's HDD or SSD. The ME firmware also includes a number of native application modules within its flash memory space, including Intel Active Management Technology (AMT), an implementation of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), Intel Boot Guard, and audio and video DRM systems.
The Active Management Technology (AMT) application, part of the Intel ''vPro'' brand, is a Web server and application code that enables remote users to power on, power off, view information about, and otherwise manage the PC. It can be used remotely even while the PC is powered off (via Wake-on-Lan). Traffic is encrypted using SSL/TLS libraries, but recall that all of the major SSL/TLS implementations have had highly publicized vulnerabilities. The AMT application itself has known vulnerabilities, which have been exploited to develop rootkits and keyloggers and covertly gain encrypted access to the management features of a PC. Remember that the ME has full access to the PC's RAM. This means that an attacker exploiting any of these vulnerabilities may gain access to everything on the PC as it runs: all open files, all running applications, all keys pressed, and more.
Intel Boot Guard is an ME application introduced in Q2 2013 with ME firmware version 9.0 on 4th Generation Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Haswell) CPUs. It allows a PC OEM to generate an asymmetric cryptographic keypair, install the public key in the CPU, and prevent the CPU from executing boot firmware that isn't signed with their private key. This means that coreboot and libreboot are impossible to port to such PCs, without the OEM's private signing key. Note that systems assembled from separately purchased mainboard and CPU parts are unaffected, since the vendor of the mainboard (on which the boot firmware is stored) can't possibly affect the public key stored on the CPU.
ME firmware versions 4.0 and later (Intel 4 Series and later chipsets) include an ME application for audio and video DRM called ''Protected Audio Video Path'' (PAVP). The ME receives from the host operating system an encrypted media stream and encrypted key, decrypts the key, and sends the encrypted media decrypted key to the GPU, which then decrypts the media. PAVP is also used by another ME application to draw an authentication PIN pad directly onto the screen. In this usage, the PAVP application directly controls the graphics that appear on the PC's screen in a way that the host OS cannot detect. ME firmware version 7.0 on PCHs with 2nd Generation Intel Core i3/i5/i7 (Sandy Bridge) CPUs replaces PAVP with a similar DRM application called ''Intel Insider''. Like the AMT application, these DRM applications, which in themselves are defective by design, demonstrate the omnipotent capabilities of the ME: this hardware and its proprietary firmware can access and control everything that is in RAM and even everything that is shown on the screen.
The Intel Management Engine with its proprietary firmware has complete access to and control over the PC: it can power on or shut down the PC, read all open files, examine all running applications, track all keys pressed and mouse movements, and even capture or display images on the screen. And it has a network interface that is demonstrably insecure, which can allow an attacker on the network to inject rootkits that completely compromise the PC and can report to the attacker all activities performed on the PC. It is a threat to freedom, security, and privacy that can't be ignored.
Before version 6.0 (that is, on systems from 2008/2009 and earlier), the ME can be disabled by setting a couple of values in the SPI flash memory. The ME firmware can then be removed entirely from the flash memory space. libreboot does this on the Intel 4 Series systems that it supports, such as the Libreboot X200 and Libreboot T400. ME firmware versions 6.0 and later, which are found on all systems with an Intel Core i3/i5/i7 CPU and a PCH, include ''ME Ignition'' firmware that performs some hardware initialization and power management. If the ME's boot ROM does not find in the SPI flash memory an ME firmware manifest with a valid Intel signature, the whole PC will shut down after 30 minutes.
Due to the signature verification, developing free replacement firmware for the ME is basically impossible. The only entity capable of replacing the ME firmware is Intel. As previously stated, the ME firmware includes proprietary code licensed from third parties, so Intel couldn't release the source code even if they wanted to. And even if they developed completely new ME firmware without third-party proprietary code and released its source code, the ME's boot ROM would reject any modified firmware that isn't signed by Intel. Thus, the ME firmware is both hopelessly proprietary and ''tivoized''.
In summary, the Intel Management Engine and its applications are a backdoor with total access to and control over the rest of the PC. The ME is a threat to freedom, security, and privacy, and the libreboot project strongly recommends avoiding it entirely. Since recent versions of it can't be removed, this means avoiding all recent generations of Intel hardware.
More information about the Management Engine can be found on various Web sites, including me.bios.io, unhuffme, coreboot wiki, and Wikipedia. The book Platform Embedded Security Technology Revealed describes in great detail the ME's hardware architecture and firmware application modules.
If you're stuck with the ME (non-libreboot system), you might find this interesting: http://hardenedlinux.org/firmware/2016/11/17/neutralize_ME_firmware_on_sandybridge_and_ivybridge.html
Also see (effort to disable the ME): https://www.coreboot.org/pipermail/coreboot/2016-November/082331.html - look at the whole thread
Firmware Support Package (FSP)On all recent Intel systems, coreboot support has revolved around integrating a blob (for each system) called the FSP (firmware support package), which handles all of the hardware initialization, including memory and CPU initialization. Reverse engineering and replacing this blob is almost impossible, due to how complex it is. Even for the most skilled developer, it would take years to replace. Intel distributes this blob to firmware developers, without source.
Since the FSP is responsible for the early hardware initialization, that means it also handles SMM (System Management Mode). This is a special mode that operates below the operating system level. It's possible that rootkits could be implemented there, which could perform a number of attacks on the user (the list is endless). Any Intel system that has the proprietary FSP blob cannot be trusted at all. In fact, several SMM rootkits have been demonstrated in the wild (use a search engine to find them).
CPU microcode updatesAll modern x86 CPUs (from Intel and AMD) use what is called microcode. CPUs are extremely complex, and difficult to get right, so the circuitry is designed in a very generic way, where only basic instructions are handled in hardware. Most of the instruction set is implemented using microcode, which is low-level software running inside the CPU that can specify how the circuitry is to be used, for each instruction. The built-in microcode is part of the hardware, and read-only. Both the circuitry and the microcode can have bugs, which could cause reliability issues.
Microcode updates are proprietary blobs, uploaded to the CPU at boot time, which patches the built-in microcode and disables buggy parts of the CPU to improve reliability. In the past, these updates were handled by the operating system kernel, but on all recent systems it is the boot firmware that must perform this task. Coreboot does distribute microcode updates for Intel and AMD CPUs, but libreboot cannot, because the whole point of libreboot is to be 100% free software.
On some older Intel CPUs, it is possible to exclude the microcode updates and not have any reliability issues in practise. All current libreboot systems work without microcode updates (otherwise, they wouldn't be supported in libreboot). However, all modern Intel CPUs require the microcode updates, otherwise the system will not boot at all, or it will be extremely unstable (memory corruption, for example).
Intel CPU microcode updates are signed, which means that you could not even run a modified version, even if you had the source code. If you try to upload your own modified updates, the CPU will reject them.
The microcode updates alter the way instructions behave on the CPU. That means they affect the way the CPU works, in a very fundamental way. That makes it software. The updates are proprietary, and are software, so we exclude them from libreboot. The microcode built into the CPU already is not so much of an issue, since we can't change it anyway (it's read-only).
Intel is uncooperativeFor years, coreboot has been struggling against Intel. Intel has been shown to be extremely uncooperative in general. Many coreboot developers, and companies, have tried to get Intel to cooperate; namely, releasing source code for the firmware components. Even Google, which sells millions of chromebooks (coreboot preinstalled) have been unable to persuade them.
Even when Intel does cooperate, they still don't provide source code. They might provide limited information (datasheets) under strict corporate NDA (non-disclosure agreement), but even that is not guaranteed. Even ODMs and IBVs can't get source code from Intel, in most cases (they will just integrate the blobs that Intel provides).
Recent Intel graphics chipsets also require firmware blobs.
Intel is only going to get worse when it comes to user freedom. Libreboot has no support recent Intel platforms, precisely because of the problems described above. The only way to solve this is to get Intel to change their policies and to be more friendly to the free software community. Reverse engineering won't solve anything long-term, unfortunately, but we need to keep doing it anyway. Moving forward, Intel hardware is a non-option unless a radical change happens within Intel.
Basically, all Intel hardware from year 2010 and beyond will never be supported by libreboot. The libreboot project is actively ignoring all modern Intel hardware at this point, and focusing on alternative platforms.
Why is the latest AMD hardware unsupported in libreboot?It is extremely unlikely that any post-2013 AMD hardware will ever be supported in libreboot, due to severe security and freedom issues; so severe, that the libreboot project recommends avoiding all modern AMD hardware. If you have an AMD based system affected by the problems described below, then you should get rid of it as soon as possible. The main issues are as follows:
We call on AMD to release source code and specs for the new AMD Ryzen platforms! We call on the community to put pressure on AMD. Click here to read more
AMD Platform Security Processor (PSP)This is basically AMD's own version of the Intel Management Engine. It has all of the same basic security and freedom issues, although the implementation is wildly different.
The Platform Security Processor (PSP) is built in on all Family 16h + systems (basically anything post-2013), and controls the main x86 core startup. PSP firmware is cryptographically signed with a strong key similar to the Intel ME. If the PSP firmware is not present, or if the AMD signing key is not present, the x86 cores will not be released from reset, rendering the system inoperable.
The PSP is an ARM core with TrustZone technology, built onto the main CPU die. As such, it has the ability to hide its own program code, scratch RAM, and any data it may have taken and stored from the lesser-privileged x86 system RAM (kernel encryption keys, login data, browsing history, keystrokes, who knows!). To make matters worse, the PSP theoretically has access to the entire system memory space (AMD either will not or cannot deny this, and it would seem to be required to allow the DRM ''features'' to work as intended), which means that it has at minimum MMIO-based access to the network controllers and any other PCI/PCIe peripherals installed on the system.
In theory any malicious entity with access to the AMD signing key would be able to install persistent malware that could not be eradicated without an external flasher and a known good PSP image. Furthermore, multiple security vulnerabilities have been demonstrated in AMD firmware in the past, and there is every reason to assume one or more zero day vulnerabilities are lurking in the PSP firmware. Given the extreme privilege level (ring -2 or ring -3) of the PSP, said vulnerabilities would have the ability to remotely monitor and control any PSP enabled machine completely outside of the user's knowledge.
Much like with the Intel Boot Guard (an application of the Intel Management Engine), AMD's PSP can also act as a tyrant by checking signatures on any boot firmware that you flash, making replacement boot firmware (e.g. libreboot, coreboot) impossible on some boards. Early anecdotal reports indicate that AMD's boot guard counterpart will be used on most OEM hardware, disabled only on so-called ''enthusiast'' CPUs.
AMD IMC firmwareRead https://www.coreboot.org/AMD_IMC.
AMD SMU firmwareHandles some power management for PCIe devices (without this, your laptop will not work properly) and several other power management related features.
The firmware is signed, although on older AMD hardware it is a symmetric key, which means that with access to the key (if leaked) you could sign your own modified version and run it. Rudolf Marek (coreboot hacker) found out how to extract this key in this video demonstration, and based on this work, Damien Zammit (another coreboot hacker) partially replaced it with free firmware, but on the relevant system (ASUS F2A85-M) there were still other blobs present (Video BIOS, and others) preventing the hardware from being supported in libreboot.
AMD AGESA firmwareThis is responsible for virtually all core hardware initialization on modern AMD systems. In 2011, AMD started cooperating with the coreboot project, releasing this as source code under a free license. In 2014, they stopped releasing source code and started releasing AGESA as binary blobs instead. This makes AGESA now equivalent to Intel FSP.
AMD CPU microcode updatesRead the Intel section practically the same, though it was found with much later hardware in AMD that you could run without microcode updates. It's unknown whether the updates are needed on all AMD boards (depends on CPU).
AMD is incompetent (and uncooperative)AMD seemed like it was on the right track in 2011 when it started cooperating with and releasing source code for several critical components to the coreboot project. It was not to be. For so-called economic reasons, they decided that it was not worth the time to invest in the coreboot project anymore.
For a company to go from being so good, to so bad, in just 3 years, shows that something is seriously wrong with AMD. Like Intel, they do not deserve your money.
Given the current state of Intel hardware with the Management Engine, it is our opinion that all performant x86 hardware newer than the AMD Family 15h CPUs (on AMD's side) or anything post-2009 on Intel's side is defective by design and cannot safely be used to store, transmit, or process sensitive data. Sensitive data is any data in which a data breach would cause significant economic harm to the entity which created or was responsible for storing said data, so this would include banks, credit card companies, or retailers (customer account records), in addition to the ''usual'' engineering and software development firms. This also affects whistleblowers, or anyone who needs actual privacy and security.
What can I use, then?Libreboot has support for fam15h AMD hardware (~2012 gen) and some older Intel platforms (~2006-2009 gen). We also have support for some ARM chipsets (rk3288). On the Intel side, we're also interested in some of the chipsets that use Atom CPUs (rebranded from older chipsets, mostly using ich7-based southbridges).
Will libreboot work on a ThinkPad T400 or T500 with an ATI GPU?Short answer: yes. These laptops also have an Intel GPU inside, which libreboot uses. The ATI GPU is ignored by libreboot.
These laptops use what is called switchable graphics, where it will have both an Intel and ATI GPU. Coreboot will allow you to set (using nvramtool) a parameter, specifying whether you would like to use Intel or ATI. The ATI GPU lacks free native graphics initialization in coreboot, unlike the Intel GPU.
Libreboot modifies coreboot, in such a way where this nvramtool setting is ignored. Libreboot will just assume that you want to use the Intel GPU. Therefore, the ATI GPU is completely disabled on these laptops. Intel is used instead, with the free native graphics initialization (VBIOS replacement) that exists in coreboot.
Will desktop/server hardware be supported?Libreboot now supports desktop hardware: ../docs/hardware/#supported_desktops_x86amdintel (with full native video initialization).
A common issue with desktop hardware is the Video BIOS, when no onboard video is present, since every video card has a different Video BIOS. Onboard GPUs also require one, so those still have to be replaced with free software (non-trivial task). Libreboot has to initialize the graphics chipset, but most graphics cards lack a free Video BIOS for this purpose. Some desktop motherboards supported in coreboot do have onboard graphics chipsets, but these also require a proprietary Video BIOS, in most cases.
Hi, I have , is it supported?Most likely not. First, you must consult coreboot's own hardware compatibility list at http://www.coreboot.org/Supported_Motherboards and, if it is supported, check whether it can run without any proprietary blobs in the ROM image. If it can: wonderful! Libreboot can support it, and you can add support for it. If not, then you will need to figure out how to reverse engineer and replace (or remove) those blobs that do still exist, in such a way where the system is still usable in some defined way.
For those systems where no coreboot support exists, you must first port it to coreboot and, if it can then run without any blobs in the ROM image, it can be added to libreboot. See: Motherboard Porting Guide (this is just the tip of the iceberg!)
Please note that board development should be done upstream (in coreboot) and merged downstream (into libreboot). This is the correct way to do it, and it is how the libreboot project is coordinated so as to avoid too much forking of the coreboot source code.
What about ARM?Libreboot has support for some ARM based laptops, using the Rockchip RK3288 SoC. Check the libreboot hardware compatibility list, for more information.
How do I install libreboot?See ../docs/install/
How do I program an SPI flash chip?SPI flash chips can be programmed with the BeagleBone Black or the Raspberry Pi.
How do I set a boot password?If you are using the GRUB payload, you can add a username and password (salted, hashed) to your GRUB configuration that resides inside the flash chip. The following guides (which also cover full disk encryption, including the /boot/ directory) show how to set a boot password in GRUB: ../docs/gnulinux/encrypted_debian.html and ../docs/gnulinux/encrypted_parabola.html
How do I write-protect the flash chip?By default, there is no write-protection on a libreboot system. This is for usability reasons, because most people do not have easy access to an external programmer for re-flashing their firmware, or they find it inconvenient to use an external programmer.
On some systems, it is possible to write-protect the firmware, such that it is rendered read-only at the OS level (external flashing is still possible, using dedicated hardware). For example, on current GM45 laptops (e.g. ThinkPad X200, T400), you can write-protect (see ../docs/hardware/gm45_remove_me.html#ich9gen).
It's possible to write-protect on all libreboot systems, but the instructions need to be written. The documentation is in the main git repository, so you are welcome to submit patches adding these instructions.
How do I change the BIOS settings?Libreboot actually uses the GRUB payload. More information about payloads can be found at coreboot.org/Payloads.
Libreboot inherits the modular payload concept from coreboot, which means that pre-OS bare-metal BIOS setup programs are not very practical. Coreboot (and libreboot) does include a utility called nvramtool, which can be used to change some settings. You can find nvramtool under coreboot/util/nvramtool/, in the libreboot source archives.
The -a option in nvramtool will list the available options, and -w can be used to change them. Consult the nvramtool documentation on the coreboot wiki for more information.
In practise, you don't need to change any of those settings, in most cases.
Libreboot locks the CMOS table, to ensure consistent functionality for all users. You can use:
nvramtool -C yourrom.rom -w somesetting=somevalueThis will change the default inside that ROM image, and then you can re-flash it.
Do I need to install a bootloader when installing a distribution?Libreboot integrates the GRUB bootloader already, as a payload. This means that the GRUB bootloader is actually flashed, as part of the boot firmware (libreboot). This means that you do not have to install a boot loader on the HDD or SSD, when installing a new distribution. You'll be able to boot just fine, using the bootloader (GRUB) that is in the flash chip.
This also means that even if you remove the HDD or SSD, you'll still have a functioning bootloader installed which could be used to boot a live distribution installer from a USB flash drive. See .../docs/gnulinux/grub_boot_installer.html
Do I need to re-flash when I re-install a distribution?Not anymore. Recent versions of libreboot (using the GRUB payload) will automatically switch to a GRUB configuration on the HDD or SSD, if it exists. You can also load a different GRUB configuration, from any kind of device that is supported in GRUB (such as a USB flash drive). For more information, see ../docs/gnulinux/grub_cbfs.html
What does a flash chip look like?SOIC-8 SPI flash chip:
SOIT-8 SPI flash chip
SOIC-16 SPI flash chip:
SOIT-8 SPI flash chip
Who did the logo?See the license information.
The Libreboot logo is available as a bitmap, a vector, or a greyscale vector.
Libreboot Inside stickers are available as a PDF or a vector
The main freedom issue on any system, is the boot firmware (usually referred to as a BIOS or UEFI). Libreboot replaces the boot firmware with fully free code, but even with libreboot, there may still be other hardware components in the system (e.g. laptop) that run their own dedicated firmware, sometimes proprietary. These are on secondary processors, where the firmware is usually read-only, written for very specific tasks. While these are unrelated to libreboot, technically speaking, it makes sense to document some of the issues here.
Note that these issues are not unique to libreboot systems. They apply universally, to most systems. The issues described below are the most common (or otherwise critical).
Dealing with these problems will most likely be handled by a separate project.
External GPUsThe Video BIOS is present on most video hardware. On all current libreboot systems, this is implemented using free software. The Video BIOS is responsible for initializing any sort of visual display; without it, you'd have what's called a headless system.
For integrated graphics, the VBIOS is usually embedded as an option ROM in the main boot firmware. For external graphics, the VBIOS is usually on the graphics card itself. This is usually proprietary; the only difference is that SeaBIOS executes it (alternatively, you embed it in a coreboot ROM image and have coreboot executes it, if you use a different payload, such as GRUB).
We're going to tentatively say no, they're not OK. Unless you're actively working to replace the VBIOS, or find out how to get a visual display without it (possible in some cases, if the kernel driver can be modified to work without it, possibly only needing certain non-executable data).
EC (embedded controller) firmwareMost (all?) laptops have this. The EC (embedded controller) is a small, separate processor that basically processes inputs/outputs that are specific to laptops. For example:
When you flick the radio on/off switch, the EC will enable/disable the wireless devices (wifi, bluetooth, etc) and enable/disable an LED that indicates whether it's turned on or notListen to another chip that produces temperature readings, adjusting fan speeds accordingly (or turning the fan(s) on/off).Takes certain inputs from the keyboard, e.g. brightness up/down, volume up/down.Detect when the lid is closed or opened, and send a signal indicating this.Etc.Alexander Couzens from coreboot (lynxis on coreboot IRC) is working on a free EC firmware replacement for the ThinkPads that are supported in libreboot. See: https://github.com/lynxis/h8s-ec (not ready yet).
Most (all?) chromebooks have free EC firmware. Libreboot is currently looking into supporting a few ARM-based chromebooks.
EC is only present on laptops. On desktop/server boards it is absent (not required).
HDD/SSD firmwareHDDs and SSDs have firmware in them, intended to handle the internal workings of the device while exposing a simple, standard interface (such as AHCI/SATA) that the OS software can use, generically. This firmware is transparent to the user of the drive.
HDDs and SSDs are quite complex, and these days contain quite complex hardware which is even capable of running an entire operating system (by this, we mean that the drive itself is capable of running its own embedded OS), even GNU+Linux or BusyBox/Linux.
SSDs and HDDs are a special case, since they are persistent storage devices as well as computers.
Example attack that malicious firmware could do: substitute your SSH keys, allowing unauthorized remote access by an unknown adversary. Or maybe substitute your GPG keys. SATA drives can also have DMA (through the controller), which means that they could read from system memory; the drive can have its own hidden storage, theoretically, where it could read your LUKS keys and store them unencrypted for future retrieval by an adversary.
With proper IOMMU and use of USB instead of SATA, it might be possible to mitigate any DMA-related issues that could arise.
Some proof of concepts have been demonstrated. For HDDs: https://spritesmods.com/?art=hddhack&page=1 For SSDs: http://www.bunniestudios.com/blog/?p=3554
Viable free replacement firmware is currently unknown to exist. For SSDs, the OpenSSD project may be interesting.
Apparently, SATA drives themselves don't have DMA but can make use of it through the controller. This http://www.lttconn.com/res/lttconn/pdres/201005/20100521170123066.pdf (pages 388-414, 420-421, 427, 446-465, 492-522, 631-638) and this http://www.intel.co.uk/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/technical-specifications/serial-ata-ahci-spec-rev1_3.pdf (pages 59, 67, 94, 99).
The following is based on discussion with Peter Stuge (CareBear\) in the coreboot IRC channel on Friday, 18 September 2015, when investigating whether the SATA drive itself can make use of DMA. The following is based on the datasheets linked above:
According to those linked documents, FIS type 39h is ''DMA Activate FIS - Device to Host''. It mentions ''transfer of data from the host to the device, and goes on to say: Upon receiving a DMA Activate, if the host adapter's DMA controller has been programmed and armed, the host adapter shall initiate the transmission of a Data FIS and shall transmit in this FIS the data corresponding to the host memory regions indicated by the DMA controller's context.'' FIS is a protocol unit (Frame Information Structure). Based on this, it seems that a drive can tell the host controller that it would like for DMA to happen, but unless the host software has already or will in the future set up this DMA transfer then nothing happens. A drive can also send DMA Setup. If a DMA Setup FIS is sent first, with the Auto-Activate bit set, then it is already set up, and the drive can initiate DMA. The document goes on to say ''Upon receiving a DMA Setup, the receiver of the FIS shall validate the received DMA Setup request.'' - in other words, the host is supposed to validate; but maybe there's a bug there. The document goes on to say ''The specific implementation of the buffer identifier and buffer/address validation is not specified'' - so noone will actually bother. ''the receiver of the FIS'' - in the case we're considering, that's the host controller hardware in the chipset and/or the kernel driver (most likely the kernel driver). All SATA devices have flash-upgradeable firmware, which can usually be updated by running software in your operating system; malicious software running as root could update this firmware, or the firmware could already be malicious. Your HDD or SSD is the perfect place for a malicious adversary to install malware, because it's a persistent storage device as well as a computer.
Based on this, it's safe to say that use of USB instead of SATA is advisable if security is a concern. USB 2.0 has plenty of bandwidth for many HDDs (a few high-end ones can use more bandwidth than USB 2.0 is capable of), but for SSDs it might be problematic (unless you're using USB 3.0, which is not yet usable in freedom. See
Use of USB is also not an absolute guarantee of safety, so do beware. The attack surface becomes much smaller, but a malicious drive could still attempt a ''fuzzing'' attack (e.g. sending malformed USB descriptors, which is how the tyrant DRM on the Playstation 3 was broken, so that users could run their own operating system and run unsigned code). (you're probably safe, unless there's a security flaw in the USB library/driver that your OS uses. USB is generally considered one of the safest protocols, precisely because USB devices have no DMA)
Other links:
It is recommended that you use full disk encryption, on HDDs connected via USB. There are several adapters available online, that allow you to connect SATA HDDs via USB. Libreboot documents how to install several distributions with full disk encryption. You can adapt these for use with USB drives:
The current theory (unproven) is that this will at least prevent malicious drives from wrongly manipulating data being read from or written to the drive, since it can't access your LUKS key if it's only ever in RAM, provided that the HDD doesn't have DMA (USB devices don't have DMA). The worst that it could do in this case is destroy your data. Of course, you should make sure never to put any keyfiles in the LUKS header. Take what this paragraph says with a pinch of salt. This is still under discussion, and none of this is proven.
NIC (ethernet controller)Ethernet NICs will typically run firmware inside, which is responsible for initializing the device internally. Theoretically, it could be configured to drop packets, or even modify them.
With proper IOMMU, it might be possible to mitigate the DMA-related issues. A USB NIC can also be used, which does not have DMA.
CPU microcodeImplements an instruction set. See description. Here we mean microcode built in to the CPU. We are not talking about the updates supplied by the boot firmware (libreboot does not include microcode updates, and only supports systems that will work without it) Microcode can be very powerful. No proof that it's malicious, but it could theoretically
There isn't really a way to solve this, unless you use a CPU which does not have microcode. (ARM CPUs don't, but most ARM systems require blobs for the graphics hardware at present, and typically have other things like soldered wifi which might require blobs)
CPUs often on modern systems have a processor inside it for things like power management. ARM for example, has lots of these.
Sound cardSound hardware (integrated or discrete) typically has firmware on it (DSP) for processing input/output. Again, a USB DAC is a good workaround.
WebcamWebcams have firmware integrated into them that process the image input into the camera; adjusting focus, white balancing and so on. Can use USB webcam hardware, to work around potential DMA issues; integrated webcams (on laptops, for instance) are discouraged by the libreboot project.
USB host controllerDoesn't really apply to current libreboot systems (none of them have USB 3.0 at the moment), but USB 3.0 host controllers typically rely on firmware to implement the XHCI specification. Some newer coreboot ports also require this blob, if you want to use USB 3.0.
This doesn't affect libreboot at the moment, because all current systems that are supported only have older versions of USB available. USB devices also don't have DMA (but the USB host controller itself does).
With proper IOMMU, it might be possible to mitigate the DMA-related issues (with the host controller).
WWAN firmwareSome laptops might have a simcard reader in them, with a card for handling WWAN, connecting to a 3g/4g (e.g. GSM) network. This is the same technology used in mobile phones, for remote network access (e.g. internet).
NOTE: not to be confused with wifi. Wifi is a different technology, and entirely unrelated.
The baseband processor inside the WWAN chip will have its own embedded operating system, most likely proprietary. Use of this technology also implies the same privacy issues as with mobile phones (remote tracking by the GSM network, by triangulating the signal).
On some laptops, these cards use USB (internally), so won't have DMA, but it's still a massive freedom and privacy issue. If you have an internal WWAN chip/card, the libreboot project recommends that you disable and (ideally, if possible) physically remove the hardware. If you absolutely must use this technology, an external USB dongle is much better because it can be easily removed when you don't need it, thereby disabling any external entities from tracking your location.
Use of ethernet or wifi is recommended, as opposed to mobile networks, as these are generally much safer.
On all current libreboot laptops, it is possible to remove the WWAN card and sim card if it exists. The WWAN card is next to the wifi card, and the sim card (if installed) will be in a slot underneath the battery, or next to the RAM.
Can I use GNU+Linux?Absolutely! It is well-tested in libreboot, and highly recommended. See installing GNU+Linux and booting GNU+Linux.
Any recent distribution should work, as long as it uses KMS (kernel mode setting) for the graphics.
Can I use BSD?Absolutely! Libreboot has native support for NetBSD, OpenBSD and LibertyBSD. Other distros are untested.
See: docs/bsd/
Are other operating systems compatible?Unknown. Probably not.
License '' Template '' Authors '' Conduct Guidelines '' Management Guidelines '' Peers Community
CLIPS AND DOCS
VIDEO - UK govt secretly planning legislation to ban encryption '' leaked docs - YouTube
Sun, 07 May 2017 14:08
VIDEO - French election: voters choose between Macron and Le Pen | Euronews
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:41
\n {{ more.more_ranking_label }}'}),i.init=function(e){i.getDataContextAndClearStaticDom(e,"ranking",!0);var t=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-more"));e.$set("more",t),window.addEventListener("update-league-ranking",function(t){e.$set("ranking",t.detail.ranking)},!1)},i.config={data:function(){return{ranking:[],more:[]}},created:function(){s.init(this),a.filter("pointify",function(e){return e=e.replace(/W/g,''),e=e.replace(/D/g,''),e=e.replace(/L/g,'')})}},n=i,o(i,n)}return a(t,e),t}(l.default);t.exports=u},{"./component-abstract":15}],17:[function(e,t,n){"use strict";function i(e){return e&&e.__esModule?e:{default:e}}function r(e,t){if(!(e instanceof t))throw new TypeError("Cannot call a class as a function")}function o(e,t){if(!e)throw new ReferenceError("this hasn't been initialised - super() hasn't been called");return!t||"object"!=typeof t&&"function"!=typeof t?e:t}function a(e,t){if("function"!=typeof t&&null!==t)throw new TypeError("Super expression must either be null or a function, not "+typeof t);e.prototype=Object.create(t&&t.prototype,{constructor:{value:e,enumerable:!1,writable:!0,configurable:!0}}),t&&(Object.setPrototypeOf?Object.setPrototypeOf(e,t):e.__proto__=t)}var s=e("./component-abstract"),l=i(s),u=function(e){function t(e){var n;r(this,t);var i=o(this,(t.__proto__||Object.getPrototypeOf(t)).call(this,e));i.storage=Euronews.Tools.storage,i.$=Euronews.Tools.$;var a=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-more")),s=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-league")),l=s.id,u=Euronews.Tools.Vue,c=i;return i.elementsArr=[],i.setComponentConfig({tagName:"football-fixtures",template:"#football-fixtures-template"}),i.init=function(e){i.getDataContextAndClearStaticDom(e,"fixturesList",!0),c.initDatas(e),e.$set("more",a),e.$set("league",s),window.addEventListener("update-league-fixtures",function(t){e.$set("fixturesList",t.detail.fixtures),e.$set("league",t.detail.league),l=t.detail.leagueId,c.initDatas(e)},!1)},i.initDatas=function(e){var t=e.$get("fixturesList"),n=t[0],i=[];$.each(t,function(){i.push(this.round)}),e.$set("fixture",n),e.$set("loadedRounds",i),e.$set("currentResultRound",0)},i.config={data:function(){return{fixturesList:[],fixture:[],loadedRounds:[],endRound:!1,isLoading:!1,currentResultRound:0,more:[],league:[]}},created:function(){c.init(this),u.filter("toLocalizedTime",function(e){var t=new Date(e),n=6e4*t.getTimezoneOffset(),i=t.getTime();t=i-n;var r=new Date(t),o=r.getHours().toString()+":"+(r.getMinutes()=0&&(this.fixture=this.fixturesList[this.currentResultRound-1],this.currentResultRound--)},nextResult:function(){if(!this.isLoading){if(this.isLoading=!0,this.endRound&&"undefined"==typeof this.fixturesList[this.currentResultRound+1])return void(this.isLoading=!1);if(this.fixture=this.fixturesList[this.currentResultRound+1],this.currentResultRound++,"undefined"==typeof this.fixturesList[this.currentResultRound+1]){var e="/api/sport/football/"+l+"/"+(this.currentResultRound+1)+"/fixtures/";this.$http({url:e,method:"GET",async:!1}).then(function(e,t,n){return this.isLoading=!1,""===e.data.data.fixtures?void(this.endRound=!0):(this.fixturesList.push(e.data.data.fixtures[0]),void this.loadedRounds.push(e.data.data.fixtures[0].round))},function(e,t,n){console.warn("Football - ERROR LOADING JSON")})}else this.isLoading=!1}}}},n=i,o(i,n)}return a(t,e),t}(l.default);t.exports=u},{"./component-abstract":15}],18:[function(e,t,n){"use strict";function i(e){return e&&e.__esModule?e:{default:e}}function r(e,t){if(!(e instanceof t))throw new TypeError("Cannot call a class as a function")}function o(e,t){if(!e)throw new ReferenceError("this hasn't been initialised - super() hasn't been called");return!t||"object"!=typeof t&&"function"!=typeof t?e:t}function a(e,t){if("function"!=typeof t&&null!==t)throw new TypeError("Super expression must either be null or a function, not "+typeof t);e.prototype=Object.create(t&&t.prototype,{constructor:{value:e,enumerable:!1,writable:!0,configurable:!0}}),t&&(Object.setPrototypeOf?Object.setPrototypeOf(e,t):e.__proto__=t)}var s=e("./component-abstract"),l=i(s),u=function(e){function t(e){var n;r(this,t);var i=o(this,(t.__proto__||Object.getPrototypeOf(t)).call(this,e));i.storage=Euronews.Tools.storage,i.$=Euronews.Tools.$;var a=i,s=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-league"));return i.elementsArr=[],i.setComponentConfig({tagName:"football-ranking",template:"#football-ranking-template"}),i.init=function(e){i.getDataContextAndClearStaticDom(e,"ranking",!0);var t=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-more"));e.$set("more",t),e.$set("league",s),window.addEventListener("update-league-ranking",function(t){e.$set("ranking",t.detail.ranking)},!1)},i.config={data:function(){return{ranking:[],league:[],more:[]}},created:function(){a.init(this)}},n=i,o(i,n)}return a(t,e),t}(l.default);t.exports=u},{"./component-abstract":15}],19:[function(e,t,n){"use strict";function i(e){return e&&e.__esModule?e:{default:e}}function r(e,t){if(!(e instanceof t))throw new TypeError("Cannot call a class as a function")}function o(e,t){if(!e)throw new ReferenceError("this hasn't been initialised - super() hasn't been called");return!t||"object"!=typeof t&&"function"!=typeof t?e:t}function a(e,t){if("function"!=typeof t&&null!==t)throw new TypeError("Super expression must either be null or a function, not "+typeof t);e.prototype=Object.create(t&&t.prototype,{constructor:{value:e,enumerable:!1,writable:!0,configurable:!0}}),t&&(Object.setPrototypeOf?Object.setPrototypeOf(e,t):e.__proto__=t)}var s=e("./component-abstract"),l=i(s),u=function(e){function t(e){var n;r(this,t);var i=o(this,(t.__proto__||Object.getPrototypeOf(t)).call(this,e));i.storage=Euronews.Tools.storage,i.$=Euronews.Tools.$;var a=i,s=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-more")),l=JSON.parse(document.querySelector(".js-sport").getAttribute("data-league")),u=l.id;return i.elementsArr=[],i.setComponentConfig({tagName:"football-results",template:"#football-results-template"}),i.init=function(e){i.getDataContextAndClearStaticDom(e,"resultsList",!0),a.initDatas(e),e.$set("more",s),e.$set("league",l),window.addEventListener("update-league-results",function(t){e.$set("resultsList",t.detail.results),e.$set("league",t.detail.league),u=t.detail.leagueId,a.initDatas(e)},!1)},i.initDatas=function(e){var t=e.$get("resultsList"),n=t[0],i=[];$.each(t,function(){i.push(this.round)}),e.$set("result",n),e.$set("loadedRounds",i),e.$set("currentResultRound",0)},i.config={data:function(){return{resultsList:[],result:[],loadedRounds:[],endRound:!1,isLoading:!1,currentResultRound:0,more:[],league:[]}},created:function(){a.init(this)},methods:{previousResult:function(){if(!this.isLoading){if(this.isLoading=!0,this.endRound)return void(this.isLoading=!1);if(this.result=this.resultsList[this.currentResultRound+1],this.currentResultRound++,"undefined"==typeof this.resultsList[this.currentResultRound+1]){var e="/api/sport/football/"+u+"/"+(this.currentResultRound+1)+"/results";this.$http({url:e,method:"GET"}).then(function(e,t,n){return""===e.data.data.results?(this.endRound=!0,void(this.isLoading=!1)):(this.resultsList.push(e.data.data.results[0]),this.loadedRounds.push(e.data.data.results[0].round),void(this.isLoading=!1))},function(e,t,n){console.warn("Football - ERROR LOADING JSON")})}else this.isLoading=!1}},nextResult:function(){this.currentResultRound-1>=0&&(this.result=this.resultsList[this.currentResultRound-1],this.currentResultRound--)}}},n=i,o(i,n)}return a(t,e),t}(l.default);t.exports=u},{"./component-abstract":15}],20:[function(e,t,n){"use strict";function i(e){return e&&e.__esModule?e:{default:e}}function r(e,t){if(!(e instanceof t))throw new TypeError("Cannot call a class as a function")}function o(e,t){if(!e)throw new ReferenceError("this hasn't been initialised - super() hasn't been called");return!t||"object"!=typeof t&&"function"!=typeof t?e:t}function a(e,t){if("function"!=typeof t&&null!==t)throw new TypeError("Super expression must either be null or a function, not "+typeof t);e.prototype=Object.create(t&&t.prototype,{constructor:{value:e,enumerable:!1,writable:!0,configurable:!0}}),t&&(Object.setPrototypeOf?Object.setPrototypeOf(e,t):e.__proto__=t)}var s=function(){function e(e,t){for(var n=0;n=3&&37!==e.keyCode&&38!==e.keyCode&&39!==e.keyCode&&40!==e.keyCode&&(this.isLoading=!0,this.$http.get(this.apiurl+this.inputSearch,function(e){}).then(function(e,n,i){return e.data.length?(this.isLoading=!1,this.noResult=!1,this.items=e.data,$.each(e.data,function(e,n){t.push({label:n.title,value:n.urlSafeValue})}),void(a.awesomplete.list=t)):(this.isLoading=!1,this.noResult=!0,void(a.awesomplete.list=t))},function(e,t,n){console.warn("Just In - ERROR LOADING JSON")}))},launchSearch:function(e){"1"===this.eventisallowed&&window.location.replace("/search?query="+this.inputSearch)}}},n=i,o(i,n)}return a(t,e),s(t,[{key:"setAwesomplete",value:function(e){return this.awesomplete=e,this}}]),t}(u.default);t.exports=c},{"./component-abstract":15}],23:[function(e,t,n){"use strict";function i(e){return e&&e.__esModule?e:{default:e}}function r(e,t){if(!(e instanceof t))throw new TypeError("Cannot call a class as a function")}function o(e,t){if(!e)throw new ReferenceError("this hasn't been initialised - super() hasn't been called");return!t||"object"!=typeof t&&"function"!=typeof t?e:t}function a(e,t){if("function"!=typeof t&&null!==t)throw new TypeError("Super expression must either be null or a function, not "+typeof t);e.prototype=Object.create(t&&t.prototype,{constructor:{value:e,enumerable:!1,writable:!0,configurable:!0}}),t&&(Object.setPrototypeOf?Object.setPrototypeOf(e,t):e.__proto__=t)}var s="function"==typeof Symbol&&"symbol"==typeof Symbol.iterator?function(e){return typeof e}:function(e){return e&&"function"==typeof Symbol&&e.constructor===Symbol&&e!==Symbol.prototype?"symbol":typeof e},l=function(){function e(e,t){for(var n=0;n\n \n \n {{article.allViewsMeta.pointOfView.author}} \n {{article.allViewsMeta.pointOfView.description}}\n \n
\n ',props:["article"]}),"sticky-allviews-survey":a.extend({tagName:"sticky-allviews-survey",template:'
',props:["article"]}),"sticky-allviews-twitter":a.extend({tagName:"sticky-allviews-twitter",template:'
',props:["article"]}),"sticky-allviews-map":a.extend({tagName:"sticky-allviews-map",template:'
',props:["article"]}),"allviews-logo":a.extend({tagName:"allviews-logo",template:'
").addClass(n).attr({role:"tooltip","aria-hidden":!0,"data-is-active":!1,"data-is-focus":!1,id:t});return i}},{key:"_reposition",value:function(e){this.usedPositions.push(e?e:"bottom"),!e&&this.usedPositions.indexOf("top")-1&&this.usedPositions.indexOf("left")-1&&this.usedPositions.indexOf("left")-1&&this.usedPositions.indexOf("bottom")-1&&this.usedPositions.indexOf("bottom")=t.windowDims.width||!this.counter&&!Foundation.Box.ImNotTouchingYou(this.template))return this.template.offset(Foundation.Box.GetOffsets(this.template,this.$element,"center bottom",this.options.vOffset,this.options.hOffset,!0)).css({width:n.windowDims.width-2*this.options.hOffset,height:"auto"}),!1;for(this.template.offset(Foundation.Box.GetOffsets(this.template,this.$element,"center "+(e||"bottom"),this.options.vOffset,this.options.hOffset));!Foundation.Box.ImNotTouchingYou(this.template)&&this.counter;)this._reposition(e),this._setPosition()}},{key:"show",value:function(){if("all"!==this.options.showOn&&!Foundation.MediaQuery.atLeast(this.options.showOn))return!1;var e=this;this.template.css("visibility","hidden").show(),this._setPosition(),this.$element.trigger("closeme.zf.tooltip",this.template.attr("id")),this.template.attr({"data-is-active":!0,"aria-hidden":!1}),e.isActive=!0,this.template.stop().hide().css("visibility","").fadeIn(this.options.fadeInDuration,function(){}),this.$element.trigger("show.zf.tooltip")}},{key:"hide",value:function(){var e=this;this.template.stop().attr({"aria-hidden":!0,"data-is-active":!1}).fadeOut(this.options.fadeOutDuration,function(){e.isActive=!1,e.isClick=!1,e.classChanged&&(e.template.removeClass(e._getPositionClass(e.template)).addClass(e.options.positionClass),e.usedPositions=[],e.counter=4,e.classChanged=!1)}),this.$element.trigger("hide.zf.tooltip")}},{key:"_events",value:function(){var e=this,t=(this.template,!1);this.options.disableHover||this.$element.on("mouseenter.zf.tooltip",function(t){e.isActive||(e.timeout=setTimeout(function(){e.show()},e.options.hoverDelay))}).on("mouseleave.zf.tooltip",function(n){clearTimeout(e.timeout),(!t||!e.isClick&&e.options.clickOpen)&&e.hide()}),this.options.clickOpen&&this.$element.on("mousedown.zf.tooltip",function(t){t.stopImmediatePropagation(),e.isClick?e.hide():(e.isClick=!0,!e.options.disableHover&&e.$element.attr("tabindex")||e.isActive||e.show())}),this.options.disableForTouch||this.$element.on("tap.zf.tooltip touchend.zf.tooltip",function(t){e.isActive?e.hide():e.show()}),this.$element.on({"close.zf.trigger":this.hide.bind(this)}),this.$element.on("focus.zf.tooltip",function(n){return t=!0,!e.isClick&&void e.show()}).on("focusout.zf.tooltip",function(n){t=!1,e.isClick=!1,e.hide()}).on("resizeme.zf.trigger",function(){e.isActive&&e._setPosition()})}},{key:"toggle",value:function(){this.isActive?this.hide():this.show()}},{key:"destroy",value:function(){this.$element.attr("title",this.template.text()).off(".zf.trigger .zf.tootip").removeAttr("aria-describedby").removeAttr("data-yeti-box").removeAttr("data-toggle").removeAttr("data-resize"),this.template.remove(),Foundation.unregisterPlugin(this)}}]),t}();t.defaults={disableForTouch:!1,hoverDelay:200,fadeInDuration:150,fadeOutDuration:150,disableHover:!1,templateClasses:"",tooltipClass:"tooltip",triggerClass:"has-tip",showOn:"small",template:"",tipText:"",touchCloseText:"Tap to close.",clickOpen:!0,positionClass:"",vOffset:10,hOffset:12},Foundation.plugin(t,"Tooltip")}(jQuery)},{}],37:[function(e,t,n){"use strict";!function(e){function t(e,t,i,r){var o,a,s,l,u=n(e);if(t){var c=n(t);a=u.offset.top+u.height=c.offset.top,s=u.offset.left>=c.offset.left,l=u.offset.left+u.width=u.windowDims.offset.top,s=u.offset.left>=u.windowDims.offset.left,l=u.offset.left+u.width0&&t-1 in e)}function r(e,t,n){return he.isFunction(t)?he.grep(e,function(e,i){return!!t.call(e,i,e)!==n}):t.nodeType?he.grep(e,function(e){return e===t!==n}):"string"!=typeof t?he.grep(e,function(e){return ae.call(t,e)>-1!==n}):Ce.test(t)?he.filter(t,e,n):(t=he.filter(t,e),he.grep(e,function(e){return ae.call(t,e)>-1!==n&&1===e.nodeType}))}function o(e,t){for(;(e=e[t])&&1!==e.nodeType;);return e}function a(e){var t={};return he.each(e.match(Oe)||[],function(e,n){t[n]=!0}),t}function s(e){return e}function l(e){throw e}function u(e,t,n){var i;try{e&&he.isFunction(i=e.promise)?i.call(e).done(t).fail(n):e&&he.isFunction(i=e.then)?i.call(e,t,n):t.call(void 0,e)}catch(e){n.call(void 0,e)}}function c(){te.removeEventListener("DOMContentLoaded",c),e.removeEventListener("load",c),he.ready()}function d(){this.expando=he.expando+d.uid++}function p(e){return"true"===e||"false"!==e&&("null"===e?null:e===+e+""?+e:$e.test(e)?JSON.parse(e):e)}function f(e,t,n){var i;if(void 0===n&&1===e.nodeType)if(i="data-"+t.replace(je,"-$&").toLowerCase(),n=e.getAttribute(i),"string"==typeof n){try{n=p(n)}catch(e){}Me.set(e,t,n)}else n=void 0;return n}function h(e,t,n,i){var r,o=1,a=20,s=i?function(){return i.cur()}:function(){return he.css(e,t,"")},l=s(),u=n&&n[3]||(he.cssNumber[t]?"":"px"),c=(he.cssNumber[t]||"px"!==u&&+l)&&Be.exec(he.css(e,t));if(c&&c[3]!==u){u=u||c[3],n=n||[],c=+l||1;do o=o||".5",c/=o,he.style(e,t,c+u);while(o!==(o=s()/l)&&1!==o&&--a)}return n&&(c=+c||+l||0,r=n[1]?c+(n[1]+1)*n[2]:+n[2],i&&(i.unit=u,i.start=c,i.end=r)),r}function m(e){var t,n=e.ownerDocument,i=e.nodeName,r=Ve[i];return r?r:(t=n.body.appendChild(n.createElement(i)),r=he.css(t,"display"),t.parentNode.removeChild(t),"none"===r&&(r="block"),Ve[i]=r,r)}function g(e,t){for(var n,i,r=[],o=0,a=e.length;o
-1)r&&r.push(o);else if(u=he.contains(o.ownerDocument,o),a=v(d.appendChild(o),"script"),u&&y(a),n)for(c=0;o=a[c++];)Xe.test(o.type||"")&&n.push(o);return d}function w(){return!0}function x(){return!1}function _(){try{return te.activeElement}catch(e){}}function T(e,t,n,i,r,o){var a,s;if("object"==typeof t){"string"!=typeof n&&(i=i||n,n=void 0);for(s in t)T(e,s,n,i,t[s],o);return e}if(null==i&&null==r?(r=n,i=n=void 0):null==r&&("string"==typeof n?(r=i,i=void 0):(r=i,i=n,n=void 0)),r===!1)r=x;else if(!r)return e;return 1===o&&(a=r,r=function(e){return he().off(e),a.apply(this,arguments)},r.guid=a.guid||(a.guid=he.guid++)),e.each(function(){he.event.add(this,t,r,i,n)})}function C(e,t){return he.nodeName(e,"table")&&he.nodeName(11!==t.nodeType?t:t.firstChild,"tr")?e.getElementsByTagName("tbody")[0]||e:e}function E(e){return e.type=(null!==e.getAttribute("type"))+"/"+e.type,e}function S(e){var t=it.exec(e.type);return t?e.type=t[1]:e.removeAttribute("type"),e}function k(e,t){var n,i,r,o,a,s,l,u;if(1===t.nodeType){if(Ie.hasData(e)&&(o=Ie.access(e),a=Ie.set(t,o),u=o.events)){delete a.handle,a.events={};for(r in u)for(n=0,i=u[r].length;n1&&"string"==typeof h&&!pe.checkClone&&nt.test(h))return e.each(function(n){var o=e.eq(n);m&&(t[0]=h.call(this,n,o.html())),N(o,t,i,r)});if(p&&(o=b(t,e[0].ownerDocument,!1,e,r),a=o.firstChild,1===o.childNodes.length&&(o=a),a||r)){for(s=he.map(v(o,"script"),E),l=s.length;d=0&&nT.cacheLength&&delete e[t.shift()],e[n+" "]=i}var t=[];return e}function i(e){return e[B]=!0,e}function r(e){var t=L.createElement("fieldset");try{return!!e(t)}catch(e){return!1}finally{t.parentNode&&t.parentNode.removeChild(t),t=null}}function o(e,t){for(var n=e.split("|"),i=n.length;i--;)T.attrHandle[n[i]]=t}function a(e,t){var n=t&&e,i=n&&1===e.nodeType&&1===t.nodeType&&e.sourceIndex-t.sourceIndex;if(i)return i;if(n)for(;n=n.nextSibling;)if(n===t)return-1;return e?1:-1}function s(e){return function(t){var n=t.nodeName.toLowerCase();return"input"===n&&t.type===e}}function l(e){return function(t){var n=t.nodeName.toLowerCase();return("input"===n||"button"===n)&&t.type===e}}function u(e){return function(t){return"form"in t?t.parentNode&&t.disabled===!1?"label"in t?"label"in t.parentNode?t.parentNode.disabled===e:t.disabled===e:t.isDisabled===e||t.isDisabled!==!e&&Ce(t)===e:t.disabled===e:"label"in t&&t.disabled===e}}function c(e){return i(function(t){return t=+t,i(function(n,i){for(var r,o=e([],n.length,t),a=o.length;a--;)n[r=o[a]]&&(n[r]=!(i[r]=n[r]))})})}function d(e){return e&&"undefined"!=typeof e.getElementsByTagName&&e}function p(){}function f(e){for(var t=0,n=e.length,i="";t1?function(t,n,i){for(var r=e.length;r--;)if(!e[r](t,n,i))return!1;return!0}:e[0]}function g(e,n,i){for(var r=0,o=n.length;r-1&&(i[u]=!(a[u]=d))}}else b=v(b===a?b.splice(h,b.length):b),o?o(null,a,b,l):Q.apply(a,b)})}function b(e){for(var t,n,i,r=e.length,o=T.relative[e[0].type],a=o||T.relative[" "],s=o?1:0,l=h(function(e){return e===t},a,!0),u=h(function(e){return ee(t,e)>-1},a,!0),c=[function(e,n,i){var r=!o&&(i||n!==N)||((t=n).nodeType?l(e,n,i):u(e,n,i));return t=null,r}];s1&&m(c),s>1&&f(e.slice(0,s-1).concat({value:" "===e[s-2].type?"*":""})).replace(se,"$1"),n,s0,o=e.length>0,a=function(i,a,s,l,u){var c,d,p,f=0,h="0",m=i&&[],g=[],y=N,b=i||o&&T.find.TAG("*",u),w=F+=null==y?1:Math.random()||.1,x=b.length;for(u&&(N=a===L||a||u);h!==x&&null!=(c=b[h]);h++){if(o&&c){for(d=0,a||c.ownerDocument===L||(D(c),s=!I);p=e[d++];)if(p(c,a||L,s)){l.push(c);break}u&&(F=w)}r&&((c=!p&&c)&&f--,i&&m.push(c))}if(f+=h,r&&h!==f){for(d=0;p=n[d++];)p(m,g,a,s);if(i){if(f>0)for(;h--;)m[h]||g[h]||(g[h]=J.call(l));g=v(g)}Q.apply(l,g),u&&!i&&g.length>0&&f+n.length>1&&t.uniqueSort(l)}return u&&(F=w,N=y),m};return r?i(a):a}var x,_,T,C,E,S,k,A,N,O,P,D,L,z,I,M,$,j,R,B="sizzle"+1*new Date,H=e.document,F=0,W=0,V=n(),q=n(),Y=n(),X=function(e,t){return e===t&&(P=!0),0},U={}.hasOwnProperty,G=[],J=G.pop,K=G.push,Q=G.push,Z=G.slice,ee=function(e,t){for(var n=0,i=e.length;n+~]|"+ne+")"+ne+"*"),ce=new RegExp("="+ne+"*([^\\]'\"]*?)"+ne+"*\\]","g"),de=new RegExp(oe),pe=new RegExp("^"+ie+"$"),fe={ID:new RegExp("^#("+ie+")"),CLASS:new RegExp("^\\.("+ie+")"),TAG:new RegExp("^("+ie+"|[*])"),ATTR:new RegExp("^"+re),PSEUDO:new RegExp("^"+oe),CHILD:new RegExp("^:(only|first|last|nth|nth-last)-(child|of-type)(?:\\("+ne+"*(even|odd|(([+-]|)(\\d*)n|)"+ne+"*(?:([+-]|)"+ne+"*(\\d+)|))"+ne+"*\\)|)","i"),bool:new RegExp("^(?:"+te+")$","i"),needsContext:new RegExp("^"+ne+"*[>+~]|:(even|odd|eq|gt|lt|nth|first|last)(?:\\("+ne+"*((?:-\\d)?\\d*)"+ne+"*\\)|)(?=[^-]|$)","i")},he=/^(?:input|select|textarea|button)$/i,me=/^h\d$/i,ge=/^[^{]+\{\s*\[native \w/,ve=/^(?:#([\w-]+)|(\w+)|\.([\w-]+))$/,ye=/[+~]/,be=new RegExp("\\\\([\\da-f]{1,6}"+ne+"?|("+ne+")|.)","ig"),we=function(e,t,n){var i="0x"+t-65536;return i!==i||n?t:i>10|55296,1023&i|56320)},xe=/([\0-\x1f\x7f]|^-?\d)|^-$|[^\0-\x1f\x7f-\uFFFF\w-]/g,_e=function(e,t){return t?"\0"===e?"½":e.slice(0,-1)+"\\"+e.charCodeAt(e.length-1).toString(16)+" ":"\\"+e},Te=function(){D()},Ce=h(function(e){return e.disabled===!0&&("form"in e||"label"in e)},{dir:"parentNode",next:"legend"});try{Q.apply(G=Z.call(H.childNodes),H.childNodes),G[H.childNodes.length].nodeType}catch(e){Q={apply:G.length?function(e,t){K.apply(e,Z.call(t))}:function(e,t){for(var n=e.length,i=0;e[n++]=t[i++];);e.length=n-1}}}_=t.support={},E=t.isXML=function(e){var t=e&&(e.ownerDocument||e).documentElement;return!!t&&"HTML"!==t.nodeName},D=t.setDocument=function(e){var t,n,i=e?e.ownerDocument||e:H;return i!==L&&9===i.nodeType&&i.documentElement?(L=i,z=L.documentElement,I=!E(L),H!==L&&(n=L.defaultView)&&n.top!==n&&(n.addEventListener?n.addEventListener("unload",Te,!1):n.attachEvent&&n.attachEvent("onunload",Te)),_.attributes=r(function(e){return e.className="i",!e.getAttribute("className")}),_.getElementsByTagName=r(function(e){return e.appendChild(L.createComment("")),!e.getElementsByTagName("*").length}),_.getElementsByClassName=ge.test(L.getElementsByClassName),_.getById=r(function(e){return z.appendChild(e).id=B,!L.getElementsByName||!L.getElementsByName(B).length}),_.getById?(T.filter.ID=function(e){var t=e.replace(be,we);return function(e){return e.getAttribute("id")===t}},T.find.ID=function(e,t){if("undefined"!=typeof t.getElementById&&I){var n=t.getElementById(e);return n?[n]:[]}}):(T.filter.ID=function(e){var t=e.replace(be,we);return function(e){var n="undefined"!=typeof e.getAttributeNode&&e.getAttributeNode("id");return n&&n.value===t}},T.find.ID=function(e,t){if("undefined"!=typeof t.getElementById&&I){var n,i,r,o=t.getElementById(e);if(o){if(n=o.getAttributeNode("id"),n&&n.value===e)return[o];for(r=t.getElementsByName(e),i=0;o=r[i++];)if(n=o.getAttributeNode("id"),n&&n.value===e)return[o]}return[]}}),T.find.TAG=_.getElementsByTagName?function(e,t){return"undefined"!=typeof t.getElementsByTagName?t.getElementsByTagName(e):_.qsa?t.querySelectorAll(e):void 0}:function(e,t){var n,i=[],r=0,o=t.getElementsByTagName(e);if("*"===e){for(;n=o[r++];)1===n.nodeType&&i.push(n);return i}return o},T.find.CLASS=_.getElementsByClassName&&function(e,t){if("undefined"!=typeof t.getElementsByClassName&&I)return t.getElementsByClassName(e)},$=[],M=[],(_.qsa=ge.test(L.querySelectorAll))&&(r(function(e){z.appendChild(e).innerHTML="",e.querySelectorAll("[msallowcapture^='']").length&&M.push("[*^$]="+ne+"*(?:''|\"\")"),e.querySelectorAll("[selected]").length||M.push("\\["+ne+"*(?:value|"+te+")"),e.querySelectorAll("[id~="+B+"-]").length||M.push("~="),e.querySelectorAll(":checked").length||M.push(":checked"),e.querySelectorAll("a#"+B+"+*").length||M.push(".#.+[+~]")}),r(function(e){e.innerHTML="";var t=L.createElement("input");t.setAttribute("type","hidden"),e.appendChild(t).setAttribute("name","D"),e.querySelectorAll("[name=d]").length&&M.push("name"+ne+"*[*^$|!~]?="),2!==e.querySelectorAll(":enabled").length&&M.push(":enabled",":disabled"),z.appendChild(e).disabled=!0,2!==e.querySelectorAll(":disabled").length&&M.push(":enabled",":disabled"),e.querySelectorAll("*,:x"),M.push(",.*:")})),(_.matchesSelector=ge.test(j=z.matches||z.webkitMatchesSelector||z.mozMatchesSelector||z.oMatchesSelector||z.msMatchesSelector))&&r(function(e){_.disconnectedMatch=j.call(e,"*"),j.call(e,"[s!='']:x"),$.push("!=",oe)}),M=M.length&&new RegExp(M.join("|")),$=$.length&&new RegExp($.join("|")),t=ge.test(z.compareDocumentPosition),R=t||ge.test(z.contains)?function(e,t){var n=9===e.nodeType?e.documentElement:e,i=t&&t.parentNode;return e===i||!(!i||1!==i.nodeType||!(n.contains?n.contains(i):e.compareDocumentPosition&&16&e.compareDocumentPosition(i)))}:function(e,t){if(t)for(;t=t.parentNode;)if(t===e)return!0;return!1},X=t?function(e,t){if(e===t)return P=!0,0;var n=!e.compareDocumentPosition-!t.compareDocumentPosition;return n?n:(n=(e.ownerDocument||e)===(t.ownerDocument||t)?e.compareDocumentPosition(t):1,1&n||!_.sortDetached&&t.compareDocumentPosition(e)===n?e===L||e.ownerDocument===H&&R(H,e)?-1:t===L||t.ownerDocument===H&&R(H,t)?1:O?ee(O,e)-ee(O,t):0:4&n?-1:1)}:function(e,t){if(e===t)return P=!0,0;var n,i=0,r=e.parentNode,o=t.parentNode,s=[e],l=[t];if(!r||!o)return e===L?-1:t===L?1:r?-1:o?1:O?ee(O,e)-ee(O,t):0;if(r===o)return a(e,t);for(n=e;n=n.parentNode;)s.unshift(n);for(n=t;n=n.parentNode;)l.unshift(n);for(;s[i]===l[i];)i++;return i?a(s[i],l[i]):s[i]===H?-1:l[i]===H?1:0},L):L},t.matches=function(e,n){return t(e,null,null,n)},t.matchesSelector=function(e,n){if((e.ownerDocument||e)!==L&&D(e),n=n.replace(ce,"='$1']"),_.matchesSelector&&I&&!Y[n+" "]&&(!$||!$.test(n))&&(!M||!M.test(n)))try{var i=j.call(e,n);if(i||_.disconnectedMatch||e.document&&11!==e.document.nodeType)return i}catch(e){}return t(n,L,null,[e]).length>0},t.contains=function(e,t){return(e.ownerDocument||e)!==L&&D(e),R(e,t)},t.attr=function(e,t){(e.ownerDocument||e)!==L&&D(e);var n=T.attrHandle[t.toLowerCase()],i=n&&U.call(T.attrHandle,t.toLowerCase())?n(e,t,!I):void 0;return void 0!==i?i:_.attributes||!I?e.getAttribute(t):(i=e.getAttributeNode(t))&&i.specified?i.value:null},t.escape=function(e){return(e+"").replace(xe,_e)},t.error=function(e){throw new Error("Syntax error, unrecognized expression: "+e)},t.uniqueSort=function(e){var t,n=[],i=0,r=0;if(P=!_.detectDuplicates,O=!_.sortStable&&e.slice(0),e.sort(X),P){for(;t=e[r++];)t===e[r]&&(i=n.push(r));for(;i--;)e.splice(n[i],1)}return O=null,e},C=t.getText=function(e){var t,n="",i=0,r=e.nodeType;if(r){if(1===r||9===r||11===r){if("string"==typeof e.textContent)return e.textContent;for(e=e.firstChild;e;e=e.nextSibling)n+=C(e)}else if(3===r||4===r)return e.nodeValue}else for(;t=e[i++];)n+=C(t);return n},T=t.selectors={cacheLength:50,createPseudo:i,match:fe,attrHandle:{},find:{},relative:{">":{dir:"parentNode",first:!0}," ":{dir:"parentNode"},"+":{dir:"previousSibling",first:!0},"~":{dir:"previousSibling"}},preFilter:{ATTR:function(e){return e[1]=e[1].replace(be,we),e[3]=(e[3]||e[4]||e[5]||"").replace(be,we),"~="===e[2]&&(e[3]=" "+e[3]+" "),e.slice(0,4)},CHILD:function(e){return e[1]=e[1].toLowerCase(),"nth"===e[1].slice(0,3)?(e[3]||t.error(e[0]),e[4]=+(e[4]?e[5]+(e[6]||1):2*("even"===e[3]||"odd"===e[3])),e[5]=+(e[7]+e[8]||"odd"===e[3])):e[3]&&t.error(e[0]),e},PSEUDO:function(e){var t,n=!e[6]&&e[2];return fe.CHILD.test(e[0])?null:(e[3]?e[2]=e[4]||e[5]||"":n&&de.test(n)&&(t=S(n,!0))&&(t=n.indexOf(")",n.length-t)-n.length)&&(e[0]=e[0].slice(0,t),e[2]=n.slice(0,t)),e.slice(0,3))}},filter:{TAG:function(e){var t=e.replace(be,we).toLowerCase();return"*"===e?function(){return!0}:function(e){return e.nodeName&&e.nodeName.toLowerCase()===t}},CLASS:function(e){var t=V[e+" "];return t||(t=new RegExp("(^|"+ne+")"+e+"("+ne+"|$)"))&&V(e,function(e){return t.test("string"==typeof e.className&&e.className||"undefined"!=typeof e.getAttribute&&e.getAttribute("class")||"")})},ATTR:function(e,n,i){return function(r){var o=t.attr(r,e);return null==o?"!="===n:!n||(o+="","="===n?o===i:"!="===n?o!==i:"^="===n?i&&0===o.indexOf(i):"*="===n?i&&o.indexOf(i)>-1:"$="===n?i&&o.slice(-i.length)===i:"~="===n?(" "+o.replace(ae," ")+" ").indexOf(i)>-1:"|="===n&&(o===i||o.slice(0,i.length+1)===i+"-"))}},CHILD:function(e,t,n,i,r){var o="nth"!==e.slice(0,3),a="last"!==e.slice(-4),s="of-type"===t;return 1===i&&0===r?function(e){return!!e.parentNode}:function(t,n,l){var u,c,d,p,f,h,m=o!==a?"nextSibling":"previousSibling",g=t.parentNode,v=s&&t.nodeName.toLowerCase(),y=!l&&!s,b=!1;if(g){if(o){for(;m;){for(p=t;p=p[m];)if(s?p.nodeName.toLowerCase()===v:1===p.nodeType)return!1;h=m="only"===e&&!h&&"nextSibling"}return!0}if(h=[a?g.firstChild:g.lastChild],a&&y){for(p=g,d=p[B]||(p[B]={}),c=d[p.uniqueID]||(d[p.uniqueID]={}),u=c[e]||[],f=u[0]===F&&u[1],b=f&&u[2],p=f&&g.childNodes[f];p=++f&&p&&p[m]||(b=f=0)||h.pop();)if(1===p.nodeType&&++b&&p===t){c[e]=[F,f,b];break}}else if(y&&(p=t,d=p[B]||(p[B]={}),c=d[p.uniqueID]||(d[p.uniqueID]={}),u=c[e]||[],f=u[0]===F&&u[1],b=f),b===!1)for(;(p=++f&&p&&p[m]||(b=f=0)||h.pop())&&((s?p.nodeName.toLowerCase()!==v:1!==p.nodeType)||!++b||(y&&(d=p[B]||(p[B]={}),c=d[p.uniqueID]||(d[p.uniqueID]={}),c[e]=[F,b]),p!==t)););return b-=r,b===i||b%i===0&&b/i>=0}}},PSEUDO:function(e,n){var r,o=T.pseudos[e]||T.setFilters[e.toLowerCase()]||t.error("unsupported pseudo: "+e);return o[B]?o(n):o.length>1?(r=[e,e,"",n],T.setFilters.hasOwnProperty(e.toLowerCase())?i(function(e,t){for(var i,r=o(e,n),a=r.length;a--;)i=ee(e,r[a]),e[i]=!(t[i]=r[a])}):function(e){return o(e,0,r)}):o}},pseudos:{not:i(function(e){var t=[],n=[],r=k(e.replace(se,"$1"));return r[B]?i(function(e,t,n,i){for(var o,a=r(e,null,i,[]),s=e.length;s--;)(o=a[s])&&(e[s]=!(t[s]=o))}):function(e,i,o){return t[0]=e,r(t,null,o,n),t[0]=null,!n.pop()}}),has:i(function(e){return function(n){return t(e,n).length>0}}),contains:i(function(e){return e=e.replace(be,we),function(t){return(t.textContent||t.innerText||C(t)).indexOf(e)>-1}}),lang:i(function(e){return pe.test(e||"")||t.error("unsupported lang: "+e),e=e.replace(be,we).toLowerCase(),function(t){var n;do if(n=I?t.lang:t.getAttribute("xml:lang")||t.getAttribute("lang"))return n=n.toLowerCase(),n===e||0===n.indexOf(e+"-");while((t=t.parentNode)&&1===t.nodeType);return!1}}),target:function(t){var n=e.location&&e.location.hash;return n&&n.slice(1)===t.id},root:function(e){return e===z},focus:function(e){return e===L.activeElement&&(!L.hasFocus||L.hasFocus())&&!!(e.type||e.href||~e.tabIndex)},enabled:u(!1),disabled:u(!0),checked:function(e){var t=e.nodeName.toLowerCase();return"input"===t&&!!e.checked||"option"===t&&!!e.selected},selected:function(e){return e.parentNode&&e.parentNode.selectedIndex,e.selected===!0},empty:function(e){for(e=e.firstChild;e;e=e.nextSibling)if(e.nodeType=0;)e.push(i);return e}),gt:c(function(e,t,n){for(var i=n2&&"ID"===(a=o[0]).type&&9===t.nodeType&&I&&T.relative[o[1].type]){if(t=(T.find.ID(a.matches[0].replace(be,we),t)||[])[0],!t)return n;u&&(t=t.parentNode),e=e.slice(o.shift().value.length)}for(r=fe.needsContext.test(e)?0:o.length;r--&&(a=o[r],!T.relative[s=a.type]);)if((l=T.find[s])&&(i=l(a.matches[0].replace(be,we),ye.test(o[0].type)&&d(t.parentNode)||t))){if(o.splice(r,1),e=i.length&&f(o),!e)return Q.apply(n,i),n;break}}return(u||k(e,c))(i,t,!I,n,!t||ye.test(e)&&d(t.parentNode)||t),n},_.sortStable=B.split("").sort(X).join("")===B,_.detectDuplicates=!!P,D(),_.sortDetached=r(function(e){return 1&e.compareDocumentPosition(L.createElement("fieldset"))}),r(function(e){return e.innerHTML="","#"===e.firstChild.getAttribute("href")})||o("type|href|height|width",function(e,t,n){if(!n)return e.getAttribute(t,"type"===t.toLowerCase()?1:2)}),_.attributes&&r(function(e){return e.innerHTML="",e.firstChild.setAttribute("value",""),""===e.firstChild.getAttribute("value")})||o("value",function(e,t,n){if(!n&&"input"===e.nodeName.toLowerCase())return e.defaultValue}),r(function(e){return null==e.getAttribute("disabled")})||o(te,function(e,t,n){var i;if(!n)return e[t]===!0?t.toLowerCase():(i=e.getAttributeNode(t))&&i.specified?i.value:null}),t}(e);he.find=be,he.expr=be.selectors,he.expr[":"]=he.expr.pseudos,he.uniqueSort=he.unique=be.uniqueSort,he.text=be.getText,he.isXMLDoc=be.isXML,he.contains=be.contains,he.escapeSelector=be.escape;var we=function(e,t,n){for(var i=[],r=void 0!==n;(e=e[t])&&9!==e.nodeType;)if(1===e.nodeType){if(r&&he(e).is(n))break;i.push(e)}return i},xe=function(e,t){for(var n=[];e;e=e.nextSibling)1===e.nodeType&&e!==t&&n.push(e);return n},_e=he.expr.match.needsContext,Te=/^:\x20\t\r\n\f]*)[\x20\t\r\n\f]*\/?>(?:|)$/i,Ce=/^.[^:#\[\.,]*$/;he.filter=function(e,t,n){var i=t[0];return n&&(e=":not("+e+")"),1===t.length&&1===i.nodeType?he.find.matchesSelector(i,e)?[i]:[]:he.find.matches(e,he.grep(t,function(e){return 1===e.nodeType}))},he.fn.extend({find:function(e){var t,n,i=this.length,r=this;if("string"!=typeof e)return this.pushStack(he(e).filter(function(){for(t=0;t1?he.uniqueSort(n):n},filter:function(e){return this.pushStack(r(this,e||[],!1))},not:function(e){return this.pushStack(r(this,e||[],!0))},is:function(e){return!!r(this,"string"==typeof e&&_e.test(e)?he(e):e||[],!1).length}});var Ee,Se=/^(?:\s*()[^>]*|#([\w-]+))$/,ke=he.fn.init=function(e,t,n){var i,r;if(!e)return this;if(n=n||Ee,"string"==typeof e){if(i=""===e[e.length-1]&&e.length>=3?[null,e,null]:Se.exec(e),!i||!i[1]&&t)return!t||t.jquery?(t||n).find(e):this.constructor(t).find(e);if(i[1]){if(t=t instanceof he?t[0]:t,he.merge(this,he.parseHTML(i[1],t&&t.nodeType?t.ownerDocument||t:te,!0)),Te.test(i[1])&&he.isPlainObject(t))for(i in t)he.isFunction(this[i])?this[i](t[i]):this.attr(i,t[i]);return this}return r=te.getElementById(i[2]),r&&(this[0]=r,this.length=1),this}return e.nodeType?(this[0]=e,this.length=1,this):he.isFunction(e)?void 0!==n.ready?n.ready(e):e(he):he.makeArray(e,this)};ke.prototype=he.fn,Ee=he(te);var Ae=/^(?:parents|prev(?:Until|All))/,Ne={children:!0,contents:!0,next:!0,prev:!0};he.fn.extend({has:function(e){var t=he(e,this),n=t.length;return this.filter(function(){for(var e=0;e-1:1===n.nodeType&&he.find.matchesSelector(n,e))){o.push(n);break}return this.pushStack(o.length>1?he.uniqueSort(o):o)},index:function(e){return e?"string"==typeof e?ae.call(he(e),this[0]):ae.call(this,e.jquery?e[0]:e):this[0]&&this[0].parentNode?this.first().prevAll().length:-1},add:function(e,t){return this.pushStack(he.uniqueSort(he.merge(this.get(),he(e,t))))},addBack:function(e){return this.add(null==e?this.prevObject:this.prevObject.filter(e))}}),he.each({parent:function(e){var t=e.parentNode;return t&&11!==t.nodeType?t:null},parents:function(e){return we(e,"parentNode")},parentsUntil:function(e,t,n){return we(e,"parentNode",n)},next:function(e){return o(e,"nextSibling")},prev:function(e){return o(e,"previousSibling")},nextAll:function(e){return we(e,"nextSibling")},prevAll:function(e){return we(e,"previousSibling")},nextUntil:function(e,t,n){return we(e,"nextSibling",n)},prevUntil:function(e,t,n){return we(e,"previousSibling",n)},siblings:function(e){return xe((e.parentNode||{}).firstChild,e)},children:function(e){return xe(e.firstChild)},contents:function(e){return e.contentDocument||he.merge([],e.childNodes)}},function(e,t){he.fn[e]=function(n,i){var r=he.map(this,t,n);return"Until"!==e.slice(-5)&&(i=n),i&&"string"==typeof i&&(r=he.filter(i,r)),this.length>1&&(Ne[e]||he.uniqueSort(r),Ae.test(e)&&r.reverse()),this.pushStack(r)}});var Oe=/[^\x20\t\r\n\f]+/g;he.Callbacks=function(e){e="string"==typeof e?a(e):he.extend({},e);var t,n,i,r,o=[],s=[],l=-1,u=function(){for(r=e.once,i=t=!0;s.length;l=-1)for(n=s.shift();++l-1;)o.splice(n,1),n-1:o.length>0},empty:function(){return o&&(o=[]),this},disable:function(){return r=s=[],o=n="",this},disabled:function(){return!o},lock:function(){return r=s=[],n||t||(o=n=""),this},locked:function(){return!!r},fireWith:function(e,n){return r||(n=n||[],n=[e,n.slice?n.slice():n],s.push(n),t||u()),this},fire:function(){return c.fireWith(this,arguments),this},fired:function(){return!!i}};return c},he.extend({Deferred:function(t){var n=[["notify","progress",he.Callbacks("memory"),he.Callbacks("memory"),2],["resolve","done",he.Callbacks("once memory"),he.Callbacks("once memory"),0,"resolved"],["reject","fail",he.Callbacks("once memory"),he.Callbacks("once memory"),1,"rejected"]],i="pending",r={state:function(){return i},always:function(){return o.done(arguments).fail(arguments),this},catch:function(e){return r.then(null,e)},pipe:function(){var e=arguments;return he.Deferred(function(t){he.each(n,function(n,i){var r=he.isFunction(e[i[4]])&&e[i[4]];o[i[1]](function(){var e=r&&r.apply(this,arguments);e&&he.isFunction(e.promise)?e.promise().progress(t.notify).done(t.resolve).fail(t.reject):t[i[0]+"With"](this,r?[e]:arguments)})}),e=null}).promise()},then:function(t,i,r){function o(t,n,i,r){return function(){var u=this,c=arguments,d=function(){var e,d;if(!(t=a&&(i!==l&&(u=void 0,c=[e]),n.rejectWith(u,c))}};t?p():(he.Deferred.getStackHook&&(p.stackTrace=he.Deferred.getStackHook()),e.setTimeout(p))}}var a=0;return he.Deferred(function(e){n[0][3].add(o(0,e,he.isFunction(r)?r:s,e.notifyWith)),n[1][3].add(o(0,e,he.isFunction(t)?t:s)),n[2][3].add(o(0,e,he.isFunction(i)?i:l))}).promise()},promise:function(e){return null!=e?he.extend(e,r):r}},o={};return he.each(n,function(e,t){var a=t[2],s=t[5];r[t[1]]=a.add,s&&a.add(function(){i=s},n[3-e][2].disable,n[0][2].lock),a.add(t[3].fire),o[t[0]]=function(){return o[t[0]+"With"](this===o?void 0:this,arguments),this},o[t[0]+"With"]=a.fireWith}),r.promise(o),t&&t.call(o,o),o},when:function(e){var t=arguments.length,n=t,i=Array(n),r=ie.call(arguments),o=he.Deferred(),a=function(e){return function(n){i[e]=this,r[e]=arguments.length>1?ie.call(arguments):n,--t||o.resolveWith(i,r)}};if(t0||De.resolveWith(te,[he]))}}),he.ready.then=De.then,"complete"===te.readyState||"loading"!==te.readyState&&!te.documentElement.doScroll?e.setTimeout(he.ready):(te.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded",c),e.addEventListener("load",c));var Le=function(e,t,n,i,r,o,a){var s=0,l=e.length,u=null==n;if("object"===he.type(n)){r=!0;for(s in n)Le(e,t,s,n[s],!0,o,a)}else if(void 0!==i&&(r=!0,he.isFunction(i)||(a=!0),u&&(a?(t.call(e,i),t=null):(u=t,t=function(e,t,n){return u.call(he(e),n)})),t))for(;s1,null,!0)},removeData:function(e){return this.each(function(){Me.remove(this,e)})}}),he.extend({queue:function(e,t,n){var i;if(e)return t=(t||"fx")+"queue",i=Ie.get(e,t),n&&(!i||he.isArray(n)?i=Ie.access(e,t,he.makeArray(n)):i.push(n)),i||[]},dequeue:function(e,t){t=t||"fx";var n=he.queue(e,t),i=n.length,r=n.shift(),o=he._queueHooks(e,t),a=function(){he.dequeue(e,t)};"inprogress"===r&&(r=n.shift(),i--),r&&("fx"===t&&n.unshift("inprogress"),delete o.stop,r.call(e,a,o)),!i&&o&&o.empty.fire()},_queueHooks:function(e,t){var n=t+"queueHooks";return Ie.get(e,n)||Ie.access(e,n,{empty:he.Callbacks("once memory").add(function(){Ie.remove(e,[t+"queue",n])})})}}),he.fn.extend({queue:function(e,t){var n=2;return"string"!=typeof e&&(t=e,e="fx",n--),arguments.length\x20\t\r\n\f]+)/i,Xe=/^$|\/(?:java|ecma)script/i,Ue={option:[1,""],thead:[1,""],col:[2,""],tr:[2,""],td:[3,""],_default:[0,"",""]};Ue.optgroup=Ue.option,Ue.tbody=Ue.tfoot=Ue.colgroup=Ue.caption=Ue.thead,Ue.th=Ue.td;var Ge=/x",pe.noCloneChecked=!!t.cloneNode(!0).lastChild.defaultValue}();var Je=te.documentElement,Ke=/^key/,Qe=/^(?:mouse|pointer|contextmenu|drag|drop)|click/,Ze=/^([^.]*)(?:\.(.+)|)/;he.event={global:{},add:function(e,t,n,i,r){var o,a,s,l,u,c,d,p,f,h,m,g=Ie.get(e);if(g)for(n.handler&&(o=n,n=o.handler,r=o.selector),r&&he.find.matchesSelector(Je,r),n.guid||(n.guid=he.guid++),(l=g.events)||(l=g.events={}),(a=g.handle)||(a=g.handle=function(t){return"undefined"!=typeof he&&he.event.triggered!==t.type?he.event.dispatch.apply(e,arguments):void 0}),t=(t||"").match(Oe)||[""],u=t.length;u--;)s=Ze.exec(t[u])||[],f=m=s[1],h=(s[2]||"").split(".").sort(),f&&(d=he.event.special[f]||{},f=(r?d.delegateType:d.bindType)||f,d=he.event.special[f]||{},c=he.extend({type:f,origType:m,data:i,handler:n,guid:n.guid,selector:r,needsContext:r&&he.expr.match.needsContext.test(r),namespace:h.join(".")},o),(p=l[f])||(p=l[f]=[],p.delegateCount=0,d.setup&&d.setup.call(e,i,h,a)!==!1||e.addEventListener&&e.addEventListener(f,a)),d.add&&(d.add.call(e,c),c.handler.guid||(c.handler.guid=n.guid)),r?p.splice(p.delegateCount++,0,c):p.push(c),he.event.global[f]=!0)},remove:function(e,t,n,i,r){var o,a,s,l,u,c,d,p,f,h,m,g=Ie.hasData(e)&&Ie.get(e);if(g&&(l=g.events)){for(t=(t||"").match(Oe)||[""],u=t.length;u--;)if(s=Ze.exec(t[u])||[],f=m=s[1],h=(s[2]||"").split(".").sort(),f){for(d=he.event.special[f]||{},f=(i?d.delegateType:d.bindType)||f,p=l[f]||[],s=s[2]&&new RegExp("(^|\\.)"+h.join("\\.(?:.*\\.|)")+"(\\.|$)"),a=o=p.length;o--;)c=p[o],!r&&m!==c.origType||n&&n.guid!==c.guid||s&&!s.test(c.namespace)||i&&i!==c.selector&&("**"!==i||!c.selector)||(p.splice(o,1),c.selector&&p.delegateCount--,d.remove&&d.remove.call(e,c));a&&!p.length&&(d.teardown&&d.teardown.call(e,h,g.handle)!==!1||he.removeEvent(e,f,g.handle),delete l[f])}else for(f in l)he.event.remove(e,f+t[u],n,i,!0);he.isEmptyObject(l)&&Ie.remove(e,"handle events")}},dispatch:function(e){var t,n,i,r,o,a,s=he.event.fix(e),l=new Array(arguments.length),u=(Ie.get(this,"events")||{})[s.type]||[],c=he.event.special[s.type]||{};for(l[0]=s,t=1;t=1))for(;u!==this;u=u.parentNode||this)if(1===u.nodeType&&("click"!==e.type||u.disabled!==!0)){for(o=[],a={},n=0;n-1:he.find(r,this,null,[u]).length),a[r]&&o.push(i);o.length&&s.push({elem:u,handlers:o})}return u=this,l\x20\t\r\n\f]*)[^>]*)\/>/gi,tt=/
VIDEO - Jimmy Kimmel and TrumpCare | Real Time with Bill Maher (HBO) - YouTube
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:31
VIDEO - Feinstein Says There is No Evidence of Collusion Between Trump Associates and Russia - YouTube
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:22
VIDEO - Karl Marx And Climate Change - YouTube
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:19
VIDEO - North Korea Says They Have Thwarted An U.S. Assassination Attempt Against Their Fearless Leader! - YouTube
Sun, 07 May 2017 13:16
VIDEO - Richard Stallman Explains Everything - YouTube
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:45
VIDEO - Andrea Mitchell & Planned Parenthood Pres in Panic Over ObamaCare Repeal | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:37
More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.
On her MSNBC show on Thursday, activist anchor Andrea Mitchell invited on her friend Cecile Richards, president of Planned Parenthood, to trash the upcoming vote by House Republicans to repeal and replace ObamaCare. Teeing up the abortion provider, Mitchell fretted: ''...the winds are not blowing well for Planned Parenthood. This vote is likely to pass the House and it does defund Planned Parenthood, which means all of your clinics around the country for women's health.''
Richards proclaimed: ''It's a devastating day for women on Capitol Hill right now, not just the millions of women who count on Planned Parenthood for cancer screenings and birth control, which is what they're trying to deny access to....We're desperately concerned about what's going to happen, it will create chaos for women in America who depend on us for affordable health care...'' She reassured her media ally: ''...we will fight to make sure that this bill never passes the United States Senate.''
VIDEO - CBS Complains GOP Wasn't 'Modest' in Health Care Victory; Touts Dems Protesting | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:34
See more in the cross-post on the NewsBusters blog.
Seconds after the Republican House of Representatives finally passed the American Health Care Act (AHCA), CBS News did their best on Thursday to tout Democratic concerns, pro-ObamaCare protesters, and hypocritically chide Republican supporters for not being ''modest'' in their massive legislative achievement.
''Seconds ago, the House vote to approve the American Health Care Act, the Republican replacement for ObamaCare...They just squeaked that through and gave President Trump his first legislative victory and set the stage for scrapping President Obama's signature legislative achievement,'' the snarky CBS Evening News anchor Scott Pelley fretted.
VIDEO - CNN's Borger Falsely Claims AHCA Was Voted on 'Without a Legislative Text for People to Read' | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 05:22
See more in the cross-post on the NewsBusters blog.
CNN's chief political analyst Gloria Borger engaged in some sketchy false news Thursday afternoon moments after the House passed the American Health Care Act (AHCA), claiming that it was ''stunning'' to have passed ''without a legislative text for people to read.''
In context, this comment was prefaced by her remarking that ''this is halftime'' and ''not a full-on victory'' for President Trump and the GOP and quipped that the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) ''is going to be looking to see at each person who was here standing next to the President on this'' ahead of the 2018 elections.
VIDEO - No Criticism From Nets For Obama Interfering In France's Election | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 04:28
Read more on Newsbusters here.
ABC, NBC and CBS finally covered President Obama's endorsement of left-wing French presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron on their morning news broadcasts Friday, but unsurprisingly, had only nice things to say about our former president interfering in another country's election, yet again.
VIDEO - Nets Cheer Dems 'Taunting' GOP Over 'Shame' of Health Care Bill | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 04:25
More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.
On Friday, the network morning shows reveled in Democrats childishly ''taunting'' Republicans on the House floor after the GOP health care plan passed. Reporters pushed claims from the liberal lawmakers that Republicans would be ''punished at the ballot box'' over the legislation and parroted fearmongering that voters would be hurt by the policy. For all the attention paid to liberal protests and complaints, no attention was given to conservative concerns.
Leading off NBC's Today, co-host Matt Lauer announced: ''While President Trump celebrates the passing of a revised health care bill in the House, Democrats are using that vote as a way to taunt their Republican counterparts.'' While noting that President Trump and Republicans were ''declaring victory,'' correspondent Kristen Welker quickly ran to Democrats trashing the bill: ''The opposition from Democrats fierce, an angry backlash audible on the floor. Democrats singing and waving good-bye to Republicans.''
VIDEO - NBC: 'Big Risk' for GOP After Passing 'Extreme' Health Care Bill | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 04:20
More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.
After all three network morning shows lead with reports touting Democratic predictions that Republicans would be ''punished at the ballot box'' over House passage of their health care bill, NBC's Today turned to political analysts Josh Earnest and Nicolle Wallace to warn against the GOP's ''big risk.''
Turning to Earnest, Barack Obama's former mouthpiece, Co-host Savannah Guthrie incredulously wondered if Republicans could really ''pull off'' a repeal and replacement of ObamaCare. Predictably, the Democratic flack dispelled the notion: ''I think Senate Republicans are unlikely to take the same kind of political risk that House Republicans did....they face the same kind of agonizing political dilemma of either breaking their oft-repeated promise to repeal ObamaCare or keeping that promise by passing a bill that's wildly unpopular...''
VIDEO - Sobbing MSNBC Guest Says AHCA 'Isn't the America That I Love,' Lacked 'Empathy' for Life | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 04:17
See more in the cross-post on the NewsBusters blog.
On Thursday's All In with Chris Hayes, MSNBC guest and Boing Boing co-editor Xeni Jardins broke down sobbing over the House passage of the American Health Care Act (AHCA) as a ''devastating'' event that's not ''the American that I love'' and promising to ''fight for every single one of you, America.''
Hilariously, the liberal simultaneously demanded that ''[e]very single cell in this country, every single person in this country deserves life'' but must have realized her far-left mistake as she later emphasized that ''[t]he America that I love cares about my right to life, even though I'm 46 years past being a fetus.''
VIDEO - WH: It's Up to Congress Whether Susan Rice Should Be Subpoenaed to Testify | MRCTV
Sun, 07 May 2017 04:13
The White House said Friday that it's ''a question for Congress'' on whether former National Security Adviser Susan Rice should be subpoenaed to testify on the unmasking of U.S. citizens but that ''it's sad'' that Rice chose ''not to be transparent'' and ''not to cooperate in this process.'' The White House said Friday that it's ''a question for Congress'' on whether former National Security Adviser Susan Rice should be subpoenaed to testify on the unmasking of U.S. citizens but that ''it's sad'' that Rice chose ''not to be transparent'' and ''not to cooperate in this process.'' Read Full Story
VIDEO - YouTube loses major advertisers over offensive content | New York Post
Sat, 06 May 2017 20:43
Last month, YouTube lost 5 percent of its top advertisers in the US and Canada following a global uproar over its placement of ads from big companies alongside videos created by neo-Nazis and ISIS supporters.
MediaRadar, a company that tracks advertising across the web for thousands of publishers, reported that YouTube suffered a decline in the number of Google Preferred customers in the US and Canada for the first time this year.
Google Preferred is a program where advertisers can match themselves to highly trafficked videos of certain themes such as music or news.
The ad-tracking firm noted that four major advertisers '-- Starbucks, Dish, Pepsi and AT&T '-- yanked their ads from YouTube. A few others, including General Motors, Verizon and Johnson & Johnson, continued stuck with YouTube despite the uproar.
''Some of the exact brands that said they would stop actually did in April,'' said MediaRadar CEO Todd Krizelman. ''This suggests that at least some of the contraction is related to the negative press in late March.''
YouTube is said to be a $12 billion business, a wildly popular video-sharing platform that is growing faster than its parent Google, the leader in global-search advertising.
VIDEO - Clinton to launch 'resistance' PAC - CNNPolitics.com
Sat, 06 May 2017 14:51
Clinton, according to the sources, is currently working with former aides and donors to build an organization that will look to fund and invest in groups that have impressed her since her 2016 election loss.
Clinton identified herself as part of the so-called resistance earlier this week, and that was not in passing. The former secretary of state has been watching groups stand up to Trump from afar and is "particularly fired up," in the words of one source, to fund these groups and broaden their reach.
"I'm now back to being an activist citizen and part of the resistance," Clinton said in her sit-down with CNN's Christiane Amanpour. At other events she has heralded the work of small organizations that have grown in response to Trump.
"Activism is more important than ever, and it's working, from the women's marches across the country and around the globe to helping to bring down the Republicans' terrible health care bill," Clinton said earlier this year in Texas. "But we have to keep going."
The organization -- Onward Together, an homage to her campaign slogan -- will look to identify groups that could benefit from outside funding. Clinton will act as the connector, said one source, bringing donors to these groups and helping raise money for them, too.
Nick Merrill, Clinton's spokesman, declined to comment for the story.
The idea of the political group started months ago, after Clinton met with young activists to talk about the resistance. At first, the meetings were an attempt to motivate and spur activism among young people.
But Clinton soon realized she could do more, said one source.
The group will have a small staff, including the few aides that are still working with Clinton day-to-day, but the former secretary of state is in the process of finding a board of directors. Dennis Cheng, Clinton's campaign finance director and longtime fundraiser, and Judith McHale, the former secretary of state's deputy at the State Department, are both currently working with Clinton on the project.
Axios and Politico first reported plans for the political action committee.The group's launch date is unclear and has been a moving target, but sources said it could come as soon as next week.
The political group also temporarily answers the question about what Clinton, a two-time failed presidential candidate who maintains a strong following among Democrats, will do with her post-2016 life.
A number of top colleges have reached out to Clinton about using them as a venue for her future advocacy, said people who have talked to the former Democratic nominee. While a decision is far from imminent, Clinton did spend time earlier this month at both Wellesley College, her alma mater, and Harvard University, where she sat for an extended interview for the American Secretaries of State Project.
Clinton has also been hesitant about joining The Clinton Foundation, her family foundation that was used as a political weapon against her during the 2016 campaign. Sources close to Clinton said it is unlikely that she go back to working with the foundation.
Clinton has also made clear at a series of events that she is not done with political life and hopes to help Democrats win back the House and Senate in 2018.
Aides and advisers say she is not going to run for president again, but doesn't want to be silent in the coming years.
VIDEO - Wonder Woman Armpit Controversy Gets a Digital Fix in New Footage
Sat, 06 May 2017 13:00
Warner Bros. bows to pressure and attempts to fix Wonder Woman's armpits. The internet is truly a strange place where just about any subject can be magnified, argued, and overanalyzed to the point of absurdity. Last month, some eagle-eyed interweb sleuths noticed that the Wonder Woman Origin trailer revealed something unnatural and unbelievable about Gal Gadot's portrayal of Wonder Woman. Was it that she was deflecting bullets with her cuffs or was it that she was able to lift and throw an automobile? Wrong on both counts.
At exactly the 1:47 mark in the Wonder Woman Origin trailer, which comes courtesy of YouTube, Wonder Woman lifts a tank over her head and heaves it towards some unsuspecting enemies. The interweb detectives noticed that if you freeze-frame at the right moment, one can see the unnatural look of Gadot's armpits. Yes, her armpits. Gadot's armpits appeared to have been paler than the rest of her skin and extra smooth and the internet voiced negative feelings. Some wanted to know why they would obviously digitally alter Wonder Woman's armpits and some wanted to know why her armpits weren't shown in a more natural way. Soon everybody wanted to know all about the grooming habits of a fictional female superhero.
But wait! There's more! Warner Bros. clearly caught wind of armpit gate and have gone back to digitally alter Gadot's armpits yet again. This time the armpits are still silky and smooth, but the skin tone is matched to the rest of Wonder Woman's body, leading one's imagination to wonder if Wonder Woman takes time out of her day to tan her armpits. So hopefully now the world can go back to worrying about something other than a superhero's grooming habits. One can only hope.
Maybe there's a bigger issue here. Patty Jenkins, who directed Wonder Woman, appears to not be as well promoted as directors of past and future DCEU films. The film is set to debut next month and it has received a noticeably smaller chunk of the marketing of say Suicide Squad or Batman Vs. Superman. A standalone Wonder Woman movie, the first standalone female lead comic book film for DC or Marvel, should be a bigger deal. The answer could be in the projected box office numbers. Rumors suggest that the "low" projection of an opening of $83 million isn't good enough for Warner and their DCEU. Regardless of the reason, this is an important moment for Hollywood and hopefully Wonder Woman can prove the rumors to be untrue.
Wonder Woman is set to open on June 2nd, 2017 and is sure to be a hit, no matter what Gadot's armpits look like. The movie will be followed by the Justice League movie opening in November 2017 where Gadot will reprise her role as Wonder Woman. Only time will tell what her armpits will look like in Justice League, maybe Warner and DCEU will go with a new look for the armpits or possibly Wonder Woman will gain a special sweater that covers said armpits and has other super powers. We have an image a fan made to show the difference between the two armpits in what has fittingly become known as armpit gate.
VIDEO - Xeni Jardin Breaks Down Into Tears Over AHCA | Mediaite
Sat, 06 May 2017 12:53
Today, not only did the House finally '-- and narrowly '-- pass the American Health Care Act following it being pulled six weeks ago, but President Donald Trump also signed a religious liberty executive order that promised greater freedoms to religious groups over political speech. (Though the ACLU immediately pointed out the order was pretty toothless.)
At the end of a segment this evening on MSNBC, Boing Boing writer and breast cancer survivor Xeni Jardin got incredibly emotional while speaking about the actions taken today in Washington.
''It's not a political outcome, it's a human outcome,'' Jardin told host Chris Hayes, who asked her what she was hoping to achieve by fighting against these policies.
She then began sobbing, ''This isn't the America that I love. The America that I love cares about my right to life, even though I'm 46 years past being a fetus. The America that I love loves diversity.''
Jardin would also bring up late-night host Jimmy Kimmel, who broke down on air earlier this week while talking about his infant son's heart issues, saying he knows that all babies are worthy of life.
''This isn't robbing Peter to pay Paul,'' she exclaimed. ''This is killing Peter to pay Paul. This isn't America.''
Watch the clip above, via MSNBC.
[image via screengrab]
'--
Follow Justin Baragona on Twitter: @justinbaragona
Have a tip we should know? tips@mediaite.com
VIDEO - United Airlines passenger with ticket to Paris lands at SFO - SFGate
Fri, 05 May 2017 21:55
Michelle Robertson, SFGATE | on May 4, 2017
Photo: Helen L. Montoya, San Antonio Express-News
Image 1 of 32
United Airlines plane at Boeing on Kelly Field, photographed Wednesday May 8, 2013.
United Airlines plane at Boeing on Kelly Field, photographed Wednesday May 8, 2013.
Photo: Helen L. Montoya, San Antonio Express-News Image 2 of 32
Click through the slideshow to see some of the best memes after United Airlines dragged a passenger off of an overbooked flight
@DaryelJay
Click through the slideshow to see some of the best memes after United Airlines dragged a passenger off of an overbooked flight
@DaryelJay
Photo: @DaryelJay Image 3 of 32
Photo: @Bernabeu_Babe Image 4 of 32
Photo: @GolfMorty Image 5 of 32
Photo: @henry_shaw Image 6 of 32
Photo: @Paulmcfc18 Image 7 of 32
Photo: @krispeck Image 8 of 32
Photo: @dammit_rick Image 9 of 32
Photo: @SubuTweets Image 10 of 32
Photo: @DanielTOzborne Image 11 of 32
Photo: @7eights2nine10 Image 12 of 32
Photo: @Aricka_Shuck Image 13 of 32
Photo: @joeburchardt Image 14 of 32
Photo: @Bobnificents Image 15 of 32
Photo: @peachgarl Image 16 of 32
Photo: @SteveC_Photos Image 17 of 32
Photo: @SACoughlin1993 Image 18 of 32
Photo: @aaronAcarr Image 19 of 32
Photo: @tonykwalking Image 20 of 32
Photo: @SteveC_Photos Image 21 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 22 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 23 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 24 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 25 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 26 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 27 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 28 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 29 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 30 of 32
Photo: Twitter Image 31 of 32
Photo: @zenmasterchris Image 32 of 32
United Airlines passenger with ticket to Paris lands at SFO
1 / 32
Back to Gallery
A United Airlines passenger boarded a plane in Newark believing that she was headed to Paris. Hours later, the plane touched down at San Francisco International Airport (SFO).
Lucie Bahetoukilae, a French woman who does not speak English, carried a boarding pass that read, "Newark to Charles de Gaulle," reports ABC 7. She approached the gate listed on the pass, where a flight attendant scanned her ticket before she boarded the plane.
With her niece acting as translator, Bahetoukilae recalled approaching her seat '' 22C '' only to find it already occupied. Bahetoukilae said the flight attendant came over to look at her boarding pass before assigning her a new seat.
Three thousand miles later, Bahetoukilae disembarked at SFO, where she reportedly waited an additional 11 hours before boarding a flight back to Paris. In total, she claims to have been traveling for 28 hours.
Story continues below.
Bahetoukilae said she did not realize that the airline had changed her flight's boarding gate. She told ABC that United did not make a gate announcement in French or notify her by email.
United gave Bahetoukilae a flight voucher and said they were "working with their team in Newark to prevent this from happening again."
The airline has repeatedly made headlines in past weeks, most notably for an incident in which a passenger was dragged from a flight.
See also: Passenger who was dragged off jetliner settles with United
"This is not about money," Bahetoukilae's told ABC, "This is about United getting serious with their employees."
Read Michelle Robertson's latest stories and send her news tips at mrobertson@sfchronicle.com.
VIDEO - Stormer Exclusive: Masked Antifa Terrorist Employed by Southern Poverty Law Center! '' Daily Stormer
Fri, 05 May 2017 17:03
Eric Striker
Daily Stormer
May 4, 2017
[Note: As with all dox that are not independently confirmed, we cannot say this with 100% certainty. But in this case, we can say it with 99.whatever% certainty.]The creep in the mask was recently doxed, he was revealed to be Matthew O'Dea of Madison, Wisconsin. He is a communist extremist with a long rap sheet who has for years been active as an ''Antifa'' in both Chicago and Madison since the early 2000s.
The above video doxing this thug has gone viral. After doing some digging, we found something very interesting on Mr O'Dea's Facebook page from June 2013.
Because the Southern Poverty Law Center is involved in litigation with The Daily Stormer to crush the First Amendment, we could not contact the SPLC directly to ask if Mr O'Dea is still an employee with the organization. He apparently moved from Chicago to Madison at some point between 2014-15, so he may no longer be on their payroll.
With that said, the fact that, according to this Antifa himself, they hire from groups like the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) '' which always double as Antifa by night '' is a bombshell in respects to the links between the SPLC and violent Left-wing extremism.
The Semitic Political Litigation Center has inspired high profile attacks, like the foiled killing spree at the Family Research Center in 2013. On a smaller scale, the personal information the SPLC publishes on its website, coupled with inflammatory descriptions of political dissidents, is used by people like Matthew O'Dea to terrorize targets and their family members. There are many videos out there where Antifas preface aggression with ''The SPLC lists X group as a hate group.''
Catholics, pro-white activists and even many mainstream conservatives who oppose gay marriage and/or abortion have been put on SPLC ''hit-lists,'' causing great mental anguish, loss of employment and fear in these people's communities.
Mr. O'Dea, around the time of working with the SPLC, was not exactly subtle about his beliefs. Aside from clearly having some kind of mental illness, he has a number of political tattoos and always is decked out in flair announcing his beliefs to the world. He was heavily engaged in the terror group ''Antifa'' while coordinating for the SPLC, and had a criminal record while being interviewed for the job. His Facebook has always been very public.
Here are some pics from 2013.
Links between violent fringe Leftists and the SPLC have always been suspected, but few smoking guns have emerged because most journalists aren't willing to look into it.
We are, which is the real reason the SPLC is trying to shut us down.
My gut feeling is that this is only the tip of the iceberg.
These bastards have made a grave mistake. They totally overstepped with this lawsuit against Anglin, and it is going to blow up in their faces.
The SPLC's unethical, illegal activity and links to extremist and terrorist groups must continue to be exposed!
If researchers continue to work together on this project, it is very likely that we will able to be able to pressure the government into bringing RICO charges against them!
Never forget, brothers:
We are at war.
Hail Victory.

Art

Image
Load image
Image
Load image

AHCA

3x3 Cheer Dems ‘Taunting’ GOP Over ‘Shame’ of Health Care Bill.mp3
Andrea Mitchell & Planned Parenthood Cecile Richards in Panic Over ObamaCare Repeal.mp3
CBS Complains GOP Wasn’t ‘Modest’ in Health Care Victory; Touts Dems Protesting.mp3
CNN’s Borger Falsely Claims AHCA Was Voted on ‘Without a Legislative Text for People to Read’.mp3
Image
Load image
Image
Load image
Kimmel Full Monologue.mp3
Kimmel Ground Zero-Trump Slam.mp3
Krauthammer- People’s Expectations of Health Care Have Moved to Single Payer-PRe-ex isting conditions is EXPECTED and thus Social Leverage against insurance industry-KIMMEL AGAIN.mp3
Maya Wiley Sr VP of Social Justice, The New School.mp3
NBC- ‘Big Risk’ for GOP After Passing ‘Extreme’ Health Care Bill.mp3
Sobbing Xeni Jardin Says AHCA ‘Isn’t the America That I Love,’ Lacked ‘Empathy’ for Life.mp3

CYBER!

EuroLand

Backgrounder-No Criticism From Nets For Obama Interfering In France’s Election-Trump Kicker.mp3
FRENCH ELECTION BACKGROUNDER-VOTERS CHOOSE BETWEEN MACRON AND LE PEN.mp3
Obama Endorses Macron After French Candidates Slug it Out in Final Debate of Campaign-En Marche-Giddyup Bitches!.mp3

F-Russia

russian_connection-Walker Ostler.mp3
Update-Brolf with Feinstein who Says There is No Evidence of Collusion Between Trump Associates and Russia.mp3

Na-Tech News

Hillary's Hitlist

JCD Clips

activit crackdown in china.mp3
afghan warlord makes a fuss.mp3
assassination atempt or bullshit GW bad reporting.mp3
gays on chechniya.mp3
German military story asks more questions.mp3
kars for kids.mp3
le pin last update with great irony.mp3
liberals are cowards tucker.mp3
no fluy RT explaned.mp3
no fly zone pbd.mp3
press hillary tucker.mp3
prince philip gaffe prone.mp3
rapists freed bad reporting.mp3
rent a samily.mp3
self driving car JOhn Adams deferential theory.mp3
suadi woman part one RT.mp3
suadi woman part Three.mp3
suadi woman part TWO.mp3
troubling UC Audit.mp3
tucjer carlson opening amateur.mp3
uber versus google.mp3
what does being german mean one.mp3
what does being german mean three.mp3
what does being german mean two.mp3
zika zika zika.mp3

Ministry of Truthiness

SJW BLM LGBBTQQIAAP

Loading troll messages...