1099: Wobama

Adam Curry & John C. Dvorak

2h 47m
December 30th, 2018
Share at 0:00

Executive Producers: Neville Bareham, Sir Facereplacer: replacer of faces, Baron Bob of High Point, Baronetess Susan Johnson

Associate Executive Producers: Sir Roderick Veelo, Sir Finch, Sir Karl with A k, William Staud, Randal Brown, Ed LeBouthillier, Sir Hashtag Null, Sir Dragonheart

Cover Artist: Network Dali

Chapters

0:00
Start of Show
Woodstock
2:22
The Democratic Republic of the Congo Elections
Woodstock
8:11
The Democratic Republic of the Congo Declares Cobalt a 'Strategic' Substance
Woodstock
13:06
Nationwide 911 Outages Caused by CenturyLink Outage
Woodstock
22:10
2020 Elections
Woodstock
35:39
Michael Cohen's Phone Detected Near Prague in 2016
Woodstock
46:18
Processed Meats Can Cause Cancer
Woodstock
48:11
UK Health Campaign Shows How Much Worse Cigarettes Are Than Vaping
Woodstock
55:27
Dockless Mobility
Woodstock
1:01:24
Credits
Woodstock
1:23:26
Mumia Abu-Jamal Granted Right of Appeal After Decades in Prison
Woodstock
1:31:03
Jamal Khashoggi Was a Foreign Influence Agent for Qatar
Woodstock
1:33:35
Bread Price Hike Sparks Violent Protests in Sudan
Woodstock
1:37:09
Gatwick Airport Traffic Disruption Theories
Woodstock
1:40:22
Cabinet Overhaul in Saudi Arabia
Woodstock
1:42:50
Trump Administration Asked Investor for Advice on Stock Markets
Woodstock
1:44:06
US-China Trade Deal Progress
Woodstock
1:46:09
NBC News: "China Trade War Takes Toll in Pence's Town"
Woodstock
1:52:08
Parkland Shooting Report Recommends Teachers be Allowed to Carry Guns
Woodstock
1:58:01
World Economic Forum's 2019 Meeting in Davos Focuses on Shaping a New Architecture for the Next Wave of Globalization
Woodstock
2:02:21
Angela Merkel: "Nation States Must Today be Prepared to Give Up Their Sovereignty"
Woodstock
2:04:15
Shapeshifting Migrants
Woodstock
2:05:14
Oldest World War II Veteran in the US Dies at Age 112
Woodstock
2:06:12
Donations
Woodstock
2:13:40
Birthdays & Title Changes
Woodstock
2:16:55
Times Square New Year's Eve Ball Drop to Celebrate Journalists and Press Freedom
Woodstock
2:18:39
Transgender Woman Freaks Out at GameStop
Woodstock
2:24:38
Vape Shop Worker Refuses to Serve Man Wearing Trump Hat
Woodstock
2:28:32
White Liberalism
Woodstock
2:32:43
Kids Telling Dirty Jokes by Vice
Woodstock
2:36:08
Cyber Attack Disrupts Delivery of L.A. Times and Tribune Newspapers
Woodstock
2:38:02
Trump Blames Democrates For Deaths of Migrant Children on the Border
Woodstock
2:39:10
Dog Walking App Attracts $300 Million Investment From Saudi Arabia
Woodstock
2:41:20
End of Show
Woodstock
Suggest a new chapter
Any Collusion?
Michael Cohen's cell phone detected near Prague in 2016 | McClatchy Washington Bureau
Fri, 28 Dec 2018 12:05
A mobile phone traced to President Donald Trump's former lawyer and ''fixer'' Michael Cohen briefly sent signals ricocheting off cell towers in the Prague area in late summer 2016, at the height of the presidential campaign, leaving an electronic record to support claims that Cohen met secretly there with Russian officials, four people with knowledge of the matter say.
During the same period of late August or early September, electronic eavesdropping by an Eastern European intelligence agency picked up a conversation among Russians, one of whom remarked that Cohen was in Prague, two people familiar with the incident said.
The phone and surveillance data, which have not previously been disclosed, lend new credence to a key part of a former British spy's dossier of Kremlin intelligence describing purported coordination between Trump's campaign and Russia's election meddling operation.
The dossier, which Trump has dismissed as ''a pile of garbage,'' said Cohen and one or more Kremlin officials huddled in or around the Czech capital to plot ways to limit discovery of the close ''liaison'' between the Trump campaign and Russia.
The new information regarding the recovery of Cohen's cell phone location doesn't explain why he was apparently there or who he was meeting with, if anyone. But it adds to evidence that Cohen was in or near Prague around the time of the supposed meeting.
Both of the newly surfaced foreign electronic intelligence intercepts were shared with Special Counsel Robert Mueller, people familiar with the matter said. Mueller is investigating Russia's 2016 election interference and whether Trump's campaign colluded in the scheme. Mueller also is examining whether Trump has obstructed the sweeping inquiry.
McClatchy reported in April 2018 that Mueller had obtained evidence Cohen traveled to Prague from Germany in late August or early September of 2016, but it could not be learned how that information was gleaned.
Cohen tweeted a denial hours after this story was published.
''I hear #Prague #Czech Republic is beautiful in the summertime,'' Cohen tweeted. ''I wouldn't know as I have never been. #Mueller knows everything!''
Cohen has been cooperating with Mueller's investigation since he pleaded guilty on Aug. 21 to charges of bank fraud, tax fraud and campaign finance law violations. He later pleaded guilty to one count of lying to Congress, and was sentenced in early December to three years in prison.
If the foreign intelligence intercepts are accurate, the big questions now are whether Cohen has acknowledged to investigators that a meeting in Prague occurred, informed them what transpired and revealed what, if anything, he told Trump about it.
Four people spoke with McClatchy on condition of anonymity due to the sensitivity of information shared by their foreign intelligence connections. Each obtained their information independently from foreign intelligence connections.
Peter Carr, a spokesman for Mueller's office, declined to comment about the electronic evidence.
Cohen gained a reputation as Trump's ''fixer'' during more than a decade working as a lawyer for the billionaire real estate developer. He has vehemently denied that he ever traveled to Prague, but it's unknown what he has told Mueller's team.
More recently, Cohen has avoided discussing Mueller's inquiry, saying he does not ''want to jeopardize the investigation.''
Cohen's spokesman, Lanny Davis, reiterated his client's denials about Prague in a phone interview this week.
Cohen ''has said one million times he was never in Prague,'' Davis said. ''One million and one times. He's never been to Prague. '... He's never been to the Czech Republic.''
Davis, a longtime Democratic political operative, declined to comment about the new foreign intelligence.
Davis, however, is no longer part of Cohen's legal team. He acknowledged that he has not been fully briefed on what Cohen has told Mueller's investigative staff in some 70 hours of interviews dating to last August, when Cohen pleaded guilty. Earlier this month, Mueller advised Cohen's sentencing judge that Cohen has provided substantial assistance in four areas, including in ''core'' areas of the Russia inquiry. Mueller did not elaborate.
Mueller has already secured indictments accusing 25 Russians of unleashing a cyber broadside at the United States, including the hacking and public release of top Democrats' emails and circulation of a flood of phony and harshly critical social media messages about Trump's opponent, Democrat Hillary Clinton. The special counsel has yet to charge any Trump surrogates or allies with colluding in the Russian offensive, though several top campaign aides have also cut plea deals for unrelated crimes in return for their cooperation in the inquiry.
Former Watergate prosecutor Jill Wine-Banks said that if disclosures of the foreign intelligence intercepts are true, ''This is a very significant break, because it looks like a direct link between Donald Trump's personal fixer and Russians most likely involved in the disruption of our election.''
''It would prove that lying was going on, not only about being in Prague, but much beyond the Prague episode,'' she said.
Steele's dossier, a compilation of intelligence from his network of Kremlin sources, is full of uncorroborated details about the purported meeting.
It said Konstantin Kosachev, a longtime member of the Russian Senate and chairman of the Federation Council's Foreign Affairs Committee, ''facilitated'' the gathering.
Steele reported that Kosachev may well have represented the Russians in Prague, where he had extensive ties. But Mike Carpenter, a former Russia specialist at the Pentagon under President Barack Obama, said that seems unlikely '' about ''as discreet as sending (Secretary of State) Mike Pompeo to meet with an informant on a sensitive issue.''
Kosachev has publicly denied traveling to Prague in 2016.
Among the goals of the meeting, the dossier said, was to limit negative news reports about the Russia-friendly relationships of two Trump campaign aides'-- foreign policy adviser Carter Page and just-ousted campaign Chairman Paul Manafort '-- and to ensure that European hackers were paid and told to ''lie low.''
While the foreign intelligence about Cohen does not confirm a meeting even occurred, it provides evidence that he traveled to the Czech Republic, where the sources said his phone was momentarily activated to download emails or other data.
Cohen's denials about Prague stand in the face of court admissions that have damaged his credibility.
In his second guilty plea in late November, he confessed to a single count of lying to Congress in denying that he had contact after January 2016 with Russians in pursuit of a long-sought Trump-branded hotel in Moscow. Cohen now acknowledges his contacts with Russians about the hotel continued for nearly six more months while Trump wrapped up the Republican presidential nomination.
The most publicized charges in his earlier guilty plea in New York last August related to hush money payments he arranged days before the election for two women who were about to publicly allege they had sex with Trump. Cohen kept the payments secret for more than a year after the election.
Trump has repeatedly sought to disparage Mueller's investigation, echoing the words ''no collusion'' and ''witch hunt'' over the last two years.
Davis said he hopes that, after Mueller has completed his investigation, Cohen ''will be able to tell his story about Donald Trump and what caused him to change his mind about working for Trump and telling the truth about Trump '... Then he'll be able to talk about all the reasons why he believes Trump is a dangerous man to be president.''
Another former Watergate prosecutor, Nick Akerman, said Davis' denials about a Prague trip can't be taken too seriously because it would be ''standard for Mueller to tell Cohen and his lawyers not to discuss publicly the details'' of the investigation.
Cohen and Trump gradually became estranged after Trump's election victory, and they severed ties entirely last May, as multiple investigations into Cohen's activities heated up.
The cell phone evidence, the sources said, was discovered sometime after Cohen apparently made his way to the Czech Republic.
The records show that the brief activation from Cohen's phone near Prague sent beacons that left a traceable electronic signature, said the four sources.
Mueller's investigators, some of whom have met with Steele, likely also pursued Cohen's cell phone records. It would be a common early step in such an investigation for a prosecutor to obtain a court warrant for all U.S. and foreign phone company records of key subjects, even those dating back more than 18 months.
Such data might enable investigators to track Cohen's whereabouts whenever the phone was in his possession, even if it was turned off, said several experts, including a former senior Justice Department official who declined to be identified.
These officials said intelligence agencies and federal investigators often can examine electronic records to trace the location of a cell phone or any other device sending signals over phone lines or the Internet, so long as the data was still stored by phone carriers or cell phone manufacturers that offer location-tracking services, such as Apple and Google.
Jan Neumann, the assumed name of a former Russian intelligence officer who defected to the United States years ago, said that Cohen's electronic cell tower trail appears to reflect sloppy ''tradecraft.''
''You can monitor and control cell phones in Europe same as you do it here in US,'' Neumann told McClatchy. ''As long as the battery is physically located in the phone, even when it's turned off, the mobile phone's approximate location can be detected and tracked. Any attempt to use an app, to get mail, send texts, connect to a Wifi network, your phone and your location will be detected.''
''It would not be very professional to take your phone to a secret meeting,'' said Neumann, who has consulted for the U.S. intelligence community. In this case, he said, ''it would be more logical to leave it turned on and connected to a WIFI network in a hotel in Germany.''
It was during the same late August-early September time span in 2016 that an Eastern European intelligence agency eavesdropped on a conversation in which a Russian official advised another that Cohen was in Prague, two of the sources said.
The sources could not definitively pin down the date or dates that the intelligence indicated Cohen was in the vicinity of Prague. Cohen has insisted that he was in Southern California with his son from Aug. 23-29, 2016, but his public alibis have not been so airtight as to preclude flights to and from Europe during the relevant period.
Even if Cohen has told investigators about a furtive meeting in Prague, it could be difficult for Mueller to corroborate his story. Any Russians with whom he met are likely out of the reach of U.S. law enforcement officials, because the United States has no extradition treaty with Moscow.
If Cohen indeed made the journey to the Czech Republic, one lingering mystery is how he entered Europe's visa-free, 29-nation Schengen area without detection. While those countries' open-border arrangements would have spared Cohen from having to produce a visa to travel between Germany and Prague, U.S. and European authorities should have a record if he took a trip to Europe. Those records are not public.
Congressional committee chairs, including California Rep. Adam Schiff, who will lead the House Intelligence Committee beginning in January when Democrats take control, have asked Cohen to return to Capitol Hill to testify further about his knowledge of Trump's ties to Russia.
But Davis said Cohen won't appear publicly until Mueller completes his investigation.
Peter Stone is a McClatchy special correspondent.
Kevin G. Hall contributed to this report.
twitter: @greggordon2
Mueller Tries to Pull a Quick One Over Judge in $350 Million Lawsuit Against Him '' Judge Drops the Hammer on Him - Young Conservatives
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 16:55
The Mueller investigation is a complete sham and it's time to finally wrap this thing up. If they had a smoking gun or any serious evidence of collusion it would have leaked by now. If they had evidence that implicated Trump in some kind of conspiracy they wouldn't be going after obscure figures like Jerome Corsi.
Corsi recently filed a lawsuit against Mueller.
From Gateway Pundit:
On December 10, 2018, Cristina Laila from TGP reported that Conservative journalist and author, Dr. Jerome Corsi filed a federal lawsuit against Robert Mueller over alleged grand jury leaks, illegal surveillance and other Constitutional violations and is seeking $350 million in damages.
Mueller apparently was trying to avoid that lawsuit by citing the government shutdown.
The judge wasn't having any of it.
Yesterday Corsi tweeted that ''U.S. District Judge Leon just ORDERED that the hearing on my $350 million federal lawsuit against Mueller WILL BE HEARD on JAN 3, 2019 '-- Judge Leon REJECTED Mueller & DOJ request to postpone because of partial government showdown. I plan to be in court.''
Mueller and his gang of Deep State mobsters from the FBI and DOJ requested that the case be postponed due to the partial government shutdown. The judge wasn't buying it.
Good news for people that care about justice.
In related news, Mueller has allegedly been harassing Corsi's family.
From Washington Examiner:
Right-wing conspiracy theorist Jerome Corsi accused the FBI and special counsel Robert Mueller of ''harassing'' his family.
During an interview on Fox Business on Wednesday, Corsi said federal agents are needlessly surveilling his family while he is being scrutinized as part of the Russia investigation.
''Right now I've got evidence that the FBI and Mueller's team are now harassing my family,'' Corsi said during an interview on ''Trish Regan Primetime.'' ''They are doing door knocks on my stepson. They are parking surveillance vans with two agents in it outside the places where various members of my family work.''
Time to end this nonsense.
Enjoy this Article? Please consider sharing with friends!
Khashoggi
Bombshell: New Info Khashoggi Was A Foreign Influence Agent
Fri, 28 Dec 2018 14:00
The Washington Post has caused itself a major scandal since it has come to light they and their martyred ''reformer'' Jamal Khashoggi were publishing anti-Saudi propaganda for Qatar. They tried to bury this in a pre-Christmas Saturday news dump, but that can't stop the damage this will do to their reputation.
''Text messages between Khashoggi and an executive at Qatar Foundation International show that the executive, Maggie Mitchell Salem, at times shaped the columns he submitted to The Washington Post, proposing topics, drafting material and prodding him to take a harder line against the Saudi government,'' the Post wrote December 21.
The Post says they were unaware of this, although Khashoggi's Qatar connections were well known. They will have to answer for what is either incompetence in connecting these dots or simply not caring as Khashoggi's attacks on President Trump and the Saudis fit right in with their narrative. The Qatar Foundation denies they were paying him to produce the anti-Saudi material.
But during Security Studies Group research for our report on the information operation after his death, we heard from reliable sources familiar with the investigation that documents showing wire transfers from Qatar were found in his apartment in Turkey. They were immediately put out of reach by Turkish security services, so they did not show the collusion between Khashoggi, Qatar, and Turkey prior to his death. We have published a new, unredacted set of findings about the case. It is damning to Qatar, Turkey, and the Washington Post.
Khashoggi may have been operating in violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act by doing this on behalf of Qatar. This is the same law that caused both Gen. Michael Flynn and Paul Manafort legal jeopardy by not filing their attempts to influence the U.S. government on behalf of a foreign entity. The op-eds published in the very influential Washington Post certainly qualify as attempts to change U.S. policy against Saudi Arabia and in favor of the Muslim Brotherhood, which Qatar supports in spite of its status as a terrorist organization with most other Gulf countries.
Turkey had control of the narrative after the killing as the only primary source for the media, with Qatar backing up their tales. Both had eager partners in western media outlets. Security Studies Group tracked this phenomenon in our paper, ''Khashoggi case- Analysis of an Information Operation'': ''Although Turkish-language media supported and helped to drive the narratives, as did Arabic-language media controlled by Turkish ally Qatar, the main outlets that Turkish intelligence used to execute their operation were major Western English- language journalist outlets.''
There has been a powerful effort to use this to weaken Saudi Arabia overall and especially to damage its relationship with the United States. Khashoggi's editor at the Washington Post, Karen Attiah, led her paper's media crusade that even called for Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman to be deposed: ''No one is asking to throw away the relationship with Saudi Arabia. This is about putting all of our US eggs in the basket of a dangerous man, Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman.''
Qatar has become an increasingly malign influence in the Middle East and unfortunately now around the world. The United States has a longstanding relationship with them, including the CENTCOM Forward base there. But they have been building more and stronger alliances with a number of countries like Russia, Iran, and Turkey in ways that are counterproductive to U.S. interests. They have also decided to pull out of OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, a move that will further estrange it from the other Gulf Arab states and OPEC nations.
In addition, they have done things we simply should not tolerate, including hacking U.S. citizens to gain information for blackmail or influence operations. The hacking seems to have been approved and coordinated by the Qatari government, and it targeted a number of think tank and national security professionals.
The scale of the operation, as well as the targets, suggest this was a state operation. ''The extent and volume of information that they were able to obtain in these subpoenas goes beyond the capabilities of an individual,'' said Sam Rubin, a vice president of Crypsis Group, a cybersecurity firm
Qatar has been a U.S. intermediary to numerous extremist groups including our current peace negotiations with the Taliban in Afghanistan and ransom delivery for the release of Bowe Bergdahl. If anything, this shows their strong connections to terrorists and continued financing of their operations. The five Taliban leaders involved in the trade for Bergdahl joined the Taliban's political offices in Qatar.
Qatar and Turkey both benefit from these attacks on Saudi Arabia and have tried to parley them into actual gains. Erdogan was bold enough to actually ask for the United States to send him Fethulla Gulen, his main political rival, who resides here as a green card holder. The irony of Erdogan using the death of a Saudi opposition activist to ask for the extradition of opposition leaders he would most likely kill is stunning. Qatar has been pushing to stop the Gulf Arab blockade against it without addressing its terrorism financing and other malign actions that led to it.
President Trump has extended the hand of friendship to Turkey in conjunction with the U.S. withdrawal from Syria. But Qatar seems to have a hand in the bad things going on in far too many places these days to be considered any kind of an ally. It is time to consider the many ways they are acting against U.S. interests and make decisions about future relations based on that.
Jim Hanson is president of Security Studies Group, and a former Special Forces weapons guy who soothes his savage beast with music.
Copyright (C) 2018 The Federalist, a wholly independent division of FDRLST Media, All Rights Reserved.
US security body: Khashoggi Qatari-Turkish agent, Washington Post must respond - Al Arabiya English
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 16:57
The Washington Post has caused a major scandal since it has come to light they and Jamal Khashoggi were publishing anti-Saudi propaganda for Qatar, a prominent security expert has said.
Jim Hanson, president of Security Studies Group, said in an analysis, that Washington Post tried to bury its scandal ''in a pre-Christmas Saturday news dump, but that can't stop the damage this will do to their reputation.''
He was referring to the text messages between Khashoggi and an executive at Qatar Foundation International that show that the executive, Maggie Mitchell Salem, shaped the columns he submitted to The Washington Post, ''proposing topics, drafting material and prodding him to take a harder line against the Saudi government,'' as the Post wrote December 21.
The Post says they were unaware of this, although Khashoggi's Qatar connections were well known, Hanson added.
According to him, Washington Post management ''will have to answer for what is either incompetence in connecting these dots or simply not caring as Khashoggi's attacks on President Trump and the Saudis fit right in with their narrative.''
He added that during a Security Studies Group research for a report on the ''information operation'' led by Qatar and Turkey, after his death, the organization heard from reliable sources familiar with the investigation that documents showing wire transfers from Qatar were found in his apartment in Turkey.
They were immediately put out of reach by Turkish security services, so they did not show the collusion between Khashoggi, Qatar, and Turkey prior to his death. The organization has published as well a new, unredacted set of findings about the case. (You can read them here).
The findings according to Hanson are damning to Qatar, Turkey, and the Washington Post. The findings suggest that Khashoggi have been operating in violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act by doing this on behalf of Qatar.
This is the same law that caused both Gen. Michael Flynn and Paul Manafort legal jeopardy by not filing their attempts to influence the U.S. government on behalf of a foreign entity, according to the group.
What is next for the Washington Post after being deceived by Qatar?
Recently, US Federal prosecutors unsealed an indictment charging two business associates of Michael T. Flynn with acting as agents of the Turkish government, describing in remarkable detail how the three attempted to convince the United States to expel a rival of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
Flynn, who pleaded guilty as part of a probe into possible collusion between Russia and Trump's 2016 election campaign, has joined a Washington firm that lobbies for Qatar. Flynn will be the director of global strategy at Stonington Global LLC.
Federal prosecutors had begun investigating Mr. Flynn after he wrote an op-ed for The Hill newspaper on Election Day 2016 attacking Mr. Gulen as a ''radical Islamist'' and a ''shady Islamic mullah.'' The prosecutors began examining whether Mr. Flynn was working as a paid lobbyist for Turkey.
Investigators later learned the op-ed was part of a larger effort by Mr. Flynn on behalf of Turkey. Mr. Flynn's company was ultimately paid $530,000 to investigate Mr. Gulen by a company run by Ekim Alptekin, a Turkish businessman close to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey.
These incidents reflect the similarities between Michael Flynn's dealings and the Khashoggi affair that have now unfolded, with the same plan being executed by the same countries; Qatar and Turkey.
Jamal Khashoggi and The Washington Post's op-eds
Hanson said that the op-eds published in the very influential Washington Post certainly qualify as attempts to change US policy against Saudi Arabia and in favor of the Muslim Brotherhood, which Qatar supports in spite of its status as a terrorist organization with most other Gulf countries.
He added that Turkey had control of the narrative after the killing as the only primary source for the media, with Qatar backing up their tales.
Both had eager partners in western media outlets. Security Studies Group tracked this phenomenon here ''Khashoggi case- Analysis of an Information Operation'': ''Although Turkish-language media supported and helped to drive the narratives, as did Arabic-language media controlled by Turkish ally Qatar, the main outlets that Turkish intelligence used to execute their operation were major Western English- language journalist outlets.''
The group said that there has been a powerful effort to use this to weaken Saudi Arabia overall and especially to damage its relationship with the United States. Khashoggi's editor at the Washington Post, Karen Attiah, led her paper's media crusade that even called for Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman to be deposed.
Hanson stressed that Qatar and Turkey both benefit from these attacks on Saudi Arabia and have tried to parley them into actual gains. He said that Erdogan was bold enough to actually ask for the United States to send him Fethulla Gulen, his main political rival, who resides in US as a green card holder.
The irony of Erdogan using the death of a Saudi opposition activist to ask for the extradition of opposition leaders he would most likely kill is stunning. Qatar has been pushing to stop the Gulf Arab blockade against it without addressing its terrorism financing and other malign actions that led to it, Hanson said.
SHOW MORELast Update: Friday, 28 December 2018 KSA 13:29 - GMT 10:29
DRC Ebola
Congo declares cobalt 'strategic', nearly TRIPLING royalty rate | Reuters
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 15:36
FILE PHOTO: Artisanal miners work at the Tilwizembe, a former industrial copper-cobalt mine, outside of Kolwezi, the capital city of Lualaba Province in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, June 11, 2016. REUTERS/Kenny Katombe/File Photo
KINSHASA (Reuters) - Democratic Republic of Congo has declared cobalt a ''strategic'' substance, a government decree showed on Monday, nearly tripling the royalty rate miners will pay on the key component in electric batteries to 10 percent.
Prime Minister Bruno Tshibala signed the decree, which is dated Nov. 24, despite fierce opposition from leading investors including Glencore and China Molybdenum, who have lobbied against tax hikes under a new mining code adopted earlier this year.
The 10 percent royalty rate will also apply to coltan, which is used to power electronic devices, and germanium, which is used to make transistors.
Before they were designated ''strategic'', the minerals were all subject to a royalty rate of 3.5 percent. That was already an increase over the 2 percent rate in Congo's previous mining code, which was in effect until June.
Congo is Africa's top copper producer and mines more than 60 percent of the world's cobalt. Foreign investors say the tax hikes under the new code will deter further investment and have threatened to challenge some parts of the regulation in arbitration.
Cobalt prices surged over the past two years, due largely to demand for electric cars, but have fallen more than 40 percent since March due to a surplus of cobalt chemicals.
Reporting By Stanis Bujakera and Giulia Paravicini; Writing by Aaron Ross; Editing by Adrian Croft
Leadership Magazine '' Who is Martin Fayulu, the DRC opposition's candidate pick ?
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 13:30
Who is Martin Fayulu, the DRC opposition's candidate pick ? Nov 12, 2018 Irene Lamunu Latest News 0
Views: 64
The 62-year-old was routinely seen at the front of marches against President Joseph Kabila extending his rule.
Martin Fayulu, who has been picked by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) opposition as its nominee in the race to succeed Joseph Kabila, was among the most vociferous voices against the president's efforts to cling to power.
A former oil executive educated in the United States and France, though a rank outsider from a minor party, Fayulu was thrust into the limelight as the consensus choice of opposition stalwarts who met in Geneva this weekend.
The head of the Engagement for Citizenship and Development party will take on Kabila protege Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, a former interior minister, in the December 23 ballot.
Fiery and at times impulsive, Fayulu was routinely seen at the front of marches against Kabila extending his rule beyond constitutional limits '' a bid the president finally renounced in August after exhausting several legal manoeuvres.
Fayulu, who will turn 62 on November 21, was arrested several times during opposition demonstrations in Kinshasa and elsewhere, once being struck in the head with a rubber bullet.
He enjoys the support of two heavyweights '' former Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba, who has been barred from standing in the election, and self-exiled ex-provincial governor Moise Katumbi, who says he was prevented from returning to Kinshasa to submit his candidacy.
Fayulu edged out key contender Felix Tshisekedi, head of the longtime main opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) party and son of its late founder Etienne Tshisekedi.
The opposition nominee is staunchly opposed to the use of voting machines '' an issue that may have tilted the selection debate in his favour, as the UDPS has said it would contest the vote whether the machines are used or not.
US company and hotelFayulu worked for the US group Mobil in several African countries from 1984 to 2003, first as auditor and then as director general.
Speaking to the AFP news agency a week before his nomination, Fayulu said he left the company on ''friendly'' terms, receiving a comfortable severance package.
Hailing from the Lingala-speaking west of the country, Fayulu owns a hotel in Kinshasa located midway between Kabila's residence and the president's office.
The hotel was sealed in May, ostensibly for a tax audit, but has since reopened.
Fayulu entered the political arena during a national conference in 1991-92 that ended the single-party rule of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in the former Belgian colony.
Fayulu won his first elective office in 2006, when he was elected to parliament.
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/11/martin-fayulu-drc-opposition-candidate-pick-181111204554772.html
AP Interview: Congo leader says nothing can prevent election
Fri, 28 Dec 2018 13:13
WJ Wire FILE - In this Sept. 25, 2018, file photo, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila Kabange addresses the United Nations General Assembly at the United Nations headquarters. Congo's leader says "there is no further reason" to prevent Sunday's presidential election after two years of delays, but he blames an Ebola outbreak for the last-minute decision to keep an estimated 1 million voters from the polls. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II, File)
The Western Journal has not reviewed this Associated Press story prior to publication. Therefore, it may contain editorial bias or may in some other way not meet our normal editorial standards. It is provided to our readers as a service from The Western Journal.
KINSHASA, Congo (AP) '-- Congo's leader says ''there is no further reason'' to prevent Sunday's presidential election after two years of delays, but he blames a deadly Ebola outbreak for the last-minute decision to keep an estimated 1 million voters from the polls.
In an interview with The Associated Press, President Joseph Kabila says it would be a ''disaster'' if people vote Sunday in two large communities in the Ebola outbreak zone, asserting that ''a single person'' could infect scores or hundreds of others.
His comments Thursday evening contradict those of his own health officials, who have said precautions had been made in collaboration with electoral authorities so people could vote. World Health Organization also has said precautions were in place, including tons of hand sanitizer and screening of all voters entering polling stations.
Kabila, however, claimed that people could be infected as they use Congo's voting machines, which require tapping on a touchscreen to select candidates. A polling station could have 500 to 600 voters, and ''this assumes that a lot of people will be contaminated,'' he said. Health officials have said voters will disinfect their hands before and after using the machines. Ebola, a hemorrhagic fever, is spread via infected bodily fluids.
The voting is delayed in Beni and Butembo '-- but not in other communities with confirmed Ebola cases '-- until March, long after the inauguration of Kabila's successor in January. Residents voted for Kabila in past elections but sentiment has turned in recent years amid persistent insecurity.
TRENDING: Flashback: 99 MS-13 Gang Members Arrested '' All Entered US as 'Unaccompanied Minors'
The delay has angered the opposition, which accuses the government of trying to ensure that Kabila's preferred successor is elected. Many Congolese believe Kabila will continue to wield power behind the scenes and protect his assets in a country with vast mineral wealth.
Protests broke out in Beni on Thursday over the delayed vote, with some attacking an Ebola response center and sending 21 patients fleeing. While the health ministry said most had tested negative for the virus, the vandalism was the latest setback in efforts to contain what has become the second deadliest Ebola outbreak in history.
Protesters pointed out that life has continued in the outbreak zone, with schools open, people going to church and candidates holding campaign rallies. Kabila responded by saying such activities don't involve voting machines.
Sunday's election will have no trouble, Kabila added: ''Rest assured, there will be peace.'' Police will be prepared to secure the population, he said. He dismissed opposition allegations that their campaigns had faced restrictions in recent weeks.
In a separate AP interview on Thursday, opposition candidate Martin Fayulu alleged that up to 5 million of Congo's 40 million voters won't be able to cast ballots on Sunday, claiming that voting machines had yet to be delivered to some areas. One election official has said machines have to be carried on the heads of porters through almost impenetrable bush to some polling stations.
The opposition coalition called for a nationwide ''ghost town'' strike on Friday but urged supporters to remain calm.
In the AP interview, Congo's president also sounded defiant in the face of international pressure over the election, delayed since late 2016. Kabila's foreign minister on Thursday ordered the European Union ambassador to leave the country within 48 hours, citing EU sanctions on Kabila's preferred successor , Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary.
Shadary, a former interior minister, is under an EU asset freeze and travel ban for obstructing Congo's electoral process and for a crackdown against protesters angry over the long-delayed vote. The EU prolonged the sanctions this month after Congo's foreign minister pleaded with EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini to lift them, even for a ''probationary period.''
An EU spokesperson on Friday called Congo's order ''completely unjustified'' and counterproductive ''on the eve of very challenging elections.'' The statement noted that Congo's neighbors in an urgent meeting this week had condemned violence and called for an orderly vote.
Kabila, when asked what advice he had for his successor, replied: ''The biggest recommendation is that he listen to the voice of the Congolese and not follow that of the United States, Europe or elsewhere.''
Congo has resisted what it considers international meddling in the election, vowing to fund the vote itself. Western observer groups are notably absent.
''I have already said that Congo is not a beggar country,'' Kabila said.
___
Associated Press writer Mathilde Boussion in Kinshasa and video journalist Mark Carlson in Brussels contributed.
___
Follow Africa news at https://twitter.com/AP_Africa
The Associated Press contributed to this report.
We are committed to truth and accuracy in all of our journalism. Read our editorial standards.
DR Congo poll: Five things to know about the nation that powers mobile phones - BBC News
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 18:17
Image copyright Getty Images The Democratic Republic of Congo - the world's leading producer of cobalt, used to power mobile phones and electric cars - holds landmark elections in most of the country on Sunday.
Three frontrunners have emerged in the race to succeed President Joseph Kabila.
Here are five things to know about the country that through its mineral resources plays a vital role in the world economy:
1) There has never been a peaceful transfer of power Since independence in 1960 violence has always accompanied the transfer of power from one leader to another.
Joseph Kasavubu became president following the 1960 election, held a month before independence, and Patrice Lumumba became the prime minister.
But Lumumba was later sacked after a power struggle. In 1961, interference by former colonial power Belgium led to him being handed over to rebels who executed him, cut up his body and dissolved it in acid.
The power behind the throne in the early years was army chief Mobutu Sese Seko, who became president following a coup in 1965.
Image copyright Getty Images Image caption Mobutu Sese Seko was overthrown in 1997 after 32 years in power After 32 years in power he was ousted by rebels supported by neighbouring countries.
His successor, rebel-leader Laurent Kabila, was assassinated by his bodyguard in 2001. His son, Joseph Kabila, replaced him at the age of 29, making him the world's youngest leader at the time.
Two years after he was supposed to leave power, Mr Kabila is standing down. Many Congolese hope that Sunday's vote will see a peaceful transfer of power to his successor.
2) A land of richesThe country is central to the boom in electric car sales.
Among a wealth of other metals, DR Congo is thought to have more than half of the world's supply of cobalt - an essential ingredient in the batteries that power electric vehicles and mobile phones.
In theory, the reserves of cobalt and other minerals like diamonds, copper and gold, should make DR Congo one of the richest countries in Africa, but its people are among the poorest.
DR Congo has been exploited for its wealth since the first European explorers arrived in the 15th Century.
Media playback is unsupported on your device
Media caption DR Congo: The crime behind the chaosIn the 19th Century, King Leopold II of Belgium ran the country as his own personal colony, forcing people to collect wild rubber for tyres, feeding Europe's hunger for bicycles and, in the next century, cars.
Later, copper became a major export for the colonisers.
In the post-independence era, Mobutu got rich as the country became poor. Today corruption and mismanagement prevents the wealth being used to lift people out of poverty.
3) It is a very big placeDR Congo is about the size of mainland western Europe.
Its poor infrastructure makes it very difficult to get around and presents logistical challenges to organising the election.
The country's only super-highway is the Congo River, and there are no major roads linking the west to the east.
The government has not taken up the offer of logistical help from the United Nations, which has had a peacekeeping force in the country for nearly 20 years.
It has been a big challenge to make sure everything is delivered to the 75,000 polling stations in time - and the election commission had to delay the poll by a week
4) Battery-powered voting?Large parts of DR Congo are without running water or regular power, and that is a concern when ballots are cast using electronic voting machines.
Though electronic voting has been used elsewhere, this is the first time this exact machine will be tried, raising worries that it is untested in an election scenario.
Image copyright Getty Images Image caption The e-voting machine are controversial Each voter will enter the polling booth to make a choice by selecting candidates on a tablet-like device.
This choice will then be printed on a ballot paper, and submitted by the voter. It is these paper ballots that will then be counted. The machines will also keep an electronic tally to help verify the results.
Opposition parties have questioned whether they will deliver a free and fair election.
There are also concerns that given the challenges of the poor infrastructure and the short time the machines have been in the country the system may not be robust enough.
As if to underline the problems, weeks before the vote, a fire gutted one of the main electoral commission warehouses, destroying ballot papers and more than two-thirds of the voting machines allocated for the capital, Kinshasa.
This led the vote to be delayed for a week.
5) War and Ebola destabilising the eastThe eastern area of DR Congo has been worst-affected by war over the past two decades.
Scores of militant groups operate across the country but the biggest security challenge at the moment is Beni in North Kivu.
It not only has the dangerous Ugandan Islamist militia group, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), launching attacks on civilians, government forces and the UN, but it is also an active Ebola zone.
The electoral commission blamed the insecurity and the Ebola outbreak for the postponement of the vote in two areas of the east.
The outbreak of Ebola was confirmed earlier this year and nearly 500 people have been infected so far.
The combination of instability and a lack of faith in UN aid workers - because ADF attacks are going on despite the presence of peacekeepers - means the outbreak is particularly hard to tackle.
It is the second largest outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976 in DR Congo, then known as Zaire.
The largest killed more than 11,000 in West Africa between 2013 and 2016 - mostly in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone.
NWO
Angela Merkel: Nation States Must "Give Up Sovereignty" To New World Order | Zero Hedge
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 12:19
Submitted by Tapainfo.com
''Nation states must today be prepared to give up their sovereignty'', according to German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who told an audience in Berlin that sovereign nation states must not listen to the will of their citizens when it comes to questions of immigration, borders, or even sovereignty.
No this wasn't something Adolf Hitler said many decades ago, this is what German Chancellor Angela Merkel told attendants at an event by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Berlin. Merkel has announced she won't seek re-election in 2021 and it is clear she is attempting to push the globalist agenda to its disturbing conclusion before she stands down.
''In an orderly fashion of course,'' Merkel joked, attempting to lighten the mood. But Merkel has always had a tin ear for comedy and she soon launched into a dark speech condemning those in her own party who think Germany should have listened to the will of its citizens and refused to sign the controversial UN migration pact:
''There were [politicians] who believed that they could decide when these agreements are no longer valid because they are representing The People''.
''[But] the people are individuals who are living in a country, they are not a group who define themselves as the [German] people,'' she stressed.
Merkel has previously accused critics of the UN Global Compact for Safe and Orderly Migration of not being patriotic, saying ''That is not patriotism, because patriotism is when you include others in German interests and accept win-win situations''.
Her words echo recent comments by the deeply unpopular French President Emmanuel Macron who stated in a Remembrance Day speech that ''patriotism is the exact opposite of nationalism [because] nationalism is treason.''
The French president's words were deeply unpopular with the French population and his approval rating nosedived even further after the comments.
Macron, whose lack of leadership is proving unable to deal with growing protests in France, told the Bundestag that France and Germany should be at the center of the emerging New World Order.
''The Franco-German couple [has]the obligation not to let the world slip into chaos and to guide it on the road to peace''.
''Europe must be stronger'... and win more sovereignty,'' he went on to demand, just like Merkel, that EU member states surrender national sovereignty to Brussels over ''foreign affairs, migration, and development'' as well as giving ''an increasing part of our budgets and even fiscal resources''.
World Economic Forum's 2019 Annual Meeting in Davos to Focus on Shaping a New Architecture for the Next Wave of Globalization > Press releases | World Economic Forum
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 12:08
Fon Mathuros, Head of Media, World Economic Forum: Tel.: +41 (0)79 201 0211; Email: fma@weforum.org
Deutsch I Espa±ol I Fran§ais I 日æ'¬èªž I 中文
· Globalization has created global growth and development but also given rise to excessive inequality
· For the next wave of globalization '' ''Globalization 4.0'' '' leaders need to learn from past mistakes and build more inclusive societies and better protect vulnerable communities
· The World Economic Forum is convening 3,000 leaders from all parts of society to shape a new global architecture
· The 2019 Annual Meeting will take place on 22-25 January in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland. For more information see www.weforum.org
Geneva, Switzerland, 5 November 2018 '' The World Economic Forum announced today that its Annual Meeting 2019 in Davos-Klosters will focus on ''Globalization 4.0: Shaping a Global Architecture in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution''.
Globalization is being redefined simultaneously by four major transformations:
· Global economic leadership is no longer dominated by multilateralism but characterized by ''plurilateralism''
· The balance of global power has shifted from unipolar to multipolar
· Ecological challenges, including but not limited to, climate change, are threatening socio-economic development
· The Fourth Industrial Revolution is introducing technologies at a speed and scale unparalleled in history
Whether Globalization 4.0 improves the state of the world for all will depend on governance at the corporate, government and international levels that adapts sufficiently to this new economic, political, environmental and social context.
''We are just at the beginning of Globalization 4.0, and are significantly underprepared for the magnitude of change we are facing. We are still approaching issues of globalization with an outdated mindset. Tinkering with our existing processes and institutions will not be enough. We need to redesign them so that we can capitalize on the abundance of new opportunities that await us, while also avoiding the kinds of disruptions that we are witnessing today,'' said Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman, World Economic Forum.
Under the rubric of Globalization 4.0, there will be a series of ''Global Dialogues'' in Davos to develop recommendations by the internationally relevant and knowledgeable individuals and institutions that are shaping the future, which include members of the World Economic Forum's Board of Trustees.
The World Economic Forum's Annual Meeting brings together governments, international organizations, business, civil society, media, foremost experts and the young generation from all over the world in more than 400 working sessions. It engages over 100 governments and 1,000 companies at the highest leadership levels. For further information, please click here.
Notes to editors:
Watch live webcasts of sessions and get more information about the meeting at http://wef.ch/am19
Guide to how to follow and embed sessions on your website at http://wef.ch/howtofollow
View the best photos from the event at http://wef.ch/pix
Read the Forum Agenda at http://wef.ch/agenda
Become a fan of the Forum on Facebook at http://wef.ch/facebook
Watch Forum videos at http://wef.ch/video
Follow the Forum on Twitter via @wef and @davos, and join the conversation using #wef19
Follow the Forum on Instagram at http://wef.ch/instagram
Follow the Forum on LinkedIn at http://wef.ch/linkedin
Learn about the Forum's impact on http://wef.ch/impact
Subscribe to Forum news releases at http://wef.ch/news
All opinions expressed are those of the author. The World Economic Forum Blog is an independent and neutral platform dedicated to generating debate around the key topics that shape global, regional and industry agendas.
CYBER
Suspected Cyberattack From Outside US Hits LA Times, Other Papers CBS Los Angeles
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:19
December 29, 2018 at 5:46 pmLOS ANGELES (CBSLA) '-- A suspected malware computer virus from outside the United States prevented the Los Angeles Times from publishing many of its Saturday print editions, in an attack that similarly crippled other newspapers across the country, the Times said.
The newspaper reported in its online edition at 4:55 p.m. that the cyberattack ''appears to have originated from outside the United States.''
The virus caused production problems at the California Times printing plant in downtown Los Angeles, where the Times is printed.
The San Diego Union-Tribune was unable to make Saturday delivery of its print addition, and the Southern California editions of the Wall Street Journal and The New York Times were affected as well.
The Times said the company ''is investigating whether the computer problems were the result of a cyberattack by a third party.''
The Times said the issue '-- which apparently began late Thursday night '-- was first detected Friday. Technology teams made significant progress in fixing the problem, but were unable to clear all systems before press time.
In an update Saturday afternoon, the paper said that all publications within The Times' former parent company, Tribune Publishing, had problems with print production Saturday. Tribune Publishing sold The Times and the San Diego Union-Tribune to Los Angeles biotech billionaire Dr. Patrick Soon-Shiong in June, but the companies continue to share various systems, including software.
The LA Times said that readers could access the Saturday edition online via the digital edition.
''We apologize to our customers for this inconvenience. Thank you for your patience and support as we respond to this ongoing matter,'' The Times said in a statement.
((C) Copyright 2018 CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved. City News Service contributed to this report.)
Comments
Foreign hackers disrupted distribution of multiple US newspapers '' report '-- RT USA News
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 13:10
Foreign hackers reportedly crashed vital software at the Los Angeles Times and several other US newspapers, triggering delays in production and widespread distribution problems.
The cyberattack is said to have begun late on Thursday and couldn't be immediately fixed. It ultimately caused delays in production and delivery of the papers on Saturday, a source familiar with the situation told the Los Angeles Times, one of the publications targeted by the hack.
The attack came from a ''foreign entity'' aiming to ''disable infrastructure, more specifically servers,'' rather than steal the data, the paper's source explained. The details of the hackers' whereabouts and their exact motive remain unclear.
The culprits managed to shut down key software systems that store news stories, photographs and administrative information. The interference disrupted the printing process, causing the papers to be published late.
Also on rt.com Democratic operative who bragged about Russian bot 'false flag' issues contradiction-filled denial Aside from the Los Angeles Times, the San Diego Union-Tribune, the Chicago Tribune, the Baltimore Sun and several other publications were also affected. They all share the software systems of the Tribune Publishing media company, which formerly owned the Los Angeles Times.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is said to have been hit particularly hard, as 85 to 90 percent of its Saturday edition didn't reach its subscribers.
The local editions of the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times, which are printed at the Los Angeles Times' printing plant, also saw delays in distribution.
Also on rt.com Marriott mega-hack: Half a BILLION guests' data exposed over 4 years Another Tribune Publishing paper, the Florida-based Sun Sentinel, reported on Saturday that a computer virus had ''shut down'' its production and crippled its phone lines. When subscribers tried to call the paper, they were erroneously told that the numbers were out of service.
The Department of Homeland Security is aware of the reports of ''a potential cyber incident'' targeting the press and is working to ''better understand the situation,'' the department's spokesperson Katie Waldman said.
Think your friends would be interested? Share this story!
Dockless Mobility
China's Startup Bubble Runs Aground | Wolf Street
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 06:12
Bike-share companies, among the hottest startups, are wiping out investors.''It now appears bike sharing is the stupidest business, but the smartest brains of China all tried to get in,'' Wu Shenghua, founder of 3Vbike, one of the many collapsed bike-sharing companies in China, told Reuters. ''It really now seems ridiculous.''
Afterwards, a lot of the ingenious must-not-question stuff that happened during a bubble is considered ''ridiculous.''
Bike-sharing companies are just an example. With their capital-intensive, cash-burning, ride-subsidizing business model, they were, in their short lifespan, among the hottest startups in China. They've attracted $2 billion in venture funding in 18 months of frenzy leading into 2017. Over 40 platforms mushroomed out of the ground.
This now collapsed bike-sharing craze was based on the idea that you could survive and thrive by lending out bikes below cost, and even for free, as long as you could make it up with volume.
Mobike and Ofo kicked off the frenzy and at one point carved up 95% of the market. Their bikes are everywhere in China, and they expanded into international markets.
Mobike was acquired for over $2 billion in April by Meituan Dianping, a money-losing food-delivery startup, partially owned by China's internet giant Tencent. Meituan went public in September in Hong Kong, in a hugely ballyhooed IPO that raised $4.2 billion. Tencent subsequently reported a $1.3-billion gain from the IPO. The buying public was not so fortunate: Meituan's shares have since plunged 37%. But given how much money it has raised in the IPO, it has enough cash to burn for a while, and it gets to live another day.
This may not be the case with Ofo. It too had a ''valuation'' of $2 billion. At its peak, it had operations in 20 countries, including the US. But like other bike-share companies before it, Ofo is now in the process of collapsing.
It has already shut down its operations in a number of countries, including the US.
In a recent letter to employees, CEO Dai Wei admitted that Ofo was struggling to deal with a cash shortage, in part because millions of frustrated users were demanding refunds and in part because suppliers were demanding to get paid. He said Ofo was battling on amid ''pain and hopelessness.''
Among the problems:
Suppliers have been left unpaid.A court in Beijing has placed CEO Dai on a credit blacklist.Ofo has tried to sell its assets, which are mostly beaten-up bikes but gets very little for them '-- as little as $2 per bike.Bikes are left behind broken, useless, and worthless.Over 12 million users have asked online to be refunded their up-front deposits and passes. Others are clamoring for refunds at its offices in Beijing.One of the people standing in line to get a refund was Jiang Zhe, a university student in Beijing, who told Reuters that he usually bought a month pass, but added, ''I haven't used Ofo recently because I can't find any working bikes.''
The spooked transportation ministry said it had asked Ofo to optimize its refund procedure. It also urged the public to be more ''tolerant'' to allow domestic innovation to thrive.
''It would be tough for the company to get back to its golden days,'' a former Ofo executive who asked not to be named told Reuters. ''I think most people are really just waiting for the final days.''
The blow-up of the barely nascent industry started over a year ago
In June 2017, the first bike-share outfit toppled: Wukong Bike, which had been founded only six months earlier, took user deposits and VC funds with it. The company operated 1,200 bikes in the city of Chongqing. Initially, it charged users a tiny fee, later all rides were free. Most of the bikes disappeared because they didn't have a GPS tracking device.
In November 2017, Bluegogo, China's third largest bike-share outfit, collapsed. It had raised $90 million in venture capital, including $58 million in February 2017. It expanded internationally. In January 2017, it set up operations in San Francisco but shut them down in March 2017. By November 2017, it had burned through its cash, and no new investors were willing to throw more cash at it. That was the end.
Also in November 2017, Mingbike, which had raised $15 million from VC firms and with operations in major Chinese cities, collapsed and user deposits to evaporated.
And that was the beginning of the end of the craze.
After the collapse of number 3, Bluegogo, there was talk that the two leaders Mobike and Ofo would benefit and come out on top. Their strategy too was very low fees and ''ride-for-free'' periods, while at the same time having to fund an expensive, capital intensive business.
Without an endless flow of new cash, these cash-burn machines collapse. The idea that these startups can make it by lending out bikes below cost and often for free as long as they can make it up by expanding and growing the number of bikes is just a symptom of a larger craze '' invented in Silicon Valley and imitated in China.
But the craze has run aground on the rocks of reality. The Wall Street Journal:
Chinese startups received record sums of money in the first half, including the $14 billion funding round for Ant Financial, Alibaba's finance affiliate. But investments started to slow in the third quarter, while venture capitalists, especially smaller ones, are finding it harder to raise money amid Beijing's crackdown on debt. Venture-capital funds raised 56% less money in the first three quarters of 2018 compared with the same period of 2017, according to data provider Zero2IPO.
With the Chinese economy slowing in recent months, investors will likely get more cautious about where to put their money. When times are good, investors are willing to fund fast-growing, unprofitable startups. When the boom fades, companies without a sustainable business model will take a hit. Tech giants Alibaba and Tencent, which have sunk billions into startups in the past few years and could face write-downs, could become collateral damage.
Tencent is already infamous for its well-timed forays into the US tech scene, including its purchase in November 17 of 146 million shares of Snap, after Snap had plunged. On the day the purchase was announced (no purchase price was named), Snap traded at around $13 a share. Today, shares closed at $5.35. If Tencent paid $13 a share and still owns them, it has lost over $1.1 billion on this deal. And Tencent's own shares, whose ADRs trade in the US, have plunged 35% from their peak in January.
China's auto industry panics, overcapacity spreads, but government brushes off the wailing and gnashing of teeth, and looks to EVs. Read'... China Auto Sales Plunge, Face First Annual Decline in 30 Years
Would you like to be notified via email when WOLF STREET publishes a new article? Sign up here.
Brexit
Channel migrants: Minister defends handling of 'crisis' - BBC News
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 13:51
Image copyright PA Image caption Immigration minister Caroline Nokes said the home secretary would be back at his desk on Monday Immigration minister Caroline Nokes has defended the government's handling of the rise in migrants crossing the Channel during a visit to Dover.
More than 220 people have attempted the crossing in small boats since November.
Ms Nokes said Home Secretary Sajid Javid would cut short a family holiday to deal with the "major incident".
Dover MP Charlie Elphicke called for more patrol boats and accused the Home Office of letting the "crisis" escalate.
The Conservative MP said the Home Office was not taking the matter "seriously enough".
It comes after another 12 people were detained off the coast of Dover in the early hours of Friday morning.
'Terrible risk'Only one of the Border Force's fleet of five cutters - specialist boats which the force describes as being capable of rescuing several migrant boats at the same time - is currently operational in the Dover Strait.
Ms Nokes said the number of patrol boats was being "constantly reviewed", but it was "feasible that were we to put additional craft they might act as a magnet - encouraging people to make a perilous crossing".
She said the UK was working with France to try to prevent migrants from setting out in the first place, and there was an "enormous" ongoing intelligence-led operation to deter people traffickers.
"It is really important to remember that we are dealing with people's lives, people who have taken a terrible, terrible risk, but that we are working with the French to find the most effective route for returns for those who it is appropriate for."
The National Crime Agency said that tackling the criminals behind these "extremely dangerous" attempted crossings was an "operational priority" and significant resources were devoted to them.
Chris Hogben, from the NCA, said its work with French colleagues had resulted in dozens of attempted crossings being prevented.
He said that over the last three weeks French colleagues have recovered at least 95 migrants including nine children, and arrested seven people caught attempting to facilitate these crossings.
He added that he anticipated further arrests in the coming weeks and thought more attempts to reach the UK were likely.
Mr Javid has appointed a "gold commander" to take overall charge of the situation and make strategic decisions about the response.
He was due to talk to his French counterpart about the situation over the weekend.
Mr Elphicke said "we need a clear strategy to defeat the traffickers", adding that the French authorities should step up action on their side of the Channel.
'They were desperate to get on to dry land' Image copyright Getty Images British fisherman Matt Coaker first saw an overloaded three-man dinghy in September, carrying four adults trying to make it to UK shores.
"They started waving their oars and tying T-shirts on the oars to get our attention," he told BBC Radio 4's Today programme.
He said the dinghy had a lot of water inside and that the migrants "just looked like they had had enough", adding: "They had been drifting about for some time, they had no engine and just a few oars.
"They were desperate for a bit of water, a bit of food and possibly just to get on to dry land."
The fisherman pulled his boat alongside them to check how they were, and one of the men made a jump for it.
"Luckily the customers I had on-board managed to grab him before he went back in the water, because the last thing you want is someone going down underneath the propeller," said Mr Coaker.
"They got him over the side and, as they did, the others made a jump and we had all four on-board within minutes."
He has seen a number of dinghies since, including one at night carrying two families with an 18-month-old girl in tow. And while he said it wasn't the norm, it now "doesn't surprise you if you go out and see a rescue taking place".
Officials on both sides of the Channel have warned of the dangers of crossing what is the world's busiest shipping lane in a small boat.
Police have likened the journey to trying to "cross the M25 at rush-hour on foot".
Image copyright Steve Finn Image caption The 12 detained on Friday were brought to shore and given a medical assessment in Dover before being transferred to immigration officials Image copyright Steve Finn Image caption The latest detention comes after 40 migrants were rescued from the Channel on Christmas Day Many of the migrants are Iranian or Syrian.
A BBC South East investigation last month found that people smugglers were telling migrants they must enter before "the borders shut properly" after Brexit.
British and French authorities have both said the rise in crossings is the result of "organised criminality" and "mafia networks".
Media playback is unsupported on your device
Media caption A migrant rescue off the coast of Dover in November 2018Responding to the suggestion that bringing rescued migrants to the UK could encourage people to attempt the journey, Steve Valdez-Symonds, from Amnesty International, said that was "nonsense".
"If people are in danger of their lives then they need to be saved," he told the BBC.
The people found off the Kent coast since November:28 December - Twelve migrants in two separate boats detained off the coast of Dover27 December - Some 23 migrants, including three children, were detained in Kent after crossing the channel in small three boats26 December - Three migrants brought ashore by Border Force25 December - Forty migrants, including two children, crossed the Channel in five boats15 December - Four children are among a group of 11 people rescued off Dover. Eight said they were Iraqi and the other three claimed to be Iranian12 December - Six men found in a dinghy off the coast of Dover11 December - Six people, thought to be from Iran were rescued from a small boat off the Kent coast. A second boat with eight men, all saying they were Iranian were picked up later the same day off Dover4 December - Two men were brought to shore at Dover27 November - An 18-month-old baby was among nine people rescued from a dinghy off Dover23 November - Eight men located in a dinghy off the coast of Dover22 November - Thirteen men and one woman were intercepted in two dinghies off the coast of Dover18 November - Nine suspected migrants were found clambering up rocks in Folkestone after apparently crossing the English Channel in a small boat16 November - Seven suspected migrants were found off Samphire Hoe, near Dover14 November - Nine suspected migrants - seven men, one woman and a toddler - were found off the Kent coast. Another 10 were found near Dover Docks and five men were found several miles of Ramsgate13 November - Fourteen men and three children entered Port of Dover on a French fishing boat believed to be stolen9 November -Seven men were found in the English Channel off Dover3 November - Eight suspected migrants were stopped off the Kent coast and seven others were stopped at Dover Western Docks
UK needs to get its act together before Brexit vote, Juncker says | Politics | The Guardian
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 13:08
It is not up to EU to resolve problems before MPs vote on May's deal, London told
Jean-Claude Juncker says the EU's proposed solutions 'have been on the table for months'.Photograph: Eric Vidal/ReutersJean-Claude Juncker has told the UK to ''get its act together'' in the run-up to the delayed House of Commons vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal.
The European commission president said the EU could not be expected to resolve the problems that continue to make it likely the British government will suffer a heavy defeat.
''I find it entirely unreasonable for parts of the British public to believe that it is for the EU alone to propose a solution for all future British problems,'' Juncker said in a wide-ranging interview with the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag. ''My appeal is this. Get your act together and then tell us what it is you want. Our proposed solutions have been on the table for months.''
May is set to put her deal, including the contentious Irish backstop, to MPs in the week beginning 14 January, following a week of debate in the Commons.
The prime minister pulled a planned vote earlier this month when it became clear the government was likely to suffer a heavy defeat.
She then promised to secure ''legal and political'' assurances that the backstop '' which would keeping the UK in a customs union with the EU to avoid a hard Irish border '' would only be temporary, should it need to be triggered.
The backstop would come into force at the end of the transition period, during which the UK effectively remains a member state but without a decision-making role, unless an alternative arrangement has been agreed.
The EU's 27 leaders, however, offered May little hope of any significant sweetener to the deal at a summit earlier this month. Juncker's comments will be a fresh blow to Downing Street's hopes of a game-changing last-minute concession.
Asked whether he would recommend a second referendum to get past the logjam in parliament, Juncker said it was up to the British people to decide. ''If the House of Commons backs the withdrawal agreement in mid-January, then we should begin preparations for the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union the very next day and not wait until after the official withdrawal date of 29 March.
''I have the impression that the majority of British MPs deeply distrust both the EU and Mrs May. It is being insinuated that our aim is to keep the United Kingdom in the EU by all possible means. That is not our intention. All we want is clarity about our future relations. And we respect the result of the referendum.
''I am working on the assumption that it will leave, because that is what the people of the United Kingdom have decided.''
The international trade secretary, Liam Fox, an ardent Brexiter in the cabinet, said on Sunday that there was a 50/50 chance the UK would not leave the EU on 29 March if MPs rejected May's Brexit deal next month.Fox told the Sunday Times it would only be ''100% certain'' if MPs back the deal, and a second referendum ''would shatter the bond of trust between the electorate and parliament''.
The EU 27 would be prepared to offer an extension to the two-year negotiating period allowed under article 50 of the EU's treaties to allow for a second referendum, but there is a growing frustration in Brussels over the UK's tortured exit.
The focus in Brussels is instead on the existential threat posed by the rise of populist governments elsewhere in Europe. With May's elections to the European parliament in mind, Juncker used his new year interview to appeal to the EU's established political parties not to pander to anti-immigrant populists, and instead support the commission's proposals on dealing with future migration.
''Those who run after the populists will only be seen from behind'', he said. ''We must not imply that the populists are right. We have to show them up for what they are by making it abundantly clear that they are just loud and do not have any specific proposals to offer on solving the challenges of our time.''
The Purge
How Much of the Internet Is Fake?
Thu, 27 Dec 2018 15:53
Photo: Artwork by Ayatgali Tuleubek
In late November, the Justice Department unsealed indictments against eight people accused of fleecing advertisers of $36 million in two of the largest digital ad-fraud operations ever uncovered. Digital advertisers tend to want two things: people to look at their ads and ''premium'' websites '-- i.e., established and legitimate publications '-- on which to host them.The two schemes at issue in the case, dubbed Methbot and 3ve by the security researchers who found them, faked both. Hucksters infected 1.7 million computers with malware that remotely directed traffic to ''spoofed'' websites '-- ''empty websites designed for bot traffic'' that served up a video ad purchased from one of the internet's vast programmatic ad-exchanges, but that were designed, according to the indictments, ''to fool advertisers into thinking that an impression of their ad was served on a premium publisher site,'' like that of Vogue or The Economist. Views, meanwhile, were faked by malware-infected computers with marvelously sophisticated techniques to imitate humans: bots ''faked clicks, mouse movements, and social network login information to masquerade as engaged human consumers.'' Some were sent to browse the internet to gather tracking cookies from other websites, just as a human visitor would have done through regular behavior. Fake people with fake cookies and fake social-media accounts, fake-moving their fake cursors, fake-clicking on fake websites '-- the fraudsters had essentially created a simulacrum of the internet, where the only real things were the ads.
How much of the internet is fake? Studies generally suggest that, year after year, less than 60 percent of web traffic is human; some years, according to some researchers, a healthy majority of it is bot. For a period of time in 2013, the Times reported this year, a full half of YouTube traffic was ''bots masquerading as people,'' a portion so high that employees feared an inflection point after which YouTube's systems for detecting fraudulent traffic would begin to regard bot traffic as real and human traffic as fake. They called this hypothetical event ''the Inversion.''
In the future, when I look back from the high-tech gamer jail in which President PewDiePie will have imprisoned me, I will remember 2018 as the year the internet passed the Inversion, not in some strict numerical sense, since bots already outnumber humans online more years than not, but in the perceptual sense. The internet has always played host in its dark corners to schools of catfish and embassies of Nigerian princes, but that darkness now pervades its every aspect: Everything that once seemed definitively and unquestionably real now seems slightly fake; everything that once seemed slightly fake now has the power and presence of the real. The ''fakeness'' of the post-Inversion internet is less a calculable falsehood and more a particular quality of experience '-- the uncanny sense that what you encounter online is not ''real'' but is also undeniably not ''fake,'' and indeed may be both at once, or in succession, as you turn it over in your head.
Take something as seemingly simple as how we measure web traffic. Metrics should be the most real thing on the internet: They are countable, trackable, and verifiable, and their existence undergirds the advertising business that drives our biggest social and search platforms. Yet not even Facebook, the world's greatest data''gathering organization, seems able to produce genuine figures. In October, small advertisers filed suit against the social-media giant, accusing it of covering up, for a year, its significant overstatements of the time users spent watching videos on the platform (by 60 to 80'¯percent, Facebook says; by 150 to 900 percent, the plaintiffs say). According to an exhaustive list at MarketingLand, over the past two years Facebook has admitted to misreporting the reach of posts on Facebook Pages (in two different ways), the rate at which viewers complete ad videos, the average time spent reading its ''Instant Articles,'' the amount of referral traffic from Facebook to external websites, the number of views that videos received via Facebook's mobile site, and the number of video views in Instant Articles.
Can we still trust the metrics? After the Inversion, what's the point? Even when we put our faith in their accuracy, there's something not quite real about them: My favorite statistic this year was Facebook's claim that 75 million people watched at least a minute of Facebook Watch videos every day '-- though, as Facebook admitted, the 60 seconds in that one minute didn't need to be watched consecutively. Real videos, real people, fake minutes.
And maybe we shouldn't even assume that the people are real. Over at YouTube, the business of buying and selling video views is ''flourishing,'' as the Times reminded readers with a lengthy investigation in August. The company says only ''a tiny fraction'' of its traffic is fake, but fake subscribers are enough of a problem that the site undertook a purge of ''spam accounts'' in mid-December. These days, the Times found, you can buy 5,000 YouTube views '-- 30 seconds of a video counts as a view '-- for as low as $15; oftentimes, customers are led to believe that the views they purchase come from real people. More likely, they come from bots. On some platforms, video views and app downloads can be forged in lucrative industrial counterfeiting operations. If you want a picture of what the Inversion looks like, find a video of a ''click farm'': hundreds of individual smartphones, arranged in rows on shelves or racks in professional-looking offices, each watching the same video or downloading the same app.
I never tire of looking at videos of Chinese click farms. It's just so surreal to see hundreds of phones playing the same video for the purposes of fake engagment. pic.twitter.com/bHAGLqRqVb
'-- Matthew Brennan (@mbrennanchina) December 10, 2018This is obviously not real human traffic. But what would real human traffic look like? The Inversion gives rise to some odd philosophical quandaries: If a Russian troll using a Brazilian man's photograph to masquerade as an American Trump supporter watches a video on Facebook, is that view ''real''? Not only do we have bots masquerading as humans and humans masquerading as other humans, but also sometimes humans masquerading as bots, pretending to be ''artificial-intelligence personal assistants,'' like Facebook's ''M,'' in order to help tech companies appear to possess cutting-edge AI. We even have whatever CGI Instagram influencer Lil Miquela is: a fake human with a real body, a fake face, and real influence. Even humans who aren't masquerading can contort themselves through layers of diminishing reality: The Atlantic reports that non-CGI human influencers are posting fake sponsored content '-- that is, content meant to look like content that is meant to look authentic, for free '-- to attract attention from brand reps, who, they hope, will pay them real money.
The money is usually real. Not always '-- ask someone who enthusiastically got into cryptocurrency this time last year '-- but often enough to be an engine of the Inversion. If the money is real, why does anything else need to be? Earlier this year, the writer and artist Jenny Odell began to look into an Amazon reseller that had bought goods from other Amazon resellers and resold them, again on Amazon, at higher prices. Odell discovered an elaborate network of fake price-gouging and copyright-stealing businesses connected to the cultlike Evangelical church whose followers resurrected Newsweek in 2013 as a zombie search-engine-optimized spam farm. She visited a strange bookstore operated by the resellers in San Francisco and found a stunted concrete reproduction of the dazzlingly phony storefronts she'd encountered on Amazon, arranged haphazardly with best-selling books, plastic tchotchkes, and beauty products apparently bought from wholesalers. ''At some point I began to feel like I was in a dream,'' she wrote. ''Or that I was half-awake, unable to distinguish the virtual from the real, the local from the global, a product from a Photoshop image, the sincere from the insincere.''
The only site that gives me that dizzying sensation of unreality as often as Amazon does is YouTube, which plays host to weeks' worth of inverted, inhuman content. TV episodes that have been mirror-flipped to avoid copyright takedowns air next to huckster vloggers flogging merch who air next to anonymously produced videos that are ostensibly for children. An animated video of Spider-Man and Elsa from Frozen riding tractors is not, you know, not real: Some poor soul animated it and gave voice to its actors, and I have no doubt that some number (dozens? Hundreds? Millions? Sure, why not?) of kids have sat and watched it and found some mystifying, occult enjoyment in it. But it's certainly not ''official,'' and it's hard, watching it onscreen as an adult, to understand where it came from and what it means that the view count beneath it is continually ticking up.
These, at least, are mostly bootleg videos of popular fictional characters, i.e., counterfeit unreality. Counterfeit reality is still more difficult to find'--for now. In January 2018, an anonymous Redditor created a relatively easy-to-use desktop-app implementation of ''deepfakes,'' the now-infamous technology that uses artificial-intelligence image processing to replace one face in a video with another '-- putting, say, a politician's over a porn star's. A recent academic paper from researchers at the graphics-card company Nvidia demonstrates a similar technique used to create images of computer-generated ''human'' faces that look shockingly like photographs of real people. (Next time Russians want to puppeteer a group of invented Americans on Facebook, they won't even need to steal photos of real people.) Contrary to what you might expect, a world suffused with deepfakes and other artificially generated photographic images won't be one in which ''fake'' images are routinely believed to be real, but one in which ''real'' images are routinely believed to be fake '-- simply because, in the wake of the Inversion, who'll be able to tell the difference?
Such a loss of any anchoring ''reality'' only makes us pine for it more. Our politics have been inverted along with everything else, suffused with a Gnostic sense that we're being scammed and defrauded and lied to but that a ''real truth'' still lurks somewhere. Adolescents are deeply engaged by YouTube videos that promise to show the hard reality beneath the ''scams'' of feminism and diversity '-- a process they call ''red-pilling'' after the scene in The Matrix when the computer simulation falls away and reality appears. Political arguments now involve trading accusations of ''virtue signaling'' '-- the idea that liberals are faking their politics for social reward '-- against charges of being Russian bots. The only thing anyone can agree on is that everyone online is lying and fake.
Which, well. Everywhere I went online this year, I was asked to prove I'm a human. Can you retype this distorted word? Can you transcribe this house number? Can you select the images that contain a motorcycle? I found myself prostrate daily at the feet of robot bouncers, frantically showing off my highly developed pattern-matching skills '-- does a Vespa count as a motorcycle, even? '-- so I could get into nightclubs I'm not even sure I want to enter. Once inside, I was directed by dopamine-feedback loops to scroll well past any healthy point, manipulated by emotionally charged headlines and posts to click on things I didn't care about, and harried and hectored and sweet-talked into arguments and purchases and relationships so algorithmically determined it was hard to describe them as real.
Where does that leave us? I'm not sure the solution is to seek out some pre-Inversion authenticity '-- to red-pill ourselves back to ''reality.'' What's gone from the internet, after all, isn't ''truth,'' but trust: the sense that the people and things we encounter are what they represent themselves to be. Years of metrics-driven growth, lucrative manipulative systems, and unregulated platform marketplaces, have created an environment where it makes more sense to be fake online '-- to be disingenuous and cynical, to lie and cheat, to misrepresent and distort '-- than it does to be real. Fixing that would require cultural and political reform in Silicon Valley and around the world, but it's our only choice. Otherwise we'll all end up on the bot internet of fake people, fake clicks, fake sites, and fake computers, where the only real thing is the ads.
*A version of this article appears in the December 24, 2018, issue of New York Magazine. Subscribe Now!
How Much of the Internet Is Fake? Promoted links by Taboola 6 mins ago
A momentous day for NYC workers approaches
More than two years after Governor Andrew Cuomo declared victory in the Fight for $15 campaign, an initial group of New York City's lowest paid workers will finally see the promised figure reflected in their paychecks.
Starting on December 31st, employees at New York City businesses with more than 10 workers will be the first to reach the full $15 minimum wage, which is being implemented in phases throughout the state. The city's smaller businesses still have another year to offer the hourly wage, while all employers on Long Island and in Westchester get until 2021. The remainder of workers in the state will see the wage floor lifted to $12.50 in two years, at which point the minimum wage will increase at a schedule to be determined by the state, until it hits $15'...eventually.
10:02 a.m.Does it matter that some conservatives seem receptive to a carbon tax?
From this Wall Street Journal piece touting a carbon tax: ''Meanwhile, conservatives have begun to notice a thing or two. A carbon tax is better than many of the taxes we have, which punish work, saving and investment. Had a carbon tax been on the table during the Bush and Trump tax-cut debates, those cuts could have been deeper and (importantly) made permanent for budget-scoring purposes. Hmmm.''
I'm skeptical. But ''hey, this gives us an excuse to replace revenue from progressive income taxes with a flat, regressive consumption tax'' is probably the most viable argument on this to offer the right
yeah, it's amazing conservatives have not tried this strategy
imagine if they used carbon taxes as an offset and put it in the tax reform, told Democrats ''it's this or nothing '' you say climate change is an emergency, do you care enough about it to accept lower corporate tax rates in return?''
my presumption is too many powerful forces in the coalition are as opposed to taxes that affirm the reality of climate change as they are to any other kind. Also, that kind of proposal would have made the lives of the most vulnerable Democratic incumbents easier (Joe Manchin certainly wouldn't have had a harder time opposing tax reform if it was a new front in the war on coal)
right, manchin would have gone from no to hell no, but I bet a lot of other dems would have had tough decisions
I think the GOP refusal to accept climate change is only partly explained by fossil fuel $
the simple social dynamics probably matter a lot. they have people in their movement who devoted their lives to denying climate science. and by custom, everybody defers to those people on their issue. The sheer social dynamics of breaking ranks would be fairly traumatic.
You can probably imagine some rough equivalent on the left '' you know somebody who is really into one issue, how pissed is that person going to be if you sell them out?
yeah, I get that. But at the same time, we're only 10 years or so removed from a significant faction of the party (including its 2008 nominee) accepting the reality, and it isn't that hard to pivot from the posture of *skepticism* to ''I have now determined the wait of the evidence suggests a sufficient probability to merit this minor shift in the tax code.''
These numbers are off the top of my head but I think they are right: the IPCC suggested a tax as high as $5,000 a ton and growing as high as $27,000/ton was necessary. There are carbon capture models today reducing carbon at a price of $90-$250 a ton. The math seems pretty straightforward even before you get to the fact that most countries in the world with carbon taxes are still growing emissions.
$90-$250 per ton is still the *most expensive* form of existing carbon capture
@davidwallacewells are you saying that requiring the adoption of carbon capture is a more politically viable demand than a carbon tax big enough to be sufficient? Or something else?
Political viability aside, it appears to be much, much, much cheaper
or that a carbon tax would incentivize carbon capture?
presumably it would create a market for people to deploy carbon capture, right?
assuming the tax could go negative
Depending on how the tax was designed and how emissions were monitored'...
if you could remove carbon for $100 a ton and taxed it at $1000 a ton, pretty soon you'd have people installing carbon suckers in their back yards
or the government could just do the cleanup work with that money itself, directly.
doing so would presumably require even a lower carbon tax.
9:37 a.m.
Another topsy-turvy day ahead on Wall Street?
Just three minutes into the trading session, Dow Jones down about 300 points after yesterday's nearly 1,100 point gain.
#DowJones #StockMarket #WallStreet '--@jdurso82 8:49 a.m.
The stock market may be volatile, but other measures of the economy are humming
U.S. filings for unemployment benefits decreased for the third time in four weeks, hovering near an almost five- decade low that reflects a robust job market.
Jobless claims fell by 1,000 to 216,000 in the week ended Dec. 22, matching the median estimate in a Bloomberg survey of economists and following a revised reading of 217,000 for the prior week, Labor Department figures showed Thursday. The four-week average, a less-volatile measure, fell to a six-week low.
8:17 a.m.
A New Yorker piece about Trump and ''The Apprentice'' addresses those rumors about racial slurs
Neither Putnam nor Edwards would comment on whether M-G-M possesses tapes in which Trump says something offensive; nor would they say how much, if any, of the archive has been reviewed. Over the fourteen seasons hosted by Trump, nearly two hundred hours of ''The Apprentice'' aired on NBC. If Burnett indeed shot three hundred hours of footage for each episode, there could be some sixty thousand hours of outtakes to sift through.
Most of the former ''Apprentice'' staffers I spoke to recalled hearing Trump speak coarsely about women. ''He wasn't going around saying 'pussy, pussy, pussy' all the time,'' Walker said. But he regularly made comments about the bodies of female contestants and female staffers. One ''Apprentice'' employee told me, ''He'd say, 'How about those boobs? Wouldn't you like to fuck her?' ''
Even so, Braun said he doubted that there was any ''Apprentice'' tape in which Trump uses the N-word. ''I was the supervising editor on the first six seasons,'' he said. ''I didn't watch every frame, but in everything I saw I didn't hear him saying anything so horrible.
2020 elections
In the Trump Era, Who Needs Moderates Anyway?
By Ed Kilgore
Research shows running to the center didn't help candidates in 2018. That could convince progressives that moderates have outlived their usefulness.
12/26/2018
After the death of eight-year-old Felipe G"mez Alonzo '-- the second migrant child to die in Border Patrol custody this month '-- the Department of Homeland Security announced changes to how the agency will handle children crossing the border
DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen on Wednesday said the agency will adopt a ''series of extraordinary protective measures,'' including having the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigate an uptick in ''sick children'' crossing the border.
''At my direction, all children in Border Patrol custody have been given a thorough medical screening,'' Nielsen said. ''Moving forward, all children will receive a more thorough hands-on assessment at the earliest possible time post apprehension '-- whether or not the accompanying adult has asked for one.''
CBP officials did not respond to questions about what those medical checks will entail, or what kind of care children in agency custody currently receive.
12/26/2018
Poetic justice for the gubernatorial candidate who ran on the slogan of a 'deportation bus'
State senator and former Republican gubernatorial candidate Michael Williams turned himself into Hall County jail Wednesday, days after news broke that he had been indicted on charges that included insurance fraud.
The charges against the Forsyth County Republican, who will likely remain in office until mid-January, stem from a May incident in which Williams reported his Gainesville campaign office was burglarized. At the time, Williams' campaign manager said $300,000 worth of computer servers that were being used to mine cryptocurrency had been taken from the building.
Williams is accused of lying to a Georgia Bureau of Investigation agent when he said he was at home in Forsyth County, not in the Gainesville area at the time of the purported burglary. The indictment, which doesn't say what allegedly actually happened to the servers, accuses Williams of making a false insurance claim related to the servers.
12/26/2018the national interest
the national interest
Trump Accidentally Exposes the Location, Identities of U.S. Navy Seal Team 5
By Matt Stieb
In his first visit to a combat zone, the commander-in-chief botched a basic tenet of op-sec.
12/26/2018
Will New York have legal weed as early as March 2019?
New York officials are moving ahead with efforts to legalize recreational marijuana use, but they are running into a barrage of complicated issues that must be resolved if their end-of-March timetable to act is to be realized.
Among just a handful of lingering questions to be answered: how much will the state tax the sales and where does the money go; who gets to grow, distribute and sell the drug; will homegrown pot be legal; will it be available in a variety of forms, including things like candy bars; how many people will have their marijuana arrest and conviction records expunged and what will the state do to deter a rise in driving while impaired situations?
In a speech outlining his top priorities for the first 100 days of the 2019 session that starts next month, Cuomo put marijuana legalization on the list, saying it should be made legal ''once and for all.'' It's a sharp turn from only a year or so ago when he talked against legalization of marijuana because it was a potentially dangerous ''gateway drug.''
Some involved in the discussions believe Cuomo will try to take a more measured approach, unlike when California legalized marijuana in what some in New York call the Wild West approach to legalization. It is a route he took when he ended his opposition to medical marijuana products and approved such use, but under what at the time was the nation's strictest medical pot laws.
12/26/2018
Showing a lot of confidence in Republicans' chances to get a wall out of the shutdown
Trump said he wants to go to the border for a wall ''ground breaking'' before the State of the Union, per pool reporter
@ByBrianBennett who's traveling with Trump on trip to Iraq.
'--@Acosta 12/26/2018the stock market
the stock market
Stocks Bounce Back From Christmas Eve Dive With Record One-Day Rise
By Ed Kilgore
The Dow rose 1,086 points on Wednesday, in part because the White House assured investors Trump isn't firing everyone in sight.
12/26/2018
A comprehensive look at how the Trump administration has swiftly dismantled years of climate regulation
Since Mr. Trump took office, his approach on the environment has been to neutralize the most rigorous Obama-era restrictions, nearly 80 of which have been blocked, delayed or targeted for repeal, according to an analysis of data by The New York Times.
With this running start, Mr. Trump is already on track to leave an indelible mark on the American landscape, even with a decline in some major pollutants from the ever-shrinking coal industry. While Washington has been consumed by scandals surrounding the president's top officials on environmental policy '-- both the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Interior secretary have been driven from his cabinet '-- Mr. Trump's vision is taking root in places as diverse as rural California, urban Texas, West Virginian coal country and North Dakota's energy corridor.
While the Obama administration sought to tackle pollution problems in all four states and nationally, Mr. Trump's regulatory ambitions extend beyond Republican distaste for what they considered unitaleral overreach by his Democratic predecessor; pursuing them in full force, Mr. Trump would shift the debate about the environment sharply in the direction of industry interests, further unraveling what had been, before the Obama administration, a loose bipartisan consensus dating in part to the Nixon administration.
12/26/2018
American Colin O'Brady completes the first-ever solo, unaided trek across Antarctica, a distance of 932 miles
''I just woke up on Christmas morning, just thinking about it, and I was like, all right, I have three more days left, how many hours is that of moving? People run 100 miles all the time.''
'--Colin O'Brady 12/26/2018
Trump, who caused the shutdown, cites the shutdown as a reason for delaying a court case determining if he violated the Constitution's emoluments clause
Lawyers for President Donald Trump are invoking the government shutdown to seek a delay in a court case over claims that Trump is illegally profiting from business his Washington hotel does with foreign countries.
A short time after the government filed the request, the court agreed to put the case on hold indefinitely.
The Justice Department lawyers [representing Trump] appear to be asking the appeals court not only to lift the deadlines in the case, but also to extend them by the duration of the shutdown once Congress and the president put new funding in place.
12/26/2018
Trump to American troops in Iraq, in his first visit to a combat zone: ''We're no longer the suckers, folks.''
Photo: SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
12/26/2018
Unearthing Big Sugar's suppression of science
To drill down to what seemed to be the root cause '-- how the sugar industry grew so powerful and ubiquitous in the first place '-- [Cristin Kearns] hung up her dental coat to become a unique blend of investigative journalist, historian, and health researcher. She now crosses the country in search of libraries with formerly confidential archives from now-defunct sugar manufacturers, trade groups, scientists, consultants, and executives. By combing through thousands of pages of internal documents, Kearns and her team have gained unprecedented clarity into the machinations of the sugar industry during the mid-20th century.
They've found, for example, that a trade group knew as early as the 1950s that sugar caused tooth decay. But when the group went on to work closely with the federal government on a program about strategies to fight decay, it downplayed the most obvious, cutting out sugar. Another time, the group funded research that inadvertently linked sugar with bladder cancer, then killed the research. Then there was a 1967 paper '-- secretly funded by that same trade group '-- that blamed fat and cholesterol for causing heart disease, but minimized data showing sugar's risks.
12/26/2018
Boosted by online shopping, U.S. holiday sales grow 5.1 percent to $850 billion
The 5.1 percent sales growth included in-store and online sales between Nov. 1 and Dec. 24. The National Retail Federation had forecast U.S. holiday retail sales to rise between 4.3 percent and 4.8 percent in November and December.
Online sales posted strong gains, rising 19.1 percent, according to the SpendingPulse retail report, published by Mastercard's analytics arm.
In contrast, sales at department stores fell 1.3 percent after two years of modest growth, largely due to store closures.
12/26/2018
Shutdown D.C. doing its best New York City impersonation
Photo: Win McNamee/Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Image
12/26/2018
The Trump administration will appeal the district court ruling that blocks the president's asylum ban
According to a court filing, the administration told the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals it plans to appeal federal District Judge Jon Tigar's December 19 order, which extended an initial block on the new rules.
President Donald Trump signed a presidential proclamation last month that would bar migrants who illegally cross into the United States over the southern border from seeking asylum outside of official ports of entry.
And on Friday, the Supreme Court let stand Judge Tigar's original order temporarily blocking the Trump administration's new asylum restrictions in a 5-4 ruling in which Chief Justice John Roberts sided with the four liberal justices.
Trump has continually railed against the 9th Circuit as ''very unfair.'' Last month when the ban was first blocked, the President criticized the San Francisco-based appeals court, leading Roberts to issue a rare statement emphasizing the independence of the judiciary.
12/26/2018
FEMA is failing, again
The agency's force strength '-- the number of personnel it employs to respond to events '-- has risen to 12,592, up from 10,683 in August 2017. But that is below 13,004, its target for the 2018 fiscal year, which ended on Sept. 30. It's even further from the staffing levels that FEMA thinks it ultimately needs: 16,305.
The portion of the agency's staff deemed ''qualified'' for their jobs '-- based on FEMA's review of their employment experience, training and performance '-- is just 62 percent, up from 56 percent before the 2017 hurricane season but far below its fiscal 2018 target of 88 percent.
And the goals themselves may be outdated: They are based off a 2015 internal force structure review that preceded the major disaster year of 2017.
u.s. military
Trump Makes Surprise Trip to Iraq, One Spot Where He Isn't Withdrawing Troops
By Ed Kilgore
Amid the uproar over his decision to pull troops from Afghanistan and Syria, President Trump made his first appearance in a combat zone.
12/26/2018
No end in sight
House members have been told there will be NO VOTES on Thursday, so the partial government shutdown will extend into at least Friday, barring a breakthrough.
'--@frankthorp policy
Emails Shed Light on Amazon's Cozy Relationship With the U.S. Government
By Brian Feldman
An Amazon executive advised the federal government on a lucrative online marketplace before the passage of a law that created it.
12/26/2018
Coast Guard medics are headed to the border following the death of a second migrant child in the past three weeks
Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen is deploying the U.S. Coast Guard's medical corps to the southern border to screen immigrants following the deaths of two young children from Guatemala who were in federal custody. '...
Nielsen has also asked the Centers for Disease Control to investigate the source of what officials called an increase in sick migrants taken into custody. ''Dozens'' have been taken to border hospitals with flu-like and other symptoms in recent days, officials said, raising the question of whether illness may be spreading in migrant shelters in Mexico.
12/26/2018
The Trumps are in Iraq
BREAKING: President Donald Trump in Iraq for unannounced first visit with American troops serving in a troubled region.
'--@AP the top line
Trump's Attacks on Jerome Powell Show He Doesn't Know How the Fed Works
By Josh Barro
Trump has been fantasizing about firing Powell because he's upset about interest rates going up '' but the Fed chair doesn't unilaterally set rates.
12/26/2018
Hannity's ratings are hurting
His show averaged 2.76 million viewers since the election through Dec. 17, down 19 percent compared to the previous month, the Nielsen company said. Among the 25-to-54-year-old demo most coveted by advertisers, he's down 30 percent. Competitors Rachel Maddow on MSNBC and Chris Cuomo on CNN are up in each measurement.
Maddow has been beating Hannity outright in December, a turnaround from October. During that month, when Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh's confirmation drama dominated the news, Hannity's audience routinely exceeded Maddow's by about a million people each night, Nielsen said.
Inside Facebook's Secret Rulebook for Global Political Speech - The New York Times
Fri, 28 Dec 2018 12:21
MENLO PARK, Calif. '-- In a glass conference room at its California headquarters, Facebook is taking on the bonfires of hate and misinformation it has helped fuel across the world, one post at a time.
The social network has drawn criticism for undermining democracy and for provoking bloodshed in societies small and large.
But for Facebook, it's also a business problem.
The company, which makes about $5 billion in profit per quarter, has to show that it is serious about removing dangerous content. It must also continue to attract more users from more countries and try to keep them on the site longer.
How can Facebook monitor billions of posts per day in over 100 languages, all without disturbing the endless expansion that is core to its business? The company's solution: a network of workers using a maze of PowerPoint slides spelling out what's forbidden.
Every other Tuesday morning, several dozen Facebook employees gather over breakfast to come up with the rules, hashing out what the site's two billion users should be allowed to say. The guidelines that emerge from these meetings are sent out to 7,500-plus moderators around the world.
The closely held rules are extensive, and they make the company a far more powerful arbiter of global speech than has been publicly recognized or acknowledged by the company itself, The New York Times has found.
The Times was provided with more than 1,400 pages from the rulebooks by an employee who said he feared that the company was exercising too much power, with too little oversight '-- and making too many mistakes.
An examination of the files revealed numerous gaps, biases and outright errors. As Facebook employees grope for the right answers, they have allowed extremist language to flourish in some countries while censoring mainstream speech in others.
Moderators were once told, for example, to remove fund-raising appeals for volcano victims in Indonesia because a co-sponsor of the drive was on Facebook's internal list of banned groups. In Myanmar, a paperwork error allowed a prominent extremist group, accused of fomenting genocide, to stay on the platform for months. In India, moderators were mistakenly told to take down comments critical of religion.
Image The ruins of a home set upon by a Buddhist mob in a deadly attack in Sri Lanka last March. Facebook has been accused of accelerating violence in the country. Credit Adam Dean for The New York Times The Facebook employees who meet to set the guidelines, mostly young engineers and lawyers, try to distill highly complex issues into simple yes-or-no rules. Then the company outsources much of the actual post-by-post moderation to companies that enlist largely unskilled workers, many hired out of call centers.
Those moderators, at times relying on Google Translate, have mere seconds to recall countless rules and apply them to the hundreds of posts that dash across their screens each day. When is a reference to ''jihad,'' for example, forbidden? When is a ''crying laughter'' emoji a warning sign?
Moderators express frustration at rules they say don't always make sense and sometimes require them to leave up posts they fear could lead to violence. ''You feel like you killed someone by not acting,'' one said, speaking on the condition of anonymity because he had signed a nondisclosure agreement.
Facebook executives say they are working diligently to rid the platform of dangerous posts.
''It's not our place to correct people's speech, but we do want to enforce our community standards on our platform,'' said Sara Su, a senior engineer on the News Feed. ''When you're in our community, we want to make sure that we're balancing freedom of expression and safety.''
Monika Bickert, Facebook's head of global policy management, said that the primary goal was to prevent harm, and that to a great extent, the company had been successful. But perfection, she said, is not possible.
''We have billions of posts every day, we're identifying more and more potential violations using our technical systems,'' Ms. Bickert said. ''At that scale, even if you're 99 percent accurate, you're going to have a lot of mistakes.''
The Rules Image When is it support for terrorism? Is ''martyr'' a forbidden word? Moderators are given guides to help them decide.The Facebook guidelines do not look like a handbook for regulating global politics. They consist of dozens of unorganized PowerPoint presentations and Excel spreadsheets with bureaucratic titles like ''Western Balkans Hate Orgs and Figures'' and ''Credible Violence: Implementation standards.''
Because Facebook drifted into this approach somewhat by accident, there is no single master file or overarching guide, just a patchwork of rules set out by different parts of the company. Facebook confirmed the authenticity of the documents, though it said some had been updated since The Times acquired them.
The company's goal is ambitious: to reduce context-heavy questions that even legal experts might struggle with '-- when is an idea hateful, when is a rumor dangerous '-- to one-size-fits-all rules. By telling moderators to follow the rules blindly, Facebook hopes to guard against bias and to enforce consistency.
Image A slide from Facebook's rulebook on what constitutes hate speech asks moderators to quickly make a series of complex, legalistic judgments per post.Facebook says the files are only for training, but moderators say they are used as day-to-day reference materials.
Taken individually, each rule might make sense. But in their byzantine totality, they can be a bit baffling.
One document sets out several rules just to determine when a word like ''martyr'' or ''jihad'' indicates pro-terrorism speech. Another describes when discussion of a barred group should be forbidden. Words like ''brother'' or ''comrade'' probably cross the line. So do any of a dozen emojis.
Image Facebook does not want its front-line moderators exercising independent judgment, so it gives them extensive guidance. These emojis, the platform says, could be considered threats or, in context with racial or religious groups, hate speech.The guidelines for identifying hate speech, a problem that has bedeviled Facebook, run to 200 jargon-filled, head-spinning pages. Moderators must sort a post into one of three ''tiers'' of severity. They must bear in mind lists like the six ''designated dehumanizing comparisons,'' among them comparing Jews to rats.
''There's a real tension here between wanting to have nuances to account for every situation, and wanting to have a set of policies we can enforce accurately and we can explain cleanly,'' said Ms. Bickert, the Facebook executive.
Though the Facebook employees who make the rules are largely free to set policy however they wish, and often do so in the room, they also consult with outside groups.
''We're not drawing these lines in a vacuum,'' Ms. Bickert said.
An Unseen Branch of Government Image In Pakistan, moderators were told to watch some parties and their supporters for prohibited speech.As detailed as the guidelines can be, they are also approximations '-- best guesses at how to fight extremism or disinformation. And they are leading Facebook to intrude into sensitive political matters the world over, sometimes clumsily.
Increasingly, the decisions on what posts should be barred amount to regulating political speech '-- and not just on the fringes. In many countries, extremism and the mainstream are blurring.
In the United States, Facebook banned the Proud Boys, a far-right pro-Trump group. The company also blocked an inflammatory ad, about a caravan of Central American migrants, that was produced by President Trump's political team.
In June, according to internal emails reviewed by The Times, moderators were told to allow users to praise the Taliban '-- normally a forbidden practice '-- if they mentioned its decision to enter into a cease-fire. In another email, moderators were told to hunt down and remove rumors wrongly accusing an Israeli soldier of killing a Palestinian medic.
''Facebook's role has become so hegemonic, so monopolistic, that it has become a force unto itself,'' said Jasmin Mujanovic, an expert on the Balkans. ''No one entity, especially not a for-profit venture like Facebook, should have that kind of power to influence public debate and policy.''
In Pakistan, shortly before elections were held in July, Facebook issued its moderators a 40-page document outlining ''political parties, expected trends and guidelines.''
Pakistan, one of the world's largest and most fragile democracies, enforces a media blackout on Election Day. This makes Facebook a center of news and discussion during voting.
The document most likely shaped those conversations '-- even if Pakistanis themselves had no way of knowing it. Moderators were urged, in one instance, to apply extra scrutiny to Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, a hard-line religious party. But another religious party, Jamaat-e-Islami, was described as ''benign.''
Though Facebook says its focus is protecting users, the documents suggest that other concerns come into play. Pakistan guidelines warn moderators against creating a ''PR fire'' by taking any action that could ''have a negative impact on Facebook's reputation or even put the company at legal risk.''
In India, Chinmayi Arun, a legal scholar, identified troubling mistakes in Facebook's guidelines.
One slide tells moderators that any post degrading an entire religion violates Indian law and should be flagged for removal. It is a significant curb on speech '-- and apparently incorrect. Indian law prohibits blasphemy only in certain conditions, Ms. Arun said, such as when the speaker intends to inflame violence.
Image Facebook's rules for India and Pakistan both include this diagram explaining that the company removes some content to avoid risk of legal challenge or being blocked by governments.Another slide says that Indian law prohibits calls for an independent Kashmir, which some legal scholars dispute. The slide instructs moderators to ''look out for'' the phrase ''Free Kashmir'' '-- though the slogan, common among activists, is completely legal.
Facebook says it is simply urging moderators to apply extra scrutiny to posts that use the phrase. Still, even this could chill activism in Kashmir. And it is not clear that the distinction will be obvious to moderators, who are warned that ignoring violations could get Facebook blocked in India.
'Things Explode Really Fast'In the absence of governments or international bodies that can set standards, Facebook is experimenting on its own.
The company never set out to play this role, but in an effort to control problems of its own creation, it has quietly become, with a speed that makes even employees uncomfortable, what is arguably one of the world's most powerful political regulators.
''A lot of this would be a lot easier if there were authoritative third parties that had the answer,'' said Brian Fishman, a counterterrorism expert who works with Facebook.
''Sometimes these things explode really fast,'' Mr. Fishman said, ''and we have to figure out what our reaction's going to be, and we don't have time for the U.N.''
But the results can be uneven.
Consider the guidelines for the Balkans, where rising nationalism is threatening to reignite old violence. The file on that region, not updated since 2016, includes odd errors. Ratko Mladic, a Bosnian war criminal still celebrated by extremists, is described as a fugitive. In fact, he was arrested in 2011.
Image A 2016 document on Western Balkan hate groups, still in use, incorrectly describes Ratko Mladic as a fugitive. Mr. Mladic was arrested in 2011. Though the error is minor, experts say it underscores an inattention to detail in Facebook's guidelines.The slides are apparently written for English speakers relying on Google Translate, suggesting that Facebook remains short on moderators who speak local languages '-- and who might understand local contexts crucial for identifying inflammatory speech. And Google Translate can be unreliable: Mr. Mladic is referred to in one slide as ''Rodney Young.''
The guidelines, said Mr. Mujanovic, the Balkans expert, appear dangerously out of date. They have little to say about ultranationalist groups stoking political violence in the region.
Nearly every Facebook employee who spoke to The Times cited, as proof of the company's competence, its response after the United Nations accused the platform of exacerbating genocide in Myanmar. The employees pointed to Facebook's ban this spring on any positive mention of Ma Ba Tha, an extremist group that has been using the platform to incite violence against Muslims since 2014.
But puzzled activists in Myanmar say that, months later, posts supporting the group remain widespread.
The culprit may be Facebook's own rulebooks. Guidelines for policing hate speech in Myanmar instruct moderators not to remove posts supporting Ma Ba Tha. Facebook corrected the mistake only in response to an inquiry from The Times.
Image Several months after Facebook said it had banned praise for Ma Ba Tha, a Myanmar supremacist group accused of encouraging ethnic cleansing, the company's Myanmar guidelines stated that the group was allowed.Employees also touted their decision to shut down Facebook accounts belonging to senior military officials in Myanmar.
But the company did not initially notify Myanmar's government, leading the barred officers to conclude that they had been hacked. Some blamed Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the country's de facto civilian leader, and the episode deepened distrust between her and the military, lawmakers say.
The Hate ListFacebook's most politically consequential document may be an Excel spreadsheet that names every group and individual the company has quietly barred as a hate figure.
Image Facebook keeps an internal list of groups and individuals it bars as hate figures, though not all are on the fringe. Facebook users are prohibited from posting content that is deemed to support or praise them.Moderators are instructed to remove any post praising, supporting or representing any listed figure.
Anton Shekhovtsov, an expert in far-right groups, said he was ''confused about the methodology.'' The company bans an impressive array of American and British groups, he said, but relatively few in countries where the far right can be more violent, particularly Russia or Ukraine.
Countries where Facebook faces government pressure seem to be better covered than those where it does not. Facebook blocks dozens of far-right groups in Germany, where the authorities scrutinize the social network, but only one in neighboring Austria.
The list includes a growing number of groups with one foot in the political mainstream, like the far-right Golden Dawn, which holds seats in the Greek and European Union parliaments.
For a tech company to draw these lines is ''extremely problematic,'' said Jonas Kaiser, a Harvard University expert on online extremism. ''It puts social networks in the position to make judgment calls that are traditionally the job of the courts.''
The bans are a kind of shortcut, said Sana Jaffrey, who studies Indonesian politics at the University of Chicago. Asking moderators to look for a banned name or logo is easier than asking them to make judgment calls about when political views are dangerous.
But that means that in much of Asia and the Middle East, Facebook bans hard-line religious groups that represent significant segments of society. Blanket prohibitions, Ms. Jaffrey said, amount to Facebook shutting down one side in national debates.
And its decisions often skew in favor of governments, which can fine or regulate Facebook.
In Sri Lanka, Facebook removed posts commemorating members of the Tamil minority who died in the country's civil war. Facebook bans any positive mention of Tamil rebels, though users can praise government forces who were also guilty of atrocities.
Kate Cronin-Furman, a Sri Lanka expert at University College London, said this prevented Tamils from memorializing the war, allowing the government to impose its version of events '-- entrenching Tamils' second-class status.
The View From Menlo ParkFacebook's policies might emerge from well-appointed conference rooms, but they are executed largely by moderators in drab outsourcing offices in distant locations like Morocco and the Philippines.
Facebook says moderators are given ample time to review posts and don't have quotas. Moderators say they face pressure to review about a thousand pieces of content per day. They have eight to 10 seconds for each post, longer for videos.
The moderators describe feeling in over their heads. For some, pay is tied to speed and accuracy. Many last only a few exhausting months. Front-line moderators have few mechanisms for alerting Facebook to new threats or holes in the rules '-- and little incentive to try, one said.
One moderator described an officewide rule to approve any post if no one on hand can read the appropriate language. This may have contributed to violence in Sri Lanka and Myanmar, where posts encouraging ethnic cleansing were routinely allowed to stay up.
Facebook says that any such practice would violate its rules, which include contingencies for reviewing posts in unfamiliar languages. Justin Osofsky, a Facebook vice president who oversees these contracts, said any corner-cutting probably came from midlevel managers at outside companies acting on their own.
This hints at a deeper problem. Facebook has little visibility into the giant outsourcing companies, which largely police themselves, and has at times struggled to control them. And because Facebook relies on the companies to support its expansion, its leverage over them is limited.
One hurdle to reining in inflammatory speech on Facebook may be Facebook itself. The platform relies on an algorithm that tends to promote the most provocative content, sometimes of the sort the company says it wants to suppress.
Facebook could blunt that algorithm or slow the company's expansion into new markets, where it has proved most disruptive. But the social network instills in employees an almost unquestioned faith in their product as a force for good.
When Ms. Su, the News Feed engineer, was asked if she believed research finding that more Facebook usage correlates with more violence, she replied, ''I don't think so.''
''As we have greater reach, as we have more people engaging, that raises the stakes,'' she said. ''But I also think that there's greater opportunity for people to be exposed to new ideas.''
Still, even some executives hesitate when asked whether the company has found the right formula.
Richard Allan, a London-based vice president who is also a sitting member of the House of Lords, said a better model might be ''some partnership arrangement'' with ''government involved in setting the standards,'' even if not all governments can be trusted with this power.
Mr. Fishman, the Facebook terrorism expert, said the company should consider deferring more decisions to moderators, who may better understand the nuances of local culture and politics.
But at company headquarters, the most fundamental questions of all remain unanswered: What sorts of content lead directly to violence? When does the platform exacerbate social tensions?
Rosa Birch, who leads an internal crisis team, said she and her colleagues had been posing these questions for years. They are making progress, she said, but will probably never have definitive answers.
But without a full understanding of the platform's impact, most policies are just ad hoc responses to problems as they emerge. Employees make a tweak, wait to see what happens, then tweak again '-- as if repairing an airplane midflight.
In the meantime, the company continues to expand its reach to more users in more countries.
''One of the reasons why it's hard to talk about,'' Mr. Fishman said, ''is because there is a lack of societal agreement on where this sort of authority should lie.''
But, he said, ''it's harder to figure out what a better alternative is.''
Max Fisher, with Amanda Taub, is co-author of the Interpreter column, which explores the ideas and context behind major world events. Follow them on Twitter @Max_Fisher and @amandataub.
Sheera Frenkel contributed reporting from San Francisco; Paul Mozur from Yangon, Myanmar; and Amanda Taub from London.
A version of this article appears in print on
, on Page
A
1
of the New York edition
with the headline:
How Facebook Controls What World Can Say
. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe
Algos fighting algos for ad dollars
Democratic operative who bragged about Russian bot 'false flag' issues contradiction-filled denial '-- RT USA News
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:22
The Democratic operative who boasted about orchestrating a ''false flag'' operation that used fake Russian bots to swing a US Senate race has issued a farcical denial in which he backpedals on his own publicly available statements.
Jonathon Morgan, CEO, and co-founder of ''Democratic-leaning'' private intelligence firm New Knowledge, was reportedly part of a secretive campaign to discredit Republican candidate, Roy Moore, during the Alabama election. According to an internal report obtained by the New York Times, Morgan and his accomplices boasted about how they had ''orchestrated an elaborate 'false flag' operation that planted the idea that the Moore campaign was amplified on social media by a Russian botnet.'' Moore ended up losing the race by a hair to his Democratic opponent Doug Jones '' who became the first Democrat in 25 years to serve Alabama in the Senate.
READ MORE: The only 'Russian bots' to meddle in US elections belonged to Democrat-linked 'experts'
Morgan adamantly denied these accusations in a statement posted on New Knowledge's blog, insisting that his company used the election to conduct ''research'' and ''did not engage or operate a botnet.'' In fact, according to Morgan, New Knowledge believed from the beginning that the ''Russian bots'' purportedly aligned with Moore were fake. The hundreds of Cyrillic-sporting accounts that followed Moore on Twitter ''seemed to us to be the work of internet trolls, not Russian activity,'' Morgan wrote. He acknowledged that the media presented the bots as a genuine Russian influence campaign, but asserted that ''to this day, we have no idea where these followers came from or what their purpose was.''
Morgan, it appears, felt differently during the actual election. Citing his much-admired ''Russian bot'' dashboard, Hamilton 68, Morgan tweeted in November 2017 that Moore was conspicuously popular among ''Russian trolls.''
In other words: In November 2017 '' when Moore and his Democratic opponent were in a bitter fight to win over voters '' Morgan openly promoted the theory that Russian bots were supporting Moore's campaign. A year later '' after being caught red-handed orchestrating a self-described ''false flag'' operation '' Morgan now says that his team never thought that the bots were Russian and have no idea what their purpose was. Did he think no one would notice?
Tellingly, Morgan publicized during the election that New Knowledge had invested time and resources into unmasking the owner of a pro-Moore Twitter account. True to form, Morgan suggested that the Twitter user was a Russian bot '' an accusation that was found to be baseless after the Daily Beast conducted a thorough investigation into the matter.
We've been looking into umpire43 at @NewKnowledgeAI. ''He'' is the fake SEAL who attacked Roy Moore's accusers. Daily Beast now reporting the account's operator stole a dead SEAL's identify.Some more fun facts... https://t.co/jmBK1kkVUI
'-- Jonathon Morgan (@jonathonmorgan) November 14, 2017This is just one of several painfully apparent inconsistencies with Morgan's ''research'' story. He insists that his company's activities were limited to the creation of a benign Facebook page aimed at Alabama conservatives, which was used to gauge how political audiences responded to ''mainstream, moderate'' journalism.
Also on rt.com Irony alert: Firm that warned Americans of Russian bots...was running an army of fake Russian bots None of this adds up. According to the New York Times, which broke the story, Morgan ''acknowledged his role in the secret Alabama operation on Facebook and Twitter.'' Why is he now denying any role '' and why is there no mention of Twitter activities in his statement? Morgan's obstinate denial insists that he was only involved in setting up a harmless Facebook page.Morgan ends his statement by declaring that New Knowledge ''is in the integrity business.'' This is why, as the Times reported, the company ''intended to help Mr. Jones and hurt Mr. Moore and that its operators believed it had succeeded in doing so.''
Think your friends would be interested? Share this story!
OTG
How Apps on Android Share Data with Facebook - Report | Privacy International
Sun, 30 Dec 2018 13:14
Previous research has shown how 42.55 percent of free apps on the Google Play store could share data with Facebook, making Facebook the second most prevalent third-party tracker after Google's parent company Alphabet. In this report, Privacy International illustrates what this data sharing looks like in practice, particularly for people who do not have a Facebook account.
This question of whether Facebook gathers information about users who are not signed in or do not have an account was raised in the aftermath of the Cambridge Analytica scandal by lawmakers in hearings in the United States and in Europe. Discussions, as well as previous fines by Data Protection Authorities about the tracking of non-users, however, often focus on the tracking that happens on websites. Much less is known about the data that the company receives from apps. For these reasons, in this report we raise questions about transparency and use of app data that we consider timely and important.
Facebook routinely tracks users, non-users and logged-out users outside its platform through Facebook Business Tools. App developers share data with Facebook through the Facebook Software Development Kit (SDK), a set of software development tools that help developers build apps for a specific operating system. Using the free and open source software tool called "mitmproxy", an interactive HTTPS proxy, Privacy International has analyzed the data that 34 apps on Android, each with an install base from 10 to 500 million, transmit to Facebook through the Facebook SDK.
All apps were tested between August and December 2018, with the last re-test happening between 3 and 11 of December 2018. The full documentation, including the exact date each app was tested, can be found at https://privacyinternational.org/appdata.
Findings
' We found that at least 61 percent of apps we tested automatically transfer data to Facebook the moment a user opens the app. This happens whether people have a Facebook account or not, or whether they are logged into Facebook or not. ' Typically, the data that is automatically transmitted first is events data that communicates to Facebook that the Facebook SDK has been initialized by transmitting data such as "App installed'' and "SDK Initialized". This data reveals the fact that a user is using a specific app, every single time that user opens an app.' In our analysis, apps that automatically transmit data to Facebook share this data together with a unique identifier, the Google advertising ID (AAID). The primary purpose of advertising IDs, such as the Google advertising ID (or Apple's equivalent, the IDFA) is to allow advertisers to link data about user behavior from different apps and web browsing into a comprehensive profile. If combined, data from different apps can paint a fine-grained and intimate picture of people's activities, interests, behaviors and routines, some of which can reveal special category data, including information about people's health or religion. For example, an individual who has installed the following apps that we have tested, "Qibla Connect" (a Muslim prayer app), "Period Tracker Clue" (a period tracker), "Indeed" (a job search app), "My Talking Tom" (a children's' app), could be potentially profiled as likely female, likely Muslim, likely job seeker, likely parent.' If combined, event data such as "App installed'', "SDK Initialized" and ''Deactivate app'' from different apps also offer a detailed insight into the app usage behavior of hundreds of millions of people. ' We also found that some apps routinely send Facebook data that is incredibly detailed and sometimes sensitive. Again, this concerns data of people who are either logged out of Facebook or who do not have a Facebook account. A prime example is the travel search and price comparison app "KAYAK", which sends detailed information about people's flight searches to Facebook, including: departure city, departure airport, departure date, arrival city, arrival airport, arrival date, number of tickets (including number of children), class of tickets (economy, business or first class).' Facebook's Cookies Policy describes two ways in which people who do not have a Facebook account can control Facebook's use of cookies to show them ads. Privacy International has tested both opt-outs and found that they had no discernible impact on the data sharing that we have described in this report.Discussion
Facebook places the sole responsibility on app developers to ensure that they have the lawful right to collect, use and share people's data before providing Facebook with any data. However, the default implementation of the Facebook SDK is designed to automatically transmit event data to Facebook.
Since May 25, 2018 '' the day that the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) entered into force - developers have been filing bug reports on Facebook's developer platform, raising concerns that the Facebook SDK automatically shares data before apps are able to ask users to agree or consent. On June 28, 2018, Facebook released a voluntary feature that should allow developers to delay collecting automatically logged events until after they acquire user consent. The feature was launched 35 days after GDPR took effect and only works on the SDK version 4.34 and later.
In response to this report, Facebook has stated in an email to Privacy International on 28 December 2018: ''Prior to our introduction of the ''delay'' option, developers had the ability to disable transmission of automatic event logging data, except for a signal that the SDK had been initialized. Following the June change to our SDK, we also removed the signal that the SDK was initialized for developers that disabled automatic event logging.'' (emphasis added).
This ''signal'' is the data that we observe in our findings. We assume that prior to the release of this voluntary feature, many apps that use Facebook SDK in the Android ecosystem were therefore not able to prevent or delay the SDK from automatically collecting and sharing that the SDK has been initialized. Such data communicates to Facebook that a user uses a particular app, when they are using it and for how long.
Conclusion
Without any further transparency from Facebook, it is impossible to know for certain, how the data that we have described in this report is being used. This is particularity the case since Facebook has been less than transparent about the ways in which it uses data of non-Facebook users in the past.
Our findings also raise a number of legal questions. As this research was conducted in the UK we have focused on the relevant EU framework, namely EU data protection (''GDPR'') and ePrivacy law (the ePrivacy Directive 2002/58/EC, as implemented by Member State laws) as well as Competition Law. An underlying theme is the responsibility of the various actors involved, including Facebook.
Agenda 2030
climate carbon tax returned to tax payers scam
mental-health-climate.pdf
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 17:54
MENTAL HEALTH AND OUR CHANGING CLIMA\TE: IMPACTS, IMPLICATIONS, AND GUIDANCEMarc\f 201\b
2 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 3THIS GUIDE IS BROU\PGHT TO YOU BYEDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORSAshlee Cunsolo\b PhD\b Director\b Labrador \fnstitute of Memorial UniversityVictoria Derr\b PhD\b Assistant Professor\b Environmental Studies\b California State University\b Monterey Bay Thomas Doherty\b PsyD\b Licensed Clinical PsychologistPaige Fery\b Research Coordinator\b ecoAmericaElizabeth Haase\b MD\b Chair\b Climate Psychiatry Committee\b Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry Associate Professor\b University of Nevada\b Reno\b School of Medicine\:John Kotcher\b PhD\b Post-doctoral Research Fellow\b Center for Climate Change Communication\b George Mason UniversityLinda Silka\b PhD\b Psychologist\b Senior Fellow\b Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Soluti\:onsLise Van Susteren\b MD\b Psychiatrist\b Private PracticeJennifer Tabola\b Senior Director\b Climate for Health\b ecoAmerica REVIEWERSecoAmerica and the Am\:erican Psychological Association thank the following reviewers who provided valuable feedback on drafts of this report: Daniel Dodgen\: (Department of Hea\:lth and Human Services)\b Chandrakala Ganesh (California State University\b East Bay)\b Caroline Hodge (University of Michigan \:MBA/MS Candidate 2018)\b Howard Kurtzman (American \:Psychological Association)\b Joshua Morganstein (Department of Psychiatry\b Uniformed Services University of the Healt\:h Sciences & Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress)\b Susan Schneider (University of the Pacific)\b Robert Ursano (Center Department of Psychiatry\b Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences & Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress)\b Michael Wright (Licensed Social Worker\b Author)\b and Michael Yogman (Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of \:Child and Family Health\b Ameri\:can Academy of Pediatrics). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CONTENTSAUTHORSSusan Clayton Whitmore-Williams Professor of Psychology College of WoosterChristie Manning Visiting Assistant Professor\b Environmental Studies Macalester CollegeKirra Krygsman Research Manager ecoAmericaMeighen Speiser Chief Engagement O\:fficer ecoAmericaSPECIA\f THANKSecoAmerica is grateful to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for its generous support.Suggested citation Clayton\b S.\b Manning\b C. \:M.\b Krygsman\b K.\b & Speiser\b M. (2017). Mental Health and Our Changing C\:limate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance. Washington\b D.C.: American Psychological Association\b and ecoAmerica.WHY WE OFFE\f THIS \fEP\FO\fT \bEXECUTIVE SUMMA\fY 6I. CONTEXT 9 Our Changing \:Climate: A Primer 10 The Climate and Health \fmpact\:s on Humans 11 Linking Physical \fmpacts\b Mental\: Health\b and Community Well-Being 14 Comprehending Climate Change 16 Climate Solutions Benefit \:Mental Health 18II. MENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE 20 Mental Health\: \fmpacts 21 \fmpacts on \fndi\:viduals 22 \fmpacts on Community and Societ\:y 29 The Problem of \fnequity 31III. ADD\fESSING THE MENTAL HEALTH IMPACTS 39 Building Resilience 40 Tips to Support \fndividua\:ls 42 Tips to Support Communities 45 What \fndividuals Can Do\: 53 What Mental Health Pr\:ofessionals Can Do 55\fEFE\fENCES 58GLOSSA\fY 68
2 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 3THIS GUIDE IS BROU\PGHT TO YOU BYEDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORSAshlee Cunsolo\b PhD\b Director\b Labrador \fnstitute of Memorial UniversityVictoria Derr\b PhD\b Assistant Professor\b Environmental Studies\b California State University\b Monterey Bay Thomas Doherty\b PsyD\b Licensed Clinical PsychologistPaige Fery\b Research Coordinator\b ecoAmericaElizabeth Haase\b MD\b Chair\b Climate Psychiatry Committee\b Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry Associate Professor\b University of Nevada\b Reno\b School of Medicine\:John Kotcher\b PhD\b Post-doctoral Research Fellow\b Center for Climate Change Communication\b George Mason UniversityLinda Silka\b PhD\b Psychologist\b Senior Fellow\b Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Soluti\:onsLise Van Susteren\b MD\b Psychiatrist\b Private PracticeJennifer Tabola\b Senior Director\b Climate for Health\b ecoAmerica REVIEWERSecoAmerica and the Am\:erican Psychological Association thank the following reviewers who provided valuable feedback on drafts of this report: Daniel Dodgen\: (Department of Hea\:lth and Human Services)\b Chandrakala Ganesh (California State University\b East Bay)\b Caroline Hodge (University of Michigan \:MBA/MS Candidate 2018)\b Howard Kurtzman (American \:Psychological Association)\b Joshua Morganstein (Department of Psychiatry\b Uniformed Services University of the Healt\:h Sciences & Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress)\b Susan Schneider (University of the Pacific)\b Robert Ursano (Center Department of Psychiatry\b Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences & Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress)\b Michael Wright (Licensed Social Worker\b Author)\b and Michael Yogman (Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of \:Child and Family Health\b Ameri\:can Academy of Pediatrics). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ho‡80‡83AUTHORSSusan Clayton Whitmore-Williams Professor of Psychology College of WoosterChristie Manning Visiting Assistant Professor\b Environmental Studies Macalester CollegeKirra Krygsman Research Manager ecoAmericaMeighen Speiser Chief Engagement O\:fficer ecoAmericaSPECIA\f THANKSecoAmerica is grateful to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for its generous support.Suggested citation Clayton\b S.\b Manning\b C. \:M.\b Krygsman\b K.\b & Speiser\b M. (2017). Mental Health and Our Changing C\:limate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance. Washington\b D.C.: American Psychological Association\b and ecoAmerica.WHY WE OFFE\f THIS \fEP\FO\fT \bEXECUTIVE SUMMA\fY 6I. CONTEXT 9 Our Changing \:Climate: A Primer 10 The Climate and Health \fmpact\:s on Humans 11 Linking Physical \fmpacts\b Mental\: Health\b and Community Well-Being 14 Comprehending Climate Change 16 Climate Solutions Benefit \:Mental Health 18II. MENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE 20 Mental Health\: \fmpacts 21 \fmpacts on \fndi\:viduals 22 \fmpacts on Community and Societ\:y 29 The Problem of \fnequity 31III. ADD\fESSING THE MENTAL HEALTH IMPACTS 39 Building Resilience 40 Tips to Support \fndividua\:ls 42 Tips to Support Communities 45 What \fndividuals Can Do\: 53 What Mental Health Pr\:ofessionals Can Do 55\fEFE\fENCES 58GLOSSA\fY 68
4 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 5When you think about clim\:ate change\b mental health mig\:ht not be the first thing that comes to mind. Americans a\:re beginning to grow familiar with climate change and its he\:alth impacts: worsening asthma and allergies; heat-related stress; foodborne\b waterborne\b and vector-borne diseases; i\:llness and injury related to storms; and floods and\: droughts. However\b the connections with men\:tal health are not often part of the disc\:ussion.\ft is time to expand information and action on \:climate and health\b inclu\:ding mental health\:. The health\b economic\b political\b a\:nd environmental implications of climate change affect all of us. The tolls on our mental \:health are far reaching. They induce stress\b depression\b and anxiety; strain social and community relationships; and have been linked to increases in aggression\b violence\b and crime. Children and communities with few resources to deal with the impacts of\: climate change are those most impacted.To compound the issue\b the psychological responses to climate change\b such as conflict avoidance\b fatalism\b fear\b helplessness\b and resignation are growing. These responses are keeping us\b and our \:nation\b from properly addressing the core causes of and solu\:tions for our changing climate\b and from building and sup\:porting psychological resiliency.To help increase awareness of these challenge\:s and to address them\b the American\: Psychological Association and ecoAmerica sponsored this report\b Mental Health and \:Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance. This is an updated and expanded version of our 2014 report\b Beyond Storms & Droughts: The Psychological \fmpacts of\: Climate Change\b which explored how climate change can impact \:mental health and \:provided guidance to engage the publi\:c. This updated report is intended to further inform and empower health and medi\:cal professionals\b community and elected leaders\b and the\: public. Our websites offer webinars and other r\:esources to supplement this r\:eport.On behalf of the a\:uthors\b the many professionals who contributed directly and indirectly to this work\b and all those \:involved in expanding awareness of and action on \:climate and mental health\b than\:k you for taking the time\: to review and share this important resource. We invite your feedback\b and as the \:field continues to grow\b we'll continue to update this work.Howard S. Kurtzman\b Ph.D.Acting Executive Director for ScienceAmerican Psychological Association Bob PerkowitzFounder & PresidentecoAmericaWHY WE OFFER TH\fS RE\:PORTA CLOSER LOOK:A Clinical Psych\fl\fgist's \bake \fn Climate ChangeThomas Doherty\b PsyD pag\:e 28Climate change is a human\:-caused problem\b which is more difficult to cope with than disas\:ters that are beyond human control. Mental health \:professionals can help give people a sense of power over how they respond.Inuit Mental Health \hand Climate ChangeAshlee Cunsolo\b PhD \: page 33The \fnuit are a prime example of communities that have experienced the mental distress and loss of cultural identity brought on by a changing landsca\:pe and environmental conditions. Childr en's Em\fti\fnal Resp\fnses t\f Climate ChangeElizabeth Haase\b MD \: page 36Direct experience with and future unknown effects of climate change can cause chi\:ldren to exhibit symptoms of PTSD\b such as phobic beha\:vior\b panic\b nightmares\b and anxiety. R esilience in the Face \ff Climate ChangeVictoria Derr\b PhD \: page 41Research with a diverse sample of youth students\b age 11''15\b in Boulder\b Colorado\b showed that youth views of resilience stem from complex social and environmental supports. Finding a Place f\fr Psych\fl\fgy in Climate Change Deliberati\fnsLinda Silka\b PhD \: page 47New England is an example of vital inf\:rastructure that is at risk from rising sea levels and of opportun\:ities for psychologists to work with professionals in various fields to prepare for the effects.Our M\fr al Obligati\fn: \bhe Duty t\f Warn and ActLise Van Susteren\b MD \: page 57Growing numbers of cli\:mate Cassandras are being debilitated by anxiety about fut\:ure harm to the planet. Where is the collective health effort to address this issue? T he time is now for mental health p\:rofessionals to act.Throughout the report are six essays from mental health professionals that \five into particular topics of expertise on mental health an\f climate change.
4 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 5When you think about clim\:ate change\b mental health mig\:ht not be the first thing that comes to mind. Americans a\:re beginning to grow familiar with climate change and its he\:alth impacts: worsening asthma and allergies; heat-related stress; foodborne\b waterborne\b and vector-borne diseases; i\:llness and injury related to storms; and floods and\: droughts. However\b the connections with men\:tal health are not often part of the disc\:ussion.\ft is time to expand information and action on \:climate and health\b inclu\:ding mental health\:. The health\b economic\b political\b a\:nd environmental implications of climate change affect all of us. The tolls on our mental \:health are far reaching. They induce stress\b depression\b and anxiety; strain social and community relationships; and have been linked to increases in aggression\b violence\b and crime. Children and communities with few resources to deal with the impacts of\: climate change are those most impacted.To compound the issue\b the psychological responses to climate change\b such as conflict avoidance\b fatalism\b fear\b helplessness\b and resignation are growing. These responses are keeping us\b and our \:nation\b from properly addressing the core causes of and solu\:tions for our changing climate\b and from building and sup\:porting psychological resiliency.To help increase awareness of these challenge\:s and to address them\b the American\: Psychological Association and ecoAmerica sponsored this report\b Mental Health and \:Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance. This is an updated and expanded version of our 2014 report\b Beyond Storms & Droughts: The Psychological \fmpacts of\: Climate Change\b which explored how climate change can impact \:mental health and \:provided guidance to engage the publi\:c. This updated report is intended to further inform and empower health and medi\:cal professionals\b community and elected leaders\b and the\: public. Our websites offer webinars and other r\:esources to supplement this r\:eport.On behalf of the a\:uthors\b the many professionals who contributed directly and indirectly to this work\b and all those \:involved in expanding awareness of and action on \:climate and mental health\b than\:k you for taking the time\: to review and share this important resource. We invite your feedback\b and as the \:field continues to grow\b we'll continue to update this work.Howard S. Kurtzman\b Ph.D.Acting Executive Director for ScienceAmerican Psychological Association Bob PerkowitzFounder & PresidentecoAmericaWHY WE OFFER TH\fS RE\:PORTA CLOSER LOOK:A Clinical Psych\fl\fgist's \bake \fn Climate ChangeThomas Doherty\b PsyD pag\:e 28Climate change is a human\:-caused problem\b which is more difficult to cope with than disas\:ters that are beyond human control. Mental health \:professionals can help give people a sense of power over how they respond.Inuit Mental Health \hand Climate ChangeAshlee Cunsolo\b PhD \: page 33The \fnuit are a prime example of communities that have experienced the mental distress and loss of cultural identity brought on by a changing landsca\:pe and environmental conditions. Childr en's Em\fti\fnal Resp\fnses t\f Climate ChangeElizabeth Haase\b MD \: page 36Direct experience with and future unknown effects of climate change can cause chi\:ldren to exhibit symptoms of PTSD\b such as phobic beha\:vior\b panic\b nightmares\b and anxiety. R esilience in the Face \ff Climate ChangeVictoria Derr\b PhD \: page 41Research with a diverse sample of youth students\b age 11''15\b in Boulder\b Colorado\b showed that youth views of resilience stem from complex social and environmental supports. Finding a Place f\fr Psych\fl\fgy in Climate Change Deliberati\fnsLinda Silka\b PhD \: page 47New England is an example of vital inf\:rastructure that is at risk from rising sea levels and of opportun\:ities for psychologists to work with professionals in various fields to prepare for the effects.Our M\fr al Obligati\fn: \bhe Duty t\f Warn and ActLise Van Susteren\b MD \: page 57Growing numbers of cli\:mate Cassandras are being debilitated by anxiety about fut\:ure harm to the planet. Where is the collective health effort to address this issue? T he time is now for mental health p\:rofessionals to act.Throughout the report are six essays from mental health professionals that \five into particular topics of expertise on mental health an\f climate change.
6 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 7Thus far, most research and communications on the impacts of climate chan\fe have emphasized the physical health e\bects, while mental \lhealth has been sec\londary. Building upon Beyond Storms and Droughts: The Psychological \fmpacts of Climate Change\b the goal of this \:updated report is to increase awareness of the psychological impacts of climate change on human mental health and well-being. The report provides climate communicators\b planners\b policymakers\b public health professionals\b and other l\:eaders the tools and tips needed to respond to these impacts and \:bolster public engagement on clima\:te solutions. The impacts of clima\lte chan\fe on people'\ls physical, mental, and community health ari\lse directly and indirectly. Some human health \:eff ects stem directly from natural disasters exacerbated by climate change\b like floods\b storms\b wildfir es\b and heatwaves. Other effects surface more gradually from changing temperatures and rising sea le\:vels tha t cause forced migration. Weakened infrastructure and less secure food systems are examples of indirect climate impacts on society's physical and mental he\:alth. Some communities and pop\lulations are more vulnerable to the health-related impacts of clima\lte chan\fe. Factors that may increase sensitivity to the mental health impacts include geographic location\b presence of pre-existing disabilities or chronic illnesses\b and socioeconomic and demographic inequalities\b such a\:s education level\b income\b and age. \fn particular\b stress from climate impacts can cause c\:hildren t o experience changes in behavior\b development\b memory\b executive function\b decision-making\b and\: scholastic achievement. T he connection between chan\fes in the \lclimate and impacts on a perso\ln can be difficult to \frasp. Although people' s understanding and knowledge of climate change can increase by experiencing the effects directly\b perception\b politics\b and uncertainty can complicate this link. Psychological factors (like psychological distance)\b a political divide\b uncertainty\b helplessness\b and denial influe\:nce the way people comprehend information and form their beliefs o\:n climate change. Research on the impacts of\: climate change on human well-being is partic\:ularly important g\:iven the relationship among understanding\b experiencing\b and comprehending climate change. People's willingness to support and engag\:e in climate solutions is likely to increase if they can relate them to local experiences or if they see the relevance to their own health and well-being. Additionally\b individuals who have higher perceived environmental self-efficacy\b or the sense of being able to positively contribute\b are more motivated to act on climate solutions (Sawitri\b Hadiyanto\b & Hadi\b 2015). Climate solutions are available now, are widespread, and support p\lsycholo\fical health. \fncreasing adoption of \:active commuting\b public tr\:ansportation\b green spac es\b and clean energy are all solutions that people can choose \:to support and integrate into their daily lives. These climate solutions\b among oth\:ers\b can help to curb the stress\b anxiety\b and other mental \: illnesses incurred from the decline of \:economies\b infrastructure\b and social identit\:y tha t comes from damage to the climate. Major acute mental health imp\lacts include increases in trauma and shock, po\lst- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compounded stress, anxiety, substance abuse , and depression. Climate change''induced extreme weather\b changing weather pa tterns\b damaged food and water resources\band polluted air impact human\: mental health. \fncr eased levels of stress and distress from these factors can also put strains on social relationships and even have impacts on physical health\b such as\: memory loss\b sleep disorders\b immune suppression\b and changes in digestion.Major chronic mental health \limpacts include hi\fher rates of a\f\fression and violence, more mental health eme\lr\fencies, an increased sense of help\llessness, hopelessness, or fatalism, and intense feelin\fs of loss. These feelings of loss may be due t o profound changes in a p\:ersonally important place (such as one's home) and/or a sense that one has lost control over events in one's life due to disturbances from climate change. Additionally\b a sense of loss regarding one's personal or occupational identity can arise \:when treasured objects are destroyed by a disaster or place-based occupations are disrupted by climate change.Personal relationships and the \lways in which people interact in communities and with each other ar\le a\bected by a chan\fin\f climate. C ompounded stress from a changing environment\b ecomigration\b and/or ecoanxiety can affect community mental well-being through the loss of social identity and\: cohesion\b hostility\b violence\b and interpersonal and intergroup aggression. Psycholo\fical well-bein\f includes p\lositive emotions, a sense \lof meanin\f and purpose, and stron\f social connections. Although the psychological impacts o\:f c limate change may not be obvious\b they are no less serious because they can lead to disorders\b such as depression\b antisocial behavior\b and suicide. Therefore\b these disorders must be considered impacts of clima te change as are disease\b hunger\b and other physical health consequences. Buildin\f r esilience is essential to address the physical and mental he\lalth impacts of climate chan\fe. Many local governments within the United States and in other countries have created plans to protect and enhanc e infrastructure\b but these plans tend to overlook the support \:needed to ensure thriving psychological well-being. There is an opportunity t\:o include the resilience capacity of individ\:uals and c ommunities in the development of preparedness plans. RECOMMENDATIONS This report concludes with four sets of recommendations designed to help readers put these research findings into action. Tips to support individu\lals. This section provides strategies for practitioners\b policymakers\b and communicators to build personal attributes and social suppor\:t that will help to prepare for and recover from climate change''related mental trauma. The following are a few of the top recommendations: 1. Build belief in one\:'s own resilience.2. Foster optimism.3. Cultivate active coping and self-regulation skills. 4. Maintain practices that help to provide a sense of mea\:ning. 5. Promote connectedness to family\b place\b culture\b and community.EXECUT\fVE SUMMARY
6 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 7Thus far, most research and communications on the impacts of climate chan\fe have emphasized the physical health e\bects, while mental \lhealth has been sec\londary. Building upon Beyond Storms and Droughts: The Psychological \fmpacts of Climate Change\b the goal of this \:updated report is to increase awareness of the psychological impacts of climate change on human mental health and well-being. The report provides climate communicators\b planners\b policymakers\b public health professionals\b and other l\:eaders the tools and tips needed to respond to these impacts and \:bolster public engagement on clima\:te solutions. The impacts of clima\lte chan\fe on people'\ls physical, mental, and community health ari\lse directly and indirectly. Some human health \:eff ects stem directly from natural disasters exacerbated by climate change\b like floods\b storms\b wildfir es\b and heatwaves. Other effects surface more gradually from changing temperatures and rising sea le\:vels tha t cause forced migration. Weakened infrastructure and less secure food systems are examples of indirect climate impacts on society's physical and mental he\:alth. Some communities and pop\lulations are more vulnerable to the health-related impacts of clima\lte chan\fe. Factors that may increase sensitivity to the mental health impacts include geographic location\b presence of pre-existing disabilities or chronic illnesses\b and socioeconomic and demographic inequalities\b such a\:s education level\b income\b and age. \fn particular\b stress from climate impacts can cause c\:hildren t o experience changes in behavior\b development\b memory\b executive function\b decision-making\b and\: scholastic achievement. T he connection between chan\fes in the \lclimate and impacts on a perso\ln can be difficult to \frasp. Although people' s understanding and knowledge of climate change can increase by experiencing the effects directly\b perception\b politics\b and uncertainty can complicate this link. Psychological factors (like psychological distance)\b a political divide\b uncertainty\b helplessness\b and denial influe\:nce the way people comprehend information and form their beliefs o\:n climate change. Research on the impacts of\: climate change on human well-being is partic\:ularly important g\:iven the relationship among understanding\b experiencing\b and comprehending climate change. People's willingness to support and engag\:e in climate solutions is likely to increase if they can relate them to local experiences or if they see the relevance to their own health and well-being. Additionally\b individuals who have higher perceived environmental self-efficacy\b or the sense of being able to positively contribute\b are more motivated to act on climate solutions (Sawitri\b Hadiyanto\b & Hadi\b 2015). Climate solutions are available now, are widespread, and support p\lsycholo\fical health. \fncreasing adoption of \:active commuting\b public tr\:ansportation\b green spac es\b and clean energy are all solutions that people can choose \:to support and integrate into their daily lives. These climate solutions\b among oth\:ers\b can help to curb the stress\b anxiety\b and other mental \: illnesses incurred from the decline of \:economies\b infrastructure\b and social identit\:y tha t comes from damage to the climate. Major acute mental health imp\lacts include increases in trauma and shock, po\lst- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compounded stress, anxiety, substance abuse , and depression. Climate change''induced extreme weather\b changing weather pa tterns\b damaged food and water resources\band polluted air impact human\: mental health. \fncr eased levels of stress and distress from these factors can also put strains on social relationships and even have impacts on physical health\b such as\: memory loss\b sleep disorders\b immune suppression\b and changes in digestion.Major chronic mental health \limpacts include hi\fher rates of a\f\fression and violence, more mental health eme\lr\fencies, an increased sense of help\llessness, hopelessness, or fatalism, and intense feelin\fs of loss. These feelings of loss may be due t o profound changes in a p\:ersonally important place (such as one's home) and/or a sense that one has lost control over events in one's life due to disturbances from climate change. Additionally\b a sense of loss regarding one's personal or occupational identity can arise \:when treasured objects are destroyed by a disaster or place-based occupations are disrupted by climate change.Personal relationships and the \lways in which people interact in communities and with each other ar\le a\bected by a chan\fin\f climate. C ompounded stress from a changing environment\b ecomigration\b and/or ecoanxiety can affect community mental well-being through the loss of social identity and\: cohesion\b hostility\b violence\b and interpersonal and intergroup aggression. Psycholo\fical well-bein\f includes p\lositive emotions, a sense \lof meanin\f and purpose, and stron\f social connections. Although the psychological impacts o\:f c limate change may not be obvious\b they are no less serious because they can lead to disorders\b such as depression\b antisocial behavior\b and suicide. Therefore\b these disorders must be considered impacts of clima te change as are disease\b hunger\b and other physical health consequences. Buildin\f r esilience is essential to address the physical and mental he\lalth impacts of climate chan\fe. Many local governments within the United States and in other countries have created plans to protect and enhanc e infrastructure\b but these plans tend to overlook the support \:needed to ensure thriving psychological well-being. There is an opportunity t\:o include the resilience capacity of individ\:uals and c ommunities in the development of preparedness plans. RECOMMENDATIONS This report concludes with four sets of recommendations designed to help readers put these research findings into action. Tips to support individu\lals. This section provides strategies for practitioners\b policymakers\b and communicators to build personal attributes and social suppor\:t that will help to prepare for and recover from climate change''related mental trauma. The following are a few of the top recommendations: 1. Build belief in one\:'s own resilience.2. Foster optimism.3. Cultivate active coping and self-regulation skills. 4. Maintain practices that help to provide a sense of mea\:ning. 5. Promote connectedness to family\b place\b culture\b and community.EXECUT\fVE SUMMARY
8 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and GuidanceTips to support communities. This section is for people\b organizations\b and mental a\:nd public health pr\:ofessionals who are at the forefront of and/or are interested in strengthening communities' responses to acute events and confronting gradual changes in th\:e climate\b in order to alleviate adverse mental health outcomes. The following are several of the topline recommended strategies for protecting well-being and alleviating adverse mental health \:outcomes:1. Assess and expand community mental health infrastructure. 2. Reduce disparities and p\:ay attention to populations of concern.3. Engage and train community members on how to respond.4. Ensure distribution of resources and augment with external supplies.5. Have clear and frequent climate''mental health communication. \f hat indi\biduals can do. At home and in the \:community\b people can take actions in their \:everyday lives to buffer agains t some of the projected impacts\b and thes\:e actions can also provide a greater sense of individ\:ual security and control. The following are several of the topline actions indi\:viduals can take:1. Make and practice household emergency plans.2. Participate in mindset training to prepare for adversity and adaptation through increased awareness of our emotions.3. Care for oneself through healthy habits. 4. Connect with family\b friends\b neighbors\b and other groups to build strong social networks.\f hat mental health and \5other professional leaders can do\5. Health professionals and fellow leaders are uniquely position\:ed t o foster new levels of support for climate solutions. Considered the nation's most highly trusted and accessible messengers\b health professionals reach a breadth and diversity of Americans. The following are several of the topline opportunities for health leaders:1. Become a mental healt\:h''related climate-literate professional.2. Engage fellow public and mental\: health professionals.3. Be vocal\b model leaders \:within your communities.4. Support national and international climate''mental health solutions.I. CONTEXT
8 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and GuidanceTips to support communities. This section is for people\b organizations\b and mental a\:nd public health pr\:ofessionals who are at the forefront of and/or are interested in strengthening communities' responses to acute events and confronting gradual changes in th\:e climate\b in order to alleviate adverse mental health outcomes. The following are several of the topline recommended strategies for protecting well-being and alleviating adverse mental health \:outcomes:1. Assess and expand community mental health infrastructure. 2. Reduce disparities and p\:ay attention to populations of concern.3. Engage and train community members on how to respond.4. Ensure distribution of resources and augment with external supplies.5. Have clear and frequent climate''mental health communication. \f hat indi\biduals can do. At home and in the \:community\b people can take actions in their \:everyday lives to buffer agains t some of the projected impacts\b and thes\:e actions can also provide a greater sense of individ\:ual security and control. The following are several of the topline actions indi\:viduals can take:1. Make and practice household emergency plans.2. Participate in mindset training to prepare for adversity and adaptation through increased awareness of our emotions.3. Care for oneself through healthy habits. 4. Connect with family\b friends\b neighbors\b and other groups to build strong social networks.\f hat mental health and \5other professional leaders can do\5. Health professionals and fellow leaders are uniquely position\:ed t o foster new levels of support for climate solutions. Considered the nation's most highly trusted and accessible messengers\b health professionals reach a breadth and diversity of Americans. The following are several of the topline opportunities for health leaders:1. Become a mental healt\:h''related climate-literate professional.2. Engage fellow public and mental\: health professionals.3. Be vocal\b model leaders \:within your communities.4. Support national and international climate''mental health solutions.I. CONTEXT
10 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 11OUR CHANGING CLIMATE\f A PRIMERACCELERATION From wildfire\b and drought in California to \bevere flooding in Maryland to Ala\bkan communitie\b threatened by ri\bing \bea\b, we are clearly living th\mrough \bome of the mo\b\mt \bevere weather event\b in U.S. hi\btory a\b a re\bult of damage to our climate. The\be impact\b on our environment will, in tur\mn, affect human health and community well-being (Melillo\m, Richmond, & Yohe, 2014).CHANGES WORLDWIDE Climate change i\b creating vi\bible impact\b \mworldwide, including many here in America. A\b \bee\mn in the tripling o\mf heat wave\b between 2011 and 2012, weather pattern\b introduce la\bting impact\b, \buch a\b food insecurity (Duffy & Tebaldi, 2012; Hatfield et al., 2014). Similarly, ri\bing \bea-\burface temperature\b have been connected to increa\bing rate\b of di\bea\be for marine life and human\b (Doney et al., 2014). Sea level\b are e\btimated to increa\be anywhere from 8 inche\b to 6.6 feet due to warmer temperature\b by 2100, putting 8 million\m American\b living in\m coa\btal area\b at ri\bk for flooding (Parri\b et al., 2012). In term\b of our economy, Hurricane Sandy c\mo\bt the United State\b around $68 billion i\mn total (National Oceanic and Atmo\bpheric Admini\btration, 2016). Drought\b cau\bed by increa\be\b in temperature and changing weather pattern\b co\bt California $2.7 billion in 2015 and Texa\b $7.62 billion in 2011 (Howitt, MacEwan, Medell­n-Azuara, Lund, & Sumner, 2015; Guerrero, 2011). A\b the\be climate di\bturbance\b become more dramatic and per\bi\btent, we mu\bt prepare for the\be climate condition\b. COMMUNITIES ARE IMP\:ACTED Our communitie\b' health, \minfra\btructure, and economy are directly connected to our climate (Kryg\bman, Spei\ber, Wood, & Barry, 2016). A\b temperature\b increa\be, we experience higher level\b of pollution, allergen\b, and di\bea\be\b (\mKryg\bman, Spei\ber, Mer\be, Marx, & Tabola, 2016). Severe weather event\b threaten our bu\bine\b\be\b and vulnerable communitie\b. Pollution and drought undermine our\m food and water \bupplie\b, and the latter increa\be\b the prevalence of wildfire\b that can de\btroy home\b and communitie\b (Zi\bka et al., 2016). Although all \mAmerican\b are affected, certain population\b of concern will feel the impact\b more \beverely (U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program [US -GCRP], 2016). Together, communitie\b can build\m resilience to a changing climate. HEALTH IS IMPACTED A\b \bevere weather event\b, poorer air quality, degraded food and water \by\btem\b, and phy\bical illne\b\be\b increa\be, the direct and indirect impact\b on health mu\bt be under\btood (USGCRP, 2016). The next \bection highligh\mt\b the phy\bical health impact\b of climate change, and the following \bection\b delve deeper into the mental health\m impact\b, and what can be done to protect human well-being.THE CLIMATE AND HEALTH IMPACTS ON HUMANSHealth i\b more than the ab\bence of di\bea\be. Health include\b ment\mal health, a\b well a\b phy\bical well-being, and communitie\b that fail to provide ba\bic \bervice\b and \bocial \bupport challenge bo\mth. A\b we think about the impact\b of climate change on our communitie\b, we need to recognize not only the direct effect\b but al\bo the in\mdirect con\bequence\b for human health ba\b\med on damage to the phy\bical and \bocial community infra\btructure. Regardle\b\b of how the\be impact\b \burface, whether they occur within a matter of hour\b or over \beveral decade\b, the outcome\b of climate change are interconnected to all facet\b of our health. \mThi\b \bection review\b the primary way\b in which geophy\bical change\b affect human health, in the \bhor\mt and long term. ACUTE IMPACTS: DISASTER\fRELATED EFFECTS Recent increa\be\b in natural di\ba\bter\b illu\btrate the relation\bhip between the acceleration of climate change and \bevere weather. Area\b that endure a natural di\ba\bter face a number of ri\bk\b and difficult\mie\b. Direct phy\bical impact\b range from brute phy\bical trauma to more perniciou\b effect\b, like increa\bed incidence of infectiou\b di\bea\be, a\bthma, heart di\bea\be, and lung problem\b. The\be phy\bical health impact\b \minteract with mental health impact\m\b, which i\b why they are detailed in thi\b report on page 39. In thi\b \bection, we u\be flood\b, the mo\b\mt common form of natural di\ba\bter\b (EM-DAT, 2011, a\b reported in Alderman, Turner, & Tong, 2012), a\b an example to illu\btrate the way\b in which direct health impact\b of\m di\ba\bter\b come about. Maj\br and min\br acute physical injury Natural di\ba\bter\b lead to increa\bed rate\b of death and injury. The mo\bt common cau\be\b of mortality during\m flood\b are drowning and acute phy\bical trauma (e.g., being \btruck by debri\b; Alderman et\m al., 2012). Thi\b pa\bt year alone, death\b from fla\bh flood\b have more than doubled the 1\m0-year average (National Weather Service, 2016). During and after a flood, many people \bu\btain non-fatal injurie\b, \buch a\b cut\b and broken bone\b. Among other impact\b, more frequent rainfall can lead to an increa\be in traffic accident\b (Leard & Roth, 2016). Figure 1. Depict\b the many different way\b climate change impact\b human health \m(Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014).a. For more information on climate change, the cau\be\b, and th\me role of human activi\mty, view the National Climate A\b\be\b\bment reportOur climate is changing at an accelerated rate and c\bntinues t\b have pr\bf\bund impacts \bn human heal\:th. This change je\bpardizes n\bt \bnly physical health but als\b mental health.\: This secti\bn pr\bvides a primer \bn the ge\bphysical impacts \bf climate change.a
10 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 11OUR CHANGING CLIMATE\f A PRIMERACCELERATION From wildfire\b and drought in California to \bevere flooding in Maryland to Ala\bkan communitie\b threatened by ri\bing \bea\b, we are clearly living th\mrough \bome of the mo\b\mt \bevere weather event\b in U.S. hi\btory a\b a re\bult of damage to our climate. The\be impact\b on our environment will, in tur\mn, affect human health and community well-being (Melillo\m, Richmond, & Yohe, 2014).CHANGES WORLDWIDE Climate change i\b creating vi\bible impact\b \mworldwide, including many here in America. A\b \bee\mn in the tripling o\mf heat wave\b between 2011 and 2012, weather pattern\b introduce la\bting impact\b, \buch a\b food insecurity (Duffy & Tebaldi, 2012; Hatfield et al., 2014). Similarly, ri\bing \bea-\burface temperature\b have been connected to increa\bing rate\b of di\bea\be for marine life and human\b (Doney et al., 2014). Sea level\b are e\btimated to increa\be anywhere from 8 inche\b to 6.6 feet due to warmer temperature\b by 2100, putting 8 million\m American\b living in\m coa\btal area\b at ri\bk for flooding (Parri\b et al., 2012). In term\b of our economy, Hurricane Sandy c\mo\bt the United State\b around $68 billion i\mn total (National Oceanic and Atmo\bpheric Admini\btration, 2016). Drought\b cau\bed by increa\be\b in temperature and changing weather pattern\b co\bt California $2.7 billion in 2015 and Texa\b $7.62 billion in 2011 (Howitt, MacEwan, Medell­n-Azuara, Lund, & Sumner, 2015; Guerrero, 2011). A\b the\be climate di\bturbance\b become more dramatic and per\bi\btent, we mu\bt prepare for the\be climate condition\b. COMMUNITIES ARE IMP\:ACTED Our communitie\b' health, \minfra\btructure, and economy are directly connected to our climate (Kryg\bman, Spei\ber, Wood, & Barry, 2016). A\b temperature\b increa\be, we experience higher level\b of pollution, allergen\b, and di\bea\be\b (\mKryg\bman, Spei\ber, Mer\be, Marx, & Tabola, 2016). Severe weather event\b threaten our bu\bine\b\be\b and vulnerable communitie\b. Pollution and drought undermine our\m food and water \bupplie\b, and the latter increa\be\b the prevalence of wildfire\b that can de\btroy home\b and communitie\b (Zi\bka et al., 2016). Although all \mAmerican\b are affected, certain population\b of concern will feel the impact\b more \beverely (U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program [US -GCRP], 2016). Together, communitie\b can build\m resilience to a changing climate. HEALTH IS IMPACTED A\b \bevere weather event\b, poorer air quality, degraded food and water \by\btem\b, and phy\bical illne\b\be\b increa\be, the direct and indirect impact\b on health mu\bt be under\btood (USGCRP, 2016). The next \bection highligh\mt\b the phy\bical health impact\b of climate change, and the following \bection\b delve deeper into the mental health\m impact\b, and what can be done to protect human well-being.THE CLIMATE AND HEALTH IMPACTS ON HUMANSHealth i\b more than the ab\bence of di\bea\be. Health include\b ment\mal health, a\b well a\b phy\bical well-being, and communitie\b that fail to provide ba\bic \bervice\b and \bocial \bupport challenge bo\mth. A\b we think about the impact\b of climate change on our communitie\b, we need to recognize not only the direct effect\b but al\bo the in\mdirect con\bequence\b for human health ba\b\med on damage to the phy\bical and \bocial community infra\btructure. Regardle\b\b of how the\be impact\b \burface, whether they occur within a matter of hour\b or over \beveral decade\b, the outcome\b of climate change are interconnected to all facet\b of our health. \mThi\b \bection review\b the primary way\b in which geophy\bical change\b affect human health, in the \bhor\mt and long term. ACUTE IMPACTS: DISASTER\fRELATED EFFECTS Recent increa\be\b in natural di\ba\bter\b illu\btrate the relation\bhip between the acceleration of climate change and \bevere weather. Area\b that endure a natural di\ba\bter face a number of ri\bk\b and difficult\mie\b. Direct phy\bical impact\b range from brute phy\bical trauma to more perniciou\b effect\b, like increa\bed incidence of infectiou\b di\bea\be, a\bthma, heart di\bea\be, and lung problem\b. The\be phy\bical health impact\b \minteract with mental health impact\m\b, which i\b why they are detailed in thi\b report on page 39. In thi\b \bection, we u\be flood\b, the mo\b\mt common form of natural di\ba\bter\b (EM-DAT, 2011, a\b reported in Alderman, Turner, & Tong, 2012), a\b an example to illu\btrate the way\b in which direct health impact\b of\m di\ba\bter\b come about. Maj\br and min\br acute physical injury Natural di\ba\bter\b lead to increa\bed rate\b of death and injury. The mo\bt common cau\be\b of mortality during\m flood\b are drowning and acute phy\bical trauma (e.g., being \btruck by debri\b; Alderman et\m al., 2012). Thi\b pa\bt year alone, death\b from fla\bh flood\b have more than doubled the 1\m0-year average (National Weather Service, 2016). During and after a flood, many people \bu\btain non-fatal injurie\b, \buch a\b cut\b and broken bone\b. Among other impact\b, more frequent rainfall can lead to an increa\be in traffic accident\b (Leard & Roth, 2016). Figure 1. Depict\b the many different way\b climate change impact\b human health \m(Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014).a. For more information on climate change, the cau\be\b, and th\me role of human activi\mty, view the National Climate A\b\be\b\bment reportOur climate is changing at an accelerated rate and c\bntinues t\b have pr\bf\bund impacts \bn human heal\:th. This change je\bpardizes n\bt \bnly physical health but als\b mental health.\: This secti\bn pr\bvides a primer \bn the ge\bphysical impacts \bf climate change.a
12 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 13Infrastructure, food, and water The direct effect of a natural di\ba\bter i\b often exacerbated by a ca\bcade of indirect con\bequence\b that follow. Natural di\ba\bter\b can lead to technological di\ba\bter\b (\buch a\b power outage\b ), breakdown\b in the water, \bewer, and other infra\btructure, or urban fire\b. For in\btance, the ri\bk of carbo\mn mono xide poi\boning related to power outage\b increa\be\b a\b a re\bult of climate change''induced di\ba\bter\b (Bell et al., 2\m016). Di\bruption\b to medical infra\btructure, including the provi\bion of medical \bupplie\b, can \mtran\bform minor i\b\bue\b into major and even fatal problem\b. In addition\m, di\bruption\b in other type\b of \bervice\b (e.g., cell phone communication, tran\bportation, or wa\bte management) add \btre\b\b and difficulty during the aftermath of a di\ba\bter. The\be di\bruption\b may impact people'\b phy\bical health by making it more difficult to acce\b\b health car e or by potentially increa\bing expo\bure to pe\bt\b or hazardou\b \bub\btance\b (e.g., when there i\b no garbage pick\m-up; B ell et al., 2016). Lo\b\b of income while bu\bine\b\be\b are clo\bed due to natural di\ba\bter\b can be a major t\mhreat to food \becurity, e\bpecially for non-profe\b\bional\b or \bmall bu\bi\mne\b\b owner\b. After effects Additional health t\mhreat\b follow in the wake of a di\ba\bter. Floodwater ha\b been \bhown to introduce toxic material\b, water-borne di\bea\be\b (e.g., re\bpiratory illne\b\be\b, \bkin infection\b, and neur ologic and ga\btrointe\btinal illne\b\b where there are poor hygiene re\bource\b), and vector-borne illne\b\be\b (e.g., We\bt Nile; Trtanj et al., 2016). Other after effect\b of flooding include heart attack, heat \btroke, dehydration, and \btroke, particularly when t\mhe affected area\b lack the nece\b\bary medical \bupplie\b (Jonkman, Maa\bkant, Boyd, & Levitan, 2009, p. 687 a\b reported in Alderman et a\ml., 2012). In addition, po\bt-flood mold due to fungal growth in\bide hou\be\b ca\mn wor\ben allergy or a\bthma \bymptom\b. MORE GRADUAL HEALTH EFFECTSOngoing effect\b of climate change include ri\m\bing \bea level\b, increa\be\b in temperature, and change\b in precipitation that will affect agricultural condition\b. The impact\b on human health are le\b\b dramatic in the \bhort term but in the long\m run can affect more people and have a fundamental impact on \bociety. Severe and c\fanging weat\fer Period\b of higher-th\man-normal heat re\bult in higher rate\b of heat exhau\btion, heat cramp\b, heat \btroke, ho\bpital admi\b\bion for heart-related illne\b\be\b, and death (Sarofim et al., 2016). It'\b e\btimated that the average American citizen will experience between 4 and 8 time\b a\m\b many day\b above 95 degree\b Fahrenheit each year a\b he or \bhe do\me\b no w by the end of the century (Hou\ber, H\biang, Kopp, & Lar\ben, 2015). Thi\b increa\be will likely pu\bh Arizona'\b above-95-degree day\b from 116 today to a\b many a\b 205 by 2099 (Gordon, 2014). In contra\bt, extreme winter \btorm\b can expo\be people t o hypothermia and fro\btbite (Bell et al., 2016). Altered growing \bea\bon\b and ocean temperature\b change the timing\m and occurrence of diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramp\b from pathogen tran\bmi\b\bion\b in r aw food (like Salmonella; Zi\bka et al., 2016). Additionally, changing weather pattern\b influence the expan\bion of the migration pattern\b of animal\b and \min\bect\b. Thi\b expan\bion ha\b already begun to re\bult in the \bpread of vector-borne illne\b\b, \buch a\b Lyme di\bea\be, malaria, dengue f\mever, plague, and Zika viru\b to new U.S. geographic area\b (Beard et al., 2016; Shuman, 2010). For example, vector-borne illne\b\be\b carried by mo\bquitoe\b can capitalize on receding floodwater for mo\bquito breeding. Res\biratory issues and allergens People expo\bed to ozone air pollution, \mwhich i\b emitted mo\btly by car\b and indu\btrial facilitie\b and i\b int\men\bified by w armer temperature\b, are more likely to vi\bit the ho\bpital f\mor re\bpiratory i\b\bue\b, \buffer from a\bthma, and die prematurely of \btroke\b or heart attack\b (Fann et al., 2016). Hotter and drier \bummer\b\m increa\be the frequency and inten\bity of large wildfire\b that contribute to \bmoke inhalation (Bell et al., 20 16). Pollution contribute\b to higher level\b of pollen and t\mran\blate\b into longer and more prevalent allergy \bea\bon\b (Fann et al., 2016; Seeley, 2012).Fetal and c\fild develo\bment Climate-driven phy\bical \btre\b\b on mother\b can cau\be adver\be birth outcome\b, \buch a\b preterm birth and low birth weight (Bell et al., 2016). Scientific re\bearch \bhow\b that children and developing fetu\be\b are at particular ri\bk from air pollution, h\meat, malnutrition, infectiou\b di\bea\be\b, all\mergie\b, and mental illne\b\be\b, which have detrimental impact\b on development (Perera, 2016). Water and food su\b\blyNutrition and food safety can be affected becau\be climate change can lower crop yield\b, reduce the nutritional \mquality of food, interrupt di\btribution chain\b, a\mnd reduce acce\b\b to food becau\be familie\b lo\be inc ome. For example, higher CO2 concentration\b lower the level\b of protein and e\b\bential mineral\b of widely con\bumed crop\b \buch a\b wheat, rice, and potatoe\b (Zi\bka et al., 2016). Barrier\b to food tran\bport, \buch a\b dama\mge to infra\btructure and di\bplac ement of employee\b, affect food market\b by increa\bing food co\bt\b (Lal et al., 2012). Drought\b, flood\b, and \mchange\b in the availability of fertile land lead t\mo hunger and malnutrition, though the\be chan\mge\b are le\b\b likely in wealthy countrie\b, \buch a\b th\me United State\b (Friel, Butler, & McMichael, 2011; McMichael, 2013). Neverthele\b\b, there will be an increa\bed likelihood of a globa\ml food market cri\bi\b a\b climate change accelerate\b (Paloviita,J¤rvel¤, Jokinen, Mononen, & Sairien\m, 20 16). A two-degree Cel\biu\b increa\be in temperature place\b 100''400 million peo\mple at ri\bk of hunger, according to the World Bank (Friel e\mt al., 2011; McMichael, 2013).General fitness Increa\bed average temperature\b and decrea\bed air quality a\ml\bo lead to change\b in the type of acti\mvitie\b that people engage in, p articularly outdoor activitie\b and\m recreation. The\be change\b, in tur\mn, may be a\b\bociated with increa\bed rate\b of obe\bity and cardiova\bcular di\bea\be. Although people may compen\bate by exerci\bing in indoor environment\b, reduced acce\b\b to the re\btorative potential of outdoor environment\b may indirectly increa\be \btre\b\b and bypa\b\b the long-term emotional benefit\b of taking p\mhy\bical activity outdoor\b (Hartig & Catalano, 2013; Pa\banen, Tyrvainen, & Korpela, 2014). THE CLIMATE AND HEALTH IMPACTS ON HUMANS
12 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 13Infrastructure, food, and water The direct effect of a natural di\ba\bter i\b often exacerbated by a ca\bcade of indirect con\bequence\b that follow. Natural di\ba\bter\b can lead to technological di\ba\bter\b (\buch a\b power outage\b ), breakdown\b in the water, \bewer, and other infra\btructure, or urban fire\b. For in\btance, the ri\bk of carbo\mn mono xide poi\boning related to power outage\b increa\be\b a\b a re\bult of climate change''induced di\ba\bter\b (Bell et al., 2\m016). Di\bruption\b to medical infra\btructure, including the provi\bion of medical \bupplie\b, can \mtran\bform minor i\b\bue\b into major and even fatal problem\b. In addition\m, di\bruption\b in other type\b of \bervice\b (e.g., cell phone communication, tran\bportation, or wa\bte management) add \btre\b\b and difficulty during the aftermath of a di\ba\bter. The\be di\bruption\b may impact people'\b phy\bical health by making it more difficult to acce\b\b health car e or by potentially increa\bing expo\bure to pe\bt\b or hazardou\b \bub\btance\b (e.g., when there i\b no garbage pick\m-up; B ell et al., 2016). Lo\b\b of income while bu\bine\b\be\b are clo\bed due to natural di\ba\bter\b can be a major t\mhreat to food \becurity, e\bpecially for non-profe\b\bional\b or \bmall bu\bi\mne\b\b owner\b. After effects Additional health t\mhreat\b follow in the wake of a di\ba\bter. Floodwater ha\b been \bhown to introduce toxic material\b, water-borne di\bea\be\b (e.g., re\bpiratory illne\b\be\b, \bkin infection\b, and neur ologic and ga\btrointe\btinal illne\b\b where there are poor hygiene re\bource\b), and vector-borne illne\b\be\b (e.g., We\bt Nile; Trtanj et al., 2016). Other after effect\b of flooding include heart attack, heat \btroke, dehydration, and \btroke, particularly when t\mhe affected area\b lack the nece\b\bary medical \bupplie\b (Jonkman, Maa\bkant, Boyd, & Levitan, 2009, p. 687 a\b reported in Alderman et a\ml., 2012). In addition, po\bt-flood mold due to fungal growth in\bide hou\be\b ca\mn wor\ben allergy or a\bthma \bymptom\b. MORE GRADUAL HEALTH EFFECTSOngoing effect\b of climate change include ri\m\bing \bea level\b, increa\be\b in temperature, and change\b in precipitation that will affect agricultural condition\b. The impact\b on human health are le\b\b dramatic in the \bhort term but in the long\m run can affect more people and have a fundamental impact on \bociety. Severe and c\fanging weat\fer Period\b of higher-th\man-normal heat re\bult in higher rate\b of heat exhau\btion, heat cramp\b, heat \btroke, ho\bpital admi\b\bion for heart-related illne\b\be\b, and death (Sarofim et al., 2016). It'\b e\btimated that the average American citizen will experience between 4 and 8 time\b a\m\b many day\b above 95 degree\b Fahrenheit each year a\b he or \bhe do\me\b no w by the end of the century (Hou\ber, H\biang, Kopp, & Lar\ben, 2015). Thi\b increa\be will likely pu\bh Arizona'\b above-95-degree day\b from 116 today to a\b many a\b 205 by 2099 (Gordon, 2014). In contra\bt, extreme winter \btorm\b can expo\be people t o hypothermia and fro\btbite (Bell et al., 2016). Altered growing \bea\bon\b and ocean temperature\b change the timing\m and occurrence of diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramp\b from pathogen tran\bmi\b\bion\b in r aw food (like Salmonella; Zi\bka et al., 2016). Additionally, changing weather pattern\b influence the expan\bion of the migration pattern\b of animal\b and \min\bect\b. Thi\b expan\bion ha\b already begun to re\bult in the \bpread of vector-borne illne\b\b, \buch a\b Lyme di\bea\be, malaria, dengue f\mever, plague, and Zika viru\b to new U.S. geographic area\b (Beard et al., 2016; Shuman, 2010). For example, vector-borne illne\b\be\b carried by mo\bquitoe\b can capitalize on receding floodwater for mo\bquito breeding. Res\biratory issues and allergens People expo\bed to ozone air pollution, \mwhich i\b emitted mo\btly by car\b and indu\btrial facilitie\b and i\b int\men\bified by w armer temperature\b, are more likely to vi\bit the ho\bpital f\mor re\bpiratory i\b\bue\b, \buffer from a\bthma, and die prematurely of \btroke\b or heart attack\b (Fann et al., 2016). Hotter and drier \bummer\b\m increa\be the frequency and inten\bity of large wildfire\b that contribute to \bmoke inhalation (Bell et al., 20 16). Pollution contribute\b to higher level\b of pollen and t\mran\blate\b into longer and more prevalent allergy \bea\bon\b (Fann et al., 2016; Seeley, 2012).Fetal and c\fild develo\bment Climate-driven phy\bical \btre\b\b on mother\b can cau\be adver\be birth outcome\b, \buch a\b preterm birth and low birth weight (Bell et al., 2016). Scientific re\bearch \bhow\b that children and developing fetu\be\b are at particular ri\bk from air pollution, h\meat, malnutrition, infectiou\b di\bea\be\b, all\mergie\b, and mental illne\b\be\b, which have detrimental impact\b on development (Perera, 2016). Water and food su\b\blyNutrition and food safety can be affected becau\be climate change can lower crop yield\b, reduce the nutritional \mquality of food, interrupt di\btribution chain\b, a\mnd reduce acce\b\b to food becau\be familie\b lo\be inc ome. For example, higher CO2 concentration\b lower the level\b of protein and e\b\bential mineral\b of widely con\bumed crop\b \buch a\b wheat, rice, and potatoe\b (Zi\bka et al., 2016). Barrier\b to food tran\bport, \buch a\b dama\mge to infra\btructure and di\bplac ement of employee\b, affect food market\b by increa\bing food co\bt\b (Lal et al., 2012). Drought\b, flood\b, and \mchange\b in the availability of fertile land lead t\mo hunger and malnutrition, though the\be chan\mge\b are le\b\b likely in wealthy countrie\b, \buch a\b th\me United State\b (Friel, Butler, & McMichael, 2011; McMichael, 2013). Neverthele\b\b, there will be an increa\bed likelihood of a globa\ml food market cri\bi\b a\b climate change accelerate\b (Paloviita,J¤rvel¤, Jokinen, Mononen, & Sairien\m, 20 16). A two-degree Cel\biu\b increa\be in temperature place\b 100''400 million peo\mple at ri\bk of hunger, according to the World Bank (Friel e\mt al., 2011; McMichael, 2013).General fitness Increa\bed average temperature\b and decrea\bed air quality a\ml\bo lead to change\b in the type of acti\mvitie\b that people engage in, p articularly outdoor activitie\b and\m recreation. The\be change\b, in tur\mn, may be a\b\bociated with increa\bed rate\b of obe\bity and cardiova\bcular di\bea\be. Although people may compen\bate by exerci\bing in indoor environment\b, reduced acce\b\b to the re\btorative potential of outdoor environment\b may indirectly increa\be \btre\b\b and bypa\b\b the long-term emotional benefit\b of taking p\mhy\bical activity outdoor\b (Hartig & Catalano, 2013; Pa\banen, Tyrvainen, & Korpela, 2014). THE CLIMATE AND HEALTH IMPACTS ON HUMANS
14 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance ecoAmerica 15LINKING PHYSICAL IMPACTS, MENTAL HEALTH, AND C OMMUNITY WELL-BEINGThi\b \bection i\b an overview of the interrelation among phy\bical health, mental\m health, and community well-being. We will expand on each topic later in thi\b report.MENTAL HEALTH The ability to proce\b\b information and make deci\bion\b without being di\bab\mled by extreme emotional re\bpon\be\b i\b threatened by climate change. Some emotional re\bpon\be i\b normal, and even negative emotion\b are a nece\b\bary part of a fulfilling life. In the extreme ca\be, however, they can interfere with our ability t\mo think rationally, plan our behavior, and con\bider alternative action\b. An extreme weather event can be a \bource of trauma, and the experience can cau\be di\babling emotion\b. \mMore \bubtle and indirect effect\b of climate change can add \btre\b\b to people'\b live\b in varying degree\b. Whether experienced indirectly or directly, \btre\b\bor\b to our climate tran\blate into impaired mental health th\mat can re\bult in depre\b\bion and anxiety (U\mSGCRP, 2016). Although everyone i\b able to cope with a certain amount of \btre\b\b, the accumulated effect\b of compound \btre\b\b can tip a per\bon from mentally healthy to mentally ill. Even uncertainty can be a \bource of \btre\b\b and a ri\bk factor for p\bychological di\btre\b\b (Greco & Roger, 2003). People can be negatively affected by hearing about th\me negative experience\b of other\b, and by fear\b'--founded or unfounded'--about their\m own potential vulnerability. PHYSICAL HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH Compromi\bed phy\bical health can be \ma \bource of \btre\b\b that threaten\b p\bychological well-being. Conver\bely, mental health problem\b can al\bo threaten phy\bical health, for example, by changing pattern\b of \bleep, eating, or exerci\be and by reducing immune \by\btem function.COMMUNITY HEALTH Although re\bident\b' mental and\m phy\bical health affect communitie\b, the impac\mt\b of climate on community health can have a particularly \btrong effect on community fabric and interper\bonal relation\bhip\b. Altered environmental condition\b due to climate change can \bhift the opportunitie\b people have for \bocial interaction, the way\b in which they relate to each other, and their connection\b to the natural world.ACUTE GRADUAL Chronic lung diseaseCardiovascular diseaseMalnutrition Reduce \ftnessPHY\bICAL HEALTHInjuries/fatalitiesVector-borne diseaseHeat strokeAsthmaAllergiesMENTAL HEALTHDepression, stress, and anxiet\Ry\btrains on social relationshipsComplicated grief \bubstance abuse Post-traumaticstress disorderLoss of personal identityHelplessness and fatalismCOMMUNITY HEALTHIncreased personal agg\RressionDisrupted sense of belongi\Rng Loss of community cohesion Increased violence and crime \bocial instability age\f ethn\bc\bty econom\bc \bnequal\bty \bnfrastructure ava\blab\bl\bty of healthcare soc\bal cohes\bon INDIVIDUAL \bOCIAL PHY\bICAL VULNERABILITIE\bGeophysical impacts
14 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance ecoAmerica 15LINKING PHYSICAL IMPACTS, MENTAL HEALTH, AND C OMMUNITY WELL-BEINGThi\b \bection i\b an overview of the interrelation among phy\bical health, mental\m health, and community well-being. We will expand on each topic later in thi\b report.MENTAL HEALTH The ability to proce\b\b information and make deci\bion\b without being di\bab\mled by extreme emotional re\bpon\be\b i\b threatened by climate change. Some emotional re\bpon\be i\b normal, and even negative emotion\b are a nece\b\bary part of a fulfilling life. In the extreme ca\be, however, they can interfere with our ability t\mo think rationally, plan our behavior, and con\bider alternative action\b. An extreme weather event can be a \bource of trauma, and the experience can cau\be di\babling emotion\b. \mMore \bubtle and indirect effect\b of climate change can add \btre\b\b to people'\b live\b in varying degree\b. Whether experienced indirectly or directly, \btre\b\bor\b to our climate tran\blate into impaired mental health th\mat can re\bult in depre\b\bion and anxiety (U\mSGCRP, 2016). Although everyone i\b able to cope with a certain amount of \btre\b\b, the accumulated effect\b of compound \btre\b\b can tip a per\bon from mentally healthy to mentally ill. Even uncertainty can be a \bource of \btre\b\b and a ri\bk factor for p\bychological di\btre\b\b (Greco & Roger, 2003). People can be negatively affected by hearing about th\me negative experience\b of other\b, and by fear\b'--founded or unfounded'--about their\m own potential vulnerability. PHYSICAL HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH Compromi\bed phy\bical health can be \ma \bource of \btre\b\b that threaten\b p\bychological well-being. Conver\bely, mental health problem\b can al\bo threaten phy\bical health, for example, by changing pattern\b of \bleep, eating, or exerci\be and by reducing immune \by\btem function.COMMUNITY HEALTH Although re\bident\b' mental and\m phy\bical health affect communitie\b, the impac\mt\b of climate on community health can have a particularly \btrong effect on community fabric and interper\bonal relation\bhip\b. Altered environmental condition\b due to climate change can \bhift the opportunitie\b people have for \bocial interaction, the way\b in which they relate to each other, and their connection\b to the natural world.ACUTE GRADUAL Chronic lung diseaseCardiovascular diseaseMalnutrition Reduce \ftnessPHY\bICAL HEALTHInjuries/fatalitiesVector-borne diseaseHeat strokeAsthmaAllergiesMENTAL HEALTHDepression, stress, and anxiet\Ry\btrains on social relationshipsComplicated grief \bubstance abuse Post-traumaticstress disorderLoss of personal identityHelplessness and fatalismCOMMUNITY HEALTHIncreased personal agg\RressionDisrupted sense of belongi\Rng Loss of community cohesion Increased violence and crime \bocial instability age\f ethn\bc\bty econom\bc \bnequal\bty \bnfrastructure ava\blab\bl\bty of healthcare soc\bal cohes\bon INDIVIDUAL \bOCIAL PHY\bICAL VULNERABILITIE\bGeophysical impacts
16 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 17COMPREHENDING CLIMA\mTE CHANGE PERCEPTION IS DIFF\pICULTAlthough mo\bt people are generally aware that climate change i\b occurring, it continue\b to \beem di\btant\f \bomething that will happen to other\b, in anothe\mr place, at \bome un\bpecified future date (McDonald, Chai, \m& Newell, 2016). P\bychologi\bt\b refer to thi\b idea a\b psychological distance. Term\b \buch a\b ''climate change'' and ''global warming'' draw attention to the global \bcale \mrather than the per\bo\mnal impact\b (Rudiak-Gould, 2013). Additionally, the \bignal of cli\mmate change i\b ob\bcured by the noi\be of dail\my and \bea\bonal weather variation (Hulme, 2009; Swim et al., 2009; W\meber & Stern, 2011). All thi\b make\b the i\b\bue ea\bier for people to pu\bh a\bide, particularly when\m faced with other pre\b\bing life i\b\bue\b.When pe\fple learn a\b\fut\p and experience l\fcal climate impacts, their understanding increases. Local effect\b of climate change are often more per\bonally relevant than the general phenomenon of a \mwarming climate, and particularly when knowledge of direct effect\b i\b combined with new\b \btorie\b of the imminen\mt ri\bk\b of climate change (Akerlof, Maibach, Fitzgerald, Cedeno, & Neuman, 2013). Perceived experience of impact\b i\b a\b\bociated with increa\bed concern and awarene\b\b about climate change (Re\ber, Bradley, & Ellul, 2014). Direct experience al\bo increa\be\b people'\b under\btanding of climate change (Borick & \mRabe, 2012, p. 796). However, direct experience doe\b not nece\b\barily lead to behavior change. For example, experiencing water \bhortage\b may increa\be behavior change\b in water u\be but not encourage other \bu\btainable behavior. Similarly, re\bearch \bugge\bt\b experiencing temperature change ha\b no impa\mct on water- u\be behavior (Haden, Nile\b,\m Lubell, Perlman, & Jack\bon, 2\m012).A PARTISAN ISSUE Politically polarized in the United State\b, climate change i\b perceived a\b an i\b\bue that belong\b with the \mpolitical left (Dunlap, McCright, & Yaro\bh, 2016), which can \buppre\b\b belief and concern and di\bcu\b\bion\b about \bolution\m\b. For example, of the 36% of American\m\b who are per\bonally concerned a great deal about climate i\b\bue\b, 72% are Democrat\b, and 27% are Republican\b (Pew Re\bearch Center, 2016). Political orientation can make open conver\bation\b about climate impact\b and \bolution\b difficult, and make tho\be who are concerned about climate change feel i\bolated or paranoid in \bome circle\b (Geiger & Swim, 2016).C\fncerns a\b\fut health impac\pts pr\fvide c\fmm\fn gr\fund f\fr discussi\fn with \b\fth ends \ff\p the p\flitical spectru\pm (Maibach, Ni\bbet, B\maldwin, Akerlof, & Diao, 2010; Petrovic, Madrigano, & Zaval, 2014). De\bcribing the\m health-related impact\b of climate change and the relevant benefit\b of taking a\mction to addre\b\b the impact\b can in\bpire hope among tho\be who di\bmi\b\b climate change (Myer\b, Ni\bbet, Maibach, & Lei\berowitz, 2012). For in\btance, con\bervative\b \bhowed decrea\bed \bupport for climate action when the n\megative health effect\b were de\bcribed a\b affecting people in a faraway country a\b oppo\bed to people who live in the United State\b (Hart & Ni\bbet, 2012). Li\bting \beveral health impact\b i\b overwhelming, cau\bing fatali\bm and dimini\bhed engagemen\mt (Kryg\bman, Spei\ber, Mer\be, et al., 2016). UNCERTAINTY AND DENIAL People feel uncertain about the t\mhreat of climate change and how to minimize the damage. The media have been criticized for promoting an inaccurate perception of climate change (Antilla, \m2005)\f for example, that there i\b more \bcientific controver\by about climate change than actua\mlly exi\bt\b. In \bome ca\be\b, information that increa\be\b perception\b of the reality of climate change may feel \bo frightening that it lead\b to denial and thu\b a\m reduction in concern and \bupport for action (McDonald\m et al., 2015). In addition, \mcommunicating \bcientific information i\b not ea\by; thi\b complexity it\belf may be a problem. One \btudy \bhowed that people who received more complex information on environmental problem\b 1) felt more helple\b\b and more inclined to leave the problem to the government; and 2) tho\m\be who felt ignorant about the topic were more likely to want to avoid hearing about \mmore negative information (Shepherd & Kay, 2012).Worldviews and ide\fl\fgies act as \pfilters t\f help increase \fr decrease c\fncern a\b\fut climate change and m\ftivate acti\fn t\fward s\fluti\fns. People do not perceive the world neutrally. In\btead, through directionally motivated cognition, individual\b \btrive to maintain a world con\bi\btent with the ideol\mogy and value\b of their \bocial group\b (Kahan, 2012). Becau\be of thi\b, individual\m\b who\be worldview\b conflict with climate change realitie\b actually may not perceive certain climate effect\b (Hamilton & Stompone, 2013; Howe & Lei\berowitz, 2013). Myer\b, Maibach, Ro\ber-Renouf, Akerlof, and Lei\berowitz (2012) found that individual\b who were 1) either very concerned about or \bkeptical of climate change tended to report per\bonal experience with climate change (or lack thereof) ba\bed on their pr\me-exi\bting belief\b about it\b exi\btence; and 2) individu\mal\b le\b\b engaged with the i\m\b\bue of climate change changed their belie\mf\b about the exi\btence of climate change ba\bed on pe\mrceived per\bonal experience with it\b impact\b. \mIdeologie\b of climate change and action\m may al\bo contribute to wide\bpread p\bychological denial. \mThe di\btre\b\b of climate change can manife\bt in negative reaction\b to climate activi\bm. The\be reaction\b are reflected in outlet\b \buch a\m\b \bocial media, and re\bearcher\b believe thi\b behavior \bhift\b other\b to denial. (Davenport, 2017).Key Takeaways: C\fmprehending Climate ChangeBarriers S\fluti\fnsClimate change i\b often perceived a\b global, di\btant, and difficult t\mo under\btand. Learning and experiencing the loca\ml effect\b of climate change make the problem more tangible and a r\meality. P olitical affiliation drive\b a wedge in the public'\b awarene\b\b of and belief\b ab\mout climate change. Talking about the h\mealth impact\b of climate change re\bonate\b acro\b\b the political \bpectrum. T he complexity and a fear of climate change drive people to feel uncertain and in denial. Connecting climate impact\b to practical \bolution\b encourage\b action while \mbuilding emotional \mre\biliency.Witnessing the visi\ble impa\pcts \ff climate change may help pe\fple \fverc\fme \barriers t\f grasping the pr\f\blem; h\fwever, c\fmprehensi\fn has many facets. This secti\fn pr\fvides an \fverview \ff the attitudes pe\fple have a\b\fut climate change, t\f \better understand h\fw awareness \ff the health impacts ma\py help m\ftivate acti\fn.
16 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 17COMPREHENDING CLIMA\mTE CHANGE PERCEPTION IS DIFF\pICULTAlthough mo\bt people are generally aware that climate change i\b occurring, it continue\b to \beem di\btant\f \bomething that will happen to other\b, in anothe\mr place, at \bome un\bpecified future date (McDonald, Chai, \m& Newell, 2016). P\bychologi\bt\b refer to thi\b idea a\b psychological distance. Term\b \buch a\b ''climate change'' and ''global warming'' draw attention to the global \bcale \mrather than the per\bo\mnal impact\b (Rudiak-Gould, 2013). Additionally, the \bignal of cli\mmate change i\b ob\bcured by the noi\be of dail\my and \bea\bonal weather variation (Hulme, 2009; Swim et al., 2009; W\meber & Stern, 2011). All thi\b make\b the i\b\bue ea\bier for people to pu\bh a\bide, particularly when\m faced with other pre\b\bing life i\b\bue\b.When pe\fple learn a\b\fut\p and experience l\fcal climate impacts, their understanding increases. Local effect\b of climate change are often more per\bonally relevant than the general phenomenon of a \mwarming climate, and particularly when knowledge of direct effect\b i\b combined with new\b \btorie\b of the imminen\mt ri\bk\b of climate change (Akerlof, Maibach, Fitzgerald, Cedeno, & Neuman, 2013). Perceived experience of impact\b i\b a\b\bociated with increa\bed concern and awarene\b\b about climate change (Re\ber, Bradley, & Ellul, 2014). Direct experience al\bo increa\be\b people'\b under\btanding of climate change (Borick & \mRabe, 2012, p. 796). However, direct experience doe\b not nece\b\barily lead to behavior change. For example, experiencing water \bhortage\b may increa\be behavior change\b in water u\be but not encourage other \bu\btainable behavior. Similarly, re\bearch \bugge\bt\b experiencing temperature change ha\b no impa\mct on water- u\be behavior (Haden, Nile\b,\m Lubell, Perlman, & Jack\bon, 2\m012).A PARTISAN ISSUE Politically polarized in the United State\b, climate change i\b perceived a\b an i\b\bue that belong\b with the \mpolitical left (Dunlap, McCright, & Yaro\bh, 2016), which can \buppre\b\b belief and concern and di\bcu\b\bion\b about \bolution\m\b. For example, of the 36% of American\m\b who are per\bonally concerned a great deal about climate i\b\bue\b, 72% are Democrat\b, and 27% are Republican\b (Pew Re\bearch Center, 2016). Political orientation can make open conver\bation\b about climate impact\b and \bolution\b difficult, and make tho\be who are concerned about climate change feel i\bolated or paranoid in \bome circle\b (Geiger & Swim, 2016).C\fncerns a\b\fut health impac\pts pr\fvide c\fmm\fn gr\fund f\fr discussi\fn with \b\fth ends \ff\p the p\flitical spectru\pm (Maibach, Ni\bbet, B\maldwin, Akerlof, & Diao, 2010; Petrovic, Madrigano, & Zaval, 2014). De\bcribing the\m health-related impact\b of climate change and the relevant benefit\b of taking a\mction to addre\b\b the impact\b can in\bpire hope among tho\be who di\bmi\b\b climate change (Myer\b, Ni\bbet, Maibach, & Lei\berowitz, 2012). For in\btance, con\bervative\b \bhowed decrea\bed \bupport for climate action when the n\megative health effect\b were de\bcribed a\b affecting people in a faraway country a\b oppo\bed to people who live in the United State\b (Hart & Ni\bbet, 2012). Li\bting \beveral health impact\b i\b overwhelming, cau\bing fatali\bm and dimini\bhed engagemen\mt (Kryg\bman, Spei\ber, Mer\be, et al., 2016). UNCERTAINTY AND DENIAL People feel uncertain about the t\mhreat of climate change and how to minimize the damage. The media have been criticized for promoting an inaccurate perception of climate change (Antilla, \m2005)\f for example, that there i\b more \bcientific controver\by about climate change than actua\mlly exi\bt\b. In \bome ca\be\b, information that increa\be\b perception\b of the reality of climate change may feel \bo frightening that it lead\b to denial and thu\b a\m reduction in concern and \bupport for action (McDonald\m et al., 2015). In addition, \mcommunicating \bcientific information i\b not ea\by; thi\b complexity it\belf may be a problem. One \btudy \bhowed that people who received more complex information on environmental problem\b 1) felt more helple\b\b and more inclined to leave the problem to the government; and 2) tho\m\be who felt ignorant about the topic were more likely to want to avoid hearing about \mmore negative information (Shepherd & Kay, 2012).Worldviews and ide\fl\fgies act as \pfilters t\f help increase \fr decrease c\fncern a\b\fut climate change and m\ftivate acti\fn t\fward s\fluti\fns. People do not perceive the world neutrally. In\btead, through directionally motivated cognition, individual\b \btrive to maintain a world con\bi\btent with the ideol\mogy and value\b of their \bocial group\b (Kahan, 2012). Becau\be of thi\b, individual\m\b who\be worldview\b conflict with climate change realitie\b actually may not perceive certain climate effect\b (Hamilton & Stompone, 2013; Howe & Lei\berowitz, 2013). Myer\b, Maibach, Ro\ber-Renouf, Akerlof, and Lei\berowitz (2012) found that individual\b who were 1) either very concerned about or \bkeptical of climate change tended to report per\bonal experience with climate change (or lack thereof) ba\bed on their pr\me-exi\bting belief\b about it\b exi\btence; and 2) individu\mal\b le\b\b engaged with the i\m\b\bue of climate change changed their belie\mf\b about the exi\btence of climate change ba\bed on pe\mrceived per\bonal experience with it\b impact\b. \mIdeologie\b of climate change and action\m may al\bo contribute to wide\bpread p\bychological denial. \mThe di\btre\b\b of climate change can manife\bt in negative reaction\b to climate activi\bm. The\be reaction\b are reflected in outlet\b \buch a\m\b \bocial media, and re\bearcher\b believe thi\b behavior \bhift\b other\b to denial. (Davenport, 2017).Key Takeaways: C\fmprehending Climate ChangeBarriers S\fluti\fnsClimate change i\b often perceived a\b global, di\btant, and difficult t\mo under\btand. Learning and experiencing the loca\ml effect\b of climate change make the problem more tangible and a r\meality. P olitical affiliation drive\b a wedge in the public'\b awarene\b\b of and belief\b ab\mout climate change. Talking about the h\mealth impact\b of climate change re\bonate\b acro\b\b the political \bpectrum. T he complexity and a fear of climate change drive people to feel uncertain and in denial. Connecting climate impact\b to practical \bolution\b encourage\b action while \mbuilding emotional \mre\biliency.Witnessing the visi\ble impa\pcts \ff climate change may help pe\fple \fverc\fme \barriers t\f grasping the pr\f\blem; h\fwever, c\fmprehensi\fn has many facets. This secti\fn pr\fvides an \fverview \ff the attitudes pe\fple have a\b\fut climate change, t\f \better understand h\fw awareness \ff the health impacts ma\py help m\ftivate acti\fn.
18 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 19CLIMATE SOLUTIONS BENEFIT MEN\mTAL HEALTHPhysical commuting enhances a sense of well-\feing. Choo\bing to bike and/or walk (a\b\buming it i\b \bafe and practical to do \bo) i\b one individual\m \btep that can help reduce the u\be of climate change''driving fo\b\bil fuel\b. Phy\bical commuting al\bo directly impact\b depre\b\bion, anxiety, PTSD, and other mental illne\b\be\b (California Department of\m Public Health, 2016). People who bike and walk to work, \bchool, appoint\mment\b, and other activitie\m\b not only reduce emi\b\bion\b and improve their phy\bical health but al\m\bo experience lower \btre\b\b level\b than car commuter\b (Martin, Goryakin, & Suhrcke, 2014). For in\btance, individual\b who u\mtilized the Wa\bhington, D.C. bike\bhare program reported reduced \btre\b\b level\b and weight lo\b\b (Albert\b, Palumbo, & Pierce, 2012). Similarly, adole\bcent\b who actively commute to \bchool \bhow not only lower level\b of perceived \btre\b\b but al\bo increa\bed cardiova\bcular fitne\b\b, improved cognitive performance, and higher academic \machievement (Lambia\be, Barry, & Roemmich, 2010; Van Dijk, De Groot, Van Acker, Savelberg, & Kir\bchner, 2014).Pu\flic transportation in\bigorates community mental he\-alth. Moving people from individual car\b t\mo public tran\bit al\bo re\bult\b in lower greenhou\be ga\b emi\b\bion\b. In addition,\m \beveral \btudie\b have \bhown that u\bing public tran\bportation lead\b to an increa\be in community cohe\bion, recreational activitie\b, neighbo\mrhood walkability, and reduced \bymptom\b of depre\b\bion and \btre\b\b a\b\bociated with le\b\b driving and more exerci\be (Allen, 2008; \mAppleyard, 1981; Bell & Cohen, 2009; Berke, Gottlieb, Vernez Moudon, & Lar\bon,\m 2007; Wener & Even\b, 2007 a\b cited in Litman, 2010). Meanwhile, traffic driving wor\ben\b air quality \mand contribute\b to reduced productivity and incr\mea\bed healthcare co\bt\b (American Public Tran\bportation Authority, n.d.). Sound tran\bportation \by\btem\b and urban planni\mng \bhould be expanded a\b they lead to beneficial mental \mhealth and climate outcome\b.Green spaces diminish stress. Park\b and green corridor\b have been connected to improved air quality and\m can increa\be mental well-being. For example, tree\b \beque\bter carbon, and green \bpace\b ab\borb le\b\b heat than paved \burface\b and building\b. More time \bpent interacting with nature ha\b been \bhown to \bignificantly lower \btre\b\b level\b and reduce \btre\b\b- related illne\b\b. Intere\btingly, thi\b evidence i\b \bupported acro\b\b \bocioeconomic \btatu\b, age, and gender (Grahn & Stig\bdotter, 2003). Likewi\be, individual\b who m\move to area\b with acce\b\b to more green \bpace \bhowed \bu\btained mental healt\mh improvement\b, while indiv\midual\b who moved to area\b with le\b\b acce\b\b to green \bpace experienced \bub\btantial negative mental health impact\b (Alcock, White, Wheeler, Fleming, & Depledge, 2014). However, although a per\bon'\b phy\bical and mental hea\mlth i\b determined to a large degree by the neighborhood in wh\mich he or \bhe live\b, relocating to a greener neighborhood\m i\bn't alway\b an option. A\b plan\mner\b and policymaker\b make deci\bion\b that will re\bhape the land\bcape\b\m of our citie\b and \mcommunitie\b, it i\b imp\mortant to recognize the \bignificance and role green area\b have in improving air quality, reducing \btre\b\b, and en\buring a healthy living environment for everyone.Clean energy reduces health \furdens. Wind, \bolar, hydro, and other clean e\mnergy a\b well a\b energy efficiency are not only climate-friendly; they al\bo reduce particulate\b and pollution in\m the air. Studie\b on air quali\mty and children'\b lung development have \bhown that a\b air pollution i\b reduced, children di\bplay \bignificant lung function improvement\b (Gauderman et al., 2015). Further re\bearch revealed that children expo\bed to higher level\b of urban pollution are more likely to develop attention problem\b and \bymptom\b of anxiety and depre\b\bion, a\b well a\b lower academic performance and brain function (Perera et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2009). \mClean energy provide\b an opportunity\m to protect population\b of concern, \buch a\b children, who experience the\be impact\b more \beverely.Although the co-\fenefits are clear, more comprehensi\be research on the positi\be mental health outcomes of climate solutions is neede\-d to \folster support. Re\bearch can further promote dynamic \bolution\b a\b opportun\mitie\b to improve our health. It i\b import\mant to increa\be awarene\b\b of the daily choice\b we make, from how to get to work to the \bource\b of energy to u\be. A\b we di\bcu\b\b later in thi\b report, the more climate-friendly behavior\b become main\btreamed, the more they help population\b of concern\f children, elderly, \bick, low income, etc. Fortunately, tangible and effective climate \bolution\b are available today to implement and buil\md upon.KEY TAKEAWAYS: Comprehending Climate ChangeClimate \bolution\b not onl\my improve the quality of our air\m and food but al\bo enhance our cognitive abilitie\b and \btrengthen our mental \mhealth. ' Physical commuting, \buch a\b biking or walking, can reduce \btre\b\b and other mental illne\b\m\be\b, a\b well a\b improve cognitive function and academic performance.' Public transportation invigorate\b community mental heal\mth by creating opportunitie\b a\mnd network\b to increa\be community cohe\bion.' \freen spaces reduce people'\b \btre\b\b level\b and promote po\bitive \bocial interaction\b. ' Clean energy benefit\b lung funct\mion in children and can help prevent \bymptom\b of anxiety and \mdepre\b\bion that are brought on by pollution.This section outlin\-es how climate solutions and lifestyle choices can curtail the mental health \-impacts incurred when our economies, physical and social \-infrastructures, and social identities are eroded \fy climate change. These solutions are a\baila\fle now, and the co-\fenefits support healthy cogniti\be function and emotional resiliency.
18 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 19CLIMATE SOLUTIONS BENEFIT MEN\mTAL HEALTHPhysical commuting enhances a sense of well-\feing. Choo\bing to bike and/or walk (a\b\buming it i\b \bafe and practical to do \bo) i\b one individual\m \btep that can help reduce the u\be of climate change''driving fo\b\bil fuel\b. Phy\bical commuting al\bo directly impact\b depre\b\bion, anxiety, PTSD, and other mental illne\b\be\b (California Department of\m Public Health, 2016). People who bike and walk to work, \bchool, appoint\mment\b, and other activitie\m\b not only reduce emi\b\bion\b and improve their phy\bical health but al\m\bo experience lower \btre\b\b level\b than car commuter\b (Martin, Goryakin, & Suhrcke, 2014). For in\btance, individual\b who u\mtilized the Wa\bhington, D.C. bike\bhare program reported reduced \btre\b\b level\b and weight lo\b\b (Albert\b, Palumbo, & Pierce, 2012). Similarly, adole\bcent\b who actively commute to \bchool \bhow not only lower level\b of perceived \btre\b\b but al\bo increa\bed cardiova\bcular fitne\b\b, improved cognitive performance, and higher academic \machievement (Lambia\be, Barry, & Roemmich, 2010; Van Dijk, De Groot, Van Acker, Savelberg, & Kir\bchner, 2014).Pu\flic transportation in\bigorates community mental he\-alth. Moving people from individual car\b t\mo public tran\bit al\bo re\bult\b in lower greenhou\be ga\b emi\b\bion\b. In addition,\m \beveral \btudie\b have \bhown that u\bing public tran\bportation lead\b to an increa\be in community cohe\bion, recreational activitie\b, neighbo\mrhood walkability, and reduced \bymptom\b of depre\b\bion and \btre\b\b a\b\bociated with le\b\b driving and more exerci\be (Allen, 2008; \mAppleyard, 1981; Bell & Cohen, 2009; Berke, Gottlieb, Vernez Moudon, & Lar\bon,\m 2007; Wener & Even\b, 2007 a\b cited in Litman, 2010). Meanwhile, traffic driving wor\ben\b air quality \mand contribute\b to reduced productivity and incr\mea\bed healthcare co\bt\b (American Public Tran\bportation Authority, n.d.). Sound tran\bportation \by\btem\b and urban planni\mng \bhould be expanded a\b they lead to beneficial mental \mhealth and climate outcome\b.Green spaces diminish stress. Park\b and green corridor\b have been connected to improved air quality and\m can increa\be mental well-being. For example, tree\b \beque\bter carbon, and green \bpace\b ab\borb le\b\b heat than paved \burface\b and building\b. More time \bpent interacting with nature ha\b been \bhown to \bignificantly lower \btre\b\b level\b and reduce \btre\b\b- related illne\b\b. Intere\btingly, thi\b evidence i\b \bupported acro\b\b \bocioeconomic \btatu\b, age, and gender (Grahn & Stig\bdotter, 2003). Likewi\be, individual\b who m\move to area\b with acce\b\b to more green \bpace \bhowed \bu\btained mental healt\mh improvement\b, while indiv\midual\b who moved to area\b with le\b\b acce\b\b to green \bpace experienced \bub\btantial negative mental health impact\b (Alcock, White, Wheeler, Fleming, & Depledge, 2014). However, although a per\bon'\b phy\bical and mental hea\mlth i\b determined to a large degree by the neighborhood in wh\mich he or \bhe live\b, relocating to a greener neighborhood\m i\bn't alway\b an option. A\b plan\mner\b and policymaker\b make deci\bion\b that will re\bhape the land\bcape\b\m of our citie\b and \mcommunitie\b, it i\b imp\mortant to recognize the \bignificance and role green area\b have in improving air quality, reducing \btre\b\b, and en\buring a healthy living environment for everyone.Clean energy reduces health \furdens. Wind, \bolar, hydro, and other clean e\mnergy a\b well a\b energy efficiency are not only climate-friendly; they al\bo reduce particulate\b and pollution in\m the air. Studie\b on air quali\mty and children'\b lung development have \bhown that a\b air pollution i\b reduced, children di\bplay \bignificant lung function improvement\b (Gauderman et al., 2015). Further re\bearch revealed that children expo\bed to higher level\b of urban pollution are more likely to develop attention problem\b and \bymptom\b of anxiety and depre\b\bion, a\b well a\b lower academic performance and brain function (Perera et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2009). \mClean energy provide\b an opportunity\m to protect population\b of concern, \buch a\b children, who experience the\be impact\b more \beverely.Although the co-\fenefits are clear, more comprehensi\be research on the positi\be mental health outcomes of climate solutions is neede\-d to \folster support. Re\bearch can further promote dynamic \bolution\b a\b opportun\mitie\b to improve our health. It i\b import\mant to increa\be awarene\b\b of the daily choice\b we make, from how to get to work to the \bource\b of energy to u\be. A\b we di\bcu\b\b later in thi\b report, the more climate-friendly behavior\b become main\btreamed, the more they help population\b of concern\f children, elderly, \bick, low income, etc. Fortunately, tangible and effective climate \bolution\b are available today to implement and buil\md upon.KEY TAKEAWAYS: Comprehending Climate ChangeClimate \bolution\b not onl\my improve the quality of our air\m and food but al\bo enhance our cognitive abilitie\b and \btrengthen our mental \mhealth. ' Physical commuting, \buch a\b biking or walking, can reduce \btre\b\b and other mental illne\b\m\be\b, a\b well a\b improve cognitive function and academic performance.' Public transportation invigorate\b community mental heal\mth by creating opportunitie\b a\mnd network\b to increa\be community cohe\bion.' \freen spaces reduce people'\b \btre\b\b level\b and promote po\bitive \bocial interaction\b. ' Clean energy benefit\b lung funct\mion in children and can help prevent \bymptom\b of anxiety and \mdepre\b\bion that are brought on by pollution.This section outlin\-es how climate solutions and lifestyle choices can curtail the mental health \-impacts incurred when our economies, physical and social \-infrastructures, and social identities are eroded \fy climate change. These solutions are a\baila\fle now, and the co-\fenefits support healthy cogniti\be function and emotional resiliency.
American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 2\fMEN\bAL HEAL\bH IMPAC\bS\bhe mental health e\2ffects of climate change are gaining public attention. A 20\f6 government report (U.S. Global Change Research Program) reviewed a large body of research to summarize the current state of knowledge. \bhis report builds on that knowledge, and considers the direct and indirect effects of climate change on mental\2 health. W e start by describing the m\2ental health effects on individuals, both short and l\2ong term, acute and chronic, the stressors that accumulate in the aftermath of a disaster, and the impacts tha\2t natural disasters have on social relationships, with consequences for health and well-being. We move on to discussing the individua\2l-level impacts of more gradual changes in c\2limate, including impacts\2 on aggression and violence, identity, and the long-term emotional impacts o\2f climate change. Next, we discuss the impacts of clim\2ate change on communities and on \2 intergroup and international relationships. Finally, we address the problem of inequity'--the fact that certain populations are relatively more vulnerable to these mental health impacts compared to others.II. MENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE
American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 2\fMEN\bAL HEAL\bH IMPAC\bS\bhe mental health e\2ffects of climate change are gaining public attention. A 20\f6 government report (U.S. Global Change Research Program) reviewed a large body of research to summarize the current state of knowledge. \bhis report builds on that knowledge, and considers the direct and indirect effects of climate change on mental\2 health. W e start by describing the m\2ental health effects on individuals, both short and l\2ong term, acute and chronic, the stressors that accumulate in the aftermath of a disaster, and the impacts tha\2t natural disasters have on social relationships, with consequences for health and well-being. We move on to discussing the individua\2l-level impacts of more gradual changes in c\2limate, including impacts\2 on aggression and violence, identity, and the long-term emotional impacts o\2f climate change. Next, we discuss the impacts of clim\2ate change on communities and on \2 intergroup and international relationships. Finally, we address the problem of inequity'--the fact that certain populations are relatively more vulnerable to these mental health impacts compared to others.II. MENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE
22 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 23\fMPACTS ON \fND\fV\fDUALSACUTE IMPACTSTrauma and sho\fk Climate change''induced disasters have a high potential for immediate and severe psychological trauma from personal injury\b injury or death of a loved one\b damage to or loss of personal property (e.g.\b home) and pets\b and disr\:uption in or loss of livelihood (Neria & S\:chultz\b 2012; Simpson\b Weissbecker\b & Sephton\b 2011; Terpstra\b 2011). An early meta-analysis of studies on the relationship between disasters and mental heal\:th impacts found that between 7% and 40% of all \:subjects in 36 studies showed some form of psychopathology. General anxiety was the type of psychopathology with t\:he highest prevalence rate\b followed by phobic\b somatic\b and alcohol impairment\b an\:d then depression and drug impai\:rment\b which were all elevated relative to prevalence in the general population (Rubonis & Bickman\b 1991). Mor\:e recent reviews concluded that acute traumatic stress is the most common mental healt\:h problem after a disaster (Fritze\b Blashki\b Burke\b & Wiseman\b 2008). Terror\b anger\b shock\b and other i\:ntense negative emotions are likely to dominate people's initial response (Raphael\b 2007). \fnterview participants in a\: study about flooding\: conducted by Carroll\b Morbey\b Balogh\b and Araoz (2009) used words such as ''horrifyi\:ng\b'' ''panic stricken\b'' and ''petrified'' to describe their experience during the flood \: (p. 542; see also Tapsell & Tunstall\b 2008). Post-traumat\b\f stress d\bsorder (PTSD) For most people\b acute symptoms of trauma and shock are reduced after conditions of securit\:y have been restored. However\b many continue to experience problems as PTSD manifests as a chronic disorder. PTSD\b depression\b general anxiety\b and suicide all tend to increase after a disaster. For example\b among a sample of\: people living in \:areas affected by Hurricane Katrina\b suicide and suicidal\fideation more than doubled\b one\: in six people met \:the diagnostic criteria for PTSD\b and 49% of people livin\:g in an affected area developed an anxiety \:or mood disorder such as depression (Kessler et al.\b 2008; \:Lowe\b Manove\b & Rhodes\b 2013). Similarly\b 14.5% showed symptoms of PTSD from Hurricane Sandy (Bo\:scarino\b Hoffman\b Adams\b Figley\b & Solhkhah\b 2014)\b and 15.6% of a\: highly affected community showed symptoms of PTSD several years after experiencing extreme bushfires (Bryant et al.\b 2014). PTSD is often linked to a host of other mental \:health problems\b including higher levels of suicide\b substance abuse\b depression\b anxiety\b violence\b aggression\b interpersonal difficulties\b and job-\:related difficulties (Simpson et al.\b 20\:11).\fncidence of PTSD is more likely among those who have lost close family members or property (Wasini\b West\b Mills\b & Usher\b 2014). \fndividuals wh\:o experience multiple or long-lasting acute events'--such as more than one disaster or multiple years of drought'--are likely to experience more severe trauma and may be even more susceptible to PTSD and the other t\:ypes of psychiatric symptoms described above (e.g.\b Edwards & Wiseman\b 2011; Hobfoll\b 2007). For example\b a study showed that refugees exposed to multiple traumatic events experienced a higher rate of immediate and lifetime PTSD and had a lower probability of remission than refugees who had experienced few traumatic events (Kolassa et al.\b 2010). The likelihood of suicide is higher am\:ong those who have been exposed to more severe disasters (Norris\b Friedman\b &\: Watson\b 2002). Compounded stress\fn general\b climate change can be considered an additional source of stress to our everyday concerns\b which may be tolerable for someone with man\:y sources of support but can be enough t\:o serve as a tipping point for those who have fewer resources or who are already experiencing other s\:tressors. Stress manifests as a subjective feeling and a physiological response that occur when a person feels that he or she does no\:t have the capacity to respond and adapt to a given situation. Thus\b climate-related stress is likely to lead to increases in stress-related problems\b such as substance abuse\b anxiety disorders\b and depression (Neria & Shult\:z\b 2012). These problems often carry economic costs incurred by lost work days\b increased use of medical servi\:ces\b etc.\b which\b in turn\b create additional stress for individuals and \:society and have their own impacts on mental and physical health. Stress can also be accompanied by worry about future disasters and feelings of vulnerability\b helplessness\b mourning\b grief\b and despair (Neria & Schultz\b 2012). Following disasters\b increased stress can also make people more likely to engage in behavior that has a negative impact on their h\:ealth (e.g.\b smoking\b risky\fbehavior\b and unhealthy eating habits; e.g.\b Beaudoin\b 2011; Bryant et al.\b 2014; Flory\b Hankin\b Kloos\b Cheel\:y\b & Turecki\b 2009).Stain et al. (2011) found that people living in a drought-affected area who had also recently experienced some other adverse life event were more likely to express a high degree of worry about the ong\:oing drought conditions. Although not as dramatic and acute a disaster as a hurricane\b drought is associated with psychological distress (O'Brien\b Kerry\b Coleman\b & Hanigan\b \:2014; Stanke\b Kerac\b Prudhomme\b Medlock\b & Murray\b 2013)\b and one study found increased rates of suicide among \:male farmers in Australia during period\:s of prolonged drought (Hanigan\b But\:lera\b Kokicc\b & Hutchinson\b 2012). Several studies have found that many victims of a flood\: disaster express psychological distress even years after the flood (Alder\:man et al.\b 2012; Crabtree\b 2012; Simpson et al.\b\: 2011). Impa\fts of stress on phys\b\fal health High levels of stress and anxiety also \:appear to be linked to physical health effects. For example\b chronic distress results in a lowered immune system response\b leaving people more vulnerable to pathogens in the air and water and at greater risk for a number of physical ailments (Alde\:rman et al.\b 2012; Simpson et al.\b\: 2011). Sleep disorders also increase in response to chronic distress (Han\b Kim\b & Shim\b 2\:012). Doppelt (2016) has described potential physiological responses to the stress of climate change\b such as increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol\b which\b if p\:rolonged\b can affect Th\bs se\ft\bon d\bs\fusses how \fl\bmate \fhange has acute and chronic\f\bmpa\fts, directly and indirectly, on \bnd\bv\bdual well-be\bng. A\fute \bmpa\fts result from natural d\bsasters or extreme weather events. Chron\b\f \bmpa\fts result from longer- t erm \fhanges \bn \fl\bmate. Th\bs d\bs\fuss\bon emphas\bzes the \bmpa\fts exper\ben\fed d\bre\ftly by \bnd\bv\bduals; however, \bt also tou\fhes on \bnd\bre\ft \bmpa\fts (w\btness\bng others be\bng \bmpa\fted), wh\b\fh have profound \bmpl\b\fat\bons for mental health.
22 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 23\fMPACTS ON \fND\fV\fDUALSACUTE IMPACTSTrauma and sho\fk Climate change''induced disasters have a high potential for immediate and severe psychological trauma from personal injury\b injury or death of a loved one\b damage to or loss of personal property (e.g.\b home) and pets\b and disr\:uption in or loss of livelihood (Neria & S\:chultz\b 2012; Simpson\b Weissbecker\b & Sephton\b 2011; Terpstra\b 2011). An early meta-analysis of studies on the relationship between disasters and mental heal\:th impacts found that between 7% and 40% of all \:subjects in 36 studies showed some form of psychopathology. General anxiety was the type of psychopathology with t\:he highest prevalence rate\b followed by phobic\b somatic\b and alcohol impairment\b an\:d then depression and drug impai\:rment\b which were all elevated relative to prevalence in the general population (Rubonis & Bickman\b 1991). Mor\:e recent reviews concluded that acute traumatic stress is the most common mental healt\:h problem after a disaster (Fritze\b Blashki\b Burke\b & Wiseman\b 2008). Terror\b anger\b shock\b and other i\:ntense negative emotions are likely to dominate people's initial response (Raphael\b 2007). \fnterview participants in a\: study about flooding\: conducted by Carroll\b Morbey\b Balogh\b and Araoz (2009) used words such as ''horrifyi\:ng\b'' ''panic stricken\b'' and ''petrified'' to describe their experience during the flood \: (p. 542; see also Tapsell & Tunstall\b 2008). Post-traumat\b\f stress d\bsorder (PTSD) For most people\b acute symptoms of trauma and shock are reduced after conditions of securit\:y have been restored. However\b many continue to experience problems as PTSD manifests as a chronic disorder. PTSD\b depression\b general anxiety\b and suicide all tend to increase after a disaster. For example\b among a sample of\: people living in \:areas affected by Hurricane Katrina\b suicide and suicidal\fideation more than doubled\b one\: in six people met \:the diagnostic criteria for PTSD\b and 49% of people livin\:g in an affected area developed an anxiety \:or mood disorder such as depression (Kessler et al.\b 2008; \:Lowe\b Manove\b & Rhodes\b 2013). Similarly\b 14.5% showed symptoms of PTSD from Hurricane Sandy (Bo\:scarino\b Hoffman\b Adams\b Figley\b & Solhkhah\b 2014)\b and 15.6% of a\: highly affected community showed symptoms of PTSD several years after experiencing extreme bushfires (Bryant et al.\b 2014). PTSD is often linked to a host of other mental \:health problems\b including higher levels of suicide\b substance abuse\b depression\b anxiety\b violence\b aggression\b interpersonal difficulties\b and job-\:related difficulties (Simpson et al.\b 20\:11).\fncidence of PTSD is more likely among those who have lost close family members or property (Wasini\b West\b Mills\b & Usher\b 2014). \fndividuals wh\:o experience multiple or long-lasting acute events'--such as more than one disaster or multiple years of drought'--are likely to experience more severe trauma and may be even more susceptible to PTSD and the other t\:ypes of psychiatric symptoms described above (e.g.\b Edwards & Wiseman\b 2011; Hobfoll\b 2007). For example\b a study showed that refugees exposed to multiple traumatic events experienced a higher rate of immediate and lifetime PTSD and had a lower probability of remission than refugees who had experienced few traumatic events (Kolassa et al.\b 2010). The likelihood of suicide is higher am\:ong those who have been exposed to more severe disasters (Norris\b Friedman\b &\: Watson\b 2002). Compounded stress\fn general\b climate change can be considered an additional source of stress to our everyday concerns\b which may be tolerable for someone with man\:y sources of support but can be enough t\:o serve as a tipping point for those who have fewer resources or who are already experiencing other s\:tressors. Stress manifests as a subjective feeling and a physiological response that occur when a person feels that he or she does no\:t have the capacity to respond and adapt to a given situation. Thus\b climate-related stress is likely to lead to increases in stress-related problems\b such as substance abuse\b anxiety disorders\b and depression (Neria & Shult\:z\b 2012). These problems often carry economic costs incurred by lost work days\b increased use of medical servi\:ces\b etc.\b which\b in turn\b create additional stress for individuals and \:society and have their own impacts on mental and physical health. Stress can also be accompanied by worry about future disasters and feelings of vulnerability\b helplessness\b mourning\b grief\b and despair (Neria & Schultz\b 2012). Following disasters\b increased stress can also make people more likely to engage in behavior that has a negative impact on their h\:ealth (e.g.\b smoking\b risky\fbehavior\b and unhealthy eating habits; e.g.\b Beaudoin\b 2011; Bryant et al.\b 2014; Flory\b Hankin\b Kloos\b Cheel\:y\b & Turecki\b 2009).Stain et al. (2011) found that people living in a drought-affected area who had also recently experienced some other adverse life event were more likely to express a high degree of worry about the ong\:oing drought conditions. Although not as dramatic and acute a disaster as a hurricane\b drought is associated with psychological distress (O'Brien\b Kerry\b Coleman\b & Hanigan\b \:2014; Stanke\b Kerac\b Prudhomme\b Medlock\b & Murray\b 2013)\b and one study found increased rates of suicide among \:male farmers in Australia during period\:s of prolonged drought (Hanigan\b But\:lera\b Kokicc\b & Hutchinson\b 2012). Several studies have found that many victims of a flood\: disaster express psychological distress even years after the flood (Alder\:man et al.\b 2012; Crabtree\b 2012; Simpson et al.\b\: 2011). Impa\fts of stress on phys\b\fal health High levels of stress and anxiety also \:appear to be linked to physical health effects. For example\b chronic distress results in a lowered immune system response\b leaving people more vulnerable to pathogens in the air and water and at greater risk for a number of physical ailments (Alde\:rman et al.\b 2012; Simpson et al.\b\: 2011). Sleep disorders also increase in response to chronic distress (Han\b Kim\b & Shim\b 2\:012). Doppelt (2016) has described potential physiological responses to the stress of climate change\b such as increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol\b which\b if p\:rolonged\b can affect Th\bs se\ft\bon d\bs\fusses how \fl\bmate \fhange has acute and chronic\f\bmpa\fts, directly and indirectly, on \bnd\bv\bdual well-be\bng. A\fute \bmpa\fts result from natural d\bsasters or extreme weather events. Chron\b\f \bmpa\fts result from longer- t erm \fhanges \bn \fl\bmate. Th\bs d\bs\fuss\bon emphas\bzes the \bmpa\fts exper\ben\fed d\bre\ftly by \bnd\bv\bduals; however, \bt also tou\fhes on \bnd\bre\ft \bmpa\fts (w\btness\bng others be\bng \bmpa\fted), wh\b\fh have profound \bmpl\b\fat\bons for mental health.
24 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 25dige\btion, lead to memory lo\b\b, and \buppre\b\b the immune \by\btem. The World Heart Federation (2016) li\bt\b \btre\b\b a\b a \beriou\b ri\bk factor in developing cardiova\bcular di\bea\be. Strains on social relationshipsParticularly in home\m environment\b, di\ba\bter\b precipitate a \bet of \btre\b\bor\b that can \btrain interper\bonal interaction\b (Simp\bon et al., 2011). A review of re\bearch on the impact\b of natural di\ba\bter\b identified problem\b with family and interper\bonal relation\b, a\b well a\b \bocial di\brupt\mion, concern\b about the wider community, and feeling\b of obligation to provide \bupport to other\b (Norri\b, B\myrne, Diaz, & Kania\bty, 2001). Familie\b who\be home\b a\mre damaged by a flood, \btorm, or wildfire may need to be relocated, \bometime\b multiple time\b, before \bettling permanent\mly. Family relation\bhip\b may \buffer. Separation from one another and \mfrom their \by\btem\b of \bocial \bupport may occur. Children may have to attend a new \bchool or mi\b\b \bchool altogether; parent\b may find them\belve\b le\b\b able to be effective caregiver\b. In addition, even tho\be who are able to remain in their own home may \btill lo\be a \ben\be of\m their home a\b a \baf\me and \becure environment (Tap\bell & Tun\btall, 2008). Thi\b ha\b implication\b for interper\bonal connection\b, a\b a hom\me provide\b the context for \bocial relation\bhip\b (Carroll et al., 2009). When the phy\bical home i\b damaged\m, it change\b the dynamic of the \bocial relation\bhip\b, often negatively. Dome\btic abu\be, for example, including child a\mbu\be, often increa\be\b among familie\b who have experienced di\ba\bter\b, \buch a\b Hurrican\me Katrina or the Exxon Valdez oil \bpill (Fritze et al., 2008; Harville, Taylor, Te\bfai, Xiong, & Bueken\b, 2011; Keenan, Mar\bhall, Nocera, & Runyan, 2004; Yun, Lurie, & Hyde, 2010).CHRON\fC \fMPAC\bSAggression and violence The p\bychological impact\b of\m warmer weather on aggre\b\bion and violence have been exten\bively \btudied. Lab-ba\bed experiment\b and field-ba\bed \burv\mey\b have demon\btrated a cau\bal relation\bhip between heat and aggre\b\bion (Ander\bon, 2001; Simi\bter & Cooper, 2005). In other w\mord\b, a\b the temperature goe\b up, \bo doe\b aggre\b\bion. Thi\b influenced re\bearcher Craig Ander\bon (2012) to predict a demon\btrable increa\be in violence a\b\bociated with increa\bed average temperature\b. The relation\bhip between heat and violence may be due to the impact\b of hea\mt on arousal, which re\bult\b in decrea\be\b in attention and self-regulation, a\b well a\b an increa\be in the availability of nega\mtive and ho\btile thought\b (Ander\bon, 2001; Ander\bon, Deu\ber\m, & DeNeve, 1995). In addition, he\mat can have a negative effect on cognitive function, which may reduce the ability to re\bolve a conflict without violence (Pilcher, Nadler, & Bu\bch, 2002). Although thi\b i\mmpact can manife\bt a\b an acute impact (e.g., a\b a re\bult of a heat wave), due to the perva\bive warming trend\b, and the \bhift\ming of climate zone\b, it i\b li\bted under chronic impact\b.Mental health emer\NgenciesThere i\b evidence that increa\be\b in mean temperature are a\b\bociated with increa\bed u\be of emergency mental health \ber\mvice\b. Thi\b i\b true not onl\my in hot countrie\b, like I\brael and Au\btralia, and in part\b \mof the United State\b but al\bo in relatively cooler countrie\b, \buch a\b Fr\mance and Canada (Vida, Durocher, Ouarda, & Go\b\belin, 2012). Higher temperature\b have been linked to increa\bed level\b of \buicide (Lee et al., 2006). It appear\b that the di\btre\b\b of feeling too hot can overwhelm coping ability for people who are already p\bychologically fragile. Climate emergencie\b can al\bo exacerbate preexi\bting \bymptom\b and lead to more \beriou\b mental hea\mlth problem\b. Loss of personally im\Nportant places Perhap\b one of the be\bt way\b to characterize the impact\b of climate change on perception\b i\b the \ben\be of lo\b\b. Lo\b\b of relation\bhip to place i\b a \bub\btantial part of thi\m\b. A\b climate change irrevocably change\b people\m'\b lived land\bcape\b, large number\b are likely to experience a feeling that they are lo\bing a place that i\b important to them'--a phenomenon called solastalgia. Thi\b p\bychological phenomenon i\b characterized by a \ben\be of de\bolation and lo\b\b \bimilar to that experienced by people forced to migrate from their home environment. Sola\btalgia may have a more gradual beginning du\me to the \blow on\bet of change\b i\mn one'\b local environment. Silver and Grek-Martin (2015) de\bcribed the emotio\mnal pain and di\borientation a\b\bociated with change\b in the phy\bical environment that were expre\b\bed by re\bident\b of a town damaged by tornadoe\b, even by re\bident\b who had not experienced per\bonal lo\b\b (Cun\bolo Willox et al., 2012). Lo\b\b of place i\b not a trivial \mexperience. Many people form a \btrong attachment to the place where they live, finding it to provide a \ben\be of \btability, \becurity, and per\bonal identity. People who are \btrongly attached to their local communitie\b report greater happine\b\b, life \bati\bfaction, and optimi\bm (Brehm, Ei\benhauer, & Krannich, 2004); wherea\b work performance, interper\bonal relation\bhip\b, and phy\bical health can all be n\megatively affected by di\bruption to place attachment (Fullilove, 2013). For in\btance, Scannell and Gifford (2016) found that people who vi\buali\mzed a place to which they were attached \bhowed improved \belf-e\bteem and \ben\be of belonging relative to tho\be who vi\buali\mzed a place to which they were not attached.Climate change i\b likely to have a \bignificant effect on human well-being by increa\bing migration. When people lo\be thei\mr home to ri\bing \bea level\b, or when a home\m become\b un\buitable for human habitation due to it\b inability to \bupport food crop\b, they mu\bt find another place to live. Although it i\b difficult to identify climate change a\b the cau\bal factor in a complex \bequence of event\b affecting migration, a common prediction i\b that 200 million people\m will be di\bplaced due to climate change by 2050 (Fritze et al., 2008). M\migration in and of it\belf con\btitute\b a health ri\bk. Immi\mgrant\b are vulnerable to mental health problem\b, probably due to the accumulated \btre\b\bor\b a\b\bociated with the move, a\b well a\b with the condition of being \min exile (Kirmayer et al., 2011). Adger, Barnett, Brown, Mar\bhall, and O'Brien (2013) found being forced to leave one'\b home territory can threatenDisasters precipitate a set of stressors that can strain interpersonal interactions
24 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 25dige\btion, lead to memory lo\b\b, and \buppre\b\b the immune \by\btem. The World Heart Federation (2016) li\bt\b \btre\b\b a\b a \beriou\b ri\bk factor in developing cardiova\bcular di\bea\be. Strains on social relationshipsParticularly in home\m environment\b, di\ba\bter\b precipitate a \bet of \btre\b\bor\b that can \btrain interper\bonal interaction\b (Simp\bon et al., 2011). A review of re\bearch on the impact\b of natural di\ba\bter\b identified problem\b with family and interper\bonal relation\b, a\b well a\b \bocial di\brupt\mion, concern\b about the wider community, and feeling\b of obligation to provide \bupport to other\b (Norri\b, B\myrne, Diaz, & Kania\bty, 2001). Familie\b who\be home\b a\mre damaged by a flood, \btorm, or wildfire may need to be relocated, \bometime\b multiple time\b, before \bettling permanent\mly. Family relation\bhip\b may \buffer. Separation from one another and \mfrom their \by\btem\b of \bocial \bupport may occur. Children may have to attend a new \bchool or mi\b\b \bchool altogether; parent\b may find them\belve\b le\b\b able to be effective caregiver\b. In addition, even tho\be who are able to remain in their own home may \btill lo\be a \ben\be of\m their home a\b a \baf\me and \becure environment (Tap\bell & Tun\btall, 2008). Thi\b ha\b implication\b for interper\bonal connection\b, a\b a hom\me provide\b the context for \bocial relation\bhip\b (Carroll et al., 2009). When the phy\bical home i\b damaged\m, it change\b the dynamic of the \bocial relation\bhip\b, often negatively. Dome\btic abu\be, for example, including child a\mbu\be, often increa\be\b among familie\b who have experienced di\ba\bter\b, \buch a\b Hurrican\me Katrina or the Exxon Valdez oil \bpill (Fritze et al., 2008; Harville, Taylor, Te\bfai, Xiong, & Bueken\b, 2011; Keenan, Mar\bhall, Nocera, & Runyan, 2004; Yun, Lurie, & Hyde, 2010).CHRON\fC \fMPAC\bSAggression and violence The p\bychological impact\b of\m warmer weather on aggre\b\bion and violence have been exten\bively \btudied. Lab-ba\bed experiment\b and field-ba\bed \burv\mey\b have demon\btrated a cau\bal relation\bhip between heat and aggre\b\bion (Ander\bon, 2001; Simi\bter & Cooper, 2005). In other w\mord\b, a\b the temperature goe\b up, \bo doe\b aggre\b\bion. Thi\b influenced re\bearcher Craig Ander\bon (2012) to predict a demon\btrable increa\be in violence a\b\bociated with increa\bed average temperature\b. The relation\bhip between heat and violence may be due to the impact\b of hea\mt on arousal, which re\bult\b in decrea\be\b in attention and self-regulation, a\b well a\b an increa\be in the availability of nega\mtive and ho\btile thought\b (Ander\bon, 2001; Ander\bon, Deu\ber\m, & DeNeve, 1995). In addition, he\mat can have a negative effect on cognitive function, which may reduce the ability to re\bolve a conflict without violence (Pilcher, Nadler, & Bu\bch, 2002). Although thi\b i\mmpact can manife\bt a\b an acute impact (e.g., a\b a re\bult of a heat wave), due to the perva\bive warming trend\b, and the \bhift\ming of climate zone\b, it i\b li\bted under chronic impact\b.Mental health emer\NgenciesThere i\b evidence that increa\be\b in mean temperature are a\b\bociated with increa\bed u\be of emergency mental health \ber\mvice\b. Thi\b i\b true not onl\my in hot countrie\b, like I\brael and Au\btralia, and in part\b \mof the United State\b but al\bo in relatively cooler countrie\b, \buch a\b Fr\mance and Canada (Vida, Durocher, Ouarda, & Go\b\belin, 2012). Higher temperature\b have been linked to increa\bed level\b of \buicide (Lee et al., 2006). It appear\b that the di\btre\b\b of feeling too hot can overwhelm coping ability for people who are already p\bychologically fragile. Climate emergencie\b can al\bo exacerbate preexi\bting \bymptom\b and lead to more \beriou\b mental hea\mlth problem\b. Loss of personally im\Nportant places Perhap\b one of the be\bt way\b to characterize the impact\b of climate change on perception\b i\b the \ben\be of lo\b\b. Lo\b\b of relation\bhip to place i\b a \bub\btantial part of thi\m\b. A\b climate change irrevocably change\b people\m'\b lived land\bcape\b, large number\b are likely to experience a feeling that they are lo\bing a place that i\b important to them'--a phenomenon called solastalgia. Thi\b p\bychological phenomenon i\b characterized by a \ben\be of de\bolation and lo\b\b \bimilar to that experienced by people forced to migrate from their home environment. Sola\btalgia may have a more gradual beginning du\me to the \blow on\bet of change\b i\mn one'\b local environment. Silver and Grek-Martin (2015) de\bcribed the emotio\mnal pain and di\borientation a\b\bociated with change\b in the phy\bical environment that were expre\b\bed by re\bident\b of a town damaged by tornadoe\b, even by re\bident\b who had not experienced per\bonal lo\b\b (Cun\bolo Willox et al., 2012). Lo\b\b of place i\b not a trivial \mexperience. Many people form a \btrong attachment to the place where they live, finding it to provide a \ben\be of \btability, \becurity, and per\bonal identity. People who are \btrongly attached to their local communitie\b report greater happine\b\b, life \bati\bfaction, and optimi\bm (Brehm, Ei\benhauer, & Krannich, 2004); wherea\b work performance, interper\bonal relation\bhip\b, and phy\bical health can all be n\megatively affected by di\bruption to place attachment (Fullilove, 2013). For in\btance, Scannell and Gifford (2016) found that people who vi\buali\mzed a place to which they were attached \bhowed improved \belf-e\bteem and \ben\be of belonging relative to tho\be who vi\buali\mzed a place to which they were not attached.Climate change i\b likely to have a \bignificant effect on human well-being by increa\bing migration. When people lo\be thei\mr home to ri\bing \bea level\b, or when a home\m become\b un\buitable for human habitation due to it\b inability to \bupport food crop\b, they mu\bt find another place to live. Although it i\b difficult to identify climate change a\b the cau\bal factor in a complex \bequence of event\b affecting migration, a common prediction i\b that 200 million people\m will be di\bplaced due to climate change by 2050 (Fritze et al., 2008). M\migration in and of it\belf con\btitute\b a health ri\bk. Immi\mgrant\b are vulnerable to mental health problem\b, probably due to the accumulated \btre\b\bor\b a\b\bociated with the move, a\b well a\b with the condition of being \min exile (Kirmayer et al., 2011). Adger, Barnett, Brown, Mar\bhall, and O'Brien (2013) found being forced to leave one'\b home territory can threatenDisasters precipitate a set of stressors that can strain interpersonal interactions
26 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 27one'\b \ben\be of continuity and belo\mnging. Becau\be of the importance of connection to place in per\bonal ident\mity (e.g., Scannell & Gifford, 2016), \buch di\bplacement can leave people literally alienated, with a dimini\bh\med \ben\be of \belf and\m increa\bed vulnerability to \btre\b\b. Although empirica\ml re\bearch on the p\bychological impact\b of\m migration i\b rare, T\bchakert, Tutu, and Alcaro (2013) \btudied the emotiona\ml experience among re\bident\b of Ghana w\mho were forced to move from the northern region of the country to the capital, Accra, becau\be local condition\b no longer\m \bupported their farming practice\b. Al\bo, re\bpondent\b expre\b\bed no\btalgia and \badne\b\b for the home left be\mhind and helple\b\bne\b\b due to change\b in their environment\b, \buch a\b defore\btation, that were de-\bcribed a\b \bad and \bc\mary.Loss of autonomy and control Climate change will inten\bify certain daily life inconvenience\b, which can have p\bychological impact\b on\m individual\b' \ben\be \mof autonomy and control. The de\bire to be able to accompli\bh ba\bic ta\bk\b independe\mntly i\b a core p\bychological need, central to human well-being (Deci & R\myan, 2011), and ba\bic \bervice\b may be threatened due to dangerou\b condition\b. Thi\b may make mobility a challe\mnge'--particularly for the elderly and tho\be w\mith di\babilitie\b. E\mxpo\bure to unwanted change in one'\b environment can al\bo reduce one'\b \ben\be of control over one'\b life (Fre\bque-Baxter & Armitage, 2012; Silver & Grek-Martin, 2015), which, in turn\m, ha\b negative impact\b on mental hea\mlth (Sch¶nfeld, Brailov\bkaia, Bieda, Zhang, & Margraf, 2016). Loss of personal and \Hoccupational identity A more fundamental lo\b\b i\b the lo\b\b of per\bonal identity tied to mundane a\bpect\b of da\mily life. Lo\bing trea\bured object\b when a home i\b damaged or\m de\btroyed i\b one way in which climate change can \bignifican\mtly impair an indiv\midual'\b \ben\be of \belf and identity. Thi\b i\b becau\be object\m\b help provide a continuing \ben\be of who we are, particularly obje\mct\b that repre\bent important moment\b in \mlife (e.g., journal\b), relation\bhip\b (e.g., gift\b or photograph\b), or per\bonal/family hi\btory (e.g., family heirloom\b; Dittmar, 2011). Interviewee\b in a \btudy conducted by Carroll et al. (2009) \mindicated that flood victim\b were particularly troubled by the lo\b\b of per\bonal po\b\be\b\bion\b, \buch a\b thing\b they had made them\belve\b or \bpecial thing\b \mthey had \bpent time and e\mffort to procure or maintain. Alth\mough thi\b may \beem acute, the lo\b\be\b are permanent; the imp\mact\b are per\bi\btent and therefore become chronic.A lo\b\b of identity a\b\bociated with climate change i\b al\bo \bometi\mme\b attributable to it\b effect on place-bound occupation\b. Thi\b i\b likely due to the clo\be relation\bhip between identity and place-ba\bed occupation\b, like farming and fi\bhing (\mDevine-Wright, 2013). Becau\be \bevere \btorm\b and high temperature\b di\brupt economic activity (H\bi\mang, 2010), climate change may have an effect on occupational identity in general. Lo\b\b of occupation ha\b been a\b\bociated with increa\bed ri\bk of depre\b\bion following natural di\ba\bter\b (Wa\bini et al., 2014).Helplessness\f depression\f fear\f fatalism\f resignation\f and ecoanxiety Gradual, long-term change\b in climate can al\bo \burface a number of different emotion\b, including \mfear, anger, feeling\b of powerle\b\bne\b\b, or exhau\btion (Mo\ber, 2007). A review by Coyle and Van Su\bteren (2011) de\bcribed ca\be\b in which fear of extreme weather approache\b the level of phobia and the ''unrelenting day-by-day de\bpair'' (p. viii) that can be experienced during a drought (p. viii). Watching the \blow and \beemingly irrevocable impact\b of cli\mmate change unfold, and worrying about the \m future for one\belf, children, and later generation\b, may be an additional\m \bource of \btre\b\b (Searle & Gow, 2010). Albrecht (2011) and other\b have termed thi\b anxiety ecoanxiety. Qualitative re\bearch provide\b evidence that \bome people are deeply affected by feeling\b of lo\b\b, helple\b\bne\b\b, and fru\btration due to their inability \mto feel like they are making a difference in \btopping climate change (Mo\ber, 2013). Some writer\b \btre\b\b the po\b\bible detrimental i\mmpact of guilt, a\b people contemplate the impact of their own behavior on future generation\b. Although the impact\b\m of climate change are not alway\b vi\bible, they perpetuate a delayed de\btruction that, like the damage to climate, are incremental and can be \mju\bt a\b damaging a\b acute climate impact\b (Nixon, 2011). Following di\ba\bter\b, damage to \bocial or community infra\btructural component\b, \buch a\b food \by\btem\b and medical \bervi\mce\b, re\bult\b in many acute con\bequence\b for p\bychological well-being.In contra\bt, gradual impact\b of clim\mate change, like change\b in weather pattern\b and ri\bing \bea level\b, will cau\be \bome \mof the mo\bt re\bounding chronic p\bychological con\bequence\b. Acute and chronic mental health \meffect\b include the following\f' Trauma and \bhock' Po\bt-traumatic \btre\b\b di\border' Compounded \btre\b\b' Strain\b on \bocial relation\bhip\b' Depre\b\bion' Anxiety' Suicide' Sub\btance abu\be' Aggre\b\bion and violence' Lo\b\b of per\bonally impor\mtant place\b' Lo\b\b of autonomy and control ' Lo\b\b of per\bonal and oc\mcupational identity' Feeling\b of helple\b\bne\b\b, fear, fatali\bm, \bola\btalgia, and ecoanxietyK\bY TAK\bAWAYS: Impacts on Individu\Hals
26 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 27one'\b \ben\be of continuity and belo\mnging. Becau\be of the importance of connection to place in per\bonal ident\mity (e.g., Scannell & Gifford, 2016), \buch di\bplacement can leave people literally alienated, with a dimini\bh\med \ben\be of \belf and\m increa\bed vulnerability to \btre\b\b. Although empirica\ml re\bearch on the p\bychological impact\b of\m migration i\b rare, T\bchakert, Tutu, and Alcaro (2013) \btudied the emotiona\ml experience among re\bident\b of Ghana w\mho were forced to move from the northern region of the country to the capital, Accra, becau\be local condition\b no longer\m \bupported their farming practice\b. Al\bo, re\bpondent\b expre\b\bed no\btalgia and \badne\b\b for the home left be\mhind and helple\b\bne\b\b due to change\b in their environment\b, \buch a\b defore\btation, that were de-\bcribed a\b \bad and \bc\mary.Loss of autonomy and control Climate change will inten\bify certain daily life inconvenience\b, which can have p\bychological impact\b on\m individual\b' \ben\be \mof autonomy and control. The de\bire to be able to accompli\bh ba\bic ta\bk\b independe\mntly i\b a core p\bychological need, central to human well-being (Deci & R\myan, 2011), and ba\bic \bervice\b may be threatened due to dangerou\b condition\b. Thi\b may make mobility a challe\mnge'--particularly for the elderly and tho\be w\mith di\babilitie\b. E\mxpo\bure to unwanted change in one'\b environment can al\bo reduce one'\b \ben\be of control over one'\b life (Fre\bque-Baxter & Armitage, 2012; Silver & Grek-Martin, 2015), which, in turn\m, ha\b negative impact\b on mental hea\mlth (Sch¶nfeld, Brailov\bkaia, Bieda, Zhang, & Margraf, 2016). Loss of personal and \Hoccupational identity A more fundamental lo\b\b i\b the lo\b\b of per\bonal identity tied to mundane a\bpect\b of da\mily life. Lo\bing trea\bured object\b when a home i\b damaged or\m de\btroyed i\b one way in which climate change can \bignifican\mtly impair an indiv\midual'\b \ben\be of \belf and identity. Thi\b i\b becau\be object\m\b help provide a continuing \ben\be of who we are, particularly obje\mct\b that repre\bent important moment\b in \mlife (e.g., journal\b), relation\bhip\b (e.g., gift\b or photograph\b), or per\bonal/family hi\btory (e.g., family heirloom\b; Dittmar, 2011). Interviewee\b in a \btudy conducted by Carroll et al. (2009) \mindicated that flood victim\b were particularly troubled by the lo\b\b of per\bonal po\b\be\b\bion\b, \buch a\b thing\b they had made them\belve\b or \bpecial thing\b \mthey had \bpent time and e\mffort to procure or maintain. Alth\mough thi\b may \beem acute, the lo\b\be\b are permanent; the imp\mact\b are per\bi\btent and therefore become chronic.A lo\b\b of identity a\b\bociated with climate change i\b al\bo \bometi\mme\b attributable to it\b effect on place-bound occupation\b. Thi\b i\b likely due to the clo\be relation\bhip between identity and place-ba\bed occupation\b, like farming and fi\bhing (\mDevine-Wright, 2013). Becau\be \bevere \btorm\b and high temperature\b di\brupt economic activity (H\bi\mang, 2010), climate change may have an effect on occupational identity in general. Lo\b\b of occupation ha\b been a\b\bociated with increa\bed ri\bk of depre\b\bion following natural di\ba\bter\b (Wa\bini et al., 2014).Helplessness\f depression\f fear\f fatalism\f resignation\f and ecoanxiety Gradual, long-term change\b in climate can al\bo \burface a number of different emotion\b, including \mfear, anger, feeling\b of powerle\b\bne\b\b, or exhau\btion (Mo\ber, 2007). A review by Coyle and Van Su\bteren (2011) de\bcribed ca\be\b in which fear of extreme weather approache\b the level of phobia and the ''unrelenting day-by-day de\bpair'' (p. viii) that can be experienced during a drought (p. viii). Watching the \blow and \beemingly irrevocable impact\b of cli\mmate change unfold, and worrying about the \m future for one\belf, children, and later generation\b, may be an additional\m \bource of \btre\b\b (Searle & Gow, 2010). Albrecht (2011) and other\b have termed thi\b anxiety ecoanxiety. Qualitative re\bearch provide\b evidence that \bome people are deeply affected by feeling\b of lo\b\b, helple\b\bne\b\b, and fru\btration due to their inability \mto feel like they are making a difference in \btopping climate change (Mo\ber, 2013). Some writer\b \btre\b\b the po\b\bible detrimental i\mmpact of guilt, a\b people contemplate the impact of their own behavior on future generation\b. Although the impact\b\m of climate change are not alway\b vi\bible, they perpetuate a delayed de\btruction that, like the damage to climate, are incremental and can be \mju\bt a\b damaging a\b acute climate impact\b (Nixon, 2011). Following di\ba\bter\b, damage to \bocial or community infra\btructural component\b, \buch a\b food \by\btem\b and medical \bervi\mce\b, re\bult\b in many acute con\bequence\b for p\bychological well-being.In contra\bt, gradual impact\b of clim\mate change, like change\b in weather pattern\b and ri\bing \bea level\b, will cau\be \bome \mof the mo\bt re\bounding chronic p\bychological con\bequence\b. Acute and chronic mental health \meffect\b include the following\f' Trauma and \bhock' Po\bt-traumatic \btre\b\b di\border' Compounded \btre\b\b' Strain\b on \bocial relation\bhip\b' Depre\b\bion' Anxiety' Suicide' Sub\btance abu\be' Aggre\b\bion and violence' Lo\b\b of per\bonally impor\mtant place\b' Lo\b\b of autonomy and control ' Lo\b\b of per\bonal and oc\mcupational identity' Feeling\b of helple\b\bne\b\b, fear, fatali\bm, \bola\btalgia, and ecoanxietyK\bY TAK\bAWAYS: Impacts on Individu\Hals
28 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 29A CLOSER LOOKA Clinical Psycholo\fist's Ta\be on Climate Chan\fe, Thoma\b Doherty, P\byDRe\bearch on the mental he\malth impact\b of di\ba\bter\b typically di\btingui\bhe\b between event\b that are con\bidered natural or technological (Doher\mty & Clayton, 2011). Becau\be natural di\ba\bter\b may \beem part of the natural order, and are con\bidered to be beyond human control, they are relatively ea\bier to cope with in p\bychological term\b. The\be calamitie\b tend to bring people together to help tho\be impacted. Technological di\ba\bter\b, meanwhile, are typically cau\bed b y human accident or negligence and often involve long-term, my\bteriou\b ri\bk\b. The\be di\ba\bter\b tend to divide communitie\b over how to compen\bate tho\be affected and hold accountable tho\be who were re\bpon\bible. Poorer area\b tend to be at higher ri\bk for the\be incident\b, and community divi\bion\b o\mften come down to privilege, cla\b\b, and race. Climate change combine\b natural and technological element\m\b. Human technologie\b are driving va\bt change\b in global\m climate and weather, increa\bing the ri\bk\b for a range of natural di\ba\bter\b. Climate change i\b an emergency that affect\b and divide\b the global community.I have coun\beled many people experiencing varying cri\be\b of mea\mning and re\bpon\bibility about climate change\f a \bcienti\bt who ha\b \bailed in the ''Pacific garbage patch,'' di\btre\b\bed by neighbor\b' con\bumer habit\b; an environmental engineer w\mho ha\b ''run the number\b'' and do\me\bn't \bee a way to effectively addre\b\b carbon emi\b\bion\b; a ranger in Glacier Na\mtional Park, trying to remain po\bitive while educating vi\bitor\b about the\be receding landmark\b; an\md a per\bon \bhocked by a new\b \btory about the dire con\bequence\b of ri\bing ocean temperature\b. An unexpected benefit for me of confronting the\be complex, troubling i\b\bue\b i\b that I regularly interact with people who take climate change a\b \beriou\bly a\b I do, \buch a\b public heal\mth official\b from around the United State\b u\bing the Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention\b' Building R\me\bilience Again\bt Climate Effect\b (BRACE) framework. Such interaction\b allow me to maintain my creativity and motivation, avoid i\bolation, and find a \ben\be of \m\bhar ed purpo\be with other\b. A\b a p\bychologi\bt, I know that engaging with clima\mte change lead\b to con\bciou\bne\b\b-rai\bing about one'\b environmental identity a\mnd ethic\b. Any of the interlinked problem\b within climate change'--poverty, inequality, lo\b\b of trea\bured place\b, \bpecie\b extinction, threat\b t o our well-being or livelihood'--can hook u\b\m emotionally and int\mellectually. The\be i\b\bue\b lead to feeling\b of curio\bity\m and in\bight, a\b well a\b fatigue and de\bpair. Clinician\b can help individual\b to thrive in the face of climate change by identifying which\m \bpecific i\b\bue\b activate their unique vulnerabilitie\b or per\bona\ml worrie\b and developing a \bpecific pla\mn or activity to giv e them a \ben\be of control about how they re\bpond.Similarly , the BRACE model can help communitie\b \beeking t\mo become more re\bilient by anticipating local health o\mr economic impact\b, ident\mifying vulnerable group\b that need protection, and proactively implementing a community-wide adaptation plan that can be reevaluated a\b more become\b known about changing l\mocal c ondition\b. Coping with climate change require\b in\bight and per\be\mverance. Cooperation among profe\b\bional\b can help people adapt and thr\mive.IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY AND SOCIE\mTY In addition to the effects on individual health \band well- bein\f, climate chan\fe affects how individuals interact in communities and r elate to each other\b For example, natural disasters can have a ne\fative impact on community bonds\b A chan\fin\f climate will likely affect aspects of community well-bein\f, includin\b\f social cohesion, a\f\fression, and social relationships\bSOCIAL COHESION AND COMMUNITY CONTINUITYCompounded \btre\b\b from climate change ha\b been ob\berved among variou\b communitie\b. For example, Cun\bolo Willox et al. (2013) examined the impact\b of\m climate change on a \bmall Inuit community.b Member\b of the community, who all reported a \btrong attachment to the land, \baid th\mey had noticed change\b i n the local climate and that the\be change\b contributed to negative effect\b on them\belve\b. A\b a re\bult of altered interaction\b with the en\mvironment, community member\b reported food in\becurity, \badne\b\b, anger, increa\bed family \btre\b\b, and a belief tha\mt their \ben\be of \bel\mf-worth and community cohe\bion had decrea\bed. Elder\b expre\b\bed \bpecific c oncern for the pre\bervation of Inuit lang\muage and culture a\b they directly influence mental well-being and \bocial cohe\bion (O\btapchuk, Harper\b, Cu\mn\bolo Willox, Edge, & Rigolet Inuit Community Government, 2015). Social cohe\bion and social capital can protect communitie\b again\bt mental and phy\bical health impact\b \mduring a climate- related di\ba\bter. Regardle\b\b of \bocioeconomic or cultural background\b, communitie\b with high level\b of \bocial capital a nd community leader\bhip experience the quicke\bt recoverie\b after a di\ba\bter and the highe\bt \bati\bfaction with community rebuilding (Aldrich \m& Meyer, 2014). W hen local condition\b become practically uninhabit\mable, ecomigration, leading to environmental refugees, can re\bult. Such migration\b erode \bocial network\b, a\b communitie\b di\bper\be in different direction\b. Becau\be \boci\mal network\b provide important practical and emotiona\ml re\bource\b that are a\b\bociated with health and\m well-being, the lo\b\b of \buch network\b place\b people'\b \ben\be of continuity and belo\mnging a t ri\bk. The current Syrian conflict, which ha\b re\bulted in ma\b\b migration, may partially \btem from climate change''driven precipitation change\b, ri\bing\m mean \bea level\b, and a decrea\be in \boil moi\bture. The\be climate impact\b were exacerbated during the drought from 2007 to 2010 due to human di\bruption\b wi\mthin natural \by\btem\b, leading to crop failure and large-\bcale conflict, hunger, and de\bperation. Although \buch civil \munre\bt cannot be attributed to a \bingle cau\be, recent evidence \bugge\bt\b climate-cau\bed drought may have played a \bignificant role in the unraveling of an already vulnerable political and ecologica l climate (Kelley, Mohtadi, Cane, Seager, & Ku\bhnir, 2015).AGGRESSION Heightened anxiety and u\mncertainty about one\m'\b own future can reduce the ability to focu\b on the need\b of\m other\b'--negatively impacting \bocial \mrelation\bhip\b with frien\md\b and
28 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 29A CLOSER LOOKA Clinical Psycholo\fist's Ta\be on Climate Chan\fe, Thoma\b Doherty, P\byDRe\bearch on the mental he\malth impact\b of di\ba\bter\b typically di\btingui\bhe\b between event\b that are con\bidered natural or technological (Doher\mty & Clayton, 2011). Becau\be natural di\ba\bter\b may \beem part of the natural order, and are con\bidered to be beyond human control, they are relatively ea\bier to cope with in p\bychological term\b. The\be calamitie\b tend to bring people together to help tho\be impacted. Technological di\ba\bter\b, meanwhile, are typically cau\bed b y human accident or negligence and often involve long-term, my\bteriou\b ri\bk\b. The\be di\ba\bter\b tend to divide communitie\b over how to compen\bate tho\be affected and hold accountable tho\be who were re\bpon\bible. Poorer area\b tend to be at higher ri\bk for the\be incident\b, and community divi\bion\b o\mften come down to privilege, cla\b\b, and race. Climate change combine\b natural and technological element\m\b. Human technologie\b are driving va\bt change\b in global\m climate and weather, increa\bing the ri\bk\b for a range of natural di\ba\bter\b. Climate change i\b an emergency that affect\b and divide\b the global community.I have coun\beled many people experiencing varying cri\be\b of mea\mning and re\bpon\bibility about climate change\f a \bcienti\bt who ha\b \bailed in the ''Pacific garbage patch,'' di\btre\b\bed by neighbor\b' con\bumer habit\b; an environmental engineer w\mho ha\b ''run the number\b'' and do\me\bn't \bee a way to effectively addre\b\b carbon emi\b\bion\b; a ranger in Glacier Na\mtional Park, trying to remain po\bitive while educating vi\bitor\b about the\be receding landmark\b; an\md a per\bon \bhocked by a new\b \btory about the dire con\bequence\b of ri\bing ocean temperature\b. An unexpected benefit for me of confronting the\be complex, troubling i\b\bue\b i\b that I regularly interact with people who take climate change a\b \beriou\bly a\b I do, \buch a\b public heal\mth official\b from around the United State\b u\bing the Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention\b' Building R\me\bilience Again\bt Climate Effect\b (BRACE) framework. Such interaction\b allow me to maintain my creativity and motivation, avoid i\bolation, and find a \ben\be of \m\bhar ed purpo\be with other\b. A\b a p\bychologi\bt, I know that engaging with clima\mte change lead\b to con\bciou\bne\b\b-rai\bing about one'\b environmental identity a\mnd ethic\b. Any of the interlinked problem\b within climate change'--poverty, inequality, lo\b\b of trea\bured place\b, \bpecie\b extinction, threat\b t o our well-being or livelihood'--can hook u\b\m emotionally and int\mellectually. The\be i\b\bue\b lead to feeling\b of curio\bity\m and in\bight, a\b well a\b fatigue and de\bpair. Clinician\b can help individual\b to thrive in the face of climate change by identifying which\m \bpecific i\b\bue\b activate their unique vulnerabilitie\b or per\bona\ml worrie\b and developing a \bpecific pla\mn or activity to giv e them a \ben\be of control about how they re\bpond.Similarly , the BRACE model can help communitie\b \beeking t\mo become more re\bilient by anticipating local health o\mr economic impact\b, ident\mifying vulnerable group\b that need protection, and proactively implementing a community-wide adaptation plan that can be reevaluated a\b more become\b known about changing l\mocal c ondition\b. Coping with climate change require\b in\bight and per\be\mverance. Cooperation among profe\b\bional\b can help people adapt and thr\mive.IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY AND SOCIE\mTY In addition to the effects on individual health \band well- bein\f, climate chan\fe affects how individuals interact in communities and r elate to each other\b For example, natural disasters can have a ne\fative impact on community bonds\b A chan\fin\f climate will likely affect aspects of community well-bein\f, includin\b\f social cohesion, a\f\fression, and social relationships\bSOCIAL COHESION AND COMMUNITY CONTINUITYCompounded \btre\b\b from climate change ha\b been ob\berved among variou\b communitie\b. For example, Cun\bolo Willox et al. (2013) examined the impact\b of\m climate change on a \bmall Inuit community.b Member\b of the community, who all reported a \btrong attachment to the land, \baid th\mey had noticed change\b i n the local climate and that the\be change\b contributed to negative effect\b on them\belve\b. A\b a re\bult of altered interaction\b with the en\mvironment, community member\b reported food in\becurity, \badne\b\b, anger, increa\bed family \btre\b\b, and a belief tha\mt their \ben\be of \bel\mf-worth and community cohe\bion had decrea\bed. Elder\b expre\b\bed \bpecific c oncern for the pre\bervation of Inuit lang\muage and culture a\b they directly influence mental well-being and \bocial cohe\bion (O\btapchuk, Harper\b, Cu\mn\bolo Willox, Edge, & Rigolet Inuit Community Government, 2015). Social cohe\bion and social capital can protect communitie\b again\bt mental and phy\bical health impact\b \mduring a climate- related di\ba\bter. Regardle\b\b of \bocioeconomic or cultural background\b, communitie\b with high level\b of \bocial capital a nd community leader\bhip experience the quicke\bt recoverie\b after a di\ba\bter and the highe\bt \bati\bfaction with community rebuilding (Aldrich \m& Meyer, 2014). W hen local condition\b become practically uninhabit\mable, ecomigration, leading to environmental refugees, can re\bult. Such migration\b erode \bocial network\b, a\b communitie\b di\bper\be in different direction\b. Becau\be \boci\mal network\b provide important practical and emotiona\ml re\bource\b that are a\b\bociated with health and\m well-being, the lo\b\b of \buch network\b place\b people'\b \ben\be of continuity and belo\mnging a t ri\bk. The current Syrian conflict, which ha\b re\bulted in ma\b\b migration, may partially \btem from climate change''driven precipitation change\b, ri\bing\m mean \bea level\b, and a decrea\be in \boil moi\bture. The\be climate impact\b were exacerbated during the drought from 2007 to 2010 due to human di\bruption\b wi\mthin natural \by\btem\b, leading to crop failure and large-\bcale conflict, hunger, and de\bperation. Although \buch civil \munre\bt cannot be attributed to a \bingle cau\be, recent evidence \bugge\bt\b climate-cau\bed drought may have played a \bignificant role in the unraveling of an already vulnerable political and ecologica l climate (Kelley, Mohtadi, Cane, Seager, & Ku\bhnir, 2015).AGGRESSION Heightened anxiety and u\mncertainty about one\m'\b own future can reduce the ability to focu\b on the need\b of\m other\b'--negatively impacting \bocial \mrelation\bhip\b with frien\md\b and
30 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 31b. A \bmall native Inuit community of 259 member\b i\b located in Rigolet, Nunat\biavut, within the Ca\mnadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. co-worker\b (Palinka\b, Down\b, Petter\bon, & Ru\b\bell, 1993), a\b well a\b attitude\b toward other people in gen\meral. Interpersonal violenc\Ye High temperature\b a\b\bociated with climate change may increa\be people'\b aggre\b\bive tendencie\b. Aggre\b\bion can al\bo be exacerbated by decrea\bed acce\b\b to \btre\b\b- reducing green \bpace\b and \bupportive \bocial network\b. Ri\bing level\b of fru\btration in \bociety con\bequently lead to interper\bonal aggre\b\bion (\buch a\b dome\btic violence, a\b\bault, and rape). Ran\bon (2012) calculated that between 2010 and 2099, climate change w ould cau\be an e\btimated additional 30,000 murder\b, 200,000 ca\be\b of rape, and 3.2 million bur\mglarie\b due to increa\bed average temperature\b.Intergroup aggression Climate change may increa\be conflict through \beveral mechani\bm\b. Violence may increa\be when competition for \bcarce natural re\bource\b increa\be\b or when ecomigration bring\b formerly \beparate communitie\b into contact and they compete for re\bource\b, like job\b and land. In\m a recent meta- analy\bi\b, H\biang, Burke, and Miguel (2013) found evidence that climate change can contribute to the frequency of intergroup violence (i.e., political conflict and war). For example, in Hou\bton, Texa\b, crime rate\b increa\bed \bignificantly following Hurricane Katrina, although Katrina migrant\b have not been definitively \bourced a\b the cau\be (And\mer\bon & Deli\bi, 2011). Meanwhile, re\btraint\b on crime weaken when exi\bting \bocial in\btitution\b are di\brupted, thu\b increa\bing the probability of criminal behavior. For example, when government re\bource\b are devoted to damaged infra\btructure from natural di\ba\bter\b, tho\be re\bource\b may be diverted a way from criminal ju\btice \by\btem\b, mental health agencie\b, an\md educational in\btitution\b, all of which tend to help mitigate crime (Agnew, 2012). Agnew (2012) further pointed out that the effect\b of climate change are likely to promote crime by ''increa\bing \btrain, reducing \bocial control, [and] weakening \bocial \bupport.'' Intergroup attitude\b can al\bo be\m negativelyimpacted by climate change. In a recent \btudy, \burv ey re\bpondent\b di\bplayed more negative attitude\b toward policie\b to \bupport minoritie\b and immigrant\b when temperature\b were high (Cohen & Krueger, 2016). An experimental \btudy \bhowed that people who were thinking about climate change became more h o\btile to individual\b out\bi\mde their \bocial group (that i\b, people they con\bider to be unlike them) and more likely to \bupport the \btatu\b quo and it\b accompanying \bocial inequitie\b (Frit\bche\m, Cohr\b, Ke\b\bler, & Bauer, 2012). Ho\btility toward individual\b out\bi\mde one'\b \bocial group can be a way of affirming one'\b own group identity in the face of a perceived threat. In a viciou\b cycle, lower level\b of \bocial cohe\bion and connectedne\b\b, greater \bocial inequalit\mie\b, lack of tru\bt between community member\b and \mfor in\btitution\b, and othe\mr factor\b that inhibit c ommunity member\b from working together are a\b\bociated with intergroup aggre\b\bion (Norri\b, Steven\b, Pfefferbaum, Wyche, & Pfefferbaum, 2008).KEY \fAKEAWAYS\b Impacts on Community and Societ\Yy' Decrea\bed \ben\be of cohe\bion' Di\brupted \ben\be of continuity and belonging' Increa\bed interper\bonal aggre\b\bion, \buch a\b dome\btic abu\be and crime' Increa\bed intergroup aggre\b\bion, \buch a\b political conflict and warTHE PROBLEM OF INE\mQUITY\fhe impacts of clim\Yate change are not distributed equally. Some people will experience natural disasters firsthand, some will be affected more gradually over time, and some will experience only indirect impacts. \fhis section describes some of the popula\Ytions that are more vulnerable to the mental health impa\Ycts of climate change, including people who live in risk-prone areas, indigenous communities, low-income groups, certain communities of color, women, children, older adults, \Yand people with disabi\Ylities or chronic illnesses. A thorough review of demographic differences in vulnerability to climate change can be found in Dodgen et al. (\Y2016).RISK-PRONE AREASCommunities in whic\ah people's livelihoods a\fe di\fectly tied to the natu\fal envi\fonment, th\fough ag\ficultu\fe, \bshing, o\f tou\fism, a\fe at g\feate\f \fisk. Some part\b of the world are geologically more vulnerable to \btorm\b, ri\bing \bea\b, wildfire\b, or drought. There are detailed report\b of farmer\b in Au\btralia who have been negatively affected by prolonged period\b of \mdrought cau\bed by changing weather pattern\b (Hanigan et al\m., 2012). Additionally, communitie\b in low-lying area\b, \buch a\b coa\btal Loui\biana and i\bland\m\b in the Che\bapeake Bay, are lo\bing their land\m to ero\bion and ri\bing \bea\b (Davenport & Robert\bon, 2016). Thi\b pa\bt year, re\bident\b of I\ble de \mJean Charle\b, Loui\biana, became the\m fir\bt climate refugee\b in the Unit\med State\b; a $48 million b\mudget wa\b allocated to relocate re\bident\b to a le\b\b flood-prone area (Margolin, 2016). Inhabitant\b of \mindigenou\b communitie\b often depend on natural re\bource\b for their livelihood\b and are located in geographically vulnerable region\b (e.g., Cun\bolo Willox et al., 2013, 2014; Maldonado, Colombi, & Pandya, 2013).Communities that lack \fesou\fces, both physical and \bnancial, can expe\fience climate impacts mo\fe seve\fely. Thi\b can be demon\btrated by higher incident\b \mof extreme weather within impoveri\bhed communitie\b. In di\ba\bter\b, \bocioeconomically di\badvantaged communitie\b often \buffer the mo\bt. For example, following Hurricane Sand\my, lower- income re\bident\b reported weak or ab\bent \bocial\m \bupport network\b and had the gr\meate\bt percentage\b of \bevere mental di\btre\b\b and diagno\bi\b of d\mepre\b\bion or anxiety aft\mer the hurricane. Furthermore, 35% of children living in a hou\m\behold that earn\b le\b\b than $20,000 annually experienced feeling\b of \badne\b\b, depre\b\bion, fear, or nervou\bne\b\b following the hurricane (Abram\bon et al., 2015). INDIGENOUS COMMUNI\fIESIndigenous communities a\fe at \fisk of losing th\aei\f cultu\fal he\fitage, as well as thei\f homes.\a Imperiled indigenou\m\b communitie\b are found around the world, including the\m United State\b. In Ala\bka, for example, \bome native Ala\bkan\b have \been their villag\me\b literally vani\bh due to the thawing permafro\bt, and other\b are facing a \bimilar outcome in the near future (Chapin et al., 2014). For indigenou\b communitie\b, climate change may threaten not only their \mphy\bical home but al\bo their life\btyle, including acce\b\b to traditional food and culturally meaningful practice\b (Cochran et al., 2013;
30 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 31b. A \bmall native Inuit community of 259 member\b i\b located in Rigolet, Nunat\biavut, within the Ca\mnadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. co-worker\b (Palinka\b, Down\b, Petter\bon, & Ru\b\bell, 1993), a\b well a\b attitude\b toward other people in gen\meral. Interpersonal violenc\Ye High temperature\b a\b\bociated with climate change may increa\be people'\b aggre\b\bive tendencie\b. Aggre\b\bion can al\bo be exacerbated by decrea\bed acce\b\b to \btre\b\b- reducing green \bpace\b and \bupportive \bocial network\b. Ri\bing level\b of fru\btration in \bociety con\bequently lead to interper\bonal aggre\b\bion (\buch a\b dome\btic violence, a\b\bault, and rape). Ran\bon (2012) calculated that between 2010 and 2099, climate change w ould cau\be an e\btimated additional 30,000 murder\b, 200,000 ca\be\b of rape, and 3.2 million bur\mglarie\b due to increa\bed average temperature\b.Intergroup aggression Climate change may increa\be conflict through \beveral mechani\bm\b. Violence may increa\be when competition for \bcarce natural re\bource\b increa\be\b or when ecomigration bring\b formerly \beparate communitie\b into contact and they compete for re\bource\b, like job\b and land. In\m a recent meta- analy\bi\b, H\biang, Burke, and Miguel (2013) found evidence that climate change can contribute to the frequency of intergroup violence (i.e., political conflict and war). For example, in Hou\bton, Texa\b, crime rate\b increa\bed \bignificantly following Hurricane Katrina, although Katrina migrant\b have not been definitively \bourced a\b the cau\be (And\mer\bon & Deli\bi, 2011). Meanwhile, re\btraint\b on crime weaken when exi\bting \bocial in\btitution\b are di\brupted, thu\b increa\bing the probability of criminal behavior. For example, when government re\bource\b are devoted to damaged infra\btructure from natural di\ba\bter\b, tho\be re\bource\b may be diverted a way from criminal ju\btice \by\btem\b, mental health agencie\b, an\md educational in\btitution\b, all of which tend to help mitigate crime (Agnew, 2012). Agnew (2012) further pointed out that the effect\b of climate change are likely to promote crime by ''increa\bing \btrain, reducing \bocial control, [and] weakening \bocial \bupport.'' Intergroup attitude\b can al\bo be\m negativelyimpacted by climate change. In a recent \btudy, \burv ey re\bpondent\b di\bplayed more negative attitude\b toward policie\b to \bupport minoritie\b and immigrant\b when temperature\b were high (Cohen & Krueger, 2016). An experimental \btudy \bhowed that people who were thinking about climate change became more h o\btile to individual\b out\bi\mde their \bocial group (that i\b, people they con\bider to be unlike them) and more likely to \bupport the \btatu\b quo and it\b accompanying \bocial inequitie\b (Frit\bche\m, Cohr\b, Ke\b\bler, & Bauer, 2012). Ho\btility toward individual\b out\bi\mde one'\b \bocial group can be a way of affirming one'\b own group identity in the face of a perceived threat. In a viciou\b cycle, lower level\b of \bocial cohe\bion and connectedne\b\b, greater \bocial inequalit\mie\b, lack of tru\bt between community member\b and \mfor in\btitution\b, and othe\mr factor\b that inhibit c ommunity member\b from working together are a\b\bociated with intergroup aggre\b\bion (Norri\b, Steven\b, Pfefferbaum, Wyche, & Pfefferbaum, 2008).KEY \fAKEAWAYS\b Impacts on Community and Societ\Yy' Decrea\bed \ben\be of cohe\bion' Di\brupted \ben\be of continuity and belonging' Increa\bed interper\bonal aggre\b\bion, \buch a\b dome\btic abu\be and crime' Increa\bed intergroup aggre\b\bion, \buch a\b political conflict and warTHE PROBLEM OF INE\mQUITY\fhe impacts of clim\Yate change are not distributed equally. Some people will experience natural disasters firsthand, some will be affected more gradually over time, and some will experience only indirect impacts. \fhis section describes some of the popula\Ytions that are more vulnerable to the mental health impa\Ycts of climate change, including people who live in risk-prone areas, indigenous communities, low-income groups, certain communities of color, women, children, older adults, \Yand people with disabi\Ylities or chronic illnesses. A thorough review of demographic differences in vulnerability to climate change can be found in Dodgen et al. (\Y2016).RISK-PRONE AREASCommunities in whic\ah people's livelihoods a\fe di\fectly tied to the natu\fal envi\fonment, th\fough ag\ficultu\fe, \bshing, o\f tou\fism, a\fe at g\feate\f \fisk. Some part\b of the world are geologically more vulnerable to \btorm\b, ri\bing \bea\b, wildfire\b, or drought. There are detailed report\b of farmer\b in Au\btralia who have been negatively affected by prolonged period\b of \mdrought cau\bed by changing weather pattern\b (Hanigan et al\m., 2012). Additionally, communitie\b in low-lying area\b, \buch a\b coa\btal Loui\biana and i\bland\m\b in the Che\bapeake Bay, are lo\bing their land\m to ero\bion and ri\bing \bea\b (Davenport & Robert\bon, 2016). Thi\b pa\bt year, re\bident\b of I\ble de \mJean Charle\b, Loui\biana, became the\m fir\bt climate refugee\b in the Unit\med State\b; a $48 million b\mudget wa\b allocated to relocate re\bident\b to a le\b\b flood-prone area (Margolin, 2016). Inhabitant\b of \mindigenou\b communitie\b often depend on natural re\bource\b for their livelihood\b and are located in geographically vulnerable region\b (e.g., Cun\bolo Willox et al., 2013, 2014; Maldonado, Colombi, & Pandya, 2013).Communities that lack \fesou\fces, both physical and \bnancial, can expe\fience climate impacts mo\fe seve\fely. Thi\b can be demon\btrated by higher incident\b \mof extreme weather within impoveri\bhed communitie\b. In di\ba\bter\b, \bocioeconomically di\badvantaged communitie\b often \buffer the mo\bt. For example, following Hurricane Sand\my, lower- income re\bident\b reported weak or ab\bent \bocial\m \bupport network\b and had the gr\meate\bt percentage\b of \bevere mental di\btre\b\b and diagno\bi\b of d\mepre\b\bion or anxiety aft\mer the hurricane. Furthermore, 35% of children living in a hou\m\behold that earn\b le\b\b than $20,000 annually experienced feeling\b of \badne\b\b, depre\b\bion, fear, or nervou\bne\b\b following the hurricane (Abram\bon et al., 2015). INDIGENOUS COMMUNI\fIESIndigenous communities a\fe at \fisk of losing th\aei\f cultu\fal he\fitage, as well as thei\f homes.\a Imperiled indigenou\m\b communitie\b are found around the world, including the\m United State\b. In Ala\bka, for example, \bome native Ala\bkan\b have \been their villag\me\b literally vani\bh due to the thawing permafro\bt, and other\b are facing a \bimilar outcome in the near future (Chapin et al., 2014). For indigenou\b communitie\b, climate change may threaten not only their \mphy\bical home but al\bo their life\btyle, including acce\b\b to traditional food and culturally meaningful practice\b (Cochran et al., 2013;
32 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 33Durkalec, Furgal, Skinner, & Sheldon, 2015; Rigby, Ro\ben, Berry, & Hart, 2011; Vogge\b\ber, Lynn, Daigle, Lake, & Ranco, 2013). Chief Albert \mNaquin of a Loui\biana tribal community threatened by climate change \btated, ''We're going to lo\be all our heritage, all our culture'' (quoted in Davenport & Robert\bon, 2016). Cun\bolo, Willox et al. (2013) reviewed ca\be \btudie\b of \beveral Inuit communitie\b and reported weakening \bocial network\b, increa\bed level\b of conflict, and \bignificant \btre\b\b a\b\bociated with relocation or even thinking about relocation. In evocative language, Inuit community member\b interviewed by Durkalec et al. (2015) reported that an inability to go out on the \bea\m ice (due to a changing climate) would make them feel like they ''have no health'' and ''can't breathe,'' and they would ''be very \bad,'' ''be lo\bt,'' or ''go crazy'' (p. 21). The lo\b\b of any community i\b tragic, but the impact\m on native communitie\b i\b particu\mlarly notable becau\m\be it dimini\bhe\b the cultu\mral heritage and be\mcau\be indigenou\b communitie\b are often defined by a \bpecial connection to the natural environment (Cun\bolo Willox et al., 2012, 2013, 2014; Durkalec et al., 2015). Thi\b connection include\b \mtraditional pattern\b of behavior and environmental knowledge about the \bpecific l\mocal eco\by\btem'--knowledge that i\b di\bappearing (F\mord, Pearce, Duerden, Furgal, & Smit, 2010)'--and about how to adapt to changing environment\b that could help u\b a\b a br\moader \bociety a\b we adapt to the con\bequence\b of climate change (Wildcat, 2013). A CLOSER LOOKInuit Mental Healt\f\H and Climate C\fange\b A\bhlee Cun\bolo, PhD ''We are people of the se\na ice. If there's no \fore sea ice, how can we be people of the sea ice\b'' The circumpolar north i\b warming at more than twice the rate of the global average. A\b a re\bult, local indige\mnou\b people\b are at the frontline\b in experiencing climate change effect\b. Inuit in Cana\mda \btill carry out active tradition\b of hunting\m, trapping, fi\bhing, foraging, and harve\bting, and a\b a re\bult, even a \bubtle alteration in the climate and environment can impact the\mir mental well-being. For the Inuit, the \mland i\b everything. ' It i\b family, the \bource of cultural continuity. A local leader \btated, '' We feel part of the la\nnd. It's \fe. It's us. It's \fy people. I always feel that sense of belonging, and that attach\fent.'' ' It i\b a place of \bolace and healing, foundational for all well-being. ''I think for the Inuit, going\n out on the land is\n just as \fuch a part of\n our life as breathing...So if we don't get out, th\nen, for our \fental well-being, it's like you are not fulfilled.''Five Inuit communitie\b in Nunat\biavut, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada have been working together to proactively \btudy the relation\bhip\b between climate change and mental health i\mn the North. Thi\b re\bearch di\bcovered wide-ranging con\bequence\b for individual and community well-being\f1. S trong e\fotional reactions Emotional re\bpon\be\b to the climatic and environmental change\b inc\mluded ''\badne\b\b,'' ''fear,'' ''anxiety,'' ''\btre\b\b,'' ''di\btre\b\b,'' and ''fru\btration.'' People called the change\b ''\mdeva\btating,'' ''\bcary,'' and ''depre\b\bing.'' A young hunter explained, ''People like to go out on the land to feel good. If they can't go out on the\n land, they don't feel like people.''2. Increased drug and alcohol usage Many mental health profe\b\bional\b expre\b\bed \beriou\b concern about increa\be\b in drug and a\mlcohol u\be, which interviewee\b de\bcribed a\b a way to fill the newly ''empty'' time from decrea\bed opportunitie\b \mfor land-ba\bed activiti\me\b. 3. Reduced self-efficacy and self- regulation A\b previou\bly mentioned, \mmany expre\b\bed concern over lo\bing control of their tradition\b and livelihood\b, which, in\m turn, lead\b to a lo\b\b of cultural identity and \belf-worth. One hunter explained, ''If a way of life is taken away because of circu\fstances that you have no control over, then you lose control of a part of your life.''4. A\fplification of existing stressors Finally, climate change compounded other mental health threat\b by removing a \bource of healing, cultu\mral \btrength, food \becurity, and autonomy. A coun\belor \btated, ''When people are unable to spend ti\fe on the \nland, they have \fore ti\fe to dwell on the negative, to re\fe\fber things like residential school experiences when they felt really trapped and unable to leave.''It i\b clear that climate change i\b no long\mer ab\btract or theoretical. People globally, \buch a\b the Inuit in the\m North, are experiencing a range of p\bycho-\bocial re\bpon\be\b. Climate change impact\b on men\mtal health mu\bt be further under\btood and con\bidered in policy and deci\bion-making \mfor mitigation, adaptation, and health r\me\bpon\be\b.''We are people of t\fe sea\H ice. If t\fere's no more sea ice\b \fow can we be people of t\fe \Hsea ice?'' - one member of the inuit\m communitie\b, Canada
32 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 33Durkalec, Furgal, Skinner, & Sheldon, 2015; Rigby, Ro\ben, Berry, & Hart, 2011; Vogge\b\ber, Lynn, Daigle, Lake, & Ranco, 2013). Chief Albert \mNaquin of a Loui\biana tribal community threatened by climate change \btated, ''We're going to lo\be all our heritage, all our culture'' (quoted in Davenport & Robert\bon, 2016). Cun\bolo, Willox et al. (2013) reviewed ca\be \btudie\b of \beveral Inuit communitie\b and reported weakening \bocial network\b, increa\bed level\b of conflict, and \bignificant \btre\b\b a\b\bociated with relocation or even thinking about relocation. In evocative language, Inuit community member\b interviewed by Durkalec et al. (2015) reported that an inability to go out on the \bea\m ice (due to a changing climate) would make them feel like they ''have no health'' and ''can't breathe,'' and they would ''be very \bad,'' ''be lo\bt,'' or ''go crazy'' (p. 21). The lo\b\b of any community i\b tragic, but the impact\m on native communitie\b i\b particu\mlarly notable becau\m\be it dimini\bhe\b the cultu\mral heritage and be\mcau\be indigenou\b communitie\b are often defined by a \bpecial connection to the natural environment (Cun\bolo Willox et al., 2012, 2013, 2014; Durkalec et al., 2015). Thi\b connection include\b \mtraditional pattern\b of behavior and environmental knowledge about the \bpecific l\mocal eco\by\btem'--knowledge that i\b di\bappearing (F\mord, Pearce, Duerden, Furgal, & Smit, 2010)'--and about how to adapt to changing environment\b that could help u\b a\b a br\moader \bociety a\b we adapt to the con\bequence\b of climate change (Wildcat, 2013). A CLOSER LOOKInuit Mental Healt\f\H and Climate C\fange\b A\bhlee Cun\bolo, PhD ''We are people of the se\na ice. If there's no \fore sea ice, how can we be people of the sea ice\b'' The circumpolar north i\b warming at more than twice the rate of the global average. A\b a re\bult, local indige\mnou\b people\b are at the frontline\b in experiencing climate change effect\b. Inuit in Cana\mda \btill carry out active tradition\b of hunting\m, trapping, fi\bhing, foraging, and harve\bting, and a\b a re\bult, even a \bubtle alteration in the climate and environment can impact the\mir mental well-being. For the Inuit, the \mland i\b everything. ' It i\b family, the \bource of cultural continuity. A local leader \btated, '' We feel part of the la\nnd. It's \fe. It's us. It's \fy people. I always feel that sense of belonging, and that attach\fent.'' ' It i\b a place of \bolace and healing, foundational for all well-being. ''I think for the Inuit, going\n out on the land is\n just as \fuch a part of\n our life as breathing...So if we don't get out, th\nen, for our \fental well-being, it's like you are not fulfilled.''Five Inuit communitie\b in Nunat\biavut, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada have been working together to proactively \btudy the relation\bhip\b between climate change and mental health i\mn the North. Thi\b re\bearch di\bcovered wide-ranging con\bequence\b for individual and community well-being\f1. S trong e\fotional reactions Emotional re\bpon\be\b to the climatic and environmental change\b inc\mluded ''\badne\b\b,'' ''fear,'' ''anxiety,'' ''\btre\b\b,'' ''di\btre\b\b,'' and ''fru\btration.'' People called the change\b ''\mdeva\btating,'' ''\bcary,'' and ''depre\b\bing.'' A young hunter explained, ''People like to go out on the land to feel good. If they can't go out on the\n land, they don't feel like people.''2. Increased drug and alcohol usage Many mental health profe\b\bional\b expre\b\bed \beriou\b concern about increa\be\b in drug and a\mlcohol u\be, which interviewee\b de\bcribed a\b a way to fill the newly ''empty'' time from decrea\bed opportunitie\b \mfor land-ba\bed activiti\me\b. 3. Reduced self-efficacy and self- regulation A\b previou\bly mentioned, \mmany expre\b\bed concern over lo\bing control of their tradition\b and livelihood\b, which, in\m turn, lead\b to a lo\b\b of cultural identity and \belf-worth. One hunter explained, ''If a way of life is taken away because of circu\fstances that you have no control over, then you lose control of a part of your life.''4. A\fplification of existing stressors Finally, climate change compounded other mental health threat\b by removing a \bource of healing, cultu\mral \btrength, food \becurity, and autonomy. A coun\belor \btated, ''When people are unable to spend ti\fe on the \nland, they have \fore ti\fe to dwell on the negative, to re\fe\fber things like residential school experiences when they felt really trapped and unable to leave.''It i\b clear that climate change i\b no long\mer ab\btract or theoretical. People globally, \buch a\b the Inuit in the\m North, are experiencing a range of p\bycho-\bocial re\bpon\be\b. Climate change impact\b on men\mtal health mu\bt be further under\btood and con\bidered in policy and deci\bion-making \mfor mitigation, adaptation, and health r\me\bpon\be\b.''We are people of t\fe sea\H ice. If t\fere's no more sea ice\b \fow can we be people of t\fe \Hsea ice?'' - one member of the inuit\m communitie\b, Canada
34 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 35CHILDREN AND INFANTSClimate \fhange ha\b a big imp\ea\ft on young people. Children are more vulnerable to many of the effect\b due to their \bmall \bize, developing organ\b and nervou\b \by\btem\b, and rapid metaboli\bm\b (Bartlet\mt, 2008). Children are more \ben\bitive to temperature, becau\be their phy\biological regulatory \by\btem\b may be le\b\b effective (e.g., they \bweat le\b\b) and becau\be they are more likely to depend on other\b \mto help them regulate their behavior (Zivin & Shrader, 2016). Their \bmall \bize make\b very young children more \bu\bceptible to dehydration, and children under age five living in poverty repre\bent 80% of victim\b of \banita\mtion-related illne\b\be\b and diarrheal \mdi\bea\be (Bartlett, \m2008).Climate impa\ft\b may have long-term and even permanent effe\ft\b, \bu\fh a\b \fhanging t\ehe developmental potential and traje\ftory of a \fhild. Currie and Almond (\m2011) reviewed evidence that even minor di\bturbance\b during childhood\m may have effect\b on health and \mearning potential that la\bt into adulthood. Studie\b have \bhown that children who experience a flood or a drought during key developmental period\b are \bhorter, on average, a\b adult\b (Bartle\mtt, 2008). Fetu\be\b are vulnerable to heat wave\b, with re\bearch \bhow\b that expo\bure to heat wave\b e\bpecially during\m the \becond and third trime\bter\b of pregnancy lead\b to a lower average birth weight and po\b\bibly a greater incidence of preterm birth (Kou\bky, 2016). Malnouri\bhment\m or \bevere threat to health during the \mearly year\b i\b a\b\bociated with fewer year\b of \bchooling and reduced economic activity a\b a\mdult\b, a\b well a\b with behavioral and motor problem\b and reduced IQ (Kou\bky, 2016). Additionally, early expo\bure to di\bea\be provoked by climate change can have a major and perman\ment impact on neurological development, a\b can be \mdramatically \been in children expo\bed prenatally to the Zika viru\b (e.g., Mlakar et al., 2016).Children \fan experien\fe PTSD and depre\b\bion following traumati\f or \btre\b\bful experien\fe\b with more \beverity and prevalen\fe than adult\b. After climate event\b, children typically demon\btrate more \bevere di\btre\b\b than adult\b (Fritze et al., 2008; So\mma\bundaram & van de Put, 2006). Furthermore, the prevalence of di\btre\b\b i\b al\bo higher; higher rate\b of PTSD were found in children two year\b after a flood (Fernandez et al., 2015). Children'\b mental health can al\bo be affected not only by their experience\b of \btre\b\bor\b, \buch a\b natural di\ba\bter\b, extreme weather, and ecomigration, but al\bo by the mental health of their car\megiver\b (Simp\bon et al., 2011). Children al\bo have the potential to be emotionally affected if they become \beparated from their primary car\megiver\b. Similar to phy\bical experience\b, traumatic mental experience\b can have lifelong effect\b. Of cour\be, early childhood i\m\b critical for brain development. Studie\b have documented that high level\b of \btre\b\b during childhood \mcan affect the development of neural pathway\b, in way\b that impair memory, executive function, and dec\mi\bion-making in later life (e.g., Shonkoff, Garner, & the Committee on P\bycho\bocial A\bpect\b of Child and Family Health, Committee on Early Childhood, A\mdoption, and Depend\ment Care, and Section on De\mvelopmental and Behavioral Pediatric\b, 2012).Children are al\bo at in\frea\bed ri\bk from di\bruption\b to the edu\fational \by\btem (Kou\bky, 2016). Natural di\ba\bter\b, in particular, can damage or de\btroy \bchool\b or make them inacce\b\bible to teacher\b and \btudent\b. After Hurricane Katrina, for example, 196,000 public \bchool \btudent\b had to change \bchool\b, and \mmany of them mi\b\bed a month or more of \bchooling. In \mthi\b ca\be, becau\be the harde\bt-hit \bchool di\btrict\b were al\bo \bome of the w\mor\bt-performing one\b, \bome \btudent\b benefitted by tran\bferring to better \bchool\b. However, the effect\b on \bchool achievement were negative (Kou\bky, 2016). Di\ba\bter\b may \fau\be \fhildren to lo\be their \bo\fial \bupport network\b to a greater extent. During adver\bity, people draw upon all of their per\bonal re\bource\b'--emotional and material. Although \boc\mial network\b can fill the gap\b when indiv\midual re\bource\b become depleted during extreme trauma (Hobfoll, 1989; Ungar & Liebenb\merg, 2013), the re\bource\b available from a tight-knit community may not go far, e\bpecially if the network i\b \bmall or the \mcommunity i\b poor. When di\ba\bter\b hit an area, they affect everyone and put entire neighborhood\b in \mneed of help. A \btudy of children impacted by Hurricane Katrina found that tho\be who were hit harde\bt by the \btorm al\bo experienced le\b\b \bocial \bupport, lik\mely becau\be people in th\meir immediate \bupport network were them\belve\b \buffering (Bank\b & Weem\b, 2014). Children are more vulnerable to many of the effe\fts due to their small size, develo\bing organs and nervous systems, and ra\bid metabolisms (Bartlett, 2008).
34 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 35CHILDREN AND INFANTSClimate \fhange ha\b a big imp\ea\ft on young people. Children are more vulnerable to many of the effect\b due to their \bmall \bize, developing organ\b and nervou\b \by\btem\b, and rapid metaboli\bm\b (Bartlet\mt, 2008). Children are more \ben\bitive to temperature, becau\be their phy\biological regulatory \by\btem\b may be le\b\b effective (e.g., they \bweat le\b\b) and becau\be they are more likely to depend on other\b \mto help them regulate their behavior (Zivin & Shrader, 2016). Their \bmall \bize make\b very young children more \bu\bceptible to dehydration, and children under age five living in poverty repre\bent 80% of victim\b of \banita\mtion-related illne\b\be\b and diarrheal \mdi\bea\be (Bartlett, \m2008).Climate impa\ft\b may have long-term and even permanent effe\ft\b, \bu\fh a\b \fhanging t\ehe developmental potential and traje\ftory of a \fhild. Currie and Almond (\m2011) reviewed evidence that even minor di\bturbance\b during childhood\m may have effect\b on health and \mearning potential that la\bt into adulthood. Studie\b have \bhown that children who experience a flood or a drought during key developmental period\b are \bhorter, on average, a\b adult\b (Bartle\mtt, 2008). Fetu\be\b are vulnerable to heat wave\b, with re\bearch \bhow\b that expo\bure to heat wave\b e\bpecially during\m the \becond and third trime\bter\b of pregnancy lead\b to a lower average birth weight and po\b\bibly a greater incidence of preterm birth (Kou\bky, 2016). Malnouri\bhment\m or \bevere threat to health during the \mearly year\b i\b a\b\bociated with fewer year\b of \bchooling and reduced economic activity a\b a\mdult\b, a\b well a\b with behavioral and motor problem\b and reduced IQ (Kou\bky, 2016). Additionally, early expo\bure to di\bea\be provoked by climate change can have a major and perman\ment impact on neurological development, a\b can be \mdramatically \been in children expo\bed prenatally to the Zika viru\b (e.g., Mlakar et al., 2016).Children \fan experien\fe PTSD and depre\b\bion following traumati\f or \btre\b\bful experien\fe\b with more \beverity and prevalen\fe than adult\b. After climate event\b, children typically demon\btrate more \bevere di\btre\b\b than adult\b (Fritze et al., 2008; So\mma\bundaram & van de Put, 2006). Furthermore, the prevalence of di\btre\b\b i\b al\bo higher; higher rate\b of PTSD were found in children two year\b after a flood (Fernandez et al., 2015). Children'\b mental health can al\bo be affected not only by their experience\b of \btre\b\bor\b, \buch a\b natural di\ba\bter\b, extreme weather, and ecomigration, but al\bo by the mental health of their car\megiver\b (Simp\bon et al., 2011). Children al\bo have the potential to be emotionally affected if they become \beparated from their primary car\megiver\b. Similar to phy\bical experience\b, traumatic mental experience\b can have lifelong effect\b. Of cour\be, early childhood i\m\b critical for brain development. Studie\b have documented that high level\b of \btre\b\b during childhood \mcan affect the development of neural pathway\b, in way\b that impair memory, executive function, and dec\mi\bion-making in later life (e.g., Shonkoff, Garner, & the Committee on P\bycho\bocial A\bpect\b of Child and Family Health, Committee on Early Childhood, A\mdoption, and Depend\ment Care, and Section on De\mvelopmental and Behavioral Pediatric\b, 2012).Children are al\bo at in\frea\bed ri\bk from di\bruption\b to the edu\fational \by\btem (Kou\bky, 2016). Natural di\ba\bter\b, in particular, can damage or de\btroy \bchool\b or make them inacce\b\bible to teacher\b and \btudent\b. After Hurricane Katrina, for example, 196,000 public \bchool \btudent\b had to change \bchool\b, and \mmany of them mi\b\bed a month or more of \bchooling. In \mthi\b ca\be, becau\be the harde\bt-hit \bchool di\btrict\b were al\bo \bome of the w\mor\bt-performing one\b, \bome \btudent\b benefitted by tran\bferring to better \bchool\b. However, the effect\b on \bchool achievement were negative (Kou\bky, 2016). Di\ba\bter\b may \fau\be \fhildren to lo\be their \bo\fial \bupport network\b to a greater extent. During adver\bity, people draw upon all of their per\bonal re\bource\b'--emotional and material. Although \boc\mial network\b can fill the gap\b when indiv\midual re\bource\b become depleted during extreme trauma (Hobfoll, 1989; Ungar & Liebenb\merg, 2013), the re\bource\b available from a tight-knit community may not go far, e\bpecially if the network i\b \bmall or the \mcommunity i\b poor. When di\ba\bter\b hit an area, they affect everyone and put entire neighborhood\b in \mneed of help. A \btudy of children impacted by Hurricane Katrina found that tho\be who were hit harde\bt by the \btorm al\bo experienced le\b\b \bocial \bupport, lik\mely becau\be people in th\meir immediate \bupport network were them\belve\b \buffering (Bank\b & Weem\b, 2014). Children are more vulnerable to many of the effe\fts due to their small size, develo\bing organs and nervous systems, and ra\bid metabolisms (Bartlett, 2008).
36 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 37A CLOSER LOOKChildren's Em\fti\fnal Resp\fnses t\f Climate Chan\be, Elizabeth Haa\be, MDChildren'\b fear\b about climate change revolve around known and my\bteriou\b future effect\b. Direct experience with natural di\ba\bter\b can cau\be \bymptom\b of po\bt-traumatic \btre\b\b di\border, including panic \bymptom\b, nightmare\b, and phobic behavior. For example, \bome pre-\bchool children who lo\bt their home\b to Hurricane Sandy developed a phobic avoidance of rain, wave\b, and thunder tha\mt generalized to panic about getting\m in bathtub\b, going to \bchool (which they feared might flood), and going to \bwimming le\b\bon\b.The emotional dysre\bulati\fn children experience after environmental trauma reflect\b the idio\byncra\bie\b in a\bcribing a\bency and causality of \bmall children. A four year old who\be parent\b' di\bcipline method wa\b withholding toy\b held her mother re\bpon\bible for lo\bing her doll\b\m to Sandy and had rage\b in which the ch\mild accu\bed her mother of \m''taking and killing\m'' her doll\b (Felix, Haa\be, & Haller, 2016). A three year old, grief-\btricken about local clear-cutting that wa\b killing large number\b of beloved local animal\b, de\mclared that he would de\btroy the perpetrator\b by ''calling them a bad word.''Children, with le\b\b ability to articulate their feeling\b in language\m, are al\bo more likely to regre\b\b, \bhowing babyi\bh behavior\b, or s\fmatize, developing \btomachache\b or other phy\bical \bymptom\b to expre\b\b up\bet, a\b did one child wh\men hi\b \bchool cafeteria refu\bed to recycle.Finally, children are more dependent, and therefore are more vulnerable to \beparation reaction\b. One boy who\be dog wa\b harmed by a tornado that al\bo de\btroyed hi\b home and killed \beveral peer\b became preoccupied with \becuring\m the animal'\b \bafety; hi\b inability \mto leave hi\b dog behind when nece\b\bary curtailed hi\b f\mriend\bhip\b, a\b well a\b hi\b academic a\mnd extra-curricular achievement (Haa\be, note\b). Children al\bo develop \bymptom\b becau\be they fear lo\bing control over an unknown future. Often ob\be\b\bive-compul\bive behavior\b re\bult, \buch a\b pickin\mg up every piece of garbage on th\me way to \bchool or running relentle\b\bly through ''what if'' \bcenario\b. One young patient, terrified that climate ruin would leave him poi\boned by toxin\b, developed a rigid nigh\mtly \bchedule of \belf-improvement to prepare and educate him\belf. Only by checking off every evening ritual could he ward off panic attack\b and in\bomnia (Haa\be, note\b). In Inuit and Aboriginal culture\b, youth are reporting higher rate\b of \buicidal think\ming and depre\b\bion linked to lo\bt \bocial reward\b becau\be nature-ba\bed activitie\b a\mre no longer available to them (Her\bher, 2016). Alienation and depre\b\bion are common in young people who have \buffered climate con\bequence\b and are living in a cultu\mral \betting that doe\b not validate their climate concern\b.Thankfully, emerging literature \bugge\bt\b the po\b\bibility of po\bt-traumatic growth following natural di\ba\bter\b, reflected in greater re\bilience and tran\bformation to more \bu\btainable life\btyle\b. Such progre\b\b require\b the developmental and p\bychological abilitie\b to grieve and articulate feeling\b in a narrative format. Intere\btingly, data \bhow\b that in particular, prolonged reflective rumination on climate in combination with hope and \mcoping advice from \bupportive caregiver\b bring\b \buch po\bitive tran\bformation and healing.DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIESSome commu\fities o\b color are pro\fe to experie\fce i\fcreased impacts. A per\bi\btent reality in American \mculture i\b the exi\btence of environmental inju\btice\f Some racial and ethnic group\b tend to be more expo\bed to environmental ri\bk\b and t\mo have fewer financial and politi\mcal re\bource\b to buffer the impact (e.g., Grine\bki et al.\m, 2012; Park\b & Robert\b, 2006). Thi\b i\b partly, but not completely, explained by economic \btatu\b. Communitie\b with fewer re\bource\b and greater expo\bure, for example, in Phoenix, Arizona, are likely to experience greater rate\b of high temperature impact\b than majority group\b (Luber & McGeeh\min, 2008). Lower-income communitie\b are more likely to have outdated infra\btructure, \buch a\b a lack of extreme weather warning \by\btem\b, inadequate \btorm \burge preparedne\b\b, and clogged or i\mnadequate \btorm \bewer \by\btem\b, which place\b the\be communitie\b at greater ri\bk for the impact\b of climate change. Area\b with a high number of re\bident\b who lack ac\mce\b\b to health care or health in\burance, or already experience poor health (Edward\b & Wi\beman, 2011), are more likely to be affected by climate change. Communitie\b are al\bo le\b\b re\bilient when they are weakened by \bocial \btre\b\bor\b, \buch a\b raci\bm, economic inequality, and environmental inju\btice\b. Many of the communitie\b in New Orlean\b that were affected by Hurricane Katrina po\b\be\b\bed all of the\be characteri\btic\b (Norri\b et al.,\m 2008; Yun et al., 2010), and the effect\b of racial di\bparitie\b were clearly vi\bible i\mn the aftermath of the \btorm (Luber et al., \m2014).OCCUPATIONAL GROUPSCertai\f li\fes a\fd field\us o\b work are more directly exposed to the impact o\b clim\uate cha\fge. The\be occupation\b may include but not be limited to fir\bt re\bponder\b, con\btruction worker\b, health care work- er\b, farmer\b, farm worker\b, fi\bhermen, tran\bportation worker\b, and utility work-er\b (Benedek, Fulle\mrton, & Ur\bano, 2007). Inequitable health\m outcome\b may ari\be directly through worker\b' expo\bure to increa\bed temperature\b, air pollution, \mand extreme weather, and indirectly through vector-borne di\bea\be\b, i\mncrea\bed u\be of pe\bticide\b, and many other element\b (Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention, 2016). According to the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, outdoor worker\b will be the fir\bt to endure the effect\b of climate change, a\b they will be expo\bed to extreme heat, which can cau\be h\meat \btroke, exhau\btion, and fatigue. A\b natural di\ba\bter\b occur more frequently, \buch a\b wildfire\b and flooding, firefighter\b and paramedic\b face increa\bed \bafety ri\bk\b. Agricultural worker\b face increa\bed vulnerability to allergen\b, in\bect\b carryin\mg di\bea\be\b, \buch a\b We\bt Nile, and pe\bticide expo\bure that are increa\bed by changing weather and in\bect migration pattern\b (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016). ADDITIONAL POPULATIONS OF CONCERNI\fdividuals o\b all a\uges with disabilitie\us or chro\fic me\ftal or physical health issues may experie\fce climate-related impacts at a greater exte\ft (Page, Hajat, Kovat\b, & Howard, 2012). Often, people living w\mith di\babilitie\b have di\bproportionately far lower acce\b\b to aid during and a\mfter climate-related di\ba\bter\b. Tho\be with mental health di\bor\mder\b can al\bo experience exacerbated \bymptom\b due to natural di\ba\bter\b. Degraded infra\btructure create\b barrier\b for people with menta\ml illne\b\be\b to receive proper medical attention, leading to additional negative mental and phy\bical health outcome\b. For in\btance, following the 2012 Wi\bcon\bin heat wave, 52% of all heat-related death\b were among individual\b\m with at lea\bt one mental illne\b\m\b. Half of
36 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 37A CLOSER LOOKChildren's Em\fti\fnal Resp\fnses t\f Climate Chan\be, Elizabeth Haa\be, MDChildren'\b fear\b about climate change revolve around known and my\bteriou\b future effect\b. Direct experience with natural di\ba\bter\b can cau\be \bymptom\b of po\bt-traumatic \btre\b\b di\border, including panic \bymptom\b, nightmare\b, and phobic behavior. For example, \bome pre-\bchool children who lo\bt their home\b to Hurricane Sandy developed a phobic avoidance of rain, wave\b, and thunder tha\mt generalized to panic about getting\m in bathtub\b, going to \bchool (which they feared might flood), and going to \bwimming le\b\bon\b.The emotional dysre\bulati\fn children experience after environmental trauma reflect\b the idio\byncra\bie\b in a\bcribing a\bency and causality of \bmall children. A four year old who\be parent\b' di\bcipline method wa\b withholding toy\b held her mother re\bpon\bible for lo\bing her doll\b\m to Sandy and had rage\b in which the ch\mild accu\bed her mother of \m''taking and killing\m'' her doll\b (Felix, Haa\be, & Haller, 2016). A three year old, grief-\btricken about local clear-cutting that wa\b killing large number\b of beloved local animal\b, de\mclared that he would de\btroy the perpetrator\b by ''calling them a bad word.''Children, with le\b\b ability to articulate their feeling\b in language\m, are al\bo more likely to regre\b\b, \bhowing babyi\bh behavior\b, or s\fmatize, developing \btomachache\b or other phy\bical \bymptom\b to expre\b\b up\bet, a\b did one child wh\men hi\b \bchool cafeteria refu\bed to recycle.Finally, children are more dependent, and therefore are more vulnerable to \beparation reaction\b. One boy who\be dog wa\b harmed by a tornado that al\bo de\btroyed hi\b home and killed \beveral peer\b became preoccupied with \becuring\m the animal'\b \bafety; hi\b inability \mto leave hi\b dog behind when nece\b\bary curtailed hi\b f\mriend\bhip\b, a\b well a\b hi\b academic a\mnd extra-curricular achievement (Haa\be, note\b). Children al\bo develop \bymptom\b becau\be they fear lo\bing control over an unknown future. Often ob\be\b\bive-compul\bive behavior\b re\bult, \buch a\b pickin\mg up every piece of garbage on th\me way to \bchool or running relentle\b\bly through ''what if'' \bcenario\b. One young patient, terrified that climate ruin would leave him poi\boned by toxin\b, developed a rigid nigh\mtly \bchedule of \belf-improvement to prepare and educate him\belf. Only by checking off every evening ritual could he ward off panic attack\b and in\bomnia (Haa\be, note\b). In Inuit and Aboriginal culture\b, youth are reporting higher rate\b of \buicidal think\ming and depre\b\bion linked to lo\bt \bocial reward\b becau\be nature-ba\bed activitie\b a\mre no longer available to them (Her\bher, 2016). Alienation and depre\b\bion are common in young people who have \buffered climate con\bequence\b and are living in a cultu\mral \betting that doe\b not validate their climate concern\b.Thankfully, emerging literature \bugge\bt\b the po\b\bibility of po\bt-traumatic growth following natural di\ba\bter\b, reflected in greater re\bilience and tran\bformation to more \bu\btainable life\btyle\b. Such progre\b\b require\b the developmental and p\bychological abilitie\b to grieve and articulate feeling\b in a narrative format. Intere\btingly, data \bhow\b that in particular, prolonged reflective rumination on climate in combination with hope and \mcoping advice from \bupportive caregiver\b bring\b \buch po\bitive tran\bformation and healing.DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIESSome commu\fities o\b color are pro\fe to experie\fce i\fcreased impacts. A per\bi\btent reality in American \mculture i\b the exi\btence of environmental inju\btice\f Some racial and ethnic group\b tend to be more expo\bed to environmental ri\bk\b and t\mo have fewer financial and politi\mcal re\bource\b to buffer the impact (e.g., Grine\bki et al.\m, 2012; Park\b & Robert\b, 2006). Thi\b i\b partly, but not completely, explained by economic \btatu\b. Communitie\b with fewer re\bource\b and greater expo\bure, for example, in Phoenix, Arizona, are likely to experience greater rate\b of high temperature impact\b than majority group\b (Luber & McGeeh\min, 2008). Lower-income communitie\b are more likely to have outdated infra\btructure, \buch a\b a lack of extreme weather warning \by\btem\b, inadequate \btorm \burge preparedne\b\b, and clogged or i\mnadequate \btorm \bewer \by\btem\b, which place\b the\be communitie\b at greater ri\bk for the impact\b of climate change. Area\b with a high number of re\bident\b who lack ac\mce\b\b to health care or health in\burance, or already experience poor health (Edward\b & Wi\beman, 2011), are more likely to be affected by climate change. Communitie\b are al\bo le\b\b re\bilient when they are weakened by \bocial \btre\b\bor\b, \buch a\b raci\bm, economic inequality, and environmental inju\btice\b. Many of the communitie\b in New Orlean\b that were affected by Hurricane Katrina po\b\be\b\bed all of the\be characteri\btic\b (Norri\b et al.,\m 2008; Yun et al., 2010), and the effect\b of racial di\bparitie\b were clearly vi\bible i\mn the aftermath of the \btorm (Luber et al., \m2014).OCCUPATIONAL GROUPSCertai\f li\fes a\fd field\us o\b work are more directly exposed to the impact o\b clim\uate cha\fge. The\be occupation\b may include but not be limited to fir\bt re\bponder\b, con\btruction worker\b, health care work- er\b, farmer\b, farm worker\b, fi\bhermen, tran\bportation worker\b, and utility work-er\b (Benedek, Fulle\mrton, & Ur\bano, 2007). Inequitable health\m outcome\b may ari\be directly through worker\b' expo\bure to increa\bed temperature\b, air pollution, \mand extreme weather, and indirectly through vector-borne di\bea\be\b, i\mncrea\bed u\be of pe\bticide\b, and many other element\b (Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention, 2016). According to the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, outdoor worker\b will be the fir\bt to endure the effect\b of climate change, a\b they will be expo\bed to extreme heat, which can cau\be h\meat \btroke, exhau\btion, and fatigue. A\b natural di\ba\bter\b occur more frequently, \buch a\b wildfire\b and flooding, firefighter\b and paramedic\b face increa\bed \bafety ri\bk\b. Agricultural worker\b face increa\bed vulnerability to allergen\b, in\bect\b carryin\mg di\bea\be\b, \buch a\b We\bt Nile, and pe\bticide expo\bure that are increa\bed by changing weather and in\bect migration pattern\b (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016). ADDITIONAL POPULATIONS OF CONCERNI\fdividuals o\b all a\uges with disabilitie\us or chro\fic me\ftal or physical health issues may experie\fce climate-related impacts at a greater exte\ft (Page, Hajat, Kovat\b, & Howard, 2012). Often, people living w\mith di\babilitie\b have di\bproportionately far lower acce\b\b to aid during and a\mfter climate-related di\ba\bter\b. Tho\be with mental health di\bor\mder\b can al\bo experience exacerbated \bymptom\b due to natural di\ba\bter\b. Degraded infra\btructure create\b barrier\b for people with menta\ml illne\b\be\b to receive proper medical attention, leading to additional negative mental and phy\bical health outcome\b. For in\btance, following the 2012 Wi\bcon\bin heat wave, 52% of all heat-related death\b were among individual\b\m with at lea\bt one mental illne\b\m\b. Half of
38 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidancetho\be \buffering from mental illne\b\b were taking p\bychotropic medication\b, which impede one'\b ability to regulate one'\b body temperature. The\be medication\b that treat mental illne\b\b are one of the main underlying cau\be\b of \mheat-related death\b (Dodgen et al., 20\m16). Additionally, tho\be \buffering from ongoing a\bthma and re\bpiratory illne\b\be\b, like chronic ob\btructive pulmonary di\bea\be (COPD), are more \ben\bitive to reduced air quality. Moreover, inequalitie\b in the\m incidence of tho\be who are chronically ill ari\be a\m\b a re\bult of \beveral \bocioeconomic factor\b (Gamble et al., 2016). Due to increased health and m\gobility challenges\f the eld\gerly are very susceptible to the risks o\b clim\gate impacts. Higher rate\b of untreated depre\b\bion and other phy\bical illne\b\be\b reported among \benior\b contribute to thi\b increa\bed vulnerability. Re\bearch \bugge\bt\b the elderly, in particular, experience decline\b in cognitive ability when expo\bed to air pollution over the long term (Dodgen et al., 20\m16). A \btudy by Dominelli (2013) found that when infra\btructure broke down (e.g., road\b were impa\b\bable) due to flood\b, heat wave\b, or freeze-thaw event\b (all potentially climate-driven), formal care \bervice\b were not available to vulnerable people, \buch a\b the elderl\my. They could not get to the \bervice\b, and their normal \bervice\b could not come through. Heat can have a particularly \bevere impact on the elderl\my and on people with\m pre-exi\bting mental health problem\b; \bome of the medication\b a\b\bociated with mental illne\b\b make people more \bu\bceptible to the effect\b of heat (Martin-Latry et al., 2007). Extreme temperature\b or pollution can al\bo make it more difficult for \benior\b to engage in regular outdoor activitie\b, thu\b depriving them \mof the a\b\bociated phy\bical and mental ben\mefit\b. The stress directly related to supporting a child makes women more affected by climate change. Becau\be of a mother'\b frequent caregiver role, and becau\be, on average, women have fewer economic re\bource\b than men, women may al\bo be more affected, in general, by the \btre\b\b and trauma of natural di\ba\bter\b (Trumbo, Lueck, Marlatt, & Peek, 2011; Wa\bini et al., 2014). Po\b\bible lo\b\b of re\bource\b, \buch a\b food, water, \bhelter, and energy, may al\bo contribute to per\bonal \btre\b\b. Epidemiological \btudie\b of po\bt-di\ba\bter cohort\b and the gene\mral population, \bugge\bt that women are more likely to experience mental health problem\b a\b a re\bult of trauma. For example, the prevalence of PTSD in the general population i\b reported to be approximately twofold greater in women than in men (Soma\bundaram & van de Put, 2006). A number of population\b are e\bpecially vulnerable to the mental health\m effect\b of climate change, including\f' People living in ri\b\mk-prone area\b' Indigenou\b communitie\b ' Some communitie\b of color' Certain occupational group\b with direct expo\bure' Tho\be with exi\bting di\babilitie\b o\mr chronic illne\b\b' Older adult\b, women, and childrenKEY TAKEAWAYS: The Problem o\b Inequity III. ADDRESSING THE MENTAL HEALTH IMPACTS
38 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidancetho\be \buffering from mental illne\b\b were taking p\bychotropic medication\b, which impede one'\b ability to regulate one'\b body temperature. The\be medication\b that treat mental illne\b\b are one of the main underlying cau\be\b of \mheat-related death\b (Dodgen et al., 20\m16). Additionally, tho\be \buffering from ongoing a\bthma and re\bpiratory illne\b\be\b, like chronic ob\btructive pulmonary di\bea\be (COPD), are more \ben\bitive to reduced air quality. Moreover, inequalitie\b in the\m incidence of tho\be who are chronically ill ari\be a\m\b a re\bult of \beveral \bocioeconomic factor\b (Gamble et al., 2016). Due to increased health and m\gobility challenges\f the eld\gerly are very susceptible to the risks o\b clim\gate impacts. Higher rate\b of untreated depre\b\bion and other phy\bical illne\b\be\b reported among \benior\b contribute to thi\b increa\bed vulnerability. Re\bearch \bugge\bt\b the elderly, in particular, experience decline\b in cognitive ability when expo\bed to air pollution over the long term (Dodgen et al., 20\m16). A \btudy by Dominelli (2013) found that when infra\btructure broke down (e.g., road\b were impa\b\bable) due to flood\b, heat wave\b, or freeze-thaw event\b (all potentially climate-driven), formal care \bervice\b were not available to vulnerable people, \buch a\b the elderl\my. They could not get to the \bervice\b, and their normal \bervice\b could not come through. Heat can have a particularly \bevere impact on the elderl\my and on people with\m pre-exi\bting mental health problem\b; \bome of the medication\b a\b\bociated with mental illne\b\b make people more \bu\bceptible to the effect\b of heat (Martin-Latry et al., 2007). Extreme temperature\b or pollution can al\bo make it more difficult for \benior\b to engage in regular outdoor activitie\b, thu\b depriving them \mof the a\b\bociated phy\bical and mental ben\mefit\b. The stress directly related to supporting a child makes women more affected by climate change. Becau\be of a mother'\b frequent caregiver role, and becau\be, on average, women have fewer economic re\bource\b than men, women may al\bo be more affected, in general, by the \btre\b\b and trauma of natural di\ba\bter\b (Trumbo, Lueck, Marlatt, & Peek, 2011; Wa\bini et al., 2014). Po\b\bible lo\b\b of re\bource\b, \buch a\b food, water, \bhelter, and energy, may al\bo contribute to per\bonal \btre\b\b. Epidemiological \btudie\b of po\bt-di\ba\bter cohort\b and the gene\mral population, \bugge\bt that women are more likely to experience mental health problem\b a\b a re\bult of trauma. For example, the prevalence of PTSD in the general population i\b reported to be approximately twofold greater in women than in men (Soma\bundaram & van de Put, 2006). A number of population\b are e\bpecially vulnerable to the mental health\m effect\b of climate change, including\f' People living in ri\b\mk-prone area\b' Indigenou\b communitie\b ' Some communitie\b of color' Certain occupational group\b with direct expo\bure' Tho\be with exi\bting di\babilitie\b o\mr chronic illne\b\b' Older adult\b, women, and childrenKEY TAKEAWAYS: The Problem o\b Inequity III. ADDRESSING THE MENTAL HEALTH IMPACTS
40 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 41BUILDING RESILIENC\mEDeveloping plans to adapt and cope is critical in\m addressing the physical and psychological impacts \mo\f climate change. In this section, \be introduce psychological resilience, individually and on a community level. Resilience can be defined as t\mhe ability o\f a person (or a community) to cope \bith, gro\b through, and transcend adversity (Hob\foll, Stevens, & Zalta, 2015).Climate change i\b no long\mer a di\btant, unimaginable \mthreat; it i\b a growing reality for communitie\b acro\b\b the globe. Recognizing the ri\bk, \mmany local government\b in the Uni\mted State\b (a\b well a\b other place\b around the world) have created preparation or adaptation plan\b for \bhoring up phy\bical infra\btructure to with\btand new weather and temperature extreme\b. The\be plan\b, while an\m important \btep, generally overlook the p\bycho-\bocial impact\b of \ma changing climate and do little to create or \bupport the \bof\mt infra\btructure needed for community p\bychological well- being (Bau\b\ban & Kelly, 2016). How can communitie\b prepare them\belve\b to minimize \buffering and promote resilience in the face of the challengin\mg impact\b of climate change? Re\bilient communitie\b can create the phy\bical and \bocial infra\btructure that make\b them le\b\b \bu\bceptible to negative effect\b. On an individual l\mevel, re\bilience i\b built internally and externally through \btrategie\b, \buch a\b coping and \belf-regulation, and community \bocial \buppor\mt network\b. Mo\bt people come through adver\bity with po\bitive adju\btment and without p\bychopathology (Bonnano, 2008; Hanbury, Indart, & Saklof\bke, 2013). In fact, \bome individual\m\b may even experience what i\b called post-traumatic growth and come through a \bignificant d\mi\bruption with the \mfeeling of having gained \bomething po\b\mitive, \buch a\b \btronger \bocial relation\bhip\b or \bpecific \b\mkill\b (Lowe et al., 2013; Ram\bay & Mander\bon, 2011). Even \bo, much can be done t\mo increa\be the re\bilience capacity of individu\mal\b and communitie\b, particula\mrly in re\bpon\be to climate change. The following \bection\b de\bcrib\me factor\b that \bupport p\bycho-\bocial re\bilience in both.A CLOSER LOOKResilience in the Face \ff Climate Change\b Victoria Derr, PhDIn collaboration with Re\bilient Boulder (a project of the Rockefeller Foundation'\b 100 Re\bilient Citie\b net\mwork), Growing Up Boulder (GUB) worked with an economically and ethn\mically diver\be \bample of children and youth to develop their perception\b of re\bilience within the city of Boulder, Colorado. In the pilot pha\be of the project, children made a mural with a\bpect\b of t\mheir community that \bupported or inhibited re\bilience and took picture\b of their community that explained the\be concept\b. In an in-depth\m pha\be, elementary and high\m \bchool \btudent\b explored re\bilience at variou\b \bcale\b of the\m community through drawing\b, identification of a\b\bet\b and vulnerabilitie\b, and recommendation\b for making Boulder more re\bilient. Finally, high \bchool \btudent\b continued thi\b work through a poetry project developed in partner\bhi\mp with \beveral Latino poet\b and the \mU.S. poet laureate. Children and youth al\bo \bhared their idea\b with lo\mcal leader\b and developed recommendation\b for increa\bing the re\bilience of Boulder'\b young people. Acro\b\b all method\b, the\be\m young people identified acce\b\b to nature and family, friend\b, and \bupport\mive network\b (from \bchool and community) a\b critical\m factor\b in \bupporting re\bilience, while global clim\mate change wa\b de\bcribed a\b a vu\mlnerability. Concern\b about climate change emerged from the fir\bt brain\btorming \be\b\bion, in which youth jotted down idea\b for a\b\bet\b and vulnerabilitie\b on large butcher-paper \bheet\b. One \btudent wrote ''the new\b,'' and then many other \btudent\b expanded on thi\b idea, addin\mg many more new\b \bource\b. Student\b largely hear about climate change via new\b media, with littl\me opportunity to feel empowered or to take po\bitive, local action. In the high \bchool \mpoetry project, \btudent\b de\bcribed a per\bonal\m moment of re\bilience. Many of the\be \btorie\b included family lo\b\be\b and coping with poor family health, the challenge\b of immigr\mation, and \burviving\m Boulder'\b recent flood. In 2013, Boulder experienced a 100-year flood, a\b well a\b a 1,000-year rain event, which \beverely impacted the city and region, with many familie\b temporarily or permanentl\my di\bplaced. Some \btudent\b wrote about re\bilience in the context of thi\b flood, de\bcribing a family member handlin\mg it alone, without \bocial \bup\mport. Student\b focu\bed on local i\b\bue\b that impact their daily l\mive\b and their potential to \bupport re\bilience, including acce\b\b to nature. Many acro\b\b all age group\b \baid nature, from view\b of the mountain\b f\mrom their high \bchool t\mo \bmall park\b and ope\mn \bpace, helped build re\bilience. However, many of the \btudent\b in thi\b re\bearch do not have daily acce\b\b to nature de\bpite living in a relatively green city. Greater acce\b\b to nearby nature could provide young people with \bou\mrce\b for re\btoration and re\bilience.In general, youth identified clim\mate change a\b negatively impacting their \mper\bonal re\bilience and acce\b\b to nature a\b \bupporting re\bilience. However, they tended to focu\b on many \bocial and economic factor\b, \buch a\b poverty and immigration \btatu\b, that are more directly \been and felt than climate change. Thi\b focu\b \bugge\bt\b that for the\be \btudent\b, a\b for many other\b, climate change \btill \beem\b to be an ab\btract i\b\bue.Resilient c\fmmunities can create the physical and s\fcial inf\arastructure that makes them less susceptible t\f negative effects.
40 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 41BUILDING RESILIENC\mEDeveloping plans to adapt and cope is critical in\m addressing the physical and psychological impacts \mo\f climate change. In this section, \be introduce psychological resilience, individually and on a community level. Resilience can be defined as t\mhe ability o\f a person (or a community) to cope \bith, gro\b through, and transcend adversity (Hob\foll, Stevens, & Zalta, 2015).Climate change i\b no long\mer a di\btant, unimaginable \mthreat; it i\b a growing reality for communitie\b acro\b\b the globe. Recognizing the ri\bk, \mmany local government\b in the Uni\mted State\b (a\b well a\b other place\b around the world) have created preparation or adaptation plan\b for \bhoring up phy\bical infra\btructure to with\btand new weather and temperature extreme\b. The\be plan\b, while an\m important \btep, generally overlook the p\bycho-\bocial impact\b of \ma changing climate and do little to create or \bupport the \bof\mt infra\btructure needed for community p\bychological well- being (Bau\b\ban & Kelly, 2016). How can communitie\b prepare them\belve\b to minimize \buffering and promote resilience in the face of the challengin\mg impact\b of climate change? Re\bilient communitie\b can create the phy\bical and \bocial infra\btructure that make\b them le\b\b \bu\bceptible to negative effect\b. On an individual l\mevel, re\bilience i\b built internally and externally through \btrategie\b, \buch a\b coping and \belf-regulation, and community \bocial \buppor\mt network\b. Mo\bt people come through adver\bity with po\bitive adju\btment and without p\bychopathology (Bonnano, 2008; Hanbury, Indart, & Saklof\bke, 2013). In fact, \bome individual\m\b may even experience what i\b called post-traumatic growth and come through a \bignificant d\mi\bruption with the \mfeeling of having gained \bomething po\b\mitive, \buch a\b \btronger \bocial relation\bhip\b or \bpecific \b\mkill\b (Lowe et al., 2013; Ram\bay & Mander\bon, 2011). Even \bo, much can be done t\mo increa\be the re\bilience capacity of individu\mal\b and communitie\b, particula\mrly in re\bpon\be to climate change. The following \bection\b de\bcrib\me factor\b that \bupport p\bycho-\bocial re\bilience in both.A CLOSER LOOKResilience in the Face \ff Climate Change\b Victoria Derr, PhDIn collaboration with Re\bilient Boulder (a project of the Rockefeller Foundation'\b 100 Re\bilient Citie\b net\mwork), Growing Up Boulder (GUB) worked with an economically and ethn\mically diver\be \bample of children and youth to develop their perception\b of re\bilience within the city of Boulder, Colorado. In the pilot pha\be of the project, children made a mural with a\bpect\b of t\mheir community that \bupported or inhibited re\bilience and took picture\b of their community that explained the\be concept\b. In an in-depth\m pha\be, elementary and high\m \bchool \btudent\b explored re\bilience at variou\b \bcale\b of the\m community through drawing\b, identification of a\b\bet\b and vulnerabilitie\b, and recommendation\b for making Boulder more re\bilient. Finally, high \bchool \btudent\b continued thi\b work through a poetry project developed in partner\bhi\mp with \beveral Latino poet\b and the \mU.S. poet laureate. Children and youth al\bo \bhared their idea\b with lo\mcal leader\b and developed recommendation\b for increa\bing the re\bilience of Boulder'\b young people. Acro\b\b all method\b, the\be\m young people identified acce\b\b to nature and family, friend\b, and \bupport\mive network\b (from \bchool and community) a\b critical\m factor\b in \bupporting re\bilience, while global clim\mate change wa\b de\bcribed a\b a vu\mlnerability. Concern\b about climate change emerged from the fir\bt brain\btorming \be\b\bion, in which youth jotted down idea\b for a\b\bet\b and vulnerabilitie\b on large butcher-paper \bheet\b. One \btudent wrote ''the new\b,'' and then many other \btudent\b expanded on thi\b idea, addin\mg many more new\b \bource\b. Student\b largely hear about climate change via new\b media, with littl\me opportunity to feel empowered or to take po\bitive, local action. In the high \bchool \mpoetry project, \btudent\b de\bcribed a per\bonal\m moment of re\bilience. Many of the\be \btorie\b included family lo\b\be\b and coping with poor family health, the challenge\b of immigr\mation, and \burviving\m Boulder'\b recent flood. In 2013, Boulder experienced a 100-year flood, a\b well a\b a 1,000-year rain event, which \beverely impacted the city and region, with many familie\b temporarily or permanentl\my di\bplaced. Some \btudent\b wrote about re\bilience in the context of thi\b flood, de\bcribing a family member handlin\mg it alone, without \bocial \bup\mport. Student\b focu\bed on local i\b\bue\b that impact their daily l\mive\b and their potential to \bupport re\bilience, including acce\b\b to nature. Many acro\b\b all age group\b \baid nature, from view\b of the mountain\b f\mrom their high \bchool t\mo \bmall park\b and ope\mn \bpace, helped build re\bilience. However, many of the \btudent\b in thi\b re\bearch do not have daily acce\b\b to nature de\bpite living in a relatively green city. Greater acce\b\b to nearby nature could provide young people with \bou\mrce\b for re\btoration and re\bilience.In general, youth identified clim\mate change a\b negatively impacting their \mper\bonal re\bilience and acce\b\b to nature a\b \bupporting re\bilience. However, they tended to focu\b on many \bocial and economic factor\b, \buch a\b poverty and immigration \btatu\b, that are more directly \been and felt than climate change. Thi\b focu\b \bugge\bt\b that for the\be \btudent\b, a\b for many other\b, climate change \btill \beem\b to be an ab\btract i\b\bue.Resilient c\fmmunities can create the physical and s\fcial inf\arastructure that makes them less susceptible t\f negative effects.
42 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 43TIPS TO SUPPORT INDIVIDUALSSome people seem t\do function more effectively in di\fcult situations than others do. \bo single factor sets highly resilient individual\ds apart (Bonanno & D\diminich, 2013). Instead, an individual's ability to recover from trauma, or to experience post- traumatic growth, depends on a complex and dynamic set o\df factors. Here, we provide tips on the factors of personal attributes and social support designed to help practitioners, polic\dymakers, and communicators support individuals' success in becoming resilient.PERSO\bAL ATTRIBUTES A\bD ACTIO\bS 1. Build belief in \done's own resilience. Several per\bonal di\bpo\biti\monal characteri\btic\b are a\b\bociated with individual re\bilience. People who feel po\bitive about their ability to overcome a \bource of \btre\b\b and trauma do better than people with lo\mwer self-efficacy. Belief in one'\b own re\bilience ha\b been correlated with fewer \bymptom\b of PTSD and depre\b\bion after di\ba\bter\b (Shene\bey & Langhirich\ben- Rohling, 2015). 2. Foster optimism. People who are able to reframe and find \bomethin\mg po\bitive in their circum\btance\b tend to do better than people who \mare le\b\b able to regulate their thinking, \memotion\b, and action\m\b (Bonanno & Diminich\m, 2013; Hanbury et al.,\m 2013; Harper & Pergament, 2015; Iacoviello & Charney, 2014; Petra\bek Macdonald, Ford, Cun\bolo Willox, & Ro\b\b, 2013; Prince-Embury, 2013). Po\bitively reapprai\bing one'\b circum\btance\b help\b move one forward rather than becoming \btuck in a cycle of negative emotion\b. Additionally, optimi\bm likely contribute\b to a per\bon'\b ability to feel po\bitive emotion\b during a hard time, which may help people better recover and cope (Terp\btra, 2011). In a \btudy of low-income mother\b who \burvived Hurricane Katrina, Lowe et al. (2013) found that optimi\bm helped the m\mother\b adju\bt and grow after a di\ba\bter. Of cour\be, exce\b\bive optimi\bm may re\bult in di\bappointment or \bur\mpri\be if the expected outcome doe\b not c ome to pa\b\b; therefore, the right balance i\b needed.3. Cultivate active coping and self-regulation. Another \btrength i\b active coping, which involve\b cognitive dimen\bion\b, \buch a\b maintainin\mg an awarene\b\b of one'\b own thought\b and apprai\bal\b, and behavioral dimen\bion\b, \buch a\b continuou\bly \beeking\m \bolution\b and \buppor\mt (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014). Self-regulation, or the abili\mty to control one'\b immediate impul\be\b in favor of a more con\bidered, long-term \btrategy, i\b another characteri\btic of re\bilient individual\m\b (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2015). 4. Find a source of personal mean\ding. Involvement in a faith community ha\b been ci\mted a\b a protective factor for mental health in\m \beveral interview \btudie\b with people experiencing trauma (e.g., Cline, Orom, Child, Hernandez, & Black, 2015; Fernando, 2012; Harper & Pargament, 2015; Weine et al., 2014). For many, faith give\b a \ben\be of peace during difficulty (\mMark\b, Hatch, Lu, & Cherry, 2015), and \btudie\b have \bhown that having a \bpiritual practice tend\b to boo\bt an individual'\b well-being and can b\me an important coping re\bource. In addition to the \bocial \bupport that i\b often provided by a faith community, having a \bpiritual practice can help people manage a\mnd find meaning in \buffering during \bignifi\mcant adver\bity (Ram\ba y & Mander\bon, 2011). Mindfulnesscan be another type\m of practice, through yoga and meditation, that give\b people a greater \ben\be of purpo\be and \mmeaning (Garland, Farb, Goldin, & Fredrick\bon, 2015). In each ca\be, the ability to flexibly reapprai\be adver\be event\b in a way that enhance\b a \ben\be of meanin\mg i\b key for promoting per\bonal well-being.5. Boost personal preparedness. Mental health can b\me incorporated into exi\bting di\ba\bter preparation effort\b. Recommendation\b for \bhort-term di\ba\bter or emergency kit\b often include thing\b lik e food, water, \bupplie\b, and medic\mation. Yet item\b that can pre\berve and \bhore up mental health are al\bo equally impor\mtant to include (Mi\b\bouri Department of \mMental Health, 2006). The\be item\b might include comfort item\b, \buch a\b \bpiritual\m or religiou\b object\b, picture\b, blanket\b and toy\b for \bmall children, favorite food\b or treat\b to \bupplement \btable \bhelf food, recreational item\b \buch a\b book\b and\m game\b, and paper and writing i\mn\btrument\b to journal or write down important information. Pet\b, which al\bo provide \bome with a \ben\m\be of c omfort, mu\bt al\bo be con\bidered when making emergency kit\b and plan\b (Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention, 2016; American Red Cro\b\b, 2017). Public agencie\b and other \morganization\b may al\bo want to encourage community member\b to incorporate the\be item\b into their di\ba\bter preparation kit\b. Other facet\b of preparedne\b\b, including family, neighborhood, \bchoo\ml, and work re\bpon\be plan\b and other mea\b\mure\b, can help increa\be confidence and the feeling of \baf ety and reduce fear. SOCIAL CO\b\bECTIO\b6. Support social n\iet\forks. Individual\b' per\bonal capacity to with\btand trauma i\b increa\bed when they are connected to their network\b off-and online. One \btrategy frequently noted in re\bilience \btudie\b i\b cultivating and maintainin\mg \btrong \bocial connection\b (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014). Connectedne\b\b to other\b i\b a core p\bychological need and\m an e\b\bential foundation for well-being (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2011). During difficult\m time\b, people turn to tho\be they are clo\be to, \buch a\b family, friend\b, and neig\mhbor\b, for emotional \bupport, a\b well a\b material help (e.g., money, food, or a temporary place to \btay). Re\bilience \bcholar\b note that \bocial \bupport i\b a critical protective re\bource during adver\bity (Kania\bty, 2012). Re\bearcher\b have found that higher level\b of \bocial \bupport during and i\mn the aftermath of a di\ba\b ter are a\b\bociated with lower rate\b of p\bychological di\btre\b\b (Greene, Paranjothy, & Palmer, 2015; Self-Brown, Ander\bon, Edward\b, & McGill, 2013). The po\bitive mental health impact\m of a \btrong \bocial \bupport \by\btem, or the negative impact\b of lower \bocial \bupport, ca\mn per\bi\bt for year\b after a di\ba\bter, \buch a\b a hurrican\me (Bank\b & Weem\b, 2014). A\b de\bcribed ab\move, a faith community, or any other tight-knit\m and \bupportive \bocial network, can provide \bignificant emotional\m and material \bupport (Cain & Barthelemy, 2008; Mark\b et al\m., 2015). People living in area\b mo\bt impacted by Hurricane Katrina reported in an interview \btudy that their ''church family'' (p. 256) offered them a li\btening ear, empathy, and moral \bupport in the extremely difficult aftermath of the hurricane (Mark\b et al., 2015).7. Encoura\be connection \fith parents, family, and other role models. The \bupportof family and clo\be connection\b are particularly impor\mtant for children. Parent\b are likely the mo\bt central \bource of \bupport for children during trauma and adver\bity, and children are at higher ri\bk of
42 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 43TIPS TO SUPPORT INDIVIDUALSSome people seem t\do function more effectively in di\fcult situations than others do. \bo single factor sets highly resilient individual\ds apart (Bonanno & D\diminich, 2013). Instead, an individual's ability to recover from trauma, or to experience post- traumatic growth, depends on a complex and dynamic set o\df factors. Here, we provide tips on the factors of personal attributes and social support designed to help practitioners, polic\dymakers, and communicators support individuals' success in becoming resilient.PERSO\bAL ATTRIBUTES A\bD ACTIO\bS 1. Build belief in \done's own resilience. Several per\bonal di\bpo\biti\monal characteri\btic\b are a\b\bociated with individual re\bilience. People who feel po\bitive about their ability to overcome a \bource of \btre\b\b and trauma do better than people with lo\mwer self-efficacy. Belief in one'\b own re\bilience ha\b been correlated with fewer \bymptom\b of PTSD and depre\b\bion after di\ba\bter\b (Shene\bey & Langhirich\ben- Rohling, 2015). 2. Foster optimism. People who are able to reframe and find \bomethin\mg po\bitive in their circum\btance\b tend to do better than people who \mare le\b\b able to regulate their thinking, \memotion\b, and action\m\b (Bonanno & Diminich\m, 2013; Hanbury et al.,\m 2013; Harper & Pergament, 2015; Iacoviello & Charney, 2014; Petra\bek Macdonald, Ford, Cun\bolo Willox, & Ro\b\b, 2013; Prince-Embury, 2013). Po\bitively reapprai\bing one'\b circum\btance\b help\b move one forward rather than becoming \btuck in a cycle of negative emotion\b. Additionally, optimi\bm likely contribute\b to a per\bon'\b ability to feel po\bitive emotion\b during a hard time, which may help people better recover and cope (Terp\btra, 2011). In a \btudy of low-income mother\b who \burvived Hurricane Katrina, Lowe et al. (2013) found that optimi\bm helped the m\mother\b adju\bt and grow after a di\ba\bter. Of cour\be, exce\b\bive optimi\bm may re\bult in di\bappointment or \bur\mpri\be if the expected outcome doe\b not c ome to pa\b\b; therefore, the right balance i\b needed.3. Cultivate active coping and self-regulation. Another \btrength i\b active coping, which involve\b cognitive dimen\bion\b, \buch a\b maintainin\mg an awarene\b\b of one'\b own thought\b and apprai\bal\b, and behavioral dimen\bion\b, \buch a\b continuou\bly \beeking\m \bolution\b and \buppor\mt (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014). Self-regulation, or the abili\mty to control one'\b immediate impul\be\b in favor of a more con\bidered, long-term \btrategy, i\b another characteri\btic of re\bilient individual\m\b (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2015). 4. Find a source of personal mean\ding. Involvement in a faith community ha\b been ci\mted a\b a protective factor for mental health in\m \beveral interview \btudie\b with people experiencing trauma (e.g., Cline, Orom, Child, Hernandez, & Black, 2015; Fernando, 2012; Harper & Pargament, 2015; Weine et al., 2014). For many, faith give\b a \ben\be of peace during difficulty (\mMark\b, Hatch, Lu, & Cherry, 2015), and \btudie\b have \bhown that having a \bpiritual practice tend\b to boo\bt an individual'\b well-being and can b\me an important coping re\bource. In addition to the \bocial \bupport that i\b often provided by a faith community, having a \bpiritual practice can help people manage a\mnd find meaning in \buffering during \bignifi\mcant adver\bity (Ram\ba y & Mander\bon, 2011). Mindfulnesscan be another type\m of practice, through yoga and meditation, that give\b people a greater \ben\be of purpo\be and \mmeaning (Garland, Farb, Goldin, & Fredrick\bon, 2015). In each ca\be, the ability to flexibly reapprai\be adver\be event\b in a way that enhance\b a \ben\be of meanin\mg i\b key for promoting per\bonal well-being.5. Boost personal preparedness. Mental health can b\me incorporated into exi\bting di\ba\bter preparation effort\b. Recommendation\b for \bhort-term di\ba\bter or emergency kit\b often include thing\b lik e food, water, \bupplie\b, and medic\mation. Yet item\b that can pre\berve and \bhore up mental health are al\bo equally impor\mtant to include (Mi\b\bouri Department of \mMental Health, 2006). The\be item\b might include comfort item\b, \buch a\b \bpiritual\m or religiou\b object\b, picture\b, blanket\b and toy\b for \bmall children, favorite food\b or treat\b to \bupplement \btable \bhelf food, recreational item\b \buch a\b book\b and\m game\b, and paper and writing i\mn\btrument\b to journal or write down important information. Pet\b, which al\bo provide \bome with a \ben\m\be of c omfort, mu\bt al\bo be con\bidered when making emergency kit\b and plan\b (Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention, 2016; American Red Cro\b\b, 2017). Public agencie\b and other \morganization\b may al\bo want to encourage community member\b to incorporate the\be item\b into their di\ba\bter preparation kit\b. Other facet\b of preparedne\b\b, including family, neighborhood, \bchoo\ml, and work re\bpon\be plan\b and other mea\b\mure\b, can help increa\be confidence and the feeling of \baf ety and reduce fear. SOCIAL CO\b\bECTIO\b6. Support social n\iet\forks. Individual\b' per\bonal capacity to with\btand trauma i\b increa\bed when they are connected to their network\b off-and online. One \btrategy frequently noted in re\bilience \btudie\b i\b cultivating and maintainin\mg \btrong \bocial connection\b (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014). Connectedne\b\b to other\b i\b a core p\bychological need and\m an e\b\bential foundation for well-being (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2011). During difficult\m time\b, people turn to tho\be they are clo\be to, \buch a\b family, friend\b, and neig\mhbor\b, for emotional \bupport, a\b well a\b material help (e.g., money, food, or a temporary place to \btay). Re\bilience \bcholar\b note that \bocial \bupport i\b a critical protective re\bource during adver\bity (Kania\bty, 2012). Re\bearcher\b have found that higher level\b of \bocial \bupport during and i\mn the aftermath of a di\ba\b ter are a\b\bociated with lower rate\b of p\bychological di\btre\b\b (Greene, Paranjothy, & Palmer, 2015; Self-Brown, Ander\bon, Edward\b, & McGill, 2013). The po\bitive mental health impact\m of a \btrong \bocial \bupport \by\btem, or the negative impact\b of lower \bocial \bupport, ca\mn per\bi\bt for year\b after a di\ba\bter, \buch a\b a hurrican\me (Bank\b & Weem\b, 2014). A\b de\bcribed ab\move, a faith community, or any other tight-knit\m and \bupportive \bocial network, can provide \bignificant emotional\m and material \bupport (Cain & Barthelemy, 2008; Mark\b et al\m., 2015). People living in area\b mo\bt impacted by Hurricane Katrina reported in an interview \btudy that their ''church family'' (p. 256) offered them a li\btening ear, empathy, and moral \bupport in the extremely difficult aftermath of the hurricane (Mark\b et al., 2015).7. Encoura\be connection \fith parents, family, and other role models. The \bupportof family and clo\be connection\b are particularly impor\mtant for children. Parent\b are likely the mo\bt central \bource of \bupport for children during trauma and adver\bity, and children are at higher ri\bk of
44 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 45long-term physiological and ment\:al health stress burdens when parents themselves suffer acute levels of distress (Simpson et al.\b 2011; Weine et al.\b 2014). Petrasek MacDonald et al. (2015) reported that spending time with \:family and friends helps protect the mental heal\:th of youth enduring the impact\:s of climate change on their land and \:environment. Parents and caregivers also serve as buffer against trauma and protect children from neglect and abuse by providing necessities\b such as shelter and food (Kousky\b 2016). Support for children can come from outside the family as well. The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2015) found that children and youth optimize resilience during adversity if they have the help of non-ca\:regiver role models\b such as teachers or coaches. These role models are especially import\:ant following natural disaster events. Children look to parents and other caregivers as models in managing their \:emotions. Effective c oping strategies should be tau\:ght during this time\b such as encouraging children to talk about the event or turning to other resilient communities that have endured natural disasters and recovered (Lazarus\b Jimerson\b & Brock\b 2002). Support networks\b such as the National Alliance on Mental Health's Parents and Teachers as Allies program\b can help these r\:ole models identify children with mental ill\:ness and relay the proper resources to parents. 8. When possible, uphold connection to place. As climate change alters the landscape\b it also forces change upon cultu\:res tied to the land. As already noted\b indigenous communities are experiencing rapid cultural change as the climate warms and makes many traditional cultural practices difficult. Research in affected communities indicates that people do not wi\:sh to leave their homes\b despit e the changes they may experience (e.g.\b Cunsolo Willox et al.\b 2012). Staying in a place to which one feels connected can increase resilience because people are more likely to take adaptive actions\b such as preparing for flooding (A dger et al.\b 2013). \f. Maintain connections to one's culture.New immigrant and refugee communities are another vulnerable group whose mental health bene\:fits from a connection to culture\b especially during \:adversity. Weine et al. (2014) interviewed Burundian and Liberian refugees\b many of whom were adolescents who had recently moved to the United States. The authors noted family cohesion\b participation in religious traditions\b and cultural connectedness were resources that protected individuals' men\:tal health during difficult time\:s. Refugees may find it particularly imp\:ortant to maintain cultural connections as their \:homes have been disrupted (Fullilove\b 2013). \fn order to support individua\:ls' success in becoming resilient\b the following are tips to consider that address personal attributes and support socia\:l cohesion:1. Build belief in on\:e's own resilience.2. Foster optimism.3. Cultivate active coping and self-regulation.4. Find a source of personal meani\:ng.5. Boost personal preparedness.6. Support social netw\:orks. 7. Encourage connection to parents\b family\b and other role models.8. Uphold connection to place.9. Maintain connections to one's culture.\bEY TA\bEAWAYS: Tips to Support Individual\asT\fPS TO SUPPORT COMMUN\fT\fESWe know a great deal about what helps individuals\: become more resilient. \fn contrast\b little research has explored psycho-social resilience at the community level (Bonanno\b Romero\b & Klein\b 2015). A resilient and healthy community is not just the sum of many resilient individual\:s; it multiplies individual capacity\: by bringing people \:together for joint action and mutual support.\: Resilience also requires more than crisis preparedness. To be resilient in the face of climate change\b a community must have the flexibility to respond to the entire unpredictable array of potential climate impacts. Communities must be ready for sudden traumatic events\b such as extreme storms\b heat waves\b and floods. Communities should a\:lso make plans that include tools for the slow\b unsettling alterations of climate change\b such as increasingly warmer winters or changes in local wil\:dlife and plant communities.Among other benefit\:s\b communities can be a\: source of stability and safety for their citizens or members. Hum\:ans fare better when they perceive the world around them as orderly\b predictable\b and benevolent (e.g.\b Hanbury et al.\b 2013; Kaniasty\b 2012). As noted earlier\b climate change brings great unpredictability and un\:certainty for the future. Many people have difficulty coming to terms with the negative news they hear about climate change; they feel loss and despair. Similar to natural disasters and other large-scale traumas\b climate change may cause people to question their beliefs \:about themselves\b the people around them\b and the world (e.g.\b Harper & Pargament\b 2015; Marks et al.\b 2015). Similar to sufferers of physical trauma\b people need tools to manage their anx\:iety and other feelings (Bonanno\b 2008). To help restore people's equilibrium and their faith that there is good in the world\b here are some tips to consider when buildi\:ng resilient communities. COMMUNITY SUPPORT AND PLANNING 1. Assess and expand community mental hea\alth infrastructure. \fnfrastructure plays an enormous role in shaping how vulnerable communities are to psychological impacts. A community with poor\: infrastructure is more vulnerable to the physical impacts of clim\:ate change\b which\b in turn\b aff\:ect mental health. Men\:tal health infrastructure\b in particular\b should be assessed (Weissbecker & Czinez\b 2011). Dominelli (2013) suggested that part of the assessment of the mental\: health infrastructure should include qu\:estions about who may be available on an informal basis to provide help\b care\b medicine\b and comfort when formal services break down. For example\b neighbors and community members ar\:e often Building resilience for disasters and confronting the gradual changes due to climate change will help communities alleviate adverse health outcomes. Although these tip\as are targeted toward city, state, and national planners and \apolicymakers, a range of organizations (from public health agencies to faith-based communities) can use these suggestions to advance efforts and strengthen communities' response to disasters and gradual climate impacts.
44 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 45long-term physiological and ment\:al health stress burdens when parents themselves suffer acute levels of distress (Simpson et al.\b 2011; Weine et al.\b 2014). Petrasek MacDonald et al. (2015) reported that spending time with \:family and friends helps protect the mental heal\:th of youth enduring the impact\:s of climate change on their land and \:environment. Parents and caregivers also serve as buffer against trauma and protect children from neglect and abuse by providing necessities\b such as shelter and food (Kousky\b 2016). Support for children can come from outside the family as well. The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2015) found that children and youth optimize resilience during adversity if they have the help of non-ca\:regiver role models\b such as teachers or coaches. These role models are especially import\:ant following natural disaster events. Children look to parents and other caregivers as models in managing their \:emotions. Effective c oping strategies should be tau\:ght during this time\b such as encouraging children to talk about the event or turning to other resilient communities that have endured natural disasters and recovered (Lazarus\b Jimerson\b & Brock\b 2002). Support networks\b such as the National Alliance on Mental Health's Parents and Teachers as Allies program\b can help these r\:ole models identify children with mental ill\:ness and relay the proper resources to parents. 8. When possible, uphold connection to place. As climate change alters the landscape\b it also forces change upon cultu\:res tied to the land. As already noted\b indigenous communities are experiencing rapid cultural change as the climate warms and makes many traditional cultural practices difficult. Research in affected communities indicates that people do not wi\:sh to leave their homes\b despit e the changes they may experience (e.g.\b Cunsolo Willox et al.\b 2012). Staying in a place to which one feels connected can increase resilience because people are more likely to take adaptive actions\b such as preparing for flooding (A dger et al.\b 2013). \f. Maintain connections to one's culture.New immigrant and refugee communities are another vulnerable group whose mental health bene\:fits from a connection to culture\b especially during \:adversity. Weine et al. (2014) interviewed Burundian and Liberian refugees\b many of whom were adolescents who had recently moved to the United States. The authors noted family cohesion\b participation in religious traditions\b and cultural connectedness were resources that protected individuals' men\:tal health during difficult time\:s. Refugees may find it particularly imp\:ortant to maintain cultural connections as their \:homes have been disrupted (Fullilove\b 2013). \fn order to support individua\:ls' success in becoming resilient\b the following are tips to consider that address personal attributes and support socia\:l cohesion:1. Build belief in on\:e's own resilience.2. Foster optimism.3. Cultivate active coping and self-regulation.4. Find a source of personal meani\:ng.5. Boost personal preparedness.6. Support social netw\:orks. 7. Encourage connection to parents\b family\b and other role models.8. Uphold connection to place.9. Maintain connections to one's culture.\bEY TA\bEAWAYS: Tips to Support Individual\asz\fAD.zb.DŸAAb›z.ub Ÿ(\fz\fffDyW.BhEO.n.d,Wne.iWnp.nCEle.Osne.sWpMr.chicUcilnpr\a.CW'EtW.tE,W.,WrcpcWheL.\fh.'Ehe,nre\b.pceepW.,WrWn,'s.snr.WMpE,Wi. .MrS'sEvrE'cnp.,WrcpcWh'W.ne.esW.'EttlhceS.pWUWp.R—EhnhhE\b.›EtW,E\b.–.wpWch\b.G1xIfL.T.,WrcpcWhe.nhi.healthy community is not just the sum of many resilient individual\:s; it multiplies individual capacity\: by bringing people \:together for joint action and mutual support.\: Resilience also requires more than crisis preparedness. To be resilient in the face of climate change\b a community must have the flexibility to respond to the entire unpredictable array of potential climate impacts. Communities must be ready for sudden traumatic events\b such as extreme storms\b heat waves\b and floods. Communities should a\:lso make plans that include tools for the slow\b unsettling alterations of climate change\b such as increasingly warmer winters or changes in local wil\:dlife and plant communities.Among other benefit\:s\b communities can be a\: source of stability and safety for their citizens or members. Hum\:ans fare better when they perceive the world around them as orderly\b predictable\b and benevolent (e.g.\b Hanbury et al.\b 2013; Kaniasty\b 2012). As noted earlier\b climate change brings great unpredictability and un\:certainty for the future. Many people have difficulty coming to terms with the negative news they hear about climate change; they feel loss and despair. Similar to natural disasters and other large-scale traumas\b climate change may cause people to question their beliefs \:about themselves\b the people around them\b and the world (e.g.\b Harper & Pargament\b 2015; Marks et al.\b 2015). Similar to sufferers of physical trauma\b people need tools to manage their anx\:iety and other feelings (Bonanno\b 2008). To help restore people's equilibrium and their faith that there is good in the world\b here are some tips to consider when buildi\:ng resilient communities. COMMUNITY SUPPORT AND PLANNING 1. Assess and expand community mental hea\alth infrastructure. \fnfrastructure plays an enormous role in shaping how vulnerable communities are to psychological impacts. A community with poor\: infrastructure is more vulnerable to the physical impacts of clim\:ate change\b which\b in turn\b aff\:ect mental health. Men\:tal health infrastructure\b in particular\b should be assessed (Weissbecker & Czinez\b 2011). Dominelli (2013) suggested that part of the assessment of the mental\: health infrastructure should include qu\:estions about who may be available on an informal basis to provide help\b care\b medicine\b and comfort when formal services break down. For example\b neighbors and community members ar\:e often Building resilience for disasters and confronting the gradual changes due to climate change will help communities alleviate adverse health outcomes. Although these tip\as are targeted toward city, state, and national planners and \apolicymakers, a range of organizations (from public health agencies to faith-based communities) can use these suggestions to advance efforts and strengthen communities' response to disasters and gradual climate impacts.
46 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 47the mo\bt available and the quicke\bt to help people in their proximity (Dominelli, 2013). When a\b\be\b\bing the community mental health infra\btructure, here are \bome \bpecific que\btion\b to con\bider\f1. Doe\b the community have a plan to \berve people in need af\mter a \bhock/di\ba\bter?2. Doe\b the community have the capacity to \berve the potential increa\bed need\b of peopl\me a\b climate impact\b grow? 3. Currently, can all community member\b acce\b\b the mental health\m care they need?4. What are the gap\b, and wha\mt area\b of \bervice may need to be augmented?5. I\b there a di\ba\bter mental health coalition?Public health agenci\me\b are one channel for guiding and encouraging the expan\bion of infra\btructure for adaptation and preparation. Although many public health official\b do not yet perceive addre\b\bing climate change a\b a priori\mty for their agencie\b, tho\be who \mperceive greater ri\bk from climate change are more likely to have begun to addre\b\b it (Syal, Wil\bon, Crawford, & Lutz, 2011).2. Facilitate social cohesion thro\fgh comm\fnity \besign. Individual mental h\mealth i\b better in communitie\b with \btronger \bocial fabric (Friedli, 2009). S\mtrong community network\b more ea\bily develop in neighborhoo\md\b with \bpace\b and organization\b that bring people together, \buch a\b community center\b, park\b, and a \btreet\bcape of \bhop\b and \bidewalk\b. Thi\b idea wa\b borne out during the 1995 Chicago heat wave, when an analy\bi\b comparing two neighborhood\b \bhowed that people living in \mChicago'\b Auburn Gre\bham neighborhood \mfared much better through the heat wave than tho\be in the adjacent and demographically \bimilar (poor and la\mrgely African American)Englewood neighborhood. \mHeat wave'' related death\b in Englewood were more than three time\b that of Auburn Gre\bham, and \bcholar\b attribute the low heat wave fatality rate in Auburn Gre\bham, which wa\b lower than that of many very affluent Chicago neighborhoo\md\b, to the high \bocial cohe\bion facilitated through an urban land\bcape of \bhop\b, pu\mblic \bpace\b, and community organization\b (Klinenberg, 2013). During the he\mat wave, people in the Auburn Gre\bham neighborhood \mwere more likely to check on one anot\mher, and thu\b, the mo\bt vulnerable, \buch a\b the hou\bebound elderly, had a lifeline. 3. Train the people who\r will serve the comm\fnity \b\fring a \bisa\rster. Following a di\ba\bter, when people are in the throe\b of extreme di\btre\b\b and high emotion typical in the immediate aftermath (e.g., fear, anger, terror, helple\b\bne\b\b, \bhock, grief), it i\b crucial that the \bervice\b available to them be \ben\bitive and interactive (Raphael, 2007). However, in the ru\bh to provide ba\bic nece\b\bitie\b and to \bearch for and re\bcue mi\b\bing or injured people, thi\b type of compa\b\bion may not alway\b be pre\bent. Hobfoll (2007) offered five evidence-ba\bed principle\b to guide intervention in the aftermath of a di\ba\bter or acute event and to move re\bcue worker\b and re\bponder\b toward compa\b\bion. Communitie\b that implement the\be princ\miple\b, by training fir\bt re\bponder\b and other\b\m, can limit the lon\mg-term negative p\bychological con\bequence\b and trauma of acute event\b. The goal\b include promoting the following\f1. A \ben\be of \bafety2. Calmne\b\b3. A po\bitive sense of self and a \ben\be of community efficacy4. Connectedne\b\b5. Hope (Continue\b on page 48\m)A CLOSER LOOKFin\bing a Place for Psychology in Climate Change Deliberations, Linda Silka, PhDOne of the overarching concern\b about climate change i\b it\b impac\mt on the infra\btructure we all depend on. What happen\b to vulnerable neighborhood\b when road\b and bridge\b are de\btroyed by extreme precipitation or when hurri\mcane\b hit a coa\btal community, leaving emergency \bervice\b unable to reach the familie\b hit harde\bt? How do communitie\b get the information they need to prepare for \buch event\b and build re\bilience in the face of the changing climate?In New England, many major citie\b are right on the ocean. Key part\b of our infra\btructure'--road\b and bridge\b an\md the like'--could be underwater in the not-too-di\btant future. Variou\b kind\b of experti\be are needed for the complex ta\bk of preparing for the\be impact\b. I've \been thi\b fir\bthand a\b part of th\me Infra\btructure and Climate Network (theicnet.org), an NSF-funded network that bring\b together infra\btructure engineer\b, climate \bcienti\bt\b, and other re\bearcher\b, \buch a\b p\bychologi\bt\b, to \btrengthen communication acro\b\b relevant di\bcipline\b. Through web\bite\b, work\bhop\b, webinar\b, and writin\mg, ICNet member\b have found innovative way\b to overcome di\bciplinary diff\merence\b, acro\b\b varying model\b of in\mfra\btructure failure and climate uncertainty, in order to provide information that can help communitie\b prepare and adapt.A\b re\bearcher\b from diver\be field\b of \btudy, we have talked together, \bhared model\b and approache\b, and worked with practitioner\b \buch a\b i\mn-\btate department\b of tran\bportation, in order to develop integrated roadmap\b for addre\b\bing climate change. After four year\b of work, we now have much more actionable \btrategie\b for how the people on the\m ground can prepare for the coming climate change. In one of our mo\b\mt exciting ICNet meetin\mg\b, a leading climate modeler involved in ICNet (Dr. Katherine Hayhoe of Texa\b Tech), along\bide \bcho\mlar\b from other di\bcipline\b,\m pre\bented climate change model\b to a room full of infra\btructure \bpeciali\bt\b from throughout New England. Participant\b repeatedly \baid afterward that for the fir\bt time they could \bee how they could actually u\be climate change information to prepare for coming challenge\b.I wa\b brought in a\b a \bocial\m and community p\bychologi\bt becau\be the ICNet\m team member\b realized that they needed experti\be in cro\b\b-di\bciplinary communication. There i\b much that p\bychology can contribute that too often goe\b untapped becau\be\m it i\b not labeled \ma\b relevant to climate change. P\bychology i\b central to much of what i\b being di\bcu\b\bed, \buch a\b the worrie\b the other di\bcipline\b expre\b\bed about how their finding\b will be impl\memented. P\bychological re\bearch can help addre\b\b group proce\b\b, community problem-\bolving, \bocia\ml cohe\bion and connectedne\b\b, lack of tru\bt between community member\b and \m in\btitution\b, difference\b in vulnerability, attitude''behavior link\b, heuri\btic\b and ri\bk perception, and fear appeal\b. We p\bychologi\bt\b have an important role to play in helping profe\b\bional\b from different field\b collaborate effectively to prepare for climate impact\b.
46 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 47the mo\bt available and the quicke\bt to help people in their proximity (Dominelli, 2013). When a\b\be\b\bing the community mental health infra\btructure, here are \bome \bpecific que\btion\b to con\bider\f1. Doe\b the community have a plan to \berve people in need af\mter a \bhock/di\ba\bter?2. Doe\b the community have the capacity to \berve the potential increa\bed need\b of peopl\me a\b climate impact\b grow? 3. Currently, can all community member\b acce\b\b the mental health\m care they need?4. What are the gap\b, and wha\mt area\b of \bervice may need to be augmented?5. I\b there a di\ba\bter mental health coalition?Public health agenci\me\b are one channel for guiding and encouraging the expan\bion of infra\btructure for adaptation and preparation. Although many public health official\b do not yet perceive addre\b\bing climate change a\b a priori\mty for their agencie\b, tho\be who \mperceive greater ri\bk from climate change are more likely to have begun to addre\b\b it (Syal, Wil\bon, Crawford, & Lutz, 2011).2. Facilitate social cohesion thro\fgh comm\fnity \besign. Individual mental h\mealth i\b better in communitie\b with \btronger \bocial fabric (Friedli, 2009). S\mtrong community network\b more ea\bily develop in neighborhoo\md\b with \bpace\b and organization\b that bring people together, \buch a\b community center\b, park\b, and a \btreet\bcape of \bhop\b and \bidewalk\b. Thi\b idea wa\b borne out during the 1995 Chicago heat wave, when an analy\bi\b comparing two neighborhood\b \bhowed that people living in \mChicago'\b Auburn Gre\bham neighborhood \mfared much better through the heat wave than tho\be in the adjacent and demographically \bimilar (poor and la\mrgely African American)Englewood neighborhood. \mHeat wave'' related death\b in Englewood were more than three time\b that of Auburn Gre\bham, and \bcholar\b attribute the low heat wave fatality rate in Auburn Gre\bham, which wa\b lower than that of many very affluent Chicago neighborhoo\md\b, to the high \bocial cohe\bion facilitated through an urban land\bcape of \bhop\b, pu\mblic \bpace\b, and community organization\b (Klinenberg, 2013). During the he\mat wave, people in the Auburn Gre\bham neighborhood \mwere more likely to check on one anot\mher, and thu\b, the mo\bt vulnerable, \buch a\b the hou\bebound elderly, had a lifeline. 3. Train the people who\r will serve the comm\fnity \b\fring a \bisa\rster. Following a di\ba\bter, when people are in the throe\b of extreme di\btre\b\b and high emotion typical in the immediate aftermath (e.g., fear, anger, terror, helple\b\bne\b\b, \bhock, grief), it i\b crucial that the \bervice\b available to them be \ben\bitive and interactive (Raphael, 2007). However, in the ru\bh to provide ba\bic nece\b\bitie\b and to \bearch for and re\bcue mi\b\bing or injured people, thi\b type of compa\b\bion may not alway\b be pre\bent. Hobfoll (2007) offered five evidence-ba\bed principle\b to guide intervention in the aftermath of a di\ba\bter or acute event and to move re\bcue worker\b and re\bponder\b toward compa\b\bion. Communitie\b that implement the\be princ\miple\b, by training fir\bt re\bponder\b and other\b\m, can limit the lon\mg-term negative p\bychological con\bequence\b and trauma of acute event\b. The goal\b include promoting the following\f1. A \ben\be of \bafety2. Calmne\b\b3. A po\bitive sense of self and a \ben\be of community efficacy4. Connectedne\b\b5. Hope (Continue\b on page 48\m)A CLOSER LOOKFin\bing a Place for Psychology in Climate Change Deliberations, Linda Silka, PhDOne of the overarching concern\b about climate change i\b it\b impac\mt on the infra\btructure we all depend on. What happen\b to vulnerable neighborhood\b when road\b and bridge\b are de\btroyed by extreme precipitation or when hurri\mcane\b hit a coa\btal community, leaving emergency \bervice\b unable to reach the familie\b hit harde\bt? How do communitie\b get the information they need to prepare for \buch event\b and build re\bilience in the face of the changing climate?In New England, many major citie\b are right on the ocean. Key part\b of our infra\btructure'--road\b and bridge\b an\md the like'--could be underwater in the not-too-di\btant future. Variou\b kind\b of experti\be are needed for the complex ta\bk of preparing for the\be impact\b. I've \been thi\b fir\bthand a\b part of th\me Infra\btructure and Climate Network (theicnet.org), an NSF-funded network that bring\b together infra\btructure engineer\b, climate \bcienti\bt\b, and other re\bearcher\b, \buch a\b p\bychologi\bt\b, to \btrengthen communication acro\b\b relevant di\bcipline\b. Through web\bite\b, work\bhop\b, webinar\b, and writin\mg, ICNet member\b have found innovative way\b to overcome di\bciplinary diff\merence\b, acro\b\b varying model\b of in\mfra\btructure failure and climate uncertainty, in order to provide information that can help communitie\b prepare and adapt.A\b re\bearcher\b from diver\be field\b of \btudy, we have talked together, \bhared model\b and approache\b, and worked with practitioner\b \buch a\b i\mn-\btate department\b of tran\bportation, in order to develop integrated roadmap\b for addre\b\bing climate change. After four year\b of work, we now have much more actionable \btrategie\b for how the people on the\m ground can prepare for the coming climate change. In one of our mo\b\mt exciting ICNet meetin\mg\b, a leading climate modeler involved in ICNet (Dr. Katherine Hayhoe of Texa\b Tech), along\bide \bcho\mlar\b from other di\bcipline\b,\m pre\bented climate change model\b to a room full of infra\btructure \bpeciali\bt\b from throughout New England. Participant\b repeatedly \baid afterward that for the fir\bt time they could \bee how they could actually u\be climate change information to prepare for coming challenge\b.I wa\b brought in a\b a \bocial\m and community p\bychologi\bt becau\be the ICNet\m team member\b realized that they needed experti\be in cro\b\b-di\bciplinary communication. There i\b much that p\bychology can contribute that too often goe\b untapped becau\be\m it i\b not labeled \ma\b relevant to climate change. P\bychology i\b central to much of what i\b being di\bcu\b\bed, \buch a\b the worrie\b the other di\bcipline\b expre\b\bed about how their finding\b will be impl\memented. P\bychological re\bearch can help addre\b\b group proce\b\b, community problem-\bolving, \bocia\ml cohe\bion and connectedne\b\b, lack of tru\bt between community member\b and \m in\btitution\b, difference\b in vulnerability, attitude''behavior link\b, heuri\btic\b and ri\bk perception, and fear appeal\b. We p\bychologi\bt\b have an important role to play in helping profe\b\bional\b from different field\b collaborate effectively to prepare for climate impact\b.
48 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 49It i\b al\bo important\m that fir\bt re\bponder\b and other\b be trained to recognize the \bign\b and \bymptom\b of mental health\m di\btre\b\b, which vary widely acro\b\b cultural communitie\b and \btage\b of life. Equally a\b important i\b cro\b\b-training between mental health and fi\mr\bt re\bponder\b. Tho\be \buffering acute emotional trauma benefit from immediate a\b\bi\btance (Madrid & Grant, 2008), and it i\b important\m that available re\bource\b be focu\bed upon tho\be wh\mo need them mo\bt. Critical incident \stress management can be u\bed to help alleviate the potential for developing PTSD (Everly, Flannery, & Eyler, 2002). Among the growing number of clima\mte refugee\b forced to relocate, \bome expert\b recommend having \bcreening tool\b to a\b\be\b\b lo\b\be\b in phy\bical and p\bychological re\bource\b, need\b, and \bymptom\b (Hollifield, Ful\mlilove, & Hobfoll, 2011). Not everyone experience\b p\bychological di\btre\b\b after a di\ba\bter, and \bome may be wor\be off if they are coerced into participating in an unnece\b\bary intervention (Bonanno, 2008). Diver\bity training i\b al\bo e\b\bential for tho\be who work in community facilitie\b, \buch a\b de\bignated cooling center\b or \bhelter\b, where people from all background\b may \beek aid and a\b\bi\btance. Tho\be running the\be facilitie\b mu\bt en\bure a \bafe and welcoming environment for all community member\b regardle\b\b of gender identit\my, age, racial or ethnic back\mground, \bexual orientation, or religion (Phadke, Manning, & Burlager, 2015).4. Provide clear and frequent information. In an example of a \blowly evolving environmental di\ba\bter (an a\bbe\bto\b leak in a Montana town characterized by high level\b of uncertainty), people e\mxpre\b\bed the need for clear information (Cline et al., 2015). Tho\be affected by the di\ba\bter al\bo had unmet emoti\monal need\b becau\be other\b in the community did not recognize or acknowledge their \buffering. It i\b po\b\bible that tho\be feeling trauma from the gradual impact\b of climate change may experience a \bimilar need for informational and emotiona\ml \bupport. One barrier\m to thi\b kind of \buppo\mrt i\b a he\bitance that many people feel to talkabout climate change with other\m\b. It i\b critical that tho\be communicating with impacted people are \been a\b reliable, legitimate, and credible (Stockholm Environment In\btitute, 2016). Information from other communitie\b that have already experienced \bignificant di\ba\bter\b can be invaluable in helping communitie\b prepare for climate change\b.\f. Reduce disparities. Communitie\b a\b a whol\me cope better with an acute event when economic di\bparity i\b reduced and the need\b of\m the economically vulnerable are attended to in advance (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014; Norri\b et al., \m2008). Wicke\b, Zahnow, Taylor, and Piquero (2015), in a \btudy of Bri\bbane, Au\btralia, re\bident\b, found greater community-wide trauma after a flood in area\b with high concentration\b of economically vulnerable people in compari\bon with a \bimilar community where re\bident\b were more affluent. After the flood, affluen\mt neighborhood\b with \macce\b\b to material re\bource\b di\bplayed greater re\bilience than le\b\b well-off communitie\b, regardle\b\b of their level of \bocial capital\m (Wicke\b et al., 2015). A community with large re\bource di\bparitie\b i\b not re\bilient. To broaden re\bilience community-wide, Bau\b\ban and Kelly (2016) \bugge\bted that communitie\b do what they can to reduce di\bparity by inve\bting in affordable hou\bing, expanding employment opportunitie\b, and i\mmproving public tran\bportation.\b. Pay special attention to vulnerable populations. A\b di\bcu\b\bed throughout thi\b report, not everyone will experience climate change in the \bame way. In particular, low-income communitie\b, indigeno\mu\b group\b, immigrant\b, refugee\b, pregnant women, children, and older adult\b are e\bpecially \bu\bceptible to the p\bychological effect\b of climate change. (See ''The Problem of Inequity'' \mon page 31.) Planner\b and policymaker\b \bhould take thi\b fact into account when developing program\b and protocol\b to prepare for climate change. Planner\b may al\bo choo\be to u\be climate ri\bk and vulnerability map\b, like tho\be that have been u\bed by the City of Toronto (Gower et al., 2010), to identify area\b and population\b that may be e\bpecially \bu\bceptible to impact\b on human well-being and plan \maccordingly.DISASTER PLANNING7. Develop trusted and action-focused warning systems. An effective warning \by\btem for \bevere weather event\b can \bave live\b, reduce injurie\b, and reduce property damage from di\ba\bter\b. Unfortunately, the\be \by\btem\b do not alway\b function a\b effectively a\b they could, due, in part, to limitation\b and uncertaintie\b inherent in foreca\bting technologie\b. However, warning \by\btem\b are al\bo often le\b\b effective becau\be individua\ml\b ignore warning\b or downplay them. Re\bearch \bugge\bt\b a number of factor\b that influence the likelihood people will\m take warning\b \beriou\bly an\md take protective action. For example, people with littl\me per\bonal prior experience with a di\ba\bter or who don't under\m\btand the \beverity of po\b\bible impact\b appear t\mo be le\b\b motivated to take the warning \beriou\bly or\m to \beek further information (e.g., Knocke & Kolivra\b, 2007; Lee, Meyer, & Bradlow, 2009). It i\b al\bo po\b\m\bible that a warning \by\btem that ha\b been wrong on numerou\b occa\bion\b may be perceived a\b unreliable, and thu\b i\b le\b\b likely to evoke a re\bpon\be (for a di\bcu\b\bion, \bee Barne\b, Gr\muntfe\bt, Hayden, Schultz, & Ben\might, 2007). Some re\bearch al\bo \bugge\bt\b that there may be important racial difference\b in how individual\b re\bpond to a warning (e.g., Lachlan, Burke, Spence & Griffin, 2009). Thi\b difference, in turn, can affect the likelihood and \beverity of p\bychological and other impact\b on\m human well-being. Communitie\b \bhould con\bider te\bting their warning \by\btem\b to be \bure that\f 1. All re\bident\b are reached.2. All re\bident\b under\btand what the warning mean\b and th\me \btep\b they \bhould take to re\bpond to it.3. The warning\b are perceived a\b reliable and credible. 4. The warning\b communicate that the government and other o\mrganization\b are actively taking \btep\b to care for the community. 8. Provide a fast response. After an acute trauma, \bupport mu\bt be mobilized quickly. Many p\bychological \btre\b\b \bymptom\b \btem from the early pha\be\b \mof a di\ba\bter (Simp\bon et al., \m2011), and a \ben\be that aid i\b \blow in coming, non-exi\btent, or di\btributed unfairly can contribute to people viewing their community a\b uncaring\m and unavailable (Kania\bty, 2012). Tho\be living in the community it\belf, and organization\b located there, are often the quicke\bt to come to other\b' aid durin\mg a di\ba\bter (Bau\b\ban, 2015), which under\bcore\b the importance of community engagement \min climate re\bilience planning (\bee Section 11 ''Engage community member\b'' bel\mow).9. Have a post-disaster plan. A\b noted earlier, p\bychological di\btre\b\b following a di\ba\bter may linger for \beveral year\b. Communitie\b can alleviate \bome of the long-term impact\b with po\bt-di\ba\bter planning, particular\mly targeting lower- re\bourced communitie\b that tend to be harder hit materially and emotion\mally (Bau\b\ban, 2015). One important \melement of a po\bt-di\ba\bter plan i\b the return of evacuated re\bident\b. Although \mpeople may
48 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 49It i\b al\bo important\m that fir\bt re\bponder\b and other\b be trained to recognize the \bign\b and \bymptom\b of mental health\m di\btre\b\b, which vary widely acro\b\b cultural communitie\b and \btage\b of life. Equally a\b important i\b cro\b\b-training between mental health and fi\mr\bt re\bponder\b. Tho\be \buffering acute emotional trauma benefit from immediate a\b\bi\btance (Madrid & Grant, 2008), and it i\b important\m that available re\bource\b be focu\bed upon tho\be wh\mo need them mo\bt. Critical incident \stress management can be u\bed to help alleviate the potential for developing PTSD (Everly, Flannery, & Eyler, 2002). Among the growing number of clima\mte refugee\b forced to relocate, \bome expert\b recommend having \bcreening tool\b to a\b\be\b\b lo\b\be\b in phy\bical and p\bychological re\bource\b, need\b, and \bymptom\b (Hollifield, Ful\mlilove, & Hobfoll, 2011). Not everyone experience\b p\bychological di\btre\b\b after a di\ba\bter, and \bome may be wor\be off if they are coerced into participating in an unnece\b\bary intervention (Bonanno, 2008). Diver\bity training i\b al\bo e\b\bential for tho\be who work in community facilitie\b, \buch a\b de\bignated cooling center\b or \bhelter\b, where people from all background\b may \beek aid and a\b\bi\btance. Tho\be running the\be facilitie\b mu\bt en\bure a \bafe and welcoming environment for all community member\b regardle\b\b of gender identit\my, age, racial or ethnic back\mground, \bexual orientation, or religion (Phadke, Manning, & Burlager, 2015).4. Provide clear and frequent information. In an example of a \blowly evolving environmental di\ba\bter (an a\bbe\bto\b leak in a Montana town characterized by high level\b of uncertainty), people e\mxpre\b\bed the need for clear information (Cline et al., 2015). Tho\be affected by the di\ba\bter al\bo had unmet emoti\monal need\b becau\be other\b in the community did not recognize or acknowledge their \buffering. It i\b po\b\bible that tho\be feeling trauma from the gradual impact\b of climate change may experience a \bimilar need for informational and emotiona\ml \bupport. One barrier\m to thi\b kind of \buppo\mrt i\b a he\bitance that many people feel to talkabout climate change with other\m\b. It i\b critical that tho\be communicating with impacted people are \been a\b reliable, legitimate, and credible (Stockholm Environment In\btitute, 2016). Information from other communitie\b that have already experienced \bignificant di\ba\bter\b can be invaluable in helping communitie\b prepare for climate change\b.\f. Reduce disparities. Communitie\b a\b a whol\me cope better with an acute event when economic di\bparity i\b reduced and the need\b of\m the economically vulnerable are attended to in advance (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014; Norri\b et al., \m2008). Wicke\b, Zahnow, Taylor, and Piquero (2015), in a \btudy of Bri\bbane, Au\btralia, re\bident\b, found greater community-wide trauma after a flood in area\b with high concentration\b of economically vulnerable people in compari\bon with a \bimilar community where re\bident\b were more affluent. After the flood, affluen\mt neighborhood\b with \macce\b\b to material re\bource\b di\bplayed greater re\bilience than le\b\b well-off communitie\b, regardle\b\b of their level of \bocial capital\m (Wicke\b et al., 2015). A community with large re\bource di\bparitie\b i\b not re\bilient. To broaden re\bilience community-wide, Bau\b\ban and Kelly (2016) \bugge\bted that communitie\b do what they can to reduce di\bparity by inve\bting in affordable hou\bing, expanding employment opportunitie\b, and i\mmproving public tran\bportation.\b. Pay special attention to vulnerable populations. A\b di\bcu\b\bed throughout thi\b report, not everyone will experience climate change in the \bame way. In particular, low-income communitie\b, indigeno\mu\b group\b, immigrant\b, refugee\b, pregnant women, children, and older adult\b are e\bpecially \bu\bceptible to the p\bychological effect\b of climate change. (See ''The Problem of Inequity'' \mon page 31.) Planner\b and policymaker\b \bhould take thi\b fact into account when developing program\b and protocol\b to prepare for climate change. Planner\b may al\bo choo\be to u\be climate ri\bk and vulnerability map\b, like tho\be that have been u\bed by the City of Toronto (Gower et al., 2010), to identify area\b and population\b that may be e\bpecially \bu\bceptible to impact\b on human well-being and plan \maccordingly.DISASTER PLANNING7. Develop trusted and action-focused warning systems. An effective warning \by\btem for \bevere weather event\b can \bave live\b, reduce injurie\b, and reduce property damage from di\ba\bter\b. Unfortunately, the\be \by\btem\b do not alway\b function a\b effectively a\b they could, due, in part, to limitation\b and uncertaintie\b inherent in foreca\bting technologie\b. However, warning \by\btem\b are al\bo often le\b\b effective becau\be individua\ml\b ignore warning\b or downplay them. Re\bearch \bugge\bt\b a number of factor\b that influence the likelihood people will\m take warning\b \beriou\bly an\md take protective action. For example, people with littl\me per\bonal prior experience with a di\ba\bter or who don't under\m\btand the \beverity of po\b\bible impact\b appear t\mo be le\b\b motivated to take the warning \beriou\bly or\m to \beek further information (e.g., Knocke & Kolivra\b, 2007; Lee, Meyer, & Bradlow, 2009). It i\b al\bo po\b\m\bible that a warning \by\btem that ha\b been wrong on numerou\b occa\bion\b may be perceived a\b unreliable, and thu\b i\b le\b\b likely to evoke a re\bpon\be (for a di\bcu\b\bion, \bee Barne\b, Gr\muntfe\bt, Hayden, Schultz, & Ben\might, 2007). Some re\bearch al\bo \bugge\bt\b that there may be important racial difference\b in how individual\b re\bpond to a warning (e.g., Lachlan, Burke, Spence & Griffin, 2009). Thi\b difference, in turn, can affect the likelihood and \beverity of p\bychological and other impact\b on\m human well-being. Communitie\b \bhould con\bider te\bting their warning \by\btem\b to be \bure that\f 1. All re\bident\b are reached.2. All re\bident\b under\btand what the warning mean\b and th\me \btep\b they \bhould take to re\bpond to it.3. The warning\b are perceived a\b reliable and credible. 4. The warning\b communicate that the government and other o\mrganization\b are actively taking \btep\b to care for the community. 8. Provide a fast response. After an acute trauma, \bupport mu\bt be mobilized quickly. Many p\bychological \btre\b\b \bymptom\b \btem from the early pha\be\b \mof a di\ba\bter (Simp\bon et al., \m2011), and a \ben\be that aid i\b \blow in coming, non-exi\btent, or di\btributed unfairly can contribute to people viewing their community a\b uncaring\m and unavailable (Kania\bty, 2012). Tho\be living in the community it\belf, and organization\b located there, are often the quicke\bt to come to other\b' aid durin\mg a di\ba\bter (Bau\b\ban, 2015), which under\bcore\b the importance of community engagement \min climate re\bilience planning (\bee Section 11 ''Engage community member\b'' bel\mow).9. Have a post-disaster plan. A\b noted earlier, p\bychological di\btre\b\b following a di\ba\bter may linger for \beveral year\b. Communitie\b can alleviate \bome of the long-term impact\b with po\bt-di\ba\bter planning, particular\mly targeting lower- re\bourced communitie\b that tend to be harder hit materially and emotion\mally (Bau\b\ban, 2015). One important \melement of a po\bt-di\ba\bter plan i\b the return of evacuated re\bident\b. Although \mpeople may
50 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 51need to leave their home\b in th\me ca\be of di\ba\bter\b, their rapid return to their home environment\b will avoid the more \bignificant trauma a\b\bociated with di\bplacement.10. Ensure equitable and tr\oansparent distribution o\f resources. Following an acute event, di\btribution of relief or help may further divide a\m community if it i\b pe\mrceived a\b being done inequitably (Kania\bty, 2012). Of cour\be, di\btribution inequity\m often fall\b along the divi\bion\b of pre-exi\bting inequalitie\b; \mtho\be with greater power and privilege ma\my receive a greater amount or more rapid a\b\bi\btance than people who o\mccupy a marginalized place in the community. Perceived inequitie\b \buch a\m\b the\be can lead to polarization within the community; thi\b kind of tear in the \bocial f\mabric of the community and the concomitant lo\b\b of empathy and connection to other\b are harmful for individual, a\b w\mell a\b group, functioning (Prince-Embury, 2013). Inequitable di\btribution of re\bource\b can al\bo create di\btru\bt of government and in\btitution\b. One way to addre\b\b thi\b inequity i\b by including con\bervation area\b for community garden\b and ''foraging,'' rather than zoning open \bpace for unu\bed infra\btructure.COMMUNITY ACTION11. Engage communit\b members. Scholar\b agree that adaptation and re\bilience planning i\b mo\bt likely to \bucceedif the community i\b involved (Cox, 2012; Mo\ber & Boykoff, 2013; Mo\ber & Pike, 2015; Norri\b et al., 2008\m). Top-down di\ba\bter planning deci\bion\b ca\mn be effective in providing ba\bic infra\btructure, \buch a\b emergency re\bponder training, \bhelter\b, or emergency food, water, and energy \bupplie\b. However, given the unpredictability and unevenne\b\b of climate change impact\b, there i\b no top-down, one-\bize-fit\b-all way to prepare a community to re\bpond to climate change. In\btead, planner\b \bhould\m work to help the community, a\b a \bocial unit, prepare it\belf to collectively and creatively re\bpond to p\bychological and \bocial adver\bity (Cox, 2012; Mo\ber & Boykoff, 2013; Norri\b et al., 2\m008). Focu\bing on community-level capacitie\b may al\bo be the mo\bt efficient and effective way to build the re\bilience nece\b\bary for individual\b and communitie\b to \bucce\b\bfully prepare for and cope with the potential p\bychological impact\b of climate change (Cox, 2012; Mo\ber & Pike, 2015). Communitie\b can al\bo coordinate me\b\bage\b and effort\b acro\b\b government and non-government organization\b, which can mul\mtiply the \btrength and validity of the me\b\bage\b before, during, and after di\ba\bter\b. Community member\b \bhou\mld be engaged in all \btage\b of climate change re\biliency work, beginning wit\mh advance planning and capacity building an\md continuing through di\ba\bter management and r\mecovery (Norri\b et al., 2008). To \bcale up the\be \btrategie\b, communitie\b \bhould work with individua\ml\b already involved in communication and engagement to introduce a network that \bupport\b collaboration of the\be \bkill\m\b (Mo\ber & Pike, 2015). Deep community engagement yield\b mu\mltiple benefit\b, \buch a\b utilizing local \bkill\b and mai\mntaining cultural practice\b. A\b an intervention in Haiti demon\btrated, cultural \ben\bitivity i\b an\m e\b\bential feature to en\bure a program'\b acceptance and \bucce\b\b (Ba\btien, 2012). When community member\b are involved in planning, there i\b a greater \ben\be of autonomy and owner\bhip, which i\b likely to increa\be their \ben\be of \mefficacy. Thi\b can help combat the denial and pa\m\b\bivity that undermine effective re\bpon\be (Ojala, 2012; van Zomeren, Spear\b, & Leach, 2010) and decrea\be the \bkeptici\bm that \bome communitie\b feel toward external help (Phadke et al., 2015). Community member\b are al\bo more likely to participate if \bomeone from their \bocial netw\mork i\b already involved in effort\b and reache\b out to them per\bonally (Phadke et al., 2015). Repre\bentation from people from a wide range of background\b in the community i\b more likely to highlight differential vulnerabilitie\b acro\b\b group\b, \buch a\b race, cla\b\b, gender, or economic \btatu\b, and allow them to be addre\b\bed during planning. According to Reed et al. (2013), ameliorating the\be driver\b of inju\btice and vulnerability \bhould be t\mhe focu\b of climate change re\bilience and adaptation planning.12. Increase cooperation and social cohesion. One problem in mobilizing\m community \bupport after a community-wide traumatic event i\b that tho\be in the \bocia\ml network, whom an individual \mmight otherwi\be count on for a\b\bi\btance or companion\bhip, are likely to al\bo be victim\b of the \bame trauma. Thi\b make\b it difficult for clo\be neighbor\b to come to each other'\b a\b\bi\btance. People within the community are unlikely to be able to repleni\bh their own emotional well-being when all\m are \buffering from a communal re\bource drain (phy\bical, financial, emotional\m).Social cohe\bion can be culti\mvated by bringing people together to di\bcu\b\b and deliberate. People can forge clo\ber \bocial bond\b, improve their communication, and come to agreement that re\bident\b will work together when neede\md. At a minimum, \btrengthening \bocial n\metwork\b may require only that community member\b and \m neighbor\b make an explicit agreement that they will help each ot\mher during adver\bity (Brigg\b & Wei\b\bbecker, 2011). Community planner\b can al\bo de\mvi\be way\b to provide re\bource\b to exi\bting \bocial network\b (Norri\b et al., 200\m2), \buch a\b churche\b and other civic group\b.13. Provide opportunities \o\for meaning\ful action. \oCommunity engagement \mduring a cri\bi\b ha\b further benefit\b\m. For one thing, it \mexpand\b the reach of effort\b to help tho\be \buffering; a\b the numbe\mr of communitymember\b involved in helping durin\mg a cri\bi\b increa\be\b, the number of\m people helped al\bo grow\b. The people doing the\m helping may benefit even more than tho\be receiving their aid. \mA well-known finding in p\bychology i\b that one'\b own well-being increa\be\b through helping other\b\m. Re\bearch in trauma-impacted communitie\b ha\b confirmed that thi\b effect hold\b true during per\bonally d\mifficult time\b (Kania\bty, 2012; Petra\bek MacDonald et a\ml., 2013). For example, familie\b experiencing trauma report that helping other\b in\mcrea\bed their own ability to cope (Lietz, 2015). In a \btudy conducted after Hurricane Katrina, interviewee\b empha\bized the importance of ''giving back'' to other\b in their o\mwn healing proce\b\b (Mark\b et al., 20\m15, p. 256).Becoming involved in po\bt-di\ba\bter Communities can alleviate some o\f the long-term impacts with post-disaster planning
50 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 51need to leave their home\b in th\me ca\be of di\ba\bter\b, their rapid return to their home environment\b will avoid the more \bignificant trauma a\b\bociated with di\bplacement.10. Ensure equitable and tr\oansparent distribution o\f resources. Following an acute event, di\btribution of relief or help may further divide a\m community if it i\b pe\mrceived a\b being done inequitably (Kania\bty, 2012). Of cour\be, di\btribution inequity\m often fall\b along the divi\bion\b of pre-exi\bting inequalitie\b; \mtho\be with greater power and privilege ma\my receive a greater amount or more rapid a\b\bi\btance than people who o\mccupy a marginalized place in the community. Perceived inequitie\b \buch a\m\b the\be can lead to polarization within the community; thi\b kind of tear in the \bocial f\mabric of the community and the concomitant lo\b\b of empathy and connection to other\b are harmful for individual, a\b w\mell a\b group, functioning (Prince-Embury, 2013). Inequitable di\btribution of re\bource\b can al\bo create di\btru\bt of government and in\btitution\b. One way to addre\b\b thi\b inequity i\b by including con\bervation area\b for community garden\b and ''foraging,'' rather than zoning open \bpace for unu\bed infra\btructure.COMMUNITY ACTION11. Engage communit\b members. Scholar\b agree that adaptation and re\bilience planning i\b mo\bt likely to \bucceedif the community i\b involved (Cox, 2012; Mo\ber & Boykoff, 2013; Mo\ber & Pike, 2015; Norri\b et al., 2008\m). Top-down di\ba\bter planning deci\bion\b ca\mn be effective in providing ba\bic infra\btructure, \buch a\b emergency re\bponder training, \bhelter\b, or emergency food, water, and energy \bupplie\b. However, given the unpredictability and unevenne\b\b of climate change impact\b, there i\b no top-down, one-\bize-fit\b-all way to prepare a community to re\bpond to climate change. In\btead, planner\b \bhould\m work to help the community, a\b a \bocial unit, prepare it\belf to collectively and creatively re\bpond to p\bychological and \bocial adver\bity (Cox, 2012; Mo\ber & Boykoff, 2013; Norri\b et al., 2\m008). Focu\bing on community-level capacitie\b may al\bo be the mo\bt efficient and effective way to build the re\bilience nece\b\bary for individual\b and communitie\b to \bucce\b\bfully prepare for and cope with the potential p\bychological impact\b of climate change (Cox, 2012; Mo\ber & Pike, 2015). Communitie\b can al\bo coordinate me\b\bage\b and effort\b acro\b\b government and non-government organization\b, which can mul\mtiply the \btrength and validity of the me\b\bage\b before, during, and after di\ba\bter\b. Community member\b \bhou\mld be engaged in all \btage\b of climate change re\biliency work, beginning wit\mh advance planning and capacity building an\md continuing through di\ba\bter management and r\mecovery (Norri\b et al., 2008). To \bcale up the\be \btrategie\b, communitie\b \bhould work with individua\ml\b already involved in communication and engagement to introduce a network that \bupport\b collaboration of the\be \bkill\m\b (Mo\ber & Pike, 2015). Deep community engagement yield\b mu\mltiple benefit\b, \buch a\b utilizing local \bkill\b and mai\mntaining cultural practice\b. A\b an intervention in Haiti demon\btrated, cultural \ben\bitivity i\b an\m e\b\bential feature to en\bure a program'\b acceptance and \bucce\b\b (Ba\btien, 2012). When community member\b are involved in planning, there i\b a greater \ben\be of autonomy and owner\bhip, which i\b likely to increa\be their \ben\be of \mefficacy. Thi\b can help combat the denial and pa\m\b\bivity that undermine effective re\bpon\be (Ojala, 2012; van Zomeren, Spear\b, & Leach, 2010) and decrea\be the \bkeptici\bm that \bome communitie\b feel toward external help (Phadke et al., 2015). Community member\b are al\bo more likely to participate if \bomeone from their \bocial netw\mork i\b already involved in effort\b and reache\b out to them per\bonally (Phadke et al., 2015). Repre\bentation from people from a wide range of background\b in the community i\b more likely to highlight differential vulnerabilitie\b acro\b\b group\b, \buch a\b race, cla\b\b, gender, or economic \btatu\b, and allow them to be addre\b\bed during planning. According to Reed et al. (2013), ameliorating the\be driver\b of inju\btice and vulnerability \bhould be t\mhe focu\b of climate change re\bilience and adaptation planning.12. Increase cooperation and social cohesion. One problem in mobilizing\m community \bupport after a community-wide traumatic event i\b that tho\be in the \bocia\ml network, whom an individual \mmight otherwi\be count on for a\b\bi\btance or companion\bhip, are likely to al\bo be victim\b of the \bame trauma. Thi\b make\b it difficult for clo\be neighbor\b to come to each other'\b a\b\bi\btance. People within the community are unlikely to be able to repleni\bh their own emotional well-being when all\m are \buffering from a communal re\bource drain (phy\bical, financial, emotional\m).Social cohe\bion can be culti\mvated by bringing people together to di\bcu\b\b and deliberate. People can forge clo\ber \bocial bond\b, improve their communication, and come to agreement that re\bident\b will work together when neede\md. At a minimum, \btrengthening \bocial n\metwork\b may require only that community member\b and \m neighbor\b make an explicit agreement that they will help each ot\mher during adver\bity (Brigg\b & Wei\b\bbecker, 2011). Community planner\b can al\bo de\mvi\be way\b to provide re\bource\b to exi\bting \bocial network\b (Norri\b et al., 200\m2), \buch a\b churche\b and other civic group\b.13. Provide opportunities \o\for meaning\ful action. \oCommunity engagement \mduring a cri\bi\b ha\b further benefit\b\m. For one thing, it \mexpand\b the reach of effort\b to help tho\be \buffering; a\b the numbe\mr of communitymember\b involved in helping durin\mg a cri\bi\b increa\be\b, the number of\m people helped al\bo grow\b. The people doing the\m helping may benefit even more than tho\be receiving their aid. \mA well-known finding in p\bychology i\b that one'\b own well-being increa\be\b through helping other\b\m. Re\bearch in trauma-impacted communitie\b ha\b confirmed that thi\b effect hold\b true during per\bonally d\mifficult time\b (Kania\bty, 2012; Petra\bek MacDonald et a\ml., 2013). For example, familie\b experiencing trauma report that helping other\b in\mcrea\bed their own ability to cope (Lietz, 2015). In a \btudy conducted after Hurricane Katrina, interviewee\b empha\bized the importance of ''giving back'' to other\b in their o\mwn healing proce\b\b (Mark\b et al., 20\m15, p. 256).Becoming involved in po\bt-di\ba\bter Communities can alleviate some o\f the long-term impacts with post-disaster planning
52 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 53community effort\b may al\bo have a \belf- reinforcing po\bitive effect on people'\b perception\b of their own and the community'\b re\bilience. When people \bee fir\bthand that many other\b are participating in re\bilience-building effort\b, they become more confident not only i\mn the collective efficacy of the community but al\bo that help will be available when they them\belve\b need it (Kania\bty, 2012; Kania\bty & Norri\b, 2009).\mAdditional Resources for Responding to Mental \fealth Needs \MAfter Disasters The following \bite\b provide helpful overview\b of the \btep\b emergency per\bonnel and indiv\midual\b can take to care for them\belve\b and other\b\f ' Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention ' U.S. Department of V\meteran Affair\b' Wa\bhington, D.C. Government ' American P\bychiatric A\b\bociation' Federal Emergency Management Agency ' PreventionWeb' U.S. Department of H\mealth and Human Service\b' Sub\btance Abu\be & Mental He\malth Service\b Admini\btration' The National Child Traumatic Stre\b\b Network' International Critical Inc\midence Stre\b\b Foundation ' The Center for the Study of Traumatic Stre\b\b Community planner\b, po\mlicymaker\b, and additional leader\b \mmay have experience preparing for the phy\bical impact\b of climate change, but it i\b al\bo imp\mortant to be well-equipped for the potential mental health impact\m\b. Here are \bome tip\b to help with preparing and re\bponding to acute and gradual change\f \b. A\b\be\b\b and expand the community mental health infra\btructure.2. Facilitate \bocial cohe\bion through community de\bign. 3. Train the people who \mwill \berve the community during a d\mi\ba\bter.4. Provide clear and frequent information.5. Reduce di\bparitie\b.6. Pay \bpecial attention to vulnerable population\b. 7. Develop tru\bted and action- focu\bed warning \by\btem\b.8. Provide a fa\bt re\bpon\be.9. Have a po\bt-di\ba\bter plan.\b0. En\bure equitable and tr\man\bparent di\btribution of re\bource\b.\b\b. Engage community member\b. \b2. Increa\be cooperation and \bocial cohe\bion.\b3. Provide opportunitie\b f\mor meaningful action.KEY TAKEAWAYS: Tips to Support Communiti\fsWHAT INDIVIDUALS CAN DOP\fopl\f c\bn t\bk\f t\bngibl\f \bctions \bt hom\f \bnd in th\f community to b\fgin to pr\fp\br\f for th\f proj\fct\fd imp\bcts of clim\bt\f ch\bng\f. Th\fs\f \bctions, in turn,\n c\bn provid\f \b gr\f\bt\fr s\fns\f of individu\bl s\fcurity \b\nnd control. This s\fction outlin\fs \nsom\f k\fy st\fps individu\bls c\bn t\bk\f to pr\fp\br\f th\fm-s\flv\fs for th\f m\fnt\bl h\f\blth imp\bcts of clim\bt\f ch\bng\f. ACTIONS AT HOME\fave an emergency plan. For example, emergency- preparedne\b\b organization\b, \buch a\b the F\mederal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the CDC,\m and the American Red Cro\b\b, \bugge\bt having a hou\behold emergency plan that everyone i\b aware of and ha\b practiced. They al\bo \bugge\bt creating an emergency kit with \bupplie\b,\m \buch a\b a fla\bhlight, food and water, fir\bt aid \bupplie\b, and \mother thing\b one might ne\med during or after a di\ba\bter. Additional item\b to include in an eme\mrgency kit, \buch a\b a book, religiou\b literature or other \bpiritua\ml item\b, journal, toy\b, or treat\b, can \bupport menta\ml health re\bilience. Awarene\b\b of your work or \bchool'\b emergency plan\b i\b al\bo criti\mcal to en\bure a comprehen\bive plan. Doing \bo can\m help to alleviate anxiety or worry, and potentially in\btill a \ben\be of control and \becurity. Understand one's own medical needs. \MMedication\b can have a wide number and\m variety of \bide effect\b, which can be inten\bified or pre\bent under certain change\b in \menvironment. For example, p\bychotropic medication\b can impact body temperature regulation or water retention. In extreme heat, thi\b could lead to overheating and dehydration. A\bk your pharmaci\bt to explain and provide documentation on the \bide effect\b of your and your family'\b medication\b and include a cheat \bheet of thi\b inf\mormation in your emergency kit. Learn resilience interventions. Variou\b intervention program\b are offered to help people approach adver\bity with active engagement and hope\m. For example, a capacity-building intervention developed by Seligman and Peter\bon (2003) aim\b to bol\bter people'\b coping \bkill\b through a learned optimi\bm framework. The intervention help\b people \mdevelop a \btronger \ben\be of \belf-\mefficacy and feeling\b of control and encourage\b them to practice adaptive \btrategie\b rather than di\bengaging from difficulty. In addition, re\bilience \bcholar\b have noted the importance of \btaying phy\bically active (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014). Phy\bical activity help\b \mregulate mood and boo\bt\b confidence, which can be u\befu\ml if one mu\bt endure through trauma.ACTIONS IN THE COMMUNITYDevelop and maintain \Msocial connections. Becau\be of the tremendou\b benefit\b of \m\bocial \bupport, it i\b\m e\b\bential that people nurture their connection to family, friend\b, neighbor\m\b, and other important\m \bocial tie\b, \buch a\b\m people from their
52 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 53community effort\b may al\bo have a \belf- reinforcing po\bitive effect on people'\b perception\b of their own and the community'\b re\bilience. When people \bee fir\bthand that many other\b are participating in re\bilience-building effort\b, they become more confident not only i\mn the collective efficacy of the community but al\bo that help will be available when they them\belve\b need it (Kania\bty, 2012; Kania\bty & Norri\b, 2009).\mAdditional Resources for Responding to Mental \fealth Needs \MAfter Disasters The following \bite\b provide helpful overview\b of the \btep\b emergency per\bonnel and indiv\midual\b can take to care for them\belve\b and other\b\f ' Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention ' U.S. Department of V\meteran Affair\b' Wa\bhington, D.C. Government ' American P\bychiatric A\b\bociation' Federal Emergency Management Agency ' PreventionWeb' U.S. Department of H\mealth and Human Service\b' Sub\btance Abu\be & Mental He\malth Service\b Admini\btration' The National Child Traumatic Stre\b\b Network' International Critical Inc\midence Stre\b\b Foundation ' The Center for the Study of Traumatic Stre\b\b Community planner\b, po\mlicymaker\b, and additional leader\b \mmay have experience preparing for the phy\bical impact\b of climate change, but it i\b al\bo imp\mortant to be well-equipped for the potential mental health impact\m\b. Here are \bome tip\b to help with preparing and re\bponding to acute and gradual change\f \b. A\b\be\b\b and expand the community mental health infra\btructure.2. Facilitate \bocial cohe\bion through community de\bign. 3. Train the people who \mwill \berve the community during a d\mi\ba\bter.4. Provide clear and frequent information.5. Reduce di\bparitie\b.6. Pay \bpecial attention to vulnerable population\b. 7. Develop tru\bted and action- focu\bed warning \by\btem\b.8. Provide a fa\bt re\bpon\be.9. Have a po\bt-di\ba\bter plan.\b0. En\bure equitable and tr\man\bparent di\btribution of re\bource\b.\b\b. Engage community member\b. \b2. Increa\be cooperation and \bocial cohe\bion.\b3. Provide opportunitie\b f\mor meaningful action.KEY TAKEAWAYS: Tips to Support Communiti\fsHih‘YP‹--P—P--•hž–Yrh‹Y--tP\fopl\f c\bn t\bk\f t\bngibl\f \bctions \bt hom\f \bnd in th\f community to b\fgin to pr\fp\br\f for th\f proj\fct\fd imp\bcts of clim\bt\f ch\bng\f. Th\fs\f \bctions, in turn,\n c\bn provid\f \b gr\f\bt\fr s\fns\f of individu\bl s\fcurity \b\nnd control. This s\fction outlin\fs \nsom\f k\fy st\fps individu\bls c\bn t\bk\f to pr\fp\br\f th\fm-s\flv\fs for th\f m\fnt\bl h\f\blth imp\bcts of clim\bt\f ch\bng\f. ACTIONS AT HOME\fave an emergency plan. For example, emergency- preparedne\b\b organization\b, \buch a\b the F\mederal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the CDC,\m and the American Red Cro\b\b, \bugge\bt having a hou\behold emergency plan that everyone i\b aware of and ha\b practiced. They al\bo \bugge\bt creating an emergency kit with \bupplie\b,\m \buch a\b a fla\bhlight, food and water, fir\bt aid \bupplie\b, and \mother thing\b one might ne\med during or after a di\ba\bter. Additional item\b to include in an eme\mrgency kit, \buch a\b a book, religiou\b literature or other \bpiritua\ml item\b, journal, toy\b, or treat\b, can \bupport menta\ml health re\bilience. Awarene\b\b of your work or \bchool'\b emergency plan\b i\b al\bo criti\mcal to en\bure a comprehen\bive plan. Doing \bo can\m help to alleviate anxiety or worry, and potentially in\btill a \ben\be of control and \becurity. Understand one's own medical needs. \MMedication\b can have a wide number and\m variety of \bide effect\b, which can be inten\bified or pre\bent under certain change\b in \menvironment. For example, p\bychotropic medication\b can impact body temperature regulation or water retention. In extreme heat, thi\b could lead to overheating and dehydration. A\bk your pharmaci\bt to explain and provide documentation on the \bide effect\b of your and your family'\b medication\b and include a cheat \bheet of thi\b inf\mormation in your emergency kit. Learn resilience interventions. Variou\b intervention program\b are offered to help people approach adver\bity with active engagement and hope\m. For example, a capacity-building intervention developed by Seligman and Peter\bon (2003) aim\b to bol\bter people'\b coping \bkill\b through a learned optimi\bm framework. The intervention help\b people \mdevelop a \btronger \ben\be of \belf-\mefficacy and feeling\b of control and encourage\b them to practice adaptive \btrategie\b rather than di\bengaging from difficulty. In addition, re\bilience \bcholar\b have noted the importance of \btaying phy\bically active (Iacoviello & Charney, 2014). Phy\bical activity help\b \mregulate mood and boo\bt\b confidence, which can be u\befu\ml if one mu\bt endure through trauma.ACTIONS IN THE COMMUNITYDevelop and maintain \Msocial connections. Becau\be of the tremendou\b benefit\b of \m\bocial \bupport, it i\b\m e\b\bential that people nurture their connection to family, friend\b, neighbor\m\b, and other important\m \bocial tie\b, \buch a\b\m people from their
54 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 55faith community. Taking the lead in organizing \bomething \mthat bring\b people together, \buch a\b a community event, help\b increa\be community \bocial cohe\bion. A\b already noted, participating in community-level action ha\b multip\mle benefit\b for the individual \mand the community.Support solutions \mto reduce and prevent further climate chan\fe. One way to take action to addre\b\b climate change within the community can be through public awarene\b\b of clean energy or other approache\b to climate change mitigation. Di\bcu\b\bing the co-benefit\b of clean \menergy with family and friend\b \bpr\mead\b the knowledge and facilitate\b change from the ground up. Thi\b proactive approach can help provide tho\be who are concerned about climate change \bome level of p\bychological ''relief'' and a \ben\be of accompli\bhment in helpin\mg other\b and the environment.Start a community resilience project. Building community re\bilience before climate di\bruption\b pay\b dividend\b in the aftermath of trauma. Although the\b\me effort\b traditionally might h\mave been initiated by a government agency, communitie\b are beginning to under\btand that they are capable of organizing and \bpearheading \buch project\b from within and that the\be effort\b can \btrengthen the fabric of communitie\b in \bu\btainable way\b. Here are a few point\b to keep in mind when building a community re\bilience project\f\b. Gather a diver\be team of \btakeholder\b to create a \bhared vi\bion, catalog local re\bource\b, identify gap\b in \berv\mice\b, and create a manageable plan\m. 2. Be flexible and inclu\bive, re\bpect cultural \ben\bitivitie\b, keep an open mind about what might need to be changed, and make deci\bion\b with input from a variety of tru\bted community partner\b.Project\b can help increa\be awarene\b\b of available re\bource\b, \buch a\b the Di\ba\b\mter Di\btre\b\b Helpline. Importantly, the\be effort\b empha\bize behavior\b, thought\b, an\md action\b that can be learned an\md developed. Community \bkill-build\ming can include proactive re\bilience building, a\b well a\b training\b de\bigned to organize community re\bpon\be in the aftermath of climate di\ba\bter\b to reduce di\btre\b\b, fo\bter \bhort-term coping \bkill\b, and \bu\mpport long-term re\bilience. Actions at Home' Have hou\behold emergency plan\b that are routinely practiced.' Under\btand family medication\b and their \bide effect\b. ' Learn re\bilience intervention\b. Actions in the Community ' Connect with family, friend\b, neighbor\b, and othe\mr group\b to build \btrong \bocial network\b.' Support clean energy to prevent further climate change. ' Start a community re\bilience project. KEY TAKEAWAYS: What Individual\f Can Do\lWHAT MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS CAN DOHealth and mental h\mealth practitioner\b have a unique role in influencing profe\b\bional communitie\b, the publ\mic, and policymaker\b on the future well-being of our he\malth and climate. E ducation, awarene\b\b, communication, and involvement are key component\b in motivating engagement and\m action on climate \bolution\b. Thi\b final \bection highlight\b opportunitie\b for health leader\b t\mo elevate their climate leader\bhip.c\bECOME A CLIMATE-LITERATE PROFESSIONALIn order to elevate leader\bhip on clim\mate change, awarene\b\b of the potential impact\b on men\mtal health, a\b well a\b way\b to protect it, mu\bt be increa\bed. ' U\be thi\b report to increa\be knowledge about the me\mntal health impact\b of clim\mate change, and what you can do.' Review the report'\b reference material a\b needed to dive deeper into available data and re\bource\b. ' A\b\be\b\b for climate-induced anxiety, depre\b\bion, etc. ' Stay abrea\bt of climate information, new\b, and the breadth of \bolution\b.' Increa\be your capacity and \bki\mll\b to communicate effectively on climate change and mental\m health. ENGAGE OTHER MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALSClimate leader\bhip can extend to fellow mental health colleague\b, many of whom are ju\bt a\b concerned, and who would \bee benefit from being invited to engage on the i\b\bue. To help in\bpire and empower their leader\bhip\m\f' Share \bucce\b\be\b, idea\b, and be\bt practice\b with your profe\b\bional a\b\bociation\b and colleague\b, and encourage them to join in taking a\m \btand on climate.' Facilitate a pre\bentation or work\bhop at a regional or national conference, and collaborate with peer\b to increa\be the power of your me\b\bage. Colleague\b will be more effective at making the connection between climate and mental health\m when they are given the education, tool\b, and ability t\mo connect with and in\bpire their peer\b.\bE VOCAL LEADERS WITHIN \lYOUR COMMUNITIESIndividual\b in the \mmental health community have a re\bpected platform to influence and mobilize climate change di\bcu\b\bion\b. Their knowledge and network can influence the dialogue and bring awarene\b\b to the interdependent relation of climate c. For additional re\bource\b, \bee ecoAmerica'\b guide Let'\b Talk Health and Climate\f Communication Guidance for Health Profe\b\bional\b.
54 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 55faith community. Taking the lead in organizing \bomething \mthat bring\b people together, \buch a\b a community event, help\b increa\be community \bocial cohe\bion. A\b already noted, participating in community-level action ha\b multip\mle benefit\b for the individual \mand the community.Support solutions \mto reduce and prevent further climate chan\fe. One way to take action to addre\b\b climate change within the community can be through public awarene\b\b of clean energy or other approache\b to climate change mitigation. Di\bcu\b\bing the co-benefit\b of clean \menergy with family and friend\b \bpr\mead\b the knowledge and facilitate\b change from the ground up. Thi\b proactive approach can help provide tho\be who are concerned about climate change \bome level of p\bychological ''relief'' and a \ben\be of accompli\bhment in helpin\mg other\b and the environment.Start a community resilience project. Building community re\bilience before climate di\bruption\b pay\b dividend\b in the aftermath of trauma. Although the\b\me effort\b traditionally might h\mave been initiated by a government agency, communitie\b are beginning to under\btand that they are capable of organizing and \bpearheading \buch project\b from within and that the\be effort\b can \btrengthen the fabric of communitie\b in \bu\btainable way\b. Here are a few point\b to keep in mind when building a community re\bilience project\f\b. Gather a diver\be team of \btakeholder\b to create a \bhared vi\bion, catalog local re\bource\b, identify gap\b in \berv\mice\b, and create a manageable plan\m. 2. Be flexible and inclu\bive, re\bpect cultural \ben\bitivitie\b, keep an open mind about what might need to be changed, and make deci\bion\b with input from a variety of tru\bted community partner\b.Project\b can help increa\be awarene\b\b of available re\bource\b, \buch a\b the Di\ba\b\mter Di\btre\b\b Helpline. Importantly, the\be effort\b empha\bize behavior\b, thought\b, an\md action\b that can be learned an\md developed. Community \bkill-build\ming can include proactive re\bilience building, a\b well a\b training\b de\bigned to organize community re\bpon\be in the aftermath of climate di\ba\bter\b to reduce di\btre\b\b, fo\bter \bhort-term coping \bkill\b, and \bu\mpport long-term re\bilience. Actions at Home' Have hou\behold emergency plan\b that are routinely practiced.' Under\btand family medication\b and their \bide effect\b. ' Learn re\bilience intervention\b. Actions in the Community ' Connect with family, friend\b, neighbor\b, and othe\mr group\b to build \btrong \bocial network\b.' Support clean energy to prevent further climate change. ' Start a community re\bilience project. KEY TAKEAWAYS: What Individual\f Can Do\l'h-HY '--H-ŽYh'-ŽHhYR•I–'‘‘CI---Ž‘Yi---YƒIhTS:WaYSAtYlTAWS:Ya\lTS:WaYDdSoWuWuMATd\bYaS TYSYnAu—nTYdM:TYYuAYuA‰nTAouAvYDdMNT\b\buMAS:YoMllnAuWuT\bOYWaTYDn':\luoOYSAtY YDM:uoPlSVTd\bYMAYWaTYNnWndTY‚T::­'TuAvYMNYMndYaT\lS:WaYSAtYo:ulSWTGY' tnoSWuMAOYS‚SdTAT\b\bOYoMllnAuoSWuMAOYSAtYuA M: TlTAWYSdTYVTPYoMlDMATAW\bYuAYlMWu SWuAvYTAvSvTlTAWYSAt\lYSoWuMAYMAYo:ulSWTY\bM:nWuMA\bGYHau\bYAS:Y\bToWuMAYauva:uvaW\bYMDDMdWnAuWuT\bYNMdYaTS:WaY:TStTd\bYW\lMYT:T SWTYWaTudYo:ulSWTY:TStTd\bauDGo\bECOME A CLIMATE-LITERATE PROFESSIONALIn order to elevate leader\bhip on clim\mate change, awarene\b\b of the potential impact\b on men\mtal health, a\b well a\b way\b to protect it, mu\bt be increa\bed. ' U\be thi\b report to increa\be knowledge about the me\mntal health impact\b of clim\mate change, and what you can do.' Review the report'\b reference material a\b needed to dive deeper into available data and re\bource\b. ' A\b\be\b\b for climate-induced anxiety, depre\b\bion, etc. ' Stay abrea\bt of climate information, new\b, and the breadth of \bolution\b.' Increa\be your capacity and \bki\mll\b to communicate effectively on climate change and mental\m health. ENGAGE OTHER MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALSClimate leader\bhip can extend to fellow mental health colleague\b, many of whom are ju\bt a\b concerned, and who would \bee benefit from being invited to engage on the i\b\bue. To help in\bpire and empower their leader\bhip\m\f' Share \bucce\b\be\b, idea\b, and be\bt practice\b with your profe\b\bional a\b\bociation\b and colleague\b, and encourage them to join in taking a\m \btand on climate.' Facilitate a pre\bentation or work\bhop at a regional or national conference, and collaborate with peer\b to increa\be the power of your me\b\bage. Colleague\b will be more effective at making the connection between climate and mental health\m when they are given the education, tool\b, and ability t\mo connect with and in\bpire their peer\b.\bE VOCAL LEADERS WITHIN \lYOUR COMMUNITIESIndividual\b in the \mmental health community have a re\bpected platform to influence and mobilize climate change di\bcu\b\bion\b. Their knowledge and network can influence the dialogue and bring awarene\b\b to the interdependent relation of climate c. For additional re\bource\b, \bee ecoAmerica'\b guide Let'\b Talk Health and Climate\f Communication Guidance for Health Profe\b\bional\b.
56 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 57change and mental h\mealth. They have the opportunity to help guide our communitie\b on a path of progre\b\b through clean, health y climate \bolution\b. ' E ducate local leader\b on \mthe mental health impact\b of cli\mmate change and the mental health b\menefit\b of \bolution\b.\m' Encourage the broader community to protect and pre\berve per\bonal, family, and community health and\m mental health through climate preparedne\b\b and prevention \bolution\b.' Have dialogue\b that enable common ground.' Collaborate with fellow leader\b to create community mental heal\mth preparedne\b\b plan\b for climate- related di\ba\bter\b and impact\b. ' Help create or \bupport climate and mental health program\b and policie\b locally and regionally. ' To illu\btrate commitment and authenticity, in\btitute program\b and pr actice\b within your own organization and per\bonal behavior to reduce your climate impact, \buch a\b ene\mrgy \baving program\b, di\ba\bter preparedne\b\b training\b, or incentive\b to u\be public tran\bportation.' C oordinate communication\b effort\b and me\b\bage\b within your profe\b\bional community and at all level\b of government.SUPPORT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONSCon\btructing \bolution\b o\mn a larger \bcale create\b a clear and unit\med approach to climate \bolution\b and awarene\b\b of the far-reaching impact\b of cl\mimate change. Health and climate expert\b, policy maker\b, communicator\b, and other profe\b\bional\b have the role and opportunity\m to \bet the \btage for di\bcu\b\bing relation\bhip between climate and mental health. \m ' Submit article\b, let\mter\b to the editor, op-ed\b, and white paper\b on the topic to new\bpaper\b, magazine\b, r\madio, \bocial media, blog\b,\m and TV outlet\b.' Offer to be media \bpoke\bpeople on climate and mental health\m.' Write a climate column for your organization'\b blog, do podca\bt\b, and/or \bhare up-to-date new\b on \bocial media.' Participate in re\bearch effort\b that get publi\bhed for national di\btribution and \bhare your experti\be on climate and mental health through briefing\b with \mkey leader\b and policymaker\b.' C ollaborate with colleague\b, community, and climate advocate\b to influence policy de\bign and outcome\b.A\b tru\bted me\b\benger\b, mental heal\mth leader\b have the opportunity t\mo help make the link between health and climate. Here are \bome idea\b to try\f' Become a climate-literate profe\b\bional and \btay up-to-date with current climate change new\b and communication\b be\bt practice\b.' Engage other mental\m health profe\b\bional\b by facilitating conver\bation\b and work\bhop\b that allow your colleague\b to be more effective in in\bpiring actio\mn.' Be vocal, model leader\b \mwithin your community by getting involved locally to create \bupport for climate \bolution\b.' Support national and international \bolution\b by publicly \bharing y\mour experti\be to influence the media, health leader\b, and\m policymaker\b.KEY TAKEAWAYS: Wha\f Men\fa\b Hea\b\fh Leaders Can DoA CLOSER LOOKOur Moral Obligatio\f: Th\b Duty to War\f a\fd Act, Li\be Van Su\bteren, MDI am a doctor. A psychiatrist. Over the year\b, I have \been \bome of the d\marke\bt part\b of the human c\mondition. Nothing \mha\b prepared me for what I am now \beeing. Each day, our world devolve\b more quickly toward di\bruption from climate change. The new\b i\b coming at u\b from all \bide\b'--CO2 emi\b\bion\b climbing, record-high temperature\b, ocean\b increa\bingly acidifying, coral reef\b dying, ice \bheet\b melting, failing nation\b, the ma\b\bive di\bplacement of people.Tho\be lea\bt re\bpon\bible for the cri\bi\b will be hurt the mo\bt'--the poor, the elderly, the di\babled, the e\mmotionally vulnerable. The p\bychological toll i\b becoming more apparent'--but much i\b bein\mg overlooked. I am \beeing a growing number of clima\mte Cassa\fdras gripped by thought\b of futur\me harm, \buffering from pre-traumatic \btre\b\b re\bpon\be (a before-the-fact ver\bion of cla\b\bic PTSD) becau\be they know the world ha\b not heard the warning\b forcefully enough.What ca\f w\b do? Mental health profe\b\bional\b help people f\mace reality, becau\be we know living in denial\m can ruin a per\bon'\b life. A\b the climate cri\bi\b unfold\b, we \bee people who\be a\mnger, anxiety, and depre\b\bion, cau\bed by the \bhortcoming\b of a previou\b generation, prevent them from leading productive live\b them\belve\b. We know about trauma from repeated expo\bure to horrifying event\b. We are trained, we are ethically bound, \mto re\bpond to emergencie\b. Why, then, are \bome mental health\m profe\b\bional\b \blow to re\bpond to thi\b i\b\bue? Are we in denial our\belv\me\b? Surely, we have enough re\bpect for \bcience that the finding\b of 97% (Cook et al., 2016) of climate expert\b aren't di\bputed. Surely, we don't believe that de\btroying life i\b ''not our problem.''We know change can be a ch\mallenge, but determined effort\b to bring attention to problem\b break down re\bi\btance. Action i\b growing, but in the f\mace of unprecedented danger, in\btability, and mounting impac\mt\b, more i\b needed. We prod our\belve\b with the que\btion\b, ''Where are the journal article\b, mi\b\bion \btatement\b, letter\b to the editor, the flood of call\b\m to Congre\b\b that \bhow the full gravity of the cri\bi\b regi\btering? Where i\b the collective effort to break through denial and ge\mt people to change'--quickly?'' Our canon of ethic\b \m\bay\b we have a duty to protect the public healt\mh and to participate in activitie\b that contribute to it. Mental health profe\b\bional\b are required in all 50 \btate\b to report child abu\be. It i\b a legal obligation, but it i\b al\b\mo a moral one. I\b it any le\b\b a moral obligation to report that we are about to hand over a de\btroyed planet for generation\b to come?Surely, in thi\b time of cr\mi\bi\b, a\b mental health profe\b\bional\b, truth \beeker\b and healer\b, we will want to act. What ar\b w\b waiti\fg for?
56 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 57change and mental h\mealth. They have the opportunity to help guide our communitie\b on a path of progre\b\b through clean, health y climate \bolution\b. ' E ducate local leader\b on \mthe mental health impact\b of cli\mmate change and the mental health b\menefit\b of \bolution\b.\m' Encourage the broader community to protect and pre\berve per\bonal, family, and community health and\m mental health through climate preparedne\b\b and prevention \bolution\b.' Have dialogue\b that enable common ground.' Collaborate with fellow leader\b to create community mental heal\mth preparedne\b\b plan\b for climate- related di\ba\bter\b and impact\b. ' Help create or \bupport climate and mental health program\b and policie\b locally and regionally. ' To illu\btrate commitment and authenticity, in\btitute program\b and pr actice\b within your own organization and per\bonal behavior to reduce your climate impact, \buch a\b ene\mrgy \baving program\b, di\ba\bter preparedne\b\b training\b, or incentive\b to u\be public tran\bportation.' C oordinate communication\b effort\b and me\b\bage\b within your profe\b\bional community and at all level\b of government.SUPPORT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONSCon\btructing \bolution\b o\mn a larger \bcale create\b a clear and unit\med approach to climate \bolution\b and awarene\b\b of the far-reaching impact\b of cl\mimate change. Health and climate expert\b, policy maker\b, communicator\b, and other profe\b\bional\b have the role and opportunity\m to \bet the \btage for di\bcu\b\bing relation\bhip between climate and mental health. \m ' Submit article\b, let\mter\b to the editor, op-ed\b, and white paper\b on the topic to new\bpaper\b, magazine\b, r\madio, \bocial media, blog\b,\m and TV outlet\b.' Offer to be media \bpoke\bpeople on climate and mental health\m.' Write a climate column for your organization'\b blog, do podca\bt\b, and/or \bhare up-to-date new\b on \bocial media.' Participate in re\bearch effort\b that get publi\bhed for national di\btribution and \bhare your experti\be on climate and mental health through briefing\b with \mkey leader\b and policymaker\b.' C ollaborate with colleague\b, community, and climate advocate\b to influence policy de\bign and outcome\b.A\b tru\bted me\b\benger\b, mental heal\mth leader\b have the opportunity t\mo help make the link between health and climate. Here are \bome idea\b to try\f' Become a climate-literate profe\b\bional and \btay up-to-date with current climate change new\b and communication\b be\bt practice\b.' Engage other mental\m health profe\b\bional\b by facilitating conver\bation\b and work\bhop\b that allow your colleague\b to be more effective in in\bpiring actio\mn.' Be vocal, model leader\b \mwithin your community by getting involved locally to create \bupport for climate \bolution\b.' Support national and international \bolution\b by publicly \bharing y\mour experti\be to influence the media, health leader\b, and\m policymaker\b.KEY TAKEAWAYS: Wha\f Men\fa\b Hea\b\fh Leaders Can DoA CLOSER LOOKOur Moral Obligatio\f: Th\b Duty to War\f a\fd Act, Li\be Van Su\bteren, MDI am a doctor. A psychiatrist. Over the year\b, I have \been \bome of the d\marke\bt part\b of the human c\mondition. Nothing \mha\b prepared me for what I am now \beeing. Each day, our world devolve\b more quickly toward di\bruption from climate change. The new\b i\b coming at u\b from all \bide\b'--CO2 emi\b\bion\b climbing, record-high temperature\b, ocean\b increa\bingly acidifying, coral reef\b dying, ice \bheet\b melting, failing nation\b, the ma\b\bive di\bplacement of people.Tho\be lea\bt re\bpon\bible for the cri\bi\b will be hurt the mo\bt'--the poor, the elderly, the di\babled, the e\mmotionally vulnerable. The p\bychological toll i\b becoming more apparent'--but much i\b bein\mg overlooked. I am \beeing a growing number of clima\mte Cassa\fdras gripped by thought\b of futur\me harm, \buffering from pre-traumatic \btre\b\b re\bpon\be (a before-the-fact ver\bion of cla\b\bic PTSD) becau\be they know the world ha\b not heard the warning\b forcefully enough.What ca\f w\b do? Mental health profe\b\bional\b help people f\mace reality, becau\be we know living in denial\m can ruin a per\bon'\b life. A\b the climate cri\bi\b unfold\b, we \bee people who\be a\mnger, anxiety, and depre\b\bion, cau\bed by the \bhortcoming\b of a previou\b generation, prevent them from leading productive live\b them\belve\b. We know about trauma from repeated expo\bure to horrifying event\b. We are trained, we are ethically bound, \mto re\bpond to emergencie\b. Why, then, are \bome mental health\m profe\b\bional\b \blow to re\bpond to thi\b i\b\bue? Are we in denial our\belv\me\b? Surely, we have enough re\bpect for \bcience that the finding\b of 97% (Cook et al., 2016) of climate expert\b aren't di\bputed. Surely, we don't believe that de\btroying life i\b ''not our problem.''We know change can be a ch\mallenge, but determined effort\b to bring attention to problem\b break down re\bi\btance. Action i\b growing, but in the f\mace of unprecedented danger, in\btability, and mounting impac\mt\b, more i\b needed. We prod our\belve\b with the que\btion\b, ''Where are the journal article\b, mi\b\bion \btatement\b, letter\b to the editor, the flood of call\b\m to Congre\b\b that \bhow the full gravity of the cri\bi\b regi\btering? Where i\b the collective effort to break through denial and ge\mt people to change'--quickly?'' Our canon of ethic\b \m\bay\b we have a duty to protect the public healt\mh and to participate in activitie\b that contribute to it. Mental health profe\b\bional\b are required in all 50 \btate\b to report child abu\be. It i\b a legal obligation, but it i\b al\b\mo a moral one. I\b it any le\b\b a moral obligation to report that we are about to hand over a de\btroyed planet for generation\b to come?Surely, in thi\b time of cr\mi\bi\b, a\b mental health profe\b\bional\b, truth \beeker\b and healer\b, we will want to act. What ar\b w\b waiti\fg for?
58 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 59REFERENCES1. Abram\bon, D., Van Al\bt, D., Merdjanoff, A., Piltch-Loeb, R., Beeda\by, J., Findley, P., Peek, L., Mordy, M., Moro\bo, S., Oca\bio, K., Park, Y.S., Sury, J., Tobin-Gurley, J. (2015). The Hurricane Sandy per\m\bon report\f Di\ba\bter expo\bure, health impact\b, economic burden, and \bocial well-being. Sandy Child and Family Health Study, Rutger\b Univer\bity School of Social Work, New York Univer\bity College of Global P\mublic Health, Columbia Univer\bity National Center for Di\ba\bter Preparedne\b\b, Colorado State Univer\bity Center for Di\ba\bter and Ri\bk Analy\bi\b. Briefing Report No. 2. Retrieved from http\f//njadapt.rutger\b.edu/docman-li\bter/conference-materi- al\b/137-\bcafh-per\bon-report-final/file2. Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Brown, K., Mar\bhall, N\m., & O'Brien, K. (2013). Cultural dimen\bion\b of cli\mmate change impact\b and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 3, 112''117.3. Agnew, R. (2011). Dire foreca\bt\f A theoretical model of the impact of climate change on crime. Theoretical Criminology 16(1) 2\m1-42. 4. Akerlof, K., Maibach, E.W., Fitzgerald, D., Cedeno, A. Y., & Neuman, A. (2013). Do people ''per\b\monally experience'' global warming, and if \bo h\mow, and doe\b it matter? Global Environmental Change, 23, 81''91.5. Albert\b, B., Palumbo, J., & Pierce, E. (2012). Vehicle 4 change\f Health impli\mcation\b of the capital\m bike\bhare program. The George Wa\bhington Univer\bity. 6. Albrecht, G. (2011). Chronic environmental change\f Emerging ''p\bychoterratic'' \byndrome\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global \mchallenge\b and oppor\mtunitie\b (pp. 43''56). New York, NY\f Springer.7. Alcock, I., White, M. P., Wheeler, B. W., Fleming, L. E., \m & Depledge, M. H. (2014). Longitudinal effect\b on mental health of moving to greener and le\b\b green urban area\b. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 1247''1255.8. Alderman, K., Turner, L. R., & Tong, S. (2012). Flood\b and human health\f A \by\btematic review. Environment International, 47, 37''47. doi\f10.1016/j.evint.2012.06.0039. Aldrich, D. P., & Meyer, M. A. (2014). Social capital \mand community re\bilience. American Behavior Scienti\bt, 59(2), 254''269.10. Allen, H. (2007, Augu\bt). Sit next to \bomeone different every day\f how public tran\bport contribute\b to inclu\bive communitie\b. Paper pre\bented at the International Conference Serie\b on Competition and Owne\mr\bhip in Land Pa\b\benger Tran\bport, Hamilton I\bland, Au\btralia. 11. American Public Tran\bportation Authority. (n.d.). The benefit\b of public tr\man\bportation\f The route to better per\bonal health. Retrieved from http\f//www.apta.com/re\bource\b/report\bandpublication\b/Document\b/bett\mer_ health.pdf12. American Red Cro\b\b (2017). Be Red Cro\b\b ready\f Pet\b. Retrieved from http\f//www.redcro\b\b.org/prepare/loca-tion/home-family/pet\b13. Ander\bon, C. A. (20\m01). Heat and violence. Current Direction\b in P\bychological Science, 10(1), 33''38. doi\f10.1111/1467-8721.0010914. Ander\bon, C. A. (20\m12). Climate change and violen\mce. In D. Chri\btie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of peace p\bychology. Hoboken, NJ\f Wiley-Blackwell. doi\f10.1002/9780470672532.wbepp032 15. Ander\bon, C., & Del\mi\bi, M. (2011). Implication\b of global climate change for violence developed and developing countrie\b. In J. Forga\b, A. Kruglan\bki,\m & K. William\b (Ed\b.), The p\bychology of \bocial conflict and aggre\b\bion (pp. 249''265). New York, NY\f P\bychology Pre\b\b.16. Ander\bon, C. A., De\mu\ber, W. E., & DeNeve, K. M. (1995). Hot temperature\b, ho\btile affect, ho\btile cognition, and arou\bal\f Te\bt\b of a general model of affective aggre\b\bion. Per\bonality and Soci\mal P\bychology Bulletin, 2\m1(5), 434''448. doi\f10.1177/01461672952150021 7. Antilla, L. (2005)\m. Climate of \bkeptici\bm\f US new\bpaper coverage of the \bcience of climate change. Global Environmental Change, 15, 338''352.18. Appleyard, D. (1981), Livable \btreet\b. Berkley\f Univer\bity of California Pre\b\b.19. Bailey, C. (2016). Expert\b \bound a\mlarm over mental health toll borne by migrant\b and refugee\b. The Guardian. Retrieved from http\f//www.theguardian.com/global-de-velopment/2016/jun/08expert\b- \bound-alarm-\mmental- health-toll-migrant\b-refugee\b- depre\b\bion-anxiety-p\by-cho\bi\b?CMP=\bhare_btn_link20. Bank\b, D. M., & Weem\b, C. F. (2014). Family and peer \bocial \bupport and th\meir link\b to p\bychological di\btre\b\b among hurricane-expo\bed minority youth. American Journal of Orthop\bychiatry, 84, 341''352. doi\f10.1037/ ort000000621. Barne\b, L. R., Grun\mtfe\bt, E. C., Hayden, M. H., Schultz\m, D. M., & Benight, C\m. C. (2007). Fal\be alarm\b and clo\be\m call\b\f A conceptual model of warning accuracy. Weather and Foreca\bting, 22, 1140''1454. 22. Bartlett, S. (2008\m). Climate change and urban \mchildren\f Impact\b and implication\b for adaptation in low-and middle-income countrie\b. Environment and Urbaniza\mtion, 20, 501''519.23. Ba\btien, G. (2012). Empowering communitie\b from the group up\f Per\bpective\b on a lay mental health project in po\bt-earthquake Haiti (Unpubli\bhe\md doctoral di\b\bertation). Univer\bity of Mi\b\bi\b\bippi, Oxford, Mi\b\bi\b\bippi.24. Bau\b\ban, D. (2015). Social cohe\bion\f The \becret weapon in the fight for equitable climatere\bilience. Center for American Progre\b\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.americanprore\b\b.org/i\b\bue\b/green/ report\b/2015/05/11/112873/\bocial-cohe\bion-the- \becret-weapon-in-the-fight-f\mor-equitable-climate- re\bilience/25. Bau\b\ban, D., & Kelly, C. (2016). 3 \btrategie\b for building equitable and re\bilient communitie\b. Center for American Progre\b\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.americanprogre\b\b.org/i\b\bue\b/green/report\b/2016/10/17/146243/3-\btrate- gie\b-for-building-equita\mble-and-re\bilient-communitie\b/ 26. Beard, C. B., Ei\ben, R.\m J., Barker, C. M., Garofalo, J. F., Hahn, M., Hayden, M., . . . Schr\mamm, P. J. (2016). Vec-tor-borne di\bea\be\b. I\mn\f The impact\b of climate change on human health in the\m United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\b-ment (pp. 129''156). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \m Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0765C7V2 7. Beaudoin, C. (2011). Hurricane Katrina\f Addictive behavior trend\b and predictor\b. Public Health Report\b, 126, 400''40\m9.28. Beezhold, B. L., John\m\bton, C. S., & Daigl\me, D. R. (2010). Vegetarian diet\b are a\b\bociated with healthy mood \btate\b\f A cro\b\b-\bectional \btudy in Seventh- Day Adventi\bt adult\b. Nutrition Journal,\m 9(26). doi\f10.1186/1475-2891-9-2629. Bell, J., & Cohen, L. (2009). The tran\bportation pre\bcription\f Bold new idea\b for healthy, equitable tran\bportation reform in America. PolicyLink and the Prevention In\btitute Convergence Partner\bhip. 30. Bell, J. E., Herring, S. \mC., Jantara\bami, L., Adrianopoli, C., Benedict, K., Conlon, K., . . . S\mchreck, C. J. (2016). Impact\b of extreme event\b on human healt\mh. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human h\mealth in the United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 99''128). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0BZ63ZV31. Benedek, D. M., Fullerton, C., & Ur\bano, R. J. (2007). Fir\bt re\bponder\b\f Mental he\malth con\bequence\b of natural and human-made di\ba\bter\b for public health an\md public \bafety worker\b. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 55''68. doi\f10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.14403732. Berke, E. M., Gottlieb, L. M., Vernez Moudon, A., & La\mr\bon, E. B. (2007). Protective a\b\bociation between neighborhood walkability and depre\b\bion in older men. \mJournal of the American Geriatric\b Society, 55(4), 526''533.33. Bonanno, G. A. (2008). Lo\b\b, trauma, and human re\bilience. Have we undere\btimated the human capacit\my to thrive after extremely aver\bive event\b? American P\bychologi\bt, 59(1), 20''28. 34. Bonanno, G. A., & Diminich\m, E. D. (2013). Annual re\bearch review\f Po\bitive adju\btment to adver\bity'--trajectorie\b of minimal-impact re\bilience and emergent re\bilience. The Journal of Chil\md P\bychology and P\bychiatry, 54(4), 378''401. 35. Bonanno, G. A., Romero, S. A., & Klein, \mS. I. (2015). The temporal element\b of p\bychological re\bilience\f An integrative framework for the \btudy of individual\m\b, familie\b, and communitie\b. P\bychological Inquiry\f \m An International Journal for the Advancement of P\bychological Theory, 26(2), 139''169.36. Borick, C. P., & Rabe, B. G. (2010). A rea\bon to believe\f Examining the factor\b that determine individual v\miew\b on global warming. Social Scien\mce Quarterly, 91, 777''800.3 7. Bo\bcarino, J., Hoffman, S., Adam\b, R., Figley, C., & Solhkhah, R. (2014). Mental health\m outcome\b among vulnerable re\bident\b after Hurricane Sandy. American Journal of Di\ba\bter Medicine, 9, 107''120. 38. Brehm, J. M., Ei\benhauer, B. W., & Krannich, R. S. (2004\m). Dimen\bion\b of community attachment and their\m relation\bhip to well-being in the a\mmenity-rich rural we\bt. Rural Sociology, 69(3), 405''429. doi\f10.1526/003601104173054539. Brigg\b, C. M., & Wei\b\bbecker, I. (2011). Security and c\monflict\f The impact of climate change. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global c\mhallenge\b and opportunitie\b (p\mp. 97''116). New York, NY\f Springer.40. Bryant, R., Water\b, E., Gibb\b, L.,\m Gallagher, H. C., Patti\bon, P., Lu\bher, D., . . . Forbe\b, D. (2014). P\bychological outcome\b following the Victorian Black Saturday bu\bhfire\b. Au\btralian and New Zealand Journal of P\bychiatry, 48, 634''643.41. Cain, D. S., & Barthelemy, J. (2008). Tangible and \bpiritu\mal relief after the \btorm\f The religiou\b community re\bpond\b to Katrina. Journal of \mSocial Service Re\bearch, 38(3), 29''42. 42. California Department of\m Public Health (2016). Climate change & health equ\mity i\b\bue brief. Office of Health Equity.43. Carroll, B., Morbey, H., Balogh, R., \m& Araoz, G. (2009). Flooded home\b, broken bond\b, the meani\mng of home, p\bychological proce\b\be\b and their impact \mon p\bychological health in a di\ba\bter. Health and Place, 15(2), 540''547.44. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention (2016). Di\ba\bter preparedne\b\b for your pet. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.cdc.gov/feature\b/pet\banddi\ba\bter\b/45. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention. National Center for Environmental Health. (2\m014). Impact of climate change on mental \mhealth. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effect\b/46. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention. The National In\btitute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2016). Climate change and occupational \bafety. Retrieved from http\f//www.cdc.gov/nio\bh/topic\b/cli-mate/how.html4 7. Chapin, F. S., III, Trainor, S. F., Cochran, P., Huntington, H., Markon, C., McCammon, M.\m, Serreze, M. (2014). Ala\bka. In M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G.\m W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in the\m United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 514''536). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program.48. Cline, R. J. W., Orom, H., Child, J. T., Hernandez, T., & Black, B. (2015). Social \bupport\b \mfunction\b during a \m\blowly-evolving environmental di\ba\bter\f The ca\be of amphibole a\bbe\bto\b expo\bure in Libby, Montana. Health \mCommunication, 30, 1135''1148. doi\f10.1080/10410236.2014.92245649. Cochran, P., Huntington, O., Pungowiyi, C., Stanley, T., Chapin, F. S., Huntington, H., . . . Trainor, S. (2013). Indigenou\b framework\b for ob\berving and re\bponding to climate change in Ala\bka. Climatic Change, 120, 557''567.50. Cohen, A. H., & Kru\meger, J. S. (2016). Ri\bing mercury, ri\bing ho\btility\f How heat affect\b \burvey re\bpon\be. Field Method\b, 28(2\m), 133''152 doi\f10.1177/1525822X1562797451. Cook, J., Ore\bke\b, N., Doran, P. T., Anderegg, W. R., Verheggen, B., Maib\mach, E. W., . . . Rice, K. (2016). Con\ben\bu\b on con\ben\bu\b\f A \bynthe\bi\b of con\ben\bu\b e\btimate\b on human-cau\bed g\mlobal warming. Environmental Re\bearch Letter\b, 11(4). doi\f10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/048002
58 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 59REFERENCES1. Abram\bon, D., Van Al\bt, D., Merdjanoff, A., Piltch-Loeb, R., Beeda\by, J., Findley, P., Peek, L., Mordy, M., Moro\bo, S., Oca\bio, K., Park, Y.S., Sury, J., Tobin-Gurley, J. (2015). The Hurricane Sandy per\m\bon report\f Di\ba\bter expo\bure, health impact\b, economic burden, and \bocial well-being. Sandy Child and Family Health Study, Rutger\b Univer\bity School of Social Work, New York Univer\bity College of Global P\mublic Health, Columbia Univer\bity National Center for Di\ba\bter Preparedne\b\b, Colorado State Univer\bity Center for Di\ba\bter and Ri\bk Analy\bi\b. Briefing Report No. 2. Retrieved from http\f//njadapt.rutger\b.edu/docman-li\bter/conference-materi- al\b/137-\bcafh-per\bon-report-final/file2. Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Brown, K., Mar\bhall, N\m., & O'Brien, K. (2013). Cultural dimen\bion\b of cli\mmate change impact\b and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 3, 112''117.3. Agnew, R. (2011). Dire foreca\bt\f A theoretical model of the impact of climate change on crime. Theoretical Criminology 16(1) 2\m1-42. 4. Akerlof, K., Maibach, E.W., Fitzgerald, D., Cedeno, A. Y., & Neuman, A. (2013). Do people ''per\b\monally experience'' global warming, and if \bo h\mow, and doe\b it matter? Global Environmental Change, 23, 81''91.5. Albert\b, B., Palumbo, J., & Pierce, E. (2012). Vehicle 4 change\f Health impli\mcation\b of the capital\m bike\bhare program. The George Wa\bhington Univer\bity. 6. Albrecht, G. (2011). Chronic environmental change\f Emerging ''p\bychoterratic'' \byndrome\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global \mchallenge\b and oppor\mtunitie\b (pp. 43''56). New York, NY\f Springer.7. Alcock, I., White, M. P., Wheeler, B. W., Fleming, L. E., \m & Depledge, M. H. (2014). Longitudinal effect\b on mental health of moving to greener and le\b\b green urban area\b. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 1247''1255.8. Alderman, K., Turner, L. R., & Tong, S. (2012). Flood\b and human health\f A \by\btematic review. Environment International, 47, 37''47. doi\f10.1016/j.evint.2012.06.0039. Aldrich, D. P., & Meyer, M. A. (2014). Social capital \mand community re\bilience. American Behavior Scienti\bt, 59(2), 254''269.10. Allen, H. (2007, Augu\bt). Sit next to \bomeone different every day\f how public tran\bport contribute\b to inclu\bive communitie\b. Paper pre\bented at the International Conference Serie\b on Competition and Owne\mr\bhip in Land Pa\b\benger Tran\bport, Hamilton I\bland, Au\btralia. 11. American Public Tran\bportation Authority. (n.d.). The benefit\b of public tr\man\bportation\f The route to better per\bonal health. Retrieved from http\f//www.apta.com/re\bource\b/report\bandpublication\b/Document\b/bett\mer_ health.pdf12. American Red Cro\b\b (2017). Be Red Cro\b\b ready\f Pet\b. Retrieved from http\f//www.redcro\b\b.org/prepare/loca-tion/home-family/pet\b13. Ander\bon, C. A. (20\m01). Heat and violence. Current Direction\b in P\bychological Science, 10(1), 33''38. doi\f10.1111/1467-8721.0010914. Ander\bon, C. A. (20\m12). Climate change and violen\mce. In D. Chri\btie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of peace p\bychology. Hoboken, NJ\f Wiley-Blackwell. doi\f10.1002/9780470672532.wbepp032 15. Ander\bon, C., & Del\mi\bi, M. (2011). Implication\b of global climate change for violence developed and developing countrie\b. In J. Forga\b, A. Kruglan\bki,\m & K. William\b (Ed\b.), The p\bychology of \bocial conflict and aggre\b\bion (pp. 249''265). New York, NY\f P\bychology Pre\b\b.16. Ander\bon, C. A., De\mu\ber, W. E., & DeNeve, K. M. (1995). Hot temperature\b, ho\btile affect, ho\btile cognition, and arou\bal\f Te\bt\b of a general model of affective aggre\b\bion. Per\bonality and Soci\mal P\bychology Bulletin, 2\m1(5), 434''448. doi\f10.1177/01461672952150021 7. Antilla, L. (2005)\m. Climate of \bkeptici\bm\f US new\bpaper coverage of the \bcience of climate change. Global Environmental Change, 15, 338''352.18. Appleyard, D. (1981), Livable \btreet\b. Berkley\f Univer\bity of California Pre\b\b.19. Bailey, C. (2016). Expert\b \bound a\mlarm over mental health toll borne by migrant\b and refugee\b. The Guardian. Retrieved from http\f//www.theguardian.com/global-de-velopment/2016/jun/08expert\b- \bound-alarm-\mmental- health-toll-migrant\b-refugee\b- depre\b\bion-anxiety-p\by-cho\bi\b?CMP=\bhare_btn_link20. Bank\b, D. M., & Weem\b, C. F. (2014). Family and peer \bocial \bupport and th\meir link\b to p\bychological di\btre\b\b among hurricane-expo\bed minority youth. American Journal of Orthop\bychiatry, 84, 341''352. doi\f10.1037/ ort000000621. Barne\b, L. R., Grun\mtfe\bt, E. C., Hayden, M. H., Schultz\m, D. M., & Benight, C\m. C. (2007). Fal\be alarm\b and clo\be\m call\b\f A conceptual model of warning accuracy. Weather and Foreca\bting, 22, 1140''1454. 22. Bartlett, S. (2008\m). Climate change and urban \mchildren\f Impact\b and implication\b for adaptation in low-and middle-income countrie\b. Environment and Urbaniza\mtion, 20, 501''519.23. Ba\btien, G. (2012). Empowering communitie\b from the group up\f Per\bpective\b on a lay mental health project in po\bt-earthquake Haiti (Unpubli\bhe\md doctoral di\b\bertation). Univer\bity of Mi\b\bi\b\bippi, Oxford, Mi\b\bi\b\bippi.24. Bau\b\ban, D. (2015). Social cohe\bion\f The \becret weapon in the fight for equitable climatere\bilience. Center for American Progre\b\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.americanprore\b\b.org/i\b\bue\b/green/ report\b/2015/05/11/112873/\bocial-cohe\bion-the- \becret-weapon-in-the-fight-f\mor-equitable-climate- re\bilience/25. Bau\b\ban, D., & Kelly, C. (2016). 3 \btrategie\b for building equitable and re\bilient communitie\b. Center for American Progre\b\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.americanprogre\b\b.org/i\b\bue\b/green/report\b/2016/10/17/146243/3-\btrate- gie\b-for-building-equita\mble-and-re\bilient-communitie\b/ 26. Beard, C. B., Ei\ben, R.\m J., Barker, C. M., Garofalo, J. F., Hahn, M., Hayden, M., . . . Schr\mamm, P. J. (2016). Vec-tor-borne di\bea\be\b. I\mn\f The impact\b of climate change on human health in the\m United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\b-ment (pp. 129''156). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \m Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0765C7V2 7. Beaudoin, C. (2011). Hurricane Katrina\f Addictive behavior trend\b and predictor\b. Public Health Report\b, 126, 400''40\m9.28. Beezhold, B. L., John\m\bton, C. S., & Daigl\me, D. R. (2010). Vegetarian diet\b are a\b\bociated with healthy mood \btate\b\f A cro\b\b-\bectional \btudy in Seventh- Day Adventi\bt adult\b. Nutrition Journal,\m 9(26). doi\f10.1186/1475-2891-9-2629. Bell, J., & Cohen, L. (2009). The tran\bportation pre\bcription\f Bold new idea\b for healthy, equitable tran\bportation reform in America. PolicyLink and the Prevention In\btitute Convergence Partner\bhip. 30. Bell, J. E., Herring, S. \mC., Jantara\bami, L., Adrianopoli, C., Benedict, K., Conlon, K., . . . S\mchreck, C. J. (2016). Impact\b of extreme event\b on human healt\mh. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human h\mealth in the United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 99''128). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0BZ63ZV31. Benedek, D. M., Fullerton, C., & Ur\bano, R. J. (2007). Fir\bt re\bponder\b\f Mental he\malth con\bequence\b of natural and human-made di\ba\bter\b for public health an\md public \bafety worker\b. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 55''68. doi\f10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.14403732. Berke, E. M., Gottlieb, L. M., Vernez Moudon, A., & La\mr\bon, E. B. (2007). Protective a\b\bociation between neighborhood walkability and depre\b\bion in older men. \mJournal of the American Geriatric\b Society, 55(4), 526''533.33. Bonanno, G. A. (2008). Lo\b\b, trauma, and human re\bilience. Have we undere\btimated the human capacit\my to thrive after extremely aver\bive event\b? American P\bychologi\bt, 59(1), 20''28. 34. Bonanno, G. A., & Diminich\m, E. D. (2013). Annual re\bearch review\f Po\bitive adju\btment to adver\bity'--trajectorie\b of minimal-impact re\bilience and emergent re\bilience. The Journal of Chil\md P\bychology and P\bychiatry, 54(4), 378''401. 35. Bonanno, G. A., Romero, S. A., & Klein, \mS. I. (2015). The temporal element\b of p\bychological re\bilience\f An integrative framework for the \btudy of individual\m\b, familie\b, and communitie\b. P\bychological Inquiry\f \m An International Journal for the Advancement of P\bychological Theory, 26(2), 139''169.36. Borick, C. P., & Rabe, B. G. (2010). A rea\bon to believe\f Examining the factor\b that determine individual v\miew\b on global warming. Social Scien\mce Quarterly, 91, 777''800.3 7. Bo\bcarino, J., Hoffman, S., Adam\b, R., Figley, C., & Solhkhah, R. (2014). Mental health\m outcome\b among vulnerable re\bident\b after Hurricane Sandy. American Journal of Di\ba\bter Medicine, 9, 107''120. 38. Brehm, J. M., Ei\benhauer, B. W., & Krannich, R. S. (2004\m). Dimen\bion\b of community attachment and their\m relation\bhip to well-being in the a\mmenity-rich rural we\bt. Rural Sociology, 69(3), 405''429. doi\f10.1526/003601104173054539. Brigg\b, C. M., & Wei\b\bbecker, I. (2011). Security and c\monflict\f The impact of climate change. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global c\mhallenge\b and opportunitie\b (p\mp. 97''116). New York, NY\f Springer.40. Bryant, R., Water\b, E., Gibb\b, L.,\m Gallagher, H. C., Patti\bon, P., Lu\bher, D., . . . Forbe\b, D. (2014). P\bychological outcome\b following the Victorian Black Saturday bu\bhfire\b. Au\btralian and New Zealand Journal of P\bychiatry, 48, 634''643.41. Cain, D. S., & Barthelemy, J. (2008). Tangible and \bpiritu\mal relief after the \btorm\f The religiou\b community re\bpond\b to Katrina. Journal of \mSocial Service Re\bearch, 38(3), 29''42. 42. California Department of\m Public Health (2016). Climate change & health equ\mity i\b\bue brief. Office of Health Equity.43. Carroll, B., Morbey, H., Balogh, R., \m& Araoz, G. (2009). Flooded home\b, broken bond\b, the meani\mng of home, p\bychological proce\b\be\b and their impact \mon p\bychological health in a di\ba\bter. Health and Place, 15(2), 540''547.44. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention (2016). Di\ba\bter preparedne\b\b for your pet. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.cdc.gov/feature\b/pet\banddi\ba\bter\b/45. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention. National Center for Environmental Health. (2\m014). Impact of climate change on mental \mhealth. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effect\b/46. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention. The National In\btitute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2016). Climate change and occupational \bafety. Retrieved from http\f//www.cdc.gov/nio\bh/topic\b/cli-mate/how.html4 7. Chapin, F. S., III, Trainor, S. F., Cochran, P., Huntington, H., Markon, C., McCammon, M.\m, Serreze, M. (2014). Ala\bka. In M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G.\m W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in the\m United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 514''536). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program.48. Cline, R. J. W., Orom, H., Child, J. T., Hernandez, T., & Black, B. (2015). Social \bupport\b \mfunction\b during a \m\blowly-evolving environmental di\ba\bter\f The ca\be of amphibole a\bbe\bto\b expo\bure in Libby, Montana. Health \mCommunication, 30, 1135''1148. doi\f10.1080/10410236.2014.92245649. Cochran, P., Huntington, O., Pungowiyi, C., Stanley, T., Chapin, F. S., Huntington, H., . . . Trainor, S. (2013). Indigenou\b framework\b for ob\berving and re\bponding to climate change in Ala\bka. Climatic Change, 120, 557''567.50. Cohen, A. H., & Kru\meger, J. S. (2016). Ri\bing mercury, ri\bing ho\btility\f How heat affect\b \burvey re\bpon\be. Field Method\b, 28(2\m), 133''152 doi\f10.1177/1525822X1562797451. Cook, J., Ore\bke\b, N., Doran, P. T., Anderegg, W. R., Verheggen, B., Maib\mach, E. W., . . . Rice, K. (2016). Con\ben\bu\b on con\ben\bu\b\f A \bynthe\bi\b of con\ben\bu\b e\btimate\b on human-cau\bed g\mlobal warming. Environmental Re\bearch Letter\b, 11(4). doi\f10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/048002
60 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 6152. Cox, L. A., Jr. (2012). Community re\bilience and deci\bion theory chal\mlenge\b for cata\btrophic event\b. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 32(11), 1919''1934.53. Coyle, K., & Van Su\bteren, L. (2011). The p\bychological effect\b of global warming. Re\bton, VA\f National Wildlife Federation. 54. Crabtree, A. (2012). Climate change and mental\m health following flood di\ba\bter\b in developing countrie\b. A review of the epidemiolo\mgical literature\f What do we know, what i\b being recommended? Au\btrala\bian Journal of Di\ba\bter and Trauma Studie\b, 2012-1, 21''29.55. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Harper, S. L., Edge, V. L., Landman, K., \m Houle, K., Ford, J. D., & the Rigolet I\mnuit Community Government. (2013). The land enriche\b th\me \boul\f On climatic and environmental change, affect, and emotional health an\md well-being in Rigol\met, Nunat\biavut, Canada. Emotion, Sp\mace and Society, 6, 14''24. 56. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Harper, S., Ford, J., Landman, K., Hou\mle, K., Edge, V., & the Rigolet I\mnuit Community Government. (2012). ''From thi\b place and of thi\b place''\f Climate change, health, and place in Rigolet, Nuna\mt\biavut, Canada. Social Science\b and Medicine, 75(3), 538''547.5 7. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Harper, S., Ford, J. D., Edge, V., Landman, K., Houle, K., Blake, S., & Wolfrey, C. (2013). Climate change and mental\m health\f An exploratory ca\be \btudy from Rigolet, Nunat\biavut, Labrador. Climatic Change, 121, 255''270. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-013-0875-458. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Stephen\bon, E., Allen\m, J., Bourque, F., Dro\b\bo\b, A., Elgaroy, S., . . . Wexler, L. (2014). Examining relation\bhip\b between climate change and mental\m health in the Circumpolar North. Regional Environmental Change, 15(1), 169''182. 59. Currie, J., & Almond, D. (2011). Human capital de\mvelopment before age five. In D. Card & O. A\bhenfelter (Ed\b.), Handbook of labor \meconomic\b, 4B (pp. 1315''1486). Am\bterdam, the Netherland\m\b\f North Holland Pr\me\b\b.60. Davenport, L. (2017). Emotional re\biliency in the era of climate change. London, England\f Kin\mg\bley.61. Davenport, C., & Robert\bon, C. (2016). Re\bettling the fir\bt American ''climate refugee\b.'' New York Time\b. Retrieved from http\f//www.nytime\b.com/2016/05/03/u\b/re\bettling-the-fir\bt-american-climate-refugee\b.html62. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2011). Self-determination theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglan\bki, & E. T. Higgin\b (Ed\b.), Handbook of theorie\b of \bocia\ml p\bychology (pp. 416''437). Thou\band Oak\b, CA\f Sage.63. Devine-Wright, P. (2013). Think global, act lo\mcal? The relevance of place attachment\b and place identitie\b in a climate changed world. Global Environmental Change, 23, 61''69.64. Dittmar, H. (2011). Material and con\bumer identitie\b. \mIn S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignole\b (Ed\b.), Handbook of identity theory an\md re\bearch. Vol. 2 (pp. 745''769). New York, NY\f Springer. 65. Dodgen, D., Donato, D., Kelly, N., La Greca, A., Morgan\btein, J., Re\ber, J., . . . Ur\bano, R. (2016). Mental health and well being. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human health in \mthe United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\b- ment (pp. 217''246). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \mRe\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0TX3C9H66. Doherty, T. J., & Clayton, S. (2011). The p\bychological impact\b of global cli\mmate change. American P\bychologi\bt, 66, 265''276. 6 7. Dominelli, L. (2013). Mind the gap\f B\muilt infra\btructure\b, \bu\btainable caring relation\b, and re\bilient communitie\b in extreme weather event\b. Au\btralian Social Work, 66(2), 204''217. doi\f10.1080/0312407X.2012.70876468. Doney, S., Ro\benberg, A. A., Alexander, M., Chavez, F., Harvell, C. D., Hofmann, G., . .\m . Ruckel\bhau\b, M. (2014). Ocean\b and marine re\bource\b. In J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G. W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in the United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 557''578). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0RF5RZW.69. Doppelt, B. (2016). Tran\bformational re\bilience\f How building human re\bilience to climate di\bruption can \bafeguard \bociety and increa\be wellbeing. Sheffield,\m England\f Greenleaf.70. Duffy, P. B., & Tebaldi, C. (2012). Increa\bing prevalence of extreme \bummer temperature\b in the U.S. Climatic Change, 111(2), 487''495. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-012-0396-671. Dunlap, R. E., McCright, \mA. M., & Yaro\bh, J. H. (2016). The political divide on\m climate change\f Parti\ban polarization widen\b in the U.S. Environment\f Science and Policy for Su\btainable Development, 58(5), 4''\m23. doi\f10.1080/00139157.2016.120899572. Durkalec, A., Furgal, C., Skinner, M., & Sheldon, T\m. (2015). Climate change influence\b on environment a\b a deter- minant of Indigenou\m\b health\f Relation\bhip\b to place, \bea ice, and health in an\m Inuit community. Social Science and Medicine, 136-137, 17''26.73. Edward\b, T., & Wi\beman, J. (2011). Climate change, re\bilience, and tran\bformation\f Challenge\b an\md opportunitie\b for local communitie\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global challenge\b and oppor\mtunitie\b (pp. 185''209). New York, NY\f Springer.74 . EM-DAT (2011). Di\ba\bter profile\b. The OFDA/CRED International Di\ba\bter Databa\be. Retrieved from http\f//www.emdat.be/databa\be75. Everly, G. S., Flannery, R. B., & Eyler, V. A. (2002). Critical incident \btre\b\b management (CISM)\f A \btati\btical review of the literature. P\bychiatric Quarterly, 73, 171. doi\f10.1023/A\f101606800361576. Fann, N., Brennan, T., Dolwick, P., Gamble, J. L., Ilacqua, V., Kolb, L., . . . Zi\bka, L. (2016). Air quality imp\mact\b. The impact\b of climate change on human h\mealth in the United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (p. 76). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. 7 7. Felix, J., Haa\be, B., & Haller, J. (2016). And then the \mclimate changed [Motion p\micture]. United State\b of America\f Pre-Future.78. Fernandez, A., Black, J., Jone\b, M., Wil\bon, L., Salvador-Carulla, L., \mA\btell-Burt, T., & Black, D. (2015). Flooding and mental\m health\f A \by\btematic mapping review. PLOS ONE, 10(4), e0119929.79. Fernando, G. A. (2012). Bloodied but u\mnbowed\f Re\bilience examined in a South A\m\bian community. American Journal of\m Orthop\bychiatry, 82, 367''375.80. Flory, K., Hankin, B., \mKloo\b, C., Cheely, C., & Turecki, G. (2009). Alcohol and cigarette u\be and mi\bu\be amon\mg Hurricane Katrina \burvivor\b\f P\bycho\bocial ri\bk and \mprotective factor\b. Sub\btance U\be and Mi\bu\be, 44, 1711''1724.81. Ford, J., Pearce, T., Duerden, F., Furgal, C., & Smit, B.\m (2010). Climate change policy re\bpon\be\b for Canada'\b Inuit population\f The importance of and opportunit\mie\b for adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 20, 177''191.82. Fre\bque-Baxter, J., & Armitage, D. (2012). Place identity and clim\mate change adaptation\f A \bynthe\bi\b and framework for under\btanding. WIRE\b Climate Change, 3, 251''266. doi\f10\m.1002/wcc.16483. Friedli, L. (2009)\m. Mental health, r\me\bilience, and inequalitie\b.\m Copenhagen, Denmark\f \mWorld Health Organization.84. Friel, S., Butler, C., & McMichael, \mA. (2011). Climate change and health\f Ri\bk\b an\md inequitie\b. In S.\m Benatar & G. Brock (Ed\b.), Global health\m and global health\m ethic\b (pp. 198'' 209). Cambridge, England\f Cambridg\me Univer\bity Pre\b\b. 85. Frit\bche, I., Cohr\b, J., Ke\b\bler, T., & Bauer, J. (2012). Global warming i\b breeding \bocial conflict\f The \bubtle impact of \mclimate change threat on authoritarian\m tendencie\b. Journal of Environmental P\bychology, 32(1), 1''10.86. Fritze, J., Bla\bhki, G. A., \mBurke S., & Wi\beman, J. (2008). Hope, de\bpair and tran\bformation\f Climate change and the promotion of mental h\mealth and well-being. International Journal of \mMental Health Sy\btem\b, 2, 13. 8 7. Fullilove, M. T. (2013) ''The frayed knot''\f What happen\b to place attachment in the context of \berial forced di\bplacement? In L. Manzo & P. Devine-Wright (Ed\b.), Place attachment\f Advance\b in theory, method and application\b (pp. 141''153). Abingdon, Engl\mand\f Routledge.88. Gamble, J. L., Balbu\b, J., Berger, M., Bouye, K., Campbell, V., Chief, K., . . . Wolkin, A. F. (2016). Population\b of concern. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human h\mealth in the United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 247''286). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \mRe\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0Q81B0T89. Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., R. Goldin\m, P., & Fredrick\bon, B. L. (2015). Mindfulne\b\b broaden\b awarene\b\b and build\b eudaemonic meaning\f \mA proce\b\b model of mindful po\bitive emotion regulation. P\bychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293''314.90. Gauderman, W. J., Urman, R., Avol, E., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Rappapor\mt, E., . . . Gilli\mland, F. (2015). A\b\bociation of improved air quality wit\mh lung development in children. The New England Journal \mof Medicine, 372, 905''913. doi\f10.1056/NEJMoa1414123.91. Geiger, N., & Swim, J. K. (2016). Climate of \bilence\f Plurali\btic ignorance a\b a barrier to climate change di\bcu\b\bion. Journal of Environmental P\bychology, 47, 79''90. 92. Gianaro\b, P. J., & Wager, T. D. (2015). Brain-body pathway\b linking p\bychological \btre\b\b and phy\bical health. Current Direction\b in P\bychological Science, 24(4), 313''321. doi\f10.1177/096372141558147693. Gordon, K. (2014). Ri\bky bu\bine\b\b\f The economic ri\bk\b of climate change in the Uni\mted State\b. New York, NY\f Ri\bky Bu\bine\b\b Project and Rhodium G\mroup. 94. Gower, S., Rinner, C., Patychuk, D., Ba\b\bil, K., Brigg\b, S.\m, Campbell, M., . . . Pacheco, E. (2010). Preparing for climate change\f Mapping heat vulnerability in Toronto. Toronto Public Health Environmental Protection Office. Pre\bentation at the 2010 Urban Heat I\bland Summit.95. Grahn, P., & Stig\bdotter, U. A. (2003). Land\bcape planni\mng and \btre\b\b. Urban Fore\btry & Urban Greening, 2(1), 1''18. 96. Greco, V., & Roger, D. (2003). Uncertainty, \btre\b\b, and health. Per\bonality and Indi\mvidual Difference\b, 34, 1057''1068.9 7. Greene, G., Paranjothy, S., & Palmer, S. R. (2015). Re\bilience and vulnerability to the p\bychological harm from flooding\f The role of \bocial cohe\bion. American Jo\murnal of Public Health, 105, 1792''1795. doi\f10.2105/AJPH.2015.30270998. Grine\bki, S. E., Collin\b, T. W., Ford, P., Fitzgerald, R., Aldouri, R., Velzquez-Angulo, G., . . . & Lu, \mD. (2012). Climate change and environmental inju\btice in a bi-national context. Applied Geography, 33, 25''35.99. Guerrero, B. (2011). The impact of agricul\mtural drought lo\b\be\b on the Texa\b economy. Texa\b A&M Agrilife Exten\bion. Briefing pape\mr. Retrieved from http\f//agecoext.tamu.edu/re\bource\b/library/texa\b- drought-re\bource\b/100. Haden, V., Nile\b, M., Lubel\ml, M., Perlman, J., & Jack\bon, L. (2012). Global and loca\ml concern\b\f What attitude\b and belief\b motivate farmer\b to mitigate and adapt to climate change? PLOSONE, 7(12), e52882. doi\f10.1371/journal. pone.0052882101. Han, K. S., Kim, L.\m, & Shim, I. (2012). Stre\b\b and \bleep di\border. Experimental Neur\mobiology, 21(4), 141''150. doi\f10.5607/en.2012.21.4.141102. Hanbury, R. F., Indart, M. J., & Saklof\bke, D. H. (2013). Re\bilience revi\bited\f Toward an expanding under\btanding of po\bt-di\ba\bter adaptation. In S. Prince-Embury (Ed.), Re-\bilience in children, adole\bcent\b, and adult\b (pp\m. 213''225). doi\f10.1007/978-1-4614-4939-3103. Hanigan, I. C., Bu\mtlera, C. D., Kokicc, C. N., & Hutchin\bon, M. F. (2012). Suicide and drought in New South Wale\b, Au\btralia, 1970''2007. PNAS, 109(35), 13950''13955. 104. Hamilton, L. C., & Stampone, M. D. (2013). Blowin' in the wind\f Short-term weather and belief in\m anthropogenic climate change. Weather, Climate, and Society, 5(2), 112''119. doi\f10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00048.1105. Harper, A. R., & Pargament, K. I. (2015). Trauma, religion, and \bpirituality\f Pathway\b to healing. In K. E\m. Cherry (Ed.), Traumatic \btre\b\b and long-term recovery (pp. 3''24). doi\f10.1007/978-3-319-18866-9_1
60 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 6152. Cox, L. A., Jr. (2012). Community re\bilience and deci\bion theory chal\mlenge\b for cata\btrophic event\b. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 32(11), 1919''1934.53. Coyle, K., & Van Su\bteren, L. (2011). The p\bychological effect\b of global warming. Re\bton, VA\f National Wildlife Federation. 54. Crabtree, A. (2012). Climate change and mental\m health following flood di\ba\bter\b in developing countrie\b. A review of the epidemiolo\mgical literature\f What do we know, what i\b being recommended? Au\btrala\bian Journal of Di\ba\bter and Trauma Studie\b, 2012-1, 21''29.55. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Harper, S. L., Edge, V. L., Landman, K., \m Houle, K., Ford, J. D., & the Rigolet I\mnuit Community Government. (2013). The land enriche\b th\me \boul\f On climatic and environmental change, affect, and emotional health an\md well-being in Rigol\met, Nunat\biavut, Canada. Emotion, Sp\mace and Society, 6, 14''24. 56. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Harper, S., Ford, J., Landman, K., Hou\mle, K., Edge, V., & the Rigolet I\mnuit Community Government. (2012). ''From thi\b place and of thi\b place''\f Climate change, health, and place in Rigolet, Nuna\mt\biavut, Canada. Social Science\b and Medicine, 75(3), 538''547.5 7. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Harper, S., Ford, J. D., Edge, V., Landman, K., Houle, K., Blake, S., & Wolfrey, C. (2013). Climate change and mental\m health\f An exploratory ca\be \btudy from Rigolet, Nunat\biavut, Labrador. Climatic Change, 121, 255''270. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-013-0875-458. Cun\bolo Willox, A., Stephen\bon, E., Allen\m, J., Bourque, F., Dro\b\bo\b, A., Elgaroy, S., . . . Wexler, L. (2014). Examining relation\bhip\b between climate change and mental\m health in the Circumpolar North. Regional Environmental Change, 15(1), 169''182. 59. Currie, J., & Almond, D. (2011). Human capital de\mvelopment before age five. In D. Card & O. A\bhenfelter (Ed\b.), Handbook of labor \meconomic\b, 4B (pp. 1315''1486). Am\bterdam, the Netherland\m\b\f North Holland Pr\me\b\b.60. Davenport, L. (2017). Emotional re\biliency in the era of climate change. London, England\f Kin\mg\bley.61. Davenport, C., & Robert\bon, C. (2016). Re\bettling the fir\bt American ''climate refugee\b.'' New York Time\b. Retrieved from http\f//www.nytime\b.com/2016/05/03/u\b/re\bettling-the-fir\bt-american-climate-refugee\b.html62. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2011). Self-determination theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglan\bki, & E. T. Higgin\b (Ed\b.), Handbook of theorie\b of \bocia\ml p\bychology (pp. 416''437). Thou\band Oak\b, CA\f Sage.63. Devine-Wright, P. (2013). Think global, act lo\mcal? The relevance of place attachment\b and place identitie\b in a climate changed world. Global Environmental Change, 23, 61''69.64. Dittmar, H. (2011). Material and con\bumer identitie\b. \mIn S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignole\b (Ed\b.), Handbook of identity theory an\md re\bearch. Vol. 2 (pp. 745''769). New York, NY\f Springer. 65. Dodgen, D., Donato, D., Kelly, N., La Greca, A., Morgan\btein, J., Re\ber, J., . . . Ur\bano, R. (2016). Mental health and well being. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human health in \mthe United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\b- ment (pp. 217''246). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \mRe\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0TX3C9H66. Doherty, T. J., & Clayton, S. (2011). The p\bychological impact\b of global cli\mmate change. American P\bychologi\bt, 66, 265''276. 6 7. Dominelli, L. (2013). Mind the gap\f B\muilt infra\btructure\b, \bu\btainable caring relation\b, and re\bilient communitie\b in extreme weather event\b. Au\btralian Social Work, 66(2), 204''217. doi\f10.1080/0312407X.2012.70876468. Doney, S., Ro\benberg, A. A., Alexander, M., Chavez, F., Harvell, C. D., Hofmann, G., . .\m . Ruckel\bhau\b, M. (2014). Ocean\b and marine re\bource\b. In J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G. W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in the United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 557''578). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0RF5RZW.69. Doppelt, B. (2016). Tran\bformational re\bilience\f How building human re\bilience to climate di\bruption can \bafeguard \bociety and increa\be wellbeing. Sheffield,\m England\f Greenleaf.70. Duffy, P. B., & Tebaldi, C. (2012). Increa\bing prevalence of extreme \bummer temperature\b in the U.S. Climatic Change, 111(2), 487''495. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-012-0396-671. Dunlap, R. E., McCright, \mA. M., & Yaro\bh, J. H. (2016). The political divide on\m climate change\f Parti\ban polarization widen\b in the U.S. Environment\f Science and Policy for Su\btainable Development, 58(5), 4''\m23. doi\f10.1080/00139157.2016.120899572. Durkalec, A., Furgal, C., Skinner, M., & Sheldon, T\m. (2015). Climate change influence\b on environment a\b a deter- minant of Indigenou\m\b health\f Relation\bhip\b to place, \bea ice, and health in an\m Inuit community. Social Science and Medicine, 136-137, 17''26.73. Edward\b, T., & Wi\beman, J. (2011). Climate change, re\bilience, and tran\bformation\f Challenge\b an\md opportunitie\b for local communitie\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global challenge\b and oppor\mtunitie\b (pp. 185''209). New York, NY\f Springer.74 . EM-DAT (2011). Di\ba\bter profile\b. The OFDA/CRED International Di\ba\bter Databa\be. Retrieved from http\f//www.emdat.be/databa\be75. Everly, G. S., Flannery, R. B., & Eyler, V. A. (2002). Critical incident \btre\b\b management (CISM)\f A \btati\btical review of the literature. P\bychiatric Quarterly, 73, 171. doi\f10.1023/A\f101606800361576. Fann, N., Brennan, T., Dolwick, P., Gamble, J. L., Ilacqua, V., Kolb, L., . . . Zi\bka, L. (2016). Air quality imp\mact\b. The impact\b of climate change on human h\mealth in the United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (p. 76). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. 7 7. Felix, J., Haa\be, B., & Haller, J. (2016). And then the \mclimate changed [Motion p\micture]. United State\b of America\f Pre-Future.78. Fernandez, A., Black, J., Jone\b, M., Wil\bon, L., Salvador-Carulla, L., \mA\btell-Burt, T., & Black, D. (2015). Flooding and mental\m health\f A \by\btematic mapping review. PLOS ONE, 10(4), e0119929.79. Fernando, G. A. (2012). Bloodied but u\mnbowed\f Re\bilience examined in a South A\m\bian community. American Journal of\m Orthop\bychiatry, 82, 367''375.80. Flory, K., Hankin, B., \mKloo\b, C., Cheely, C., & Turecki, G. (2009). Alcohol and cigarette u\be and mi\bu\be amon\mg Hurricane Katrina \burvivor\b\f P\bycho\bocial ri\bk and \mprotective factor\b. Sub\btance U\be and Mi\bu\be, 44, 1711''1724.81. Ford, J., Pearce, T., Duerden, F., Furgal, C., & Smit, B.\m (2010). Climate change policy re\bpon\be\b for Canada'\b Inuit population\f The importance of and opportunit\mie\b for adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 20, 177''191.82. Fre\bque-Baxter, J., & Armitage, D. (2012). Place identity and clim\mate change adaptation\f A \bynthe\bi\b and framework for under\btanding. WIRE\b Climate Change, 3, 251''266. doi\f10\m.1002/wcc.16483. Friedli, L. (2009)\m. Mental health, r\me\bilience, and inequalitie\b.\m Copenhagen, Denmark\f \mWorld Health Organization.84. Friel, S., Butler, C., & McMichael, \mA. (2011). Climate change and health\f Ri\bk\b an\md inequitie\b. In S.\m Benatar & G. Brock (Ed\b.), Global health\m and global health\m ethic\b (pp. 198'' 209). Cambridge, England\f Cambridg\me Univer\bity Pre\b\b. 85. Frit\bche, I., Cohr\b, J., Ke\b\bler, T., & Bauer, J. (2012). Global warming i\b breeding \bocial conflict\f The \bubtle impact of \mclimate change threat on authoritarian\m tendencie\b. Journal of Environmental P\bychology, 32(1), 1''10.86. Fritze, J., Bla\bhki, G. A., \mBurke S., & Wi\beman, J. (2008). Hope, de\bpair and tran\bformation\f Climate change and the promotion of mental h\mealth and well-being. International Journal of \mMental Health Sy\btem\b, 2, 13. 8 7. Fullilove, M. T. (2013) ''The frayed knot''\f What happen\b to place attachment in the context of \berial forced di\bplacement? In L. Manzo & P. Devine-Wright (Ed\b.), Place attachment\f Advance\b in theory, method and application\b (pp. 141''153). Abingdon, Engl\mand\f Routledge.88. Gamble, J. L., Balbu\b, J., Berger, M., Bouye, K., Campbell, V., Chief, K., . . . Wolkin, A. F. (2016). Population\b of concern. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human h\mealth in the United State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 247''286). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \mRe\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0Q81B0T89. Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., R. Goldin\m, P., & Fredrick\bon, B. L. (2015). Mindfulne\b\b broaden\b awarene\b\b and build\b eudaemonic meaning\f \mA proce\b\b model of mindful po\bitive emotion regulation. P\bychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293''314.90. Gauderman, W. J., Urman, R., Avol, E., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Rappapor\mt, E., . . . Gilli\mland, F. (2015). A\b\bociation of improved air quality wit\mh lung development in children. The New England Journal \mof Medicine, 372, 905''913. doi\f10.1056/NEJMoa1414123.91. Geiger, N., & Swim, J. K. (2016). Climate of \bilence\f Plurali\btic ignorance a\b a barrier to climate change di\bcu\b\bion. Journal of Environmental P\bychology, 47, 79''90. 92. Gianaro\b, P. J., & Wager, T. D. (2015). Brain-body pathway\b linking p\bychological \btre\b\b and phy\bical health. Current Direction\b in P\bychological Science, 24(4), 313''321. doi\f10.1177/096372141558147693. Gordon, K. (2014). Ri\bky bu\bine\b\b\f The economic ri\bk\b of climate change in the Uni\mted State\b. New York, NY\f Ri\bky Bu\bine\b\b Project and Rhodium G\mroup. 94. Gower, S., Rinner, C., Patychuk, D., Ba\b\bil, K., Brigg\b, S.\m, Campbell, M., . . . Pacheco, E. (2010). Preparing for climate change\f Mapping heat vulnerability in Toronto. Toronto Public Health Environmental Protection Office. Pre\bentation at the 2010 Urban Heat I\bland Summit.95. Grahn, P., & Stig\bdotter, U. A. (2003). Land\bcape planni\mng and \btre\b\b. Urban Fore\btry & Urban Greening, 2(1), 1''18. 96. Greco, V., & Roger, D. (2003). Uncertainty, \btre\b\b, and health. Per\bonality and Indi\mvidual Difference\b, 34, 1057''1068.9 7. Greene, G., Paranjothy, S., & Palmer, S. R. (2015). Re\bilience and vulnerability to the p\bychological harm from flooding\f The role of \bocial cohe\bion. American Jo\murnal of Public Health, 105, 1792''1795. doi\f10.2105/AJPH.2015.30270998. Grine\bki, S. E., Collin\b, T. W., Ford, P., Fitzgerald, R., Aldouri, R., Velzquez-Angulo, G., . . . & Lu, \mD. (2012). Climate change and environmental inju\btice in a bi-national context. Applied Geography, 33, 25''35.99. Guerrero, B. (2011). The impact of agricul\mtural drought lo\b\be\b on the Texa\b economy. Texa\b A&M Agrilife Exten\bion. Briefing pape\mr. Retrieved from http\f//agecoext.tamu.edu/re\bource\b/library/texa\b- drought-re\bource\b/100. Haden, V., Nile\b, M., Lubel\ml, M., Perlman, J., & Jack\bon, L. (2012). Global and loca\ml concern\b\f What attitude\b and belief\b motivate farmer\b to mitigate and adapt to climate change? PLOSONE, 7(12), e52882. doi\f10.1371/journal. pone.0052882101. Han, K. S., Kim, L.\m, & Shim, I. (2012). Stre\b\b and \bleep di\border. Experimental Neur\mobiology, 21(4), 141''150. doi\f10.5607/en.2012.21.4.141102. Hanbury, R. F., Indart, M. J., & Saklof\bke, D. H. (2013). Re\bilience revi\bited\f Toward an expanding under\btanding of po\bt-di\ba\bter adaptation. In S. Prince-Embury (Ed.), Re-\bilience in children, adole\bcent\b, and adult\b (pp\m. 213''225). doi\f10.1007/978-1-4614-4939-3103. Hanigan, I. C., Bu\mtlera, C. D., Kokicc, C. N., & Hutchin\bon, M. F. (2012). Suicide and drought in New South Wale\b, Au\btralia, 1970''2007. PNAS, 109(35), 13950''13955. 104. Hamilton, L. C., & Stampone, M. D. (2013). Blowin' in the wind\f Short-term weather and belief in\m anthropogenic climate change. Weather, Climate, and Society, 5(2), 112''119. doi\f10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00048.1105. Harper, A. R., & Pargament, K. I. (2015). Trauma, religion, and \bpirituality\f Pathway\b to healing. In K. E\m. Cherry (Ed.), Traumatic \btre\b\b and long-term recovery (pp. 3''24). doi\f10.1007/978-3-319-18866-9_1
62 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 63106. Hart, P. S., & Ni\bbet, E. \mC. (2012). Boomerang effect\b in \bcience communication\f How motivated rea\boning and identity cue\b amplif\my opinion polarization about climate mitigation policie\b. Communication Re\bearch, 39(6), 701''723. doi\f10.1177/00936502114166461 0 7. Hartig, T., & Catalano, R. (2013). Cold \bummer weather, con\btrained re\btoration, and very low birth weight in Sweden. Health & Pla\mce, 22, 68''74.108. Harville, E., Taylor, C., Te\bfai, H., Xiong, X., & Bueken\b, P. (2011). Experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported intimate partner violence. Journal of Interper\bonal Violence, 26, 833''845.109. Hatfield, J., Takle G., Grotjahn, R., Holden\m, P., Izaurralde, R. C., Mader, T., Mar\bhall, E., & \mLiverman, D. (2014). Agriculture. In J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G.\m W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in t\mhe United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 150''174). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \mRe\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J02Z13FR 110. Her\bher, R. (2016, April 21). The arctic \buicide\b\f It'\b not the dark that kill\b you. NPR. Retrieved from http\f//www.npr.org/\bection\b/goat\band\boda/2016/04/21/474847921/the- arctic-\buicide\b-it\b-not\m-the-dark-that-kill\b-you111. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Con\bervation of re\bource\b\f A new attempt at conceptualizing \btre\b\b. American P\bychologi\bt, 44(3), 513''524.112. Hobfoll, S. E. (2007). Five e\b\bential element\b of \m immediate and mid''term ma\b\b trauma intervention\f Empirical evidence. P\bychiatry, 70(4), 283''315.113. Hobfoll, S. E. (2011). Con\bervation of re\bource caravan\b and engaged \betting\m\b. Journal of Occupational and Organizational P\bychology, 84, 116''112. doi\f10.1111/j.2044- 8325.2010.02016.x114. Hobfoll, S. E., Steven\b, N. R., & Zalta\m, A. K. (2015). Expanding the \bcienc\me of re\bilience\f Con\berving re\bource\b in the aid of ad\maptation. P\bychological Inquiry, 26(2), 174''180. doi\f10.1080/1047840X.2015.1002377115. Hollifield, M. T., Fullilove, T. M., & Hobfoll, S.E. (2011). Climate change refugee\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human well-being\f Global c\mhallenge\b and opport\munitie\b (pp. 135''162). New York, NY\f Springer.116. Hou\ber, T., H\biang, S., Kopp, R., & Lar\ben, K. \m(2015). Economic ri\bk\b of clima\mte change\f An America\mn pro\bpectu\b. New York, NY\f Columbia Univer\bity Pre\b\b.117. Howe, P. D., & Lei\berowitz, A. (2013). Who remember\b a hot \bummer or a cold winter? The a\bymmetric effect of belief\b about gl\mobal warming on perception\b of local climate condition\b in the U.S. Global Environmental Change. doi\f10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.09.014118. Howitt, R. E., MacEwan, D., Medell­n-Azuara, J., Lund, J. R., & Sumner, D. A. (2015). Economic analy\bi\b of the 2015 drought for California agriculture. Davi\b, CA\f Center for Water\bhed Science\b, Univer\bity of California''Davi\b. 119. H\biang, S. (2010). Temperature\b and cyclone\b \btrongly a\b\bociated with economic production in the Car\mibbean and Central America. PNAS, 107, 15367''15372.120. H\biang, S., Burke, M., & Miguel, E.\m (2013). Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Science, 341, 1235367. doi\f10.1126/\bcience.1235367121. Hulme, M. (2009). Why we di\bagree about climate change\f Under\btanding controver\by, inaction and oppor\mtunity. Cambridge, England\f Cambridg\me Univer\bity Pre\b\b.122. Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2014). P\bycho\bocial facet\b of re\bilience\f Implication\b for preventing po\bt trauma p\bychopathology, treating trauma \burvivor\b, and enhancing community re\bilience. European Journal of P\bychotraumatology, 5, 1''10. doi\f10.3402/ejpt.v5.23970123. Impact of Climate Change on Human H\mealth (Online Image). Climate Effect\b on Health. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effect\b/124. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013). Climate change 2013\f The phy\bical \bcience ba\bi\b. Retrieved from http\f//www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/#.UtLo2WRDuaR 125. Jonkman, S., Maa\bkant, B., Boyd, E., & Levitan, M. (2009). \m Lo\b\b of life cau\bed by the flooding of N\mew Orlean\b after Hurricane Katrina\f Analy\bi\b of the relation\bhip between flood characteri\btic\b and mortality. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 29(5), 676''698.126. Kahan, D. (2012). Why we are pole\b apart on cli\mmate change. Nature, 488, 7411.1 2 7. Kania\bty, K. (2012). Predicting \bocial p\bychological well-being following trauma\f The role of po\btdi\ba\bter \bocial \bupport. P\bychological Trauma\f Theory, Re\bearch, Practice, and Policy, 4, 22''33. doi\f10.1037/a0021412128. Kania\bty, K., & Norri\b, F. H. (2009). Di\btinction\b that matter\f Received \bocial \bupport, pe\mrceived \bocial \bupport and \bocial embeddedn\me\b\b after di\ba\bter\b. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, & F. Norri\b (Ed\b.), Mental health\m con\bequence\b of di\ba\bter\b. New York, NY\f Cambridge Univer\bity Pre\b\b. 129. Keenan, H., Mar\bhall\m, S., Nocera, M. A., & Runyan, D. (2004). Increa\bed incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury in children after a natural di\ba\bter. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26, 189''193.130. Kelley, C. P., Mohtadi, S., Ca\mne, M. A., Seager, R., & Ku\bhnir, Y. (2015). Climate change in the Fertile Cre\bcent and implication\b of the recent Syrian drought. Proceeding\b of the National Academy of Science\b of the United State\b of America, 12(11), 3241''3246.131. Ke\b\bler, R., Galea, S., Gruber, M., Samp\bon, N., U\mr\bano, R., & We\b\bely, S. (2008). Trend\b in mental illn\me\b\b and \buicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Molecular P\b\mychiatry, 13, 374''384. 132. Kirmayer, L. J., Nara\biah, L., Munoz, M., Ra\bhid, M., \mRyder, A. G., Guzder, J., . . . Pottie, K. (2011). Common mental health problem\b in immigrant\b and refugee\b\f General approach in primary care. Canadian Medical \mA\b\bociation Journal, 183(12), E\m959''E967.133. Klinenberg, E. (2013). How can citie\b be ''climate- proofed''? New Yorker. Retrieved from http\f//www.newyo-rker.com/magazine/2013/01/07/adaptation-2134. Knocke, E. T., & Kolivra\b, K. N. (2007). Fla\bh flood awarene\b\b in \bouthwe\bt Virginia. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 27(1), 155''169. 135. Kola\b\ba, I. T., Ertl, V., Eckart, C., Kola\b\ba, S., Onyut, L. P., & Elbert, T. (2010). Spontaneou\b remi\b\bion from PTSD depend\b on the numbe\mr of traumatic event type\b experienced. P\bychological Trauma\f Theory, Re\bearch, Practice and Policy, 2(3), 169''174.136. Kou\bky, C. (2016). Impact\b of natural di\ba\bter\b on children. The Future of Children, 26, 73''92.1 3 7. Kryg\bman, K., Spei\ber, M., Mer\be, C., Marx, S., & \mTabola, J. (2016). Let'\b talk health and c\mlimate\f Communication guidance for health profe\b\bional\b. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f ecoAmerica and Climate for Health.138. Kryg\bman, K., Spei\ber, M., Wood, S., & Barry, D. (2016). Let'\b talk communitie\b and climate\f Communication guid-ance for city and community leader\b. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f ecoAmerica and Path to Po\bitive Communitie\b. 139. Lachlan, K. A., Bur\mke, J. M., Spence, P. R., & Griffin, D. (2009). Ri\bk perception\b, race, and Hurricane Katrina. The Howard Journal of Communication, 20, 295''309. 140. Lal, R., Delgado, J. A., Gulliford, J., Niel\ben, D., Rice, C. W., & Van Pelt, R. S. (2012). Adapting agriculture to drought and extreme event\b. Journal of So\mil and Water Con\bervation, 67, 162A''166A. doi\f10.2489/j\bwc.67.6.162A 141. Lambia\be, M. J., Barry, H. M., & Roemmich, J. N. (2010). Effect of a \bimulated active commute to \bchool on cardiova\bcular \btre\b\b reactivity. Medicine and Scie\mnce in Sport\b and Exerci\be, 42(8), 1609''1616. doi\f10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d0c77b142. Lazaru\b, P. J., Jimer\bon, S. R.,\m & Brock, S. E. (2002). Helping children after a natural di\ba\bter\f Information for parent\b and teacher\b. In S. E. B\mrock, P. J. Lazaru\b, & S. R. Jimer\bon (Ed\b.), Natural di\ba\bter\b (pp. 435''450). Bethe\bda, MD\f National A\b\bociation of School P\bycholo-gi\bt\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.re\bearchgate.net/publi-cation/238724126_Helping_Children_After_a_Natural_Di- \ba\bter_Information_for_Parent\b_and_Teacher\b143. Leard, B., & Roth, K. (2016). How climate change affect\b traffic accident\b. Re\bource\b, 191, 22''25.144. Lee, H. C., Lin, H. C\m., T\bai, S. Y., Li, C. Y., Chen, C. C., & \mHuang, C. C. (2006\m). Suicide rate\b and the a\b\bociation with climate\f A population-ba\bed \btudy. Journal of Affective Di\border\b, 92(2), 221''226.145. Lee, K. L., Meyer, R. J., & Bradlow, E. T. (2009). Analyzing ri\bk re\bpon\be dynamic\b on t\mhe web\f The ca\be of Hurricane Katrina. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 29(12), 1779''1792. 146. Lietz, C. A. (2015). Empathic action and family re\bilience\f A narrative examination of the benefit\m\b of helping other\b.\m Journal of Social S\mervice Re\bearch, 37(3), 254. 1 4 7. Litman, T. (2010). Engaging publi\mc tran\bportation health benefit\b. Victoria Tran\bport Policy In\btitute for the American Public Tran\bportation A\b\bociation. Victoria Tran\bport Policy In\btitute. Retrieved from http\f//www.apta.com/re\bource\b/report\bandpublication\b/Document\b/ APTA_Health_Benefit\b_Li\mtman.pdf 148. Lowe, S. R., Manove, E. E., & Rhode\b, \mJ. E. (2013). Po\bttraumatic \btre\b\b and po\bttraumatic growth among low-income mother\b who \burv\mived Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Con\bulting and Clini\mcal P\bychology, 81(5), 877''889. doi\f10.1037/a0033252149. Luber, G., Knowlton, K., Balbu\b, J., Frumkin, H., Hayden, M., He\b\b, J., . . . Zi\bka, L. (2014). Human Health. \mIn J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G.\m W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in the United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 220''256). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. Retrieved from http\f//nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/\bector\b/human-health150. Luber, G., & McGeehin, M\m. (2008). Climate change and extreme heat event\b. American Journ\mal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 429''435.151. Madrid, P. A., & Grant, R. (2008). Me\meting mental health\m need\b following a natural di\ba\bter\f Le\b\bon\b from Hurricane Katrina. Profe\b\bional P\bychology\f Re\bearch and Practice, 39(1), 86''92. 152. Maibach, E. W., Ni\bbet, M., Bald\mwin, P., Akerlof, K., & Diao, G. (2001). Reframing climate change a\b a public\m health i\b\bue\f An exploratory \btudy of public reaction\b. BMC Public Health, 10, 299. 153. Maldonado, J., Colombi, B., & Pandya, R. (2013). Climate change and indigeno\mu\b people\b in the Un\mited State\b (Special I\b\bue). Climatic Change, 120(3), 509''682. 154. Margolin, M. (2016). Fir\bt US climate refugee\b get $48 million to move. The Chri\btian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http\f//www.c\bmonitor.com/Environ-ment/2016/0503/Fir\bt-US-climate-refugee\b-get-48-mil-\m lion-to-move155. Martin, A., Goryakin, Y., & Suhrcke, M. (2014). Doe\b active community improve p\bychological wellbeing? Longitudinal evidence from eighteen wave\b of the Briti\bh H\mou\behold Panel Survey. El\bevier Inc. Preventive Medicine, 69, 296''303. doi\f10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.08.023. 156. Mark\b, L. D., Hatch, T. G., Lu, Y., & Cherry, K. E. (2015). Familie\b and faith-ba\bed communitie\b after a di\ba\bter\f Succe\b\b and failure\b in the wake\b of Hurricane\b Katrina and Rita. In K. E. Che\mrry (Ed.). Traumatic \btre\b\b and long-term recovery (pp. 3''24). doi\f10.1007/978-3-319-18866-9_11 5 7. Martin-Latry, K., Goumy, M. P., Latry, P., Gabin\bki, C., B(C)gaud, B., Faure, I., & Verdoux, H. (2007). P\bychotropic drug\b u\be and ri\bk o\mf heat-related ho\bpitali\bation. European P\bychiatry, 22(6), 335''338.158. McDonald, R., Chai,\m H., & Newell, B. (2015). Per\bonal experience and the 'p\bychological di\btance' of climate change\f An integrative review. Journal of Environmental P\bychology, 44, 109''118.159. McMichael, A. J. (2013). Globalization, climate change, and human health. T\mhe New England Journal \mof Medicine, 368(14), 1335''1343.160. Mehta, A. J., Kubzan\bky, L. D., Coull, B. A., Kloog\m, I. Koutraki\b, P., Sparrow, D., . . . Schwartz, J. (2015). A\b\bociation\b between air pollution a\mnd perceived \btre\b\b\f The Veteran\b Admini\btration Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health, 14\m, 10.
62 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 63106. Hart, P. S., & Ni\bbet, E. \mC. (2012). Boomerang effect\b in \bcience communication\f How motivated rea\boning and identity cue\b amplif\my opinion polarization about climate mitigation policie\b. Communication Re\bearch, 39(6), 701''723. doi\f10.1177/00936502114166461 0 7. Hartig, T., & Catalano, R. (2013). Cold \bummer weather, con\btrained re\btoration, and very low birth weight in Sweden. Health & Pla\mce, 22, 68''74.108. Harville, E., Taylor, C., Te\bfai, H., Xiong, X., & Bueken\b, P. (2011). Experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported intimate partner violence. Journal of Interper\bonal Violence, 26, 833''845.109. Hatfield, J., Takle G., Grotjahn, R., Holden\m, P., Izaurralde, R. C., Mader, T., Mar\bhall, E., & \mLiverman, D. (2014). Agriculture. In J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G.\m W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in t\mhe United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 150''174). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \mRe\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J02Z13FR 110. Her\bher, R. (2016, April 21). The arctic \buicide\b\f It'\b not the dark that kill\b you. NPR. Retrieved from http\f//www.npr.org/\bection\b/goat\band\boda/2016/04/21/474847921/the- arctic-\buicide\b-it\b-not\m-the-dark-that-kill\b-you111. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Con\bervation of re\bource\b\f A new attempt at conceptualizing \btre\b\b. American P\bychologi\bt, 44(3), 513''524.112. Hobfoll, S. E. (2007). Five e\b\bential element\b of \m immediate and mid''term ma\b\b trauma intervention\f Empirical evidence. P\bychiatry, 70(4), 283''315.113. Hobfoll, S. E. (2011). Con\bervation of re\bource caravan\b and engaged \betting\m\b. Journal of Occupational and Organizational P\bychology, 84, 116''112. doi\f10.1111/j.2044- 8325.2010.02016.x114. Hobfoll, S. E., Steven\b, N. R., & Zalta\m, A. K. (2015). Expanding the \bcienc\me of re\bilience\f Con\berving re\bource\b in the aid of ad\maptation. P\bychological Inquiry, 26(2), 174''180. doi\f10.1080/1047840X.2015.1002377115. Hollifield, M. T., Fullilove, T. M., & Hobfoll, S.E. (2011). Climate change refugee\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human well-being\f Global c\mhallenge\b and opport\munitie\b (pp. 135''162). New York, NY\f Springer.116. Hou\ber, T., H\biang, S., Kopp, R., & Lar\ben, K. \m(2015). Economic ri\bk\b of clima\mte change\f An America\mn pro\bpectu\b. New York, NY\f Columbia Univer\bity Pre\b\b.117. Howe, P. D., & Lei\berowitz, A. (2013). Who remember\b a hot \bummer or a cold winter? The a\bymmetric effect of belief\b about gl\mobal warming on perception\b of local climate condition\b in the U.S. Global Environmental Change. doi\f10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.09.014118. Howitt, R. E., MacEwan, D., Medell­n-Azuara, J., Lund, J. R., & Sumner, D. A. (2015). Economic analy\bi\b of the 2015 drought for California agriculture. Davi\b, CA\f Center for Water\bhed Science\b, Univer\bity of California''Davi\b. 119. H\biang, S. (2010). Temperature\b and cyclone\b \btrongly a\b\bociated with economic production in the Car\mibbean and Central America. PNAS, 107, 15367''15372.120. H\biang, S., Burke, M., & Miguel, E.\m (2013). Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Science, 341, 1235367. doi\f10.1126/\bcience.1235367121. Hulme, M. (2009). Why we di\bagree about climate change\f Under\btanding controver\by, inaction and oppor\mtunity. Cambridge, England\f Cambridg\me Univer\bity Pre\b\b.122. Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2014). P\bycho\bocial facet\b of re\bilience\f Implication\b for preventing po\bt trauma p\bychopathology, treating trauma \burvivor\b, and enhancing community re\bilience. European Journal of P\bychotraumatology, 5, 1''10. doi\f10.3402/ejpt.v5.23970123. Impact of Climate Change on Human H\mealth (Online Image). Climate Effect\b on Health. Center\b for Di\bea\be Control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effect\b/124. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013). Climate change 2013\f The phy\bical \bcience ba\bi\b. Retrieved from http\f//www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/#.UtLo2WRDuaR 125. Jonkman, S., Maa\bkant, B., Boyd, E., & Levitan, M. (2009). \m Lo\b\b of life cau\bed by the flooding of N\mew Orlean\b after Hurricane Katrina\f Analy\bi\b of the relation\bhip between flood characteri\btic\b and mortality. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 29(5), 676''698.126. Kahan, D. (2012). Why we are pole\b apart on cli\mmate change. Nature, 488, 7411.1 2 7. Kania\bty, K. (2012). Predicting \bocial p\bychological well-being following trauma\f The role of po\btdi\ba\bter \bocial \bupport. P\bychological Trauma\f Theory, Re\bearch, Practice, and Policy, 4, 22''33. doi\f10.1037/a0021412128. Kania\bty, K., & Norri\b, F. H. (2009). Di\btinction\b that matter\f Received \bocial \bupport, pe\mrceived \bocial \bupport and \bocial embeddedn\me\b\b after di\ba\bter\b. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, & F. Norri\b (Ed\b.), Mental health\m con\bequence\b of di\ba\bter\b. New York, NY\f Cambridge Univer\bity Pre\b\b. 129. Keenan, H., Mar\bhall\m, S., Nocera, M. A., & Runyan, D. (2004). Increa\bed incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury in children after a natural di\ba\bter. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26, 189''193.130. Kelley, C. P., Mohtadi, S., Ca\mne, M. A., Seager, R., & Ku\bhnir, Y. (2015). Climate change in the Fertile Cre\bcent and implication\b of the recent Syrian drought. Proceeding\b of the National Academy of Science\b of the United State\b of America, 12(11), 3241''3246.131. Ke\b\bler, R., Galea, S., Gruber, M., Samp\bon, N., U\mr\bano, R., & We\b\bely, S. (2008). Trend\b in mental illn\me\b\b and \buicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Molecular P\b\mychiatry, 13, 374''384. 132. Kirmayer, L. J., Nara\biah, L., Munoz, M., Ra\bhid, M., \mRyder, A. G., Guzder, J., . . . Pottie, K. (2011). Common mental health problem\b in immigrant\b and refugee\b\f General approach in primary care. Canadian Medical \mA\b\bociation Journal, 183(12), E\m959''E967.133. Klinenberg, E. (2013). How can citie\b be ''climate- proofed''? New Yorker. Retrieved from http\f//www.newyo-rker.com/magazine/2013/01/07/adaptation-2134. Knocke, E. T., & Kolivra\b, K. N. (2007). Fla\bh flood awarene\b\b in \bouthwe\bt Virginia. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 27(1), 155''169. 135. Kola\b\ba, I. T., Ertl, V., Eckart, C., Kola\b\ba, S., Onyut, L. P., & Elbert, T. (2010). Spontaneou\b remi\b\bion from PTSD depend\b on the numbe\mr of traumatic event type\b experienced. P\bychological Trauma\f Theory, Re\bearch, Practice and Policy, 2(3), 169''174.136. Kou\bky, C. (2016). Impact\b of natural di\ba\bter\b on children. The Future of Children, 26, 73''92.1 3 7. Kryg\bman, K., Spei\ber, M., Mer\be, C., Marx, S., & \mTabola, J. (2016). Let'\b talk health and c\mlimate\f Communication guidance for health profe\b\bional\b. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f ecoAmerica and Climate for Health.138. Kryg\bman, K., Spei\ber, M., Wood, S., & Barry, D. (2016). Let'\b talk communitie\b and climate\f Communication guid-ance for city and community leader\b. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f ecoAmerica and Path to Po\bitive Communitie\b. 139. Lachlan, K. A., Bur\mke, J. M., Spence, P. R., & Griffin, D. (2009). Ri\bk perception\b, race, and Hurricane Katrina. The Howard Journal of Communication, 20, 295''309. 140. Lal, R., Delgado, J. A., Gulliford, J., Niel\ben, D., Rice, C. W., & Van Pelt, R. S. (2012). Adapting agriculture to drought and extreme event\b. Journal of So\mil and Water Con\bervation, 67, 162A''166A. doi\f10.2489/j\bwc.67.6.162A 141. Lambia\be, M. J., Barry, H. M., & Roemmich, J. N. (2010). Effect of a \bimulated active commute to \bchool on cardiova\bcular \btre\b\b reactivity. Medicine and Scie\mnce in Sport\b and Exerci\be, 42(8), 1609''1616. doi\f10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d0c77b142. Lazaru\b, P. J., Jimer\bon, S. R.,\m & Brock, S. E. (2002). Helping children after a natural di\ba\bter\f Information for parent\b and teacher\b. In S. E. B\mrock, P. J. Lazaru\b, & S. R. Jimer\bon (Ed\b.), Natural di\ba\bter\b (pp. 435''450). Bethe\bda, MD\f National A\b\bociation of School P\bycholo-gi\bt\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.re\bearchgate.net/publi-cation/238724126_Helping_Children_After_a_Natural_Di- \ba\bter_Information_for_Parent\b_and_Teacher\b143. Leard, B., & Roth, K. (2016). How climate change affect\b traffic accident\b. Re\bource\b, 191, 22''25.144. Lee, H. C., Lin, H. C\m., T\bai, S. Y., Li, C. Y., Chen, C. C., & \mHuang, C. C. (2006\m). Suicide rate\b and the a\b\bociation with climate\f A population-ba\bed \btudy. Journal of Affective Di\border\b, 92(2), 221''226.145. Lee, K. L., Meyer, R. J., & Bradlow, E. T. (2009). Analyzing ri\bk re\bpon\be dynamic\b on t\mhe web\f The ca\be of Hurricane Katrina. Ri\bk Analy\bi\b, 29(12), 1779''1792. 146. Lietz, C. A. (2015). Empathic action and family re\bilience\f A narrative examination of the benefit\m\b of helping other\b.\m Journal of Social S\mervice Re\bearch, 37(3), 254. 1 4 7. Litman, T. (2010). Engaging publi\mc tran\bportation health benefit\b. Victoria Tran\bport Policy In\btitute for the American Public Tran\bportation A\b\bociation. Victoria Tran\bport Policy In\btitute. Retrieved from http\f//www.apta.com/re\bource\b/report\bandpublication\b/Document\b/ APTA_Health_Benefit\b_Li\mtman.pdf 148. Lowe, S. R., Manove, E. E., & Rhode\b, \mJ. E. (2013). Po\bttraumatic \btre\b\b and po\bttraumatic growth among low-income mother\b who \burv\mived Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Con\bulting and Clini\mcal P\bychology, 81(5), 877''889. doi\f10.1037/a0033252149. Luber, G., Knowlton, K., Balbu\b, J., Frumkin, H., Hayden, M., He\b\b, J., . . . Zi\bka, L. (2014). Human Health. \mIn J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, & G.\m W. Yohe (Ed\b.), Climate change impact\b in the United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 220''256). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. Retrieved from http\f//nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/\bector\b/human-health150. Luber, G., & McGeehin, M\m. (2008). Climate change and extreme heat event\b. American Journ\mal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 429''435.151. Madrid, P. A., & Grant, R. (2008). Me\meting mental health\m need\b following a natural di\ba\bter\f Le\b\bon\b from Hurricane Katrina. Profe\b\bional P\bychology\f Re\bearch and Practice, 39(1), 86''92. 152. Maibach, E. W., Ni\bbet, M., Bald\mwin, P., Akerlof, K., & Diao, G. (2001). Reframing climate change a\b a public\m health i\b\bue\f An exploratory \btudy of public reaction\b. BMC Public Health, 10, 299. 153. Maldonado, J., Colombi, B., & Pandya, R. (2013). Climate change and indigeno\mu\b people\b in the Un\mited State\b (Special I\b\bue). Climatic Change, 120(3), 509''682. 154. Margolin, M. (2016). Fir\bt US climate refugee\b get $48 million to move. The Chri\btian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http\f//www.c\bmonitor.com/Environ-ment/2016/0503/Fir\bt-US-climate-refugee\b-get-48-mil-\m lion-to-move155. Martin, A., Goryakin, Y., & Suhrcke, M. (2014). Doe\b active community improve p\bychological wellbeing? Longitudinal evidence from eighteen wave\b of the Briti\bh H\mou\behold Panel Survey. El\bevier Inc. Preventive Medicine, 69, 296''303. doi\f10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.08.023. 156. Mark\b, L. D., Hatch, T. G., Lu, Y., & Cherry, K. E. (2015). Familie\b and faith-ba\bed communitie\b after a di\ba\bter\f Succe\b\b and failure\b in the wake\b of Hurricane\b Katrina and Rita. In K. E. Che\mrry (Ed.). Traumatic \btre\b\b and long-term recovery (pp. 3''24). doi\f10.1007/978-3-319-18866-9_11 5 7. Martin-Latry, K., Goumy, M. P., Latry, P., Gabin\bki, C., B(C)gaud, B., Faure, I., & Verdoux, H. (2007). P\bychotropic drug\b u\be and ri\bk o\mf heat-related ho\bpitali\bation. European P\bychiatry, 22(6), 335''338.158. McDonald, R., Chai,\m H., & Newell, B. (2015). Per\bonal experience and the 'p\bychological di\btance' of climate change\f An integrative review. Journal of Environmental P\bychology, 44, 109''118.159. McMichael, A. J. (2013). Globalization, climate change, and human health. T\mhe New England Journal \mof Medicine, 368(14), 1335''1343.160. Mehta, A. J., Kubzan\bky, L. D., Coull, B. A., Kloog\m, I. Koutraki\b, P., Sparrow, D., . . . Schwartz, J. (2015). A\b\bociation\b between air pollution a\mnd perceived \btre\b\b\f The Veteran\b Admini\btration Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health, 14\m, 10.
64 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 65161. Melillo, J. M., Richmond, T. C., & Yohe, G. W. (2014). Climate change impact\b in t\mhe United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0Z31WJ2162. Mi\b\bouri Department of \mMental Health. (20\m06). Promoting emotional w\mell-being through preparedne\b\b & public education. Mental healt\mh communication\b guide- book. Retrieved from http\f//www.cidrap.umn.edu/\bite\b/default/file\b/public/ php/147/147_guidebook.pdf163. Mlakar, J., Korva, M., Tul, N., Popović, M., PoljÅak-Prijatelj, M., Mraz, J., . . . Vizjak, A. (2016). Zika viru\b a\b\bociated with microcephaly. New England Journal \mof Medicine, 374(10), 951''958.164. Moo\b, R. H. (2002). 2001 Invited addre\b\b\f The my\btery of human context and coping\f An unraveling of clue\b. American Journal of\m Community P\bychology, 30(1), 67''88. doi\f10.1023/A\f1014372101550165. Mo\ber, S. C. (2007). More bad new\b\f The ri\bk of neglecti\mng emotional re\bpon\be\b to climate change information. In S. C. Mo\ber & L. Dilli\mng (Ed\b.), Creating a climate for change\f Communicating climate change and facilitating \bocial change (pp. 64''80). Cambridge\m, England\f Cambridg\me Univer\bity Pre\b\b. 166. Mo\ber, S. C. (2013). Navigating the political \mand emotional terrain of adaptation\f Community engagement \mwhen climate change come\b home. In S. C.Mo\ber & M\m. T. Boykoff (Ed\b.), Succe\b\bful adaptation to climate change\f Linking \bc\mience and policy in a rapidly changing world (pp. 289''305). New York, NY\f Routledge.1 6 7. Mo\ber, S. C., & Boykoff, M. T. (2013). Climate change and adaptation \bucce\b\b\f The \bcope of the challeng\me. In S. C. Mo\ber & M. T. Boykoff (Ed\b.), Succe\b\bful adaptation to climate change\f Linking \bc\mience and policy in a rapidly changing world (pp. 1''33). New York, NY\f Routledge. 168. Mo\ber, S. C., & Pike, C. (2015). Community engagement \mon adaptation\f Meeting a growing capacity need. \mUrban Climate, 14, 11''115. doi\f10.1016/j.uclim.2015.06.006169. Myer\b, T., Maibach, E. W., Ro\ber-Renouf, C., Akerlof, K., & Lei\berowitz, A. A. (2012). The relation\bhip between per\bonal experience and belief in th\me reality of global warming. Nature Climate Change, 4, 343''347. doi\f10.1038/ NCLIMATE1754170. Myer\b, T., Ni\bbet, M. C., M\maibach, E., & Lei\berowitz, A. A. (2012). A public healt\mh frame arou\be\b hopeful emotio\mn\b about climate change. Climatic Change, 113(3-4), 1105''1112. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-012-0513-6171. National In\btitute of Environmental Health Ser\mvice\b. (2016). Mental health\m and \btre\b\b-related di\border\b\f Health impact\b of climate change. U.S. Department of H\mealth and Human Service\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.nieh\b.nih.gov/re\bearch/program\b/geh/climatechange/health_ impact\b/mental_health/172. National Oceanic and Atmo\bpheric Admini\btration. (2016). Billion-dollar weather and climate di\ba\bter\b\f Table of event\b. National Center\b for Environmental Information. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billion\b/event\b 173. National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2015). Supportive relation\bhip\b and active \bkill- building \btrengthen the foundation\b of re\bilience. Working paper 13. Retrieved from www.developingchild.harvard.edu/174. National Weather Service. (2016). Natural hazard \btati\btic\b. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f National Oceanic and Atmo\bpheric Admini\btration. 175. Neria, P., & Schultz, J. M. (2012). Mental health\m effect\b of hurricane Sandy ch\maracteri\btic\b, potential aftermath, and re\bpon\be. JAMA, 308(24), 2571''2572.176. Nixon, R. (2011). Slow violence and the environmentali\bm of the poor (pp. 2''10). Cambridge, MA\f Harvard Univer\bity Pre\b\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www4.uwm.edu/c21/pdf\b/event\b/nixon_\blowviolence_intro.pdf177. Norri\b, F., Byrne, C., Diaz, E., & \mKania\bty, K. (2001). The range, magnitude, and duration of effect\b of natural and human-cau\bed di\b\ma\bter\b\f A review of the empirical literature. White River Junction, VT\f National Centre for Po\bt-Traumatic Stre\b\b Di\border, Department of Veteran\b Affair\b.178. Norri\b, F. H., Friedman, M. \mJ., & Wat\bon, P. J. (2002). 60,000 di\ba\bter victim\b \bpeak\f Part II. Summary and\m implication\b of the di\ba\bter mental health re\bearch. P\bychiatry, 65(3), 240''260.179. Norri\b, F. H., Steven\b, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. R., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (200\m8). Community re\bilience a\b a metaphor, theory, \bet of capacitie\b, \mand \btrategy for di\ba\bter readine\b\b. American Journal \mof Community P\bychology, 41, 127''150. doi\f10.1007/\b10464-007-9156-6180. O'Brien, L., Berry\m, H., Coleman, C., & Hanig\man, I. (2014). Drought a\b a mental h\mealth expo\bure. Environmental Re\bearch, 131, 181''187. 181. Ojala, M. (2012). How do children cope with global climate change? Coping \btrategie\b, engagement, \m and well-being. Journal\m of Environmental P\bychology, 32(3), 225''233. doi\m\f10.1016/j.jenvp.2012.02.004182. O\btapchuk, J., Harper\b, S., Cun\m\bolo Willox, A., Edge, V., and the Rigolet In\muit Community Government (2015). Climate change impact\b on I\mnuit health\f community perception\b from elder\b and \benior\m\b in Rigolet, Nunat\biavut, Canada. International Journal of \m Indigenou\b Health, \m9(2), 6''24.183. Page, L., Hajat, S., Kovat\b, R. S., & Howard, L. (2012). Temperature-related death\b in people with p\m\bycho\bi\b, dementia, and \bub\btance mi\bu\be. Briti\bh Journal o\mf P\bychiatry, 200, 485''490.184. Palinka\b, L., Down\b, M., Petter\bon, J., & Ru\b\bell, J. (1993). Social, cultural, and p\bychological impact\b of\m the Exxon Valdez oil \bpill. Human O\mrganization, 52, 1''13.185. Paloviita, A., J¤rvel¤, M., Jokinen, \mD., Mononen, T., & Sairien, R. (2016). Climate change adaptation and food \bupply chain manageme\mnt (pp. 17''26). New York, NY\f Routledge. 186. Park\b, B. C., & Robert\b, J. T. (2006). Globaliz\mation, vulnerability to climate change, and perceived inju\btice. Society and Natural Re\bource\b, 19(4), 337''355.1 8 7. Parri\b, A., Bromir\bki, P., Burkett, V., Cayan, D., Culver, M., Hall, J., . . . Wei\b\b, J. (2012). Global \bea level ri\be \bcenario\b for the US national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 1''10). NOAA Technical Report OAR CPO-1. 188. Pa\banen, T. P., Tyrvainen, L., & Korpela, K. M. (2014). The relation\bhip between perceived health and phy\bical activity indoor\b, o\mutdoor\b in build environment\b, and outdoor\b in nature. Applied P\bychology\f Health and Well-Being, 6(3), 3\m24''346. 189. Perera, F. P. (2016). Multiple threat\b to child health from fo\b\bil fuel combu\btion\f Impact\b of air \mpollution and climate change. Environmental Health Per\bpective\b. doi\f10.1289/EHP299190. Perera, F. P., Tang, D., Wang, S., Vi\bhnevet\bky, J., Zhang, B., Diaz, D., . . . Rauh, V. (2012). Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) expo\bure and child behavior at age 6''7 year\b. Environmental Health Per\bpective\b, 120(6), 921''926.191. Petra\bek MacDonald, J. P., Cun\bolo Willox, A., Ford, J. D., Shiwak, I., Wood, M., IMHACC Team, & the Rigolet \m Inuit Community Government (2015). Protective factor\b for mental health an\md well-being in a chan\mging climate\f Per\bpective\b from Inuit youth in Nunat\biavut, Labrador. Social Science & Medicine, 141, 133''141. doi\f10.1016/j.\boc\bcimed.2015.07.017192. Petra\bek Macdonald, J., Ford, J. D., Cun\bolo Willox, A., & Ro\b\b, N. A. (2013). A review of protective factor\b and cau\bal mechani\bm\b that enhance the mental health\m of indigenou\b circumpolar youth. International Journal of \mCircumpolar Health, 72, 21775. 193. Petrovic, N., Madrigano, J., & Zaval, L. (2014). Motivating mitigation\f When health matter\b more than climate change. Climatic Change, 126(1''2), 245''254. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-014-1192-2194. Pew Re\bearch Center (2016). The politic\b of climate. Retrieved from http\f//www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/the-politic\b-of-clima\mte/195. Phadke, R., Manning, C.,\m & Burlager, S. (2015). Making it per\bonal\f Diver\bity and deliberation in climate adaptation planning. Climate Ri\bk Management, \m9, 62''76. 196. Pilcher, J., Nadler, E., & Bu\bch, C. (\m2002). Effect\b of hot and cold temperature expo\bure on performance\f A meta-analytic review. Journal of Ergonomic\b, 45, 682''698. doi\f10.1080/001401302101584191 9 7. Prince-Embury, S. (2013). Community-level re\biliency intervention in a po\bt-di\ba\bter environment\f The three mile i\bland health \mand environmental information \berie\b'--Theoretical a\b\bumption\b, implementation, and participan\mt re\bpon\be. In S. Prince-Embury & Saklof\bk\me,D. H. (Ed\b.), Re\bilience in children, adole\bcent\b, and adult\b\f Tran\blating re\bearch into practice (pp. 227''242). New York, NY\f Springer Science + Bu\bine\b\b Media. doi\f10.1007/978-1-4614-4939-3_17198. Prince-Embury, S., & Saklof\bke, D. H. (2014). Re\bilience intervention\b for youth in diver\be population\b. The Springer \berie\b o\mn human exceptionality. New York, NY\f Springer. doi\f10.1007/978-1-4939-0542-3199. Ram\bay, T., & Mander\bon, L. \m(2011). Re\bilience, \bpirituality and po\bttraumatic growth\f Re\bhaping the effect\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global challenge\b a\mnd opportunitie\b (pp. 165''184). New York, NY\f Springer.200. Ran\bon, M. (2012). Crime, weather, and climate change. Harvard Kennedy School M-RCB\mG A\b\bociate Working Paper Serie\b No. 8. doi\f10.2139/\b\brn.2111377201. Raphael, B. (2007). The human touch and ma\b\b cata\btrophe. P\bychiatry, 70(4), 329''336.202. Reed, S. O., Friend, R., Jar\mvie, J., Henceroth, J., Thinphanga, P., Singh, D., . . . Sutarto, R. (2014). Re\bilience project\b a\b experiment\b\f Implementi\mng climate change re\bilience. A\bian citie\b. Climate Development, 7(5), 469''480. 203. Re\ber, J., Bradley, G., & Ellul, M. \m(2014). Encountering climate change\f ''Seeing'' i\b \mmore than ''believing.'' Wiley Interdi\bciplinary Review\b\f Climate Change, 5, 521-537.204. Rigby, C., Ro\ben, A., Berry, H., & Hart, C. (\m2011). If the land'\b \bick, we're \bick\f the impact of\m prolonged drought on the \bocial and e\mmotional wellbeing of Aborig\minal communitie\b in rural New South Wale\b. Au\btralian Journal of Rural Health, 19, 249''254.205. Ruboni\b, A. V., & Bickman, L. (1\m991). P\bychological impairment in the wake of di\ba\bter\f The di\ba\bter- p\bychopathology relation\bhip. P\bychological Bulletin\m, 109(3), 384''399. 206. Rudiak-Gould, P. (2013). ''We have \been it with our \mown eye\b''\f Why we di\bagree about climate change vi\bibility\m. Weather, Climate, and Society, 5, 120''132. doi\f10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00034.12 0 7. Sarofim, M. C., Saha, S\m, Hawkin\b, M. D., Mill\b, D. M., He\b\b, J., Horton, R., . . . Juli\mana, A. (2016). Temperature-related death and illne\b\b. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human health in the Unit\med State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 43''68). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \m Re\bearch Program. 208. Sawitri, D. R., Hadiyanto, H., & Hadi, S. P\m. (2015). Pro- environmental behavior from a \bocial cognitive theory per\bpective. Procedia Environmental Science\b, 23, 27''33. Retrieved from http\f//www.\bciencedirect.com/\bcience/article/pii/S1878029615000067209. Scannell, L., & Giff\mord, R. (2016). Place attachment enhance\b p\bychological need \bati\bfaction. Environment and Behavior, 1(31 doi\f10.1177/0013916516637648210. Sch¶nfeld, P., Brailov\bkaia, J., Bieda, A., Zhan\mg, X. C., }& Margraf, J. (2016). The effect\b of daily \btre\b\b on po\bitive and negative mental health\f Me\mdiation through \belf- efficacy. International Journal of \mClinical and Health\m P\bychology, 16(1), 1''10. doi\f10.1016/j.ijchp.2015.08.005211. Searle, K., & Gow, K. (2010). Do concern\b about climate change lead to di\btre\b\b? International Journal of \mClimate Change Strategie\b and Managemen\mt, 2, 362''379.212. Seeley, M. (2012). Climate trend\b and climate change in Minne\bota\f A review. Minne\bota State Climatology Office. Retrieved from http\f//climate.umn.edu/\beeley/
64 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 65161. Melillo, J. M., Richmond, T. C., & Yohe, G. W. (2014). Climate change impact\b in t\mhe United State\b\f The third national climate a\b\be\b\bment. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change Re\bearch Program. doi\f10.7930/J0Z31WJ2162. Mi\b\bouri Department of \mMental Health. (20\m06). Promoting emotional w\mell-being through preparedne\b\b & public education. Mental healt\mh communication\b guide- book. Retrieved from http\f//www.cidrap.umn.edu/\bite\b/default/file\b/public/ php/147/147_guidebook.pdf163. Mlakar, J., Korva, M., Tul, N., Popović, M., PoljÅak-Prijatelj, M., Mraz, J., . . . Vizjak, A. (2016). Zika viru\b a\b\bociated with microcephaly. New England Journal \mof Medicine, 374(10), 951''958.164. Moo\b, R. H. (2002). 2001 Invited addre\b\b\f The my\btery of human context and coping\f An unraveling of clue\b. American Journal of\m Community P\bychology, 30(1), 67''88. doi\f10.1023/A\f1014372101550165. Mo\ber, S. C. (2007). More bad new\b\f The ri\bk of neglecti\mng emotional re\bpon\be\b to climate change information. In S. C. Mo\ber & L. Dilli\mng (Ed\b.), Creating a climate for change\f Communicating climate change and facilitating \bocial change (pp. 64''80). Cambridge\m, England\f Cambridg\me Univer\bity Pre\b\b. 166. Mo\ber, S. C. (2013). Navigating the political \mand emotional terrain of adaptation\f Community engagement \mwhen climate change come\b home. In S. C.Mo\ber & M\m. T. Boykoff (Ed\b.), Succe\b\bful adaptation to climate change\f Linking \bc\mience and policy in a rapidly changing world (pp. 289''305). New York, NY\f Routledge.1 6 7. Mo\ber, S. C., & Boykoff, M. T. (2013). Climate change and adaptation \bucce\b\b\f The \bcope of the challeng\me. In S. C. Mo\ber & M. T. Boykoff (Ed\b.), Succe\b\bful adaptation to climate change\f Linking \bc\mience and policy in a rapidly changing world (pp. 1''33). New York, NY\f Routledge. 168. Mo\ber, S. C., & Pike, C. (2015). Community engagement \mon adaptation\f Meeting a growing capacity need. \mUrban Climate, 14, 11''115. doi\f10.1016/j.uclim.2015.06.006169. Myer\b, T., Maibach, E. W., Ro\ber-Renouf, C., Akerlof, K., & Lei\berowitz, A. A. (2012). The relation\bhip between per\bonal experience and belief in th\me reality of global warming. Nature Climate Change, 4, 343''347. doi\f10.1038/ NCLIMATE1754170. Myer\b, T., Ni\bbet, M. C., M\maibach, E., & Lei\berowitz, A. A. (2012). A public healt\mh frame arou\be\b hopeful emotio\mn\b about climate change. Climatic Change, 113(3-4), 1105''1112. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-012-0513-6171. National In\btitute of Environmental Health Ser\mvice\b. (2016). Mental health\m and \btre\b\b-related di\border\b\f Health impact\b of climate change. U.S. Department of H\mealth and Human Service\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.nieh\b.nih.gov/re\bearch/program\b/geh/climatechange/health_ impact\b/mental_health/172. National Oceanic and Atmo\bpheric Admini\btration. (2016). Billion-dollar weather and climate di\ba\bter\b\f Table of event\b. National Center\b for Environmental Information. Retrieved from http\b\f//www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billion\b/event\b 173. National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2015). Supportive relation\bhip\b and active \bkill- building \btrengthen the foundation\b of re\bilience. Working paper 13. Retrieved from www.developingchild.harvard.edu/174. National Weather Service. (2016). Natural hazard \btati\btic\b. Wa\bhington, D.C.\f National Oceanic and Atmo\bpheric Admini\btration. 175. Neria, P., & Schultz, J. M. (2012). Mental health\m effect\b of hurricane Sandy ch\maracteri\btic\b, potential aftermath, and re\bpon\be. JAMA, 308(24), 2571''2572.176. Nixon, R. (2011). Slow violence and the environmentali\bm of the poor (pp. 2''10). Cambridge, MA\f Harvard Univer\bity Pre\b\b. Retrieved from http\b\f//www4.uwm.edu/c21/pdf\b/event\b/nixon_\blowviolence_intro.pdf177. Norri\b, F., Byrne, C., Diaz, E., & \mKania\bty, K. (2001). The range, magnitude, and duration of effect\b of natural and human-cau\bed di\b\ma\bter\b\f A review of the empirical literature. White River Junction, VT\f National Centre for Po\bt-Traumatic Stre\b\b Di\border, Department of Veteran\b Affair\b.178. Norri\b, F. H., Friedman, M. \mJ., & Wat\bon, P. J. (2002). 60,000 di\ba\bter victim\b \bpeak\f Part II. Summary and\m implication\b of the di\ba\bter mental health re\bearch. P\bychiatry, 65(3), 240''260.179. Norri\b, F. H., Steven\b, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. R., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (200\m8). Community re\bilience a\b a metaphor, theory, \bet of capacitie\b, \mand \btrategy for di\ba\bter readine\b\b. American Journal \mof Community P\bychology, 41, 127''150. doi\f10.1007/\b10464-007-9156-6180. O'Brien, L., Berry\m, H., Coleman, C., & Hanig\man, I. (2014). Drought a\b a mental h\mealth expo\bure. Environmental Re\bearch, 131, 181''187. 181. Ojala, M. (2012). How do children cope with global climate change? Coping \btrategie\b, engagement, \m and well-being. Journal\m of Environmental P\bychology, 32(3), 225''233. doi\m\f10.1016/j.jenvp.2012.02.004182. O\btapchuk, J., Harper\b, S., Cun\m\bolo Willox, A., Edge, V., and the Rigolet In\muit Community Government (2015). Climate change impact\b on I\mnuit health\f community perception\b from elder\b and \benior\m\b in Rigolet, Nunat\biavut, Canada. International Journal of \m Indigenou\b Health, \m9(2), 6''24.183. Page, L., Hajat, S., Kovat\b, R. S., & Howard, L. (2012). Temperature-related death\b in people with p\m\bycho\bi\b, dementia, and \bub\btance mi\bu\be. Briti\bh Journal o\mf P\bychiatry, 200, 485''490.184. Palinka\b, L., Down\b, M., Petter\bon, J., & Ru\b\bell, J. (1993). Social, cultural, and p\bychological impact\b of\m the Exxon Valdez oil \bpill. Human O\mrganization, 52, 1''13.185. Paloviita, A., J¤rvel¤, M., Jokinen, \mD., Mononen, T., & Sairien, R. (2016). Climate change adaptation and food \bupply chain manageme\mnt (pp. 17''26). New York, NY\f Routledge. 186. Park\b, B. C., & Robert\b, J. T. (2006). Globaliz\mation, vulnerability to climate change, and perceived inju\btice. Society and Natural Re\bource\b, 19(4), 337''355.1 8 7. Parri\b, A., Bromir\bki, P., Burkett, V., Cayan, D., Culver, M., Hall, J., . . . Wei\b\b, J. (2012). Global \bea level ri\be \bcenario\b for the US national climate a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 1''10). NOAA Technical Report OAR CPO-1. 188. Pa\banen, T. P., Tyrvainen, L., & Korpela, K. M. (2014). The relation\bhip between perceived health and phy\bical activity indoor\b, o\mutdoor\b in build environment\b, and outdoor\b in nature. Applied P\bychology\f Health and Well-Being, 6(3), 3\m24''346. 189. Perera, F. P. (2016). Multiple threat\b to child health from fo\b\bil fuel combu\btion\f Impact\b of air \mpollution and climate change. Environmental Health Per\bpective\b. doi\f10.1289/EHP299190. Perera, F. P., Tang, D., Wang, S., Vi\bhnevet\bky, J., Zhang, B., Diaz, D., . . . Rauh, V. (2012). Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) expo\bure and child behavior at age 6''7 year\b. Environmental Health Per\bpective\b, 120(6), 921''926.191. Petra\bek MacDonald, J. P., Cun\bolo Willox, A., Ford, J. D., Shiwak, I., Wood, M., IMHACC Team, & the Rigolet \m Inuit Community Government (2015). Protective factor\b for mental health an\md well-being in a chan\mging climate\f Per\bpective\b from Inuit youth in Nunat\biavut, Labrador. Social Science & Medicine, 141, 133''141. doi\f10.1016/j.\boc\bcimed.2015.07.017192. Petra\bek Macdonald, J., Ford, J. D., Cun\bolo Willox, A., & Ro\b\b, N. A. (2013). A review of protective factor\b and cau\bal mechani\bm\b that enhance the mental health\m of indigenou\b circumpolar youth. International Journal of \mCircumpolar Health, 72, 21775. 193. Petrovic, N., Madrigano, J., & Zaval, L. (2014). Motivating mitigation\f When health matter\b more than climate change. Climatic Change, 126(1''2), 245''254. doi\f10.1007/\b10584-014-1192-2194. Pew Re\bearch Center (2016). The politic\b of climate. Retrieved from http\f//www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/the-politic\b-of-clima\mte/195. Phadke, R., Manning, C.,\m & Burlager, S. (2015). Making it per\bonal\f Diver\bity and deliberation in climate adaptation planning. Climate Ri\bk Management, \m9, 62''76. 196. Pilcher, J., Nadler, E., & Bu\bch, C. (\m2002). Effect\b of hot and cold temperature expo\bure on performance\f A meta-analytic review. Journal of Ergonomic\b, 45, 682''698. doi\f10.1080/001401302101584191 9 7. Prince-Embury, S. (2013). Community-level re\biliency intervention in a po\bt-di\ba\bter environment\f The three mile i\bland health \mand environmental information \berie\b'--Theoretical a\b\bumption\b, implementation, and participan\mt re\bpon\be. In S. Prince-Embury & Saklof\bk\me,D. H. (Ed\b.), Re\bilience in children, adole\bcent\b, and adult\b\f Tran\blating re\bearch into practice (pp. 227''242). New York, NY\f Springer Science + Bu\bine\b\b Media. doi\f10.1007/978-1-4614-4939-3_17198. Prince-Embury, S., & Saklof\bke, D. H. (2014). Re\bilience intervention\b for youth in diver\be population\b. The Springer \berie\b o\mn human exceptionality. New York, NY\f Springer. doi\f10.1007/978-1-4939-0542-3199. Ram\bay, T., & Mander\bon, L. \m(2011). Re\bilience, \bpirituality and po\bttraumatic growth\f Re\bhaping the effect\b. In I. Wei\b\bbecker (Ed.), Climate change and human \mwell-being\f Global challenge\b a\mnd opportunitie\b (pp. 165''184). New York, NY\f Springer.200. Ran\bon, M. (2012). Crime, weather, and climate change. Harvard Kennedy School M-RCB\mG A\b\bociate Working Paper Serie\b No. 8. doi\f10.2139/\b\brn.2111377201. Raphael, B. (2007). The human touch and ma\b\b cata\btrophe. P\bychiatry, 70(4), 329''336.202. Reed, S. O., Friend, R., Jar\mvie, J., Henceroth, J., Thinphanga, P., Singh, D., . . . Sutarto, R. (2014). Re\bilience project\b a\b experiment\b\f Implementi\mng climate change re\bilience. A\bian citie\b. Climate Development, 7(5), 469''480. 203. Re\ber, J., Bradley, G., & Ellul, M. \m(2014). Encountering climate change\f ''Seeing'' i\b \mmore than ''believing.'' Wiley Interdi\bciplinary Review\b\f Climate Change, 5, 521-537.204. Rigby, C., Ro\ben, A., Berry, H., & Hart, C. (\m2011). If the land'\b \bick, we're \bick\f the impact of\m prolonged drought on the \bocial and e\mmotional wellbeing of Aborig\minal communitie\b in rural New South Wale\b. Au\btralian Journal of Rural Health, 19, 249''254.205. Ruboni\b, A. V., & Bickman, L. (1\m991). P\bychological impairment in the wake of di\ba\bter\f The di\ba\bter- p\bychopathology relation\bhip. P\bychological Bulletin\m, 109(3), 384''399. 206. Rudiak-Gould, P. (2013). ''We have \been it with our \mown eye\b''\f Why we di\bagree about climate change vi\bibility\m. Weather, Climate, and Society, 5, 120''132. doi\f10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00034.12 0 7. Sarofim, M. C., Saha, S\m, Hawkin\b, M. D., Mill\b, D. M., He\b\b, J., Horton, R., . . . Juli\mana, A. (2016). Temperature-related death and illne\b\b. In\f The impact\b of climate change on human health in the Unit\med State\b\f A \bcientific a\b\be\b\bment (pp. 43''68). Wa\bhington, D.C.\f U.S. Global Change \m Re\bearch Program. 208. Sawitri, D. R., Hadiyanto, H., & Hadi, S. P\m. (2015). Pro- environmental behavior from a \bocial cognitive theory per\bpective. Procedia Environmental Science\b, 23, 27''33. Retrieved from http\f//www.\bciencedirect.com/\bcience/article/pii/S1878029615000067209. Scannell, L., & Giff\mord, R. (2016). Place attachment enhance\b p\bychological need \bati\bfaction. Environment and Behavior, 1(31 doi\f10.1177/0013916516637648210. Sch¶nfeld, P., Brailov\bkaia, J., Bieda, A., Zhan\mg, X. C., }& Margraf, J. (2016). The effect\b of daily \btre\b\b on po\bitive and negative mental health\f Me\mdiation through \belf- efficacy. International Journal of \mClinical and Health\m P\bychology, 16(1), 1''10. doi\f10.1016/j.ijchp.2015.08.005211. Searle, K., & Gow, K. (2010). Do concern\b about climate change lead to di\btre\b\b? International Journal of \mClimate Change Strategie\b and Managemen\mt, 2, 362''379.212. Seeley, M. (2012). Climate trend\b and climate change in Minne\bota\f A review. Minne\bota State Climatology Office. Retrieved from http\f//climate.umn.edu/\beeley/
66 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 67213. Self-Brown\b S.\b Anderson\b P. L.\b Edwards\b S. M.\b & McGill\b \:T. M. (2013). Child maltreatment and disaster prevention: Qualitative study of community agency perspectives. Western Journal of Eme\:rgency Medicine\b 14(4)\b 402''408.214. Seligman\b M. E. P.\b & Peterson\b C. (2003). Positive clinical psychology. \fn L. G. Aspinwall & V. M. Staudinger (Eds.)\b A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental\: questions and future directions for a positive psychology. Washington\b D.C.: American Psychological Association.215. Shenesey\b J. W.\b & Langhinrichsen-\:Rohling\b J. (2015). Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of \:the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill. Psychological Trauma: Theory\b Research\b Practice\b and Policy\b 7\b 252''258. doi:10.1037/a0035182216. Shepherd\b S.\b & Kay\b A. (2012). On the perpetu\:ation of ignorance: System dependence\b system justification\b and the motivated avoidance of sociopolitical \:information. Journal of Personality and Soci\:al Psychology\b 102\b 264''280.217. Shonkoff\b J.\b Garner\b A.\b & the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and\: Family Health\b Committee on Early Childhood\b Adoption\b and Depend\:ent Care\b and Section on Developmental and Beh\:avioral Pediatrics. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childh\:ood adversity and toxic stress. American Academy of Pediatrics\b 129\b e232''246. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2663218. Shuman\b E. K. (2010). Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal \:of Medicine\b 362(12)\b 1061''1063.219. Silver\b A.\b & Grek-Martin\b J. (2015). ''Now we understand what community really means'': Reconceptualizing the role of sense of pla\:ce in the disaster recovery process. Journal of Environmental Psychology\b 42\b 35''41.220. Simister\b J.\b & Cooper\b C. (2005). Thermal stress in the USA: Effects on violence and on employee behaviour. Stress and Health: Journ\:al of the \fnternational Society for the \fnvestigation of Stress\b 21(1)\b 3''15. doi:10.1002/smi.1029221. Simpson\b D. M.\b Weissbecker\b \f.\b & Sephton\b S. E. (2011). Extreme weather-related events: \fmplications for mental health and well-being. \fn \f. Weissbecker (Ed.)\b Climate change and human well-being: Global c\:hallenges and opportunities (pp. 57''78). New York\b NY: Springer.222. Somasundaram\b D. J.\b & van de Put\b W. A. C. M. (2006). Management of trauma in special pop\:ulations after a disaster. The Journal of Clin\:ical Psychiatry\b 67(Suppl 2)\b 64''73.223. Stain\b H. J.\b Kelly\b B.\b Carr\b V. J.\b Lewin\b T. J.\b Fitzgerald\b M.\b & Fragar\b L. (2011). The psychological impact of\: chronic environmental adversity: Responding to prolonged drought. Social Scien\:ce & Medicine\b 73(11)\b 1593''1599. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.016224. Stain\b H. J.\b Kelly\b B.\b Lewin\b T. J.\b Higginbotham\b N.\:\b Beard\b J. R.\b & Hourihan\b F\:. (2008). Social net\:works and mental health among a farming population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology\b 43(10)\b 843''849. 225. Stanke\b C.\b Kerac\b M.\b Prudhomme\b C.\b Medlock\b J.\b & Murray\b V. (2013). Health effects of drought: A systematic review of the evidence. PLOS Currents Disasters. doi:10.1371/currents.dis.7a2cee9e980f91ad7697b570bcc4b004226. Stockholm Environment \fnstitute. (2016). Building brid\:ges and changing minds: \:\fnsights from climate communication research practice. Discussion brief. Stockholm\b Sweden. Retrieved from https://www.sei-international.org/cli-mate-services/publications2 2 7. Swim\b J.\b Clayton\b S.\b Doherty\b T.\b Gifford\b R.\b Howard\b G.\b Reser\b J.\b . . . Weber\b E. U. (2009). Psychology and global climate change: Addressing a multifaceted phenomenon and set of challeng\:es. Rep. of APA Task Force on the \fnterface between Psychology and GlobalC\:limate Change (p. 108). Retrieved from www.apa.org/science/about/pub-lications/climate-change-booklet.pd\:f228. Syal\b S.\b Wilson\b R.\b Crawford\b J. J.\b & Lutz\b J. (2011). Climate change and human he\:alth-what influences the adoption of adaptation programming in the Unit\:ed States public health system? Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change\b 16(8)\b 911''924. doi:10.1007/s11027-011-9302-1229. Tapsell\b S. M.\b & Tunstall\b S. M. (2008). \:''\f wish \f'd never heard of Banbury'': The relationship between ''place'' and the health impacts \:of flooding''. Healt\:h & Place\b 14(2)\b 133''154.230. Terpstra\b T. (2011). Emotions\b trust\b and perceived risk: Affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior. Risk Analysis\b 31(10)\b 1658''1675. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01616.x 231. Trtanj\b J.\b Jantarasami\b L.\b Brunkard\b J.\b Collier\b T.\b Jacobs\b J.\b Lipp\b E.\b . . . Thurston\b J. (2016). Climate impacts on water- related illness. The impacts of climate change on human health in the Unit\:ed States: A scientific assessment (pp. 157''188). Washington\b D.C.: U.S. Global Change \:Research Program. doi:10.7930/J03F4MH232. Trumbo\b C.\b Lueck\b M.\b Marl\:att\b H.\b & Peek\b L. (2011). The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane\: outlook and optim\:istic bias. Risk Analysis\b 31(12)\b 1907''1918. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01633.x233. Tschakert\b P.\b Tutu\b R.\b & Alcaro\b A. (2013). Embodied experiences of landscape and \:climatic changes in landscapes of everyday life in Ghana. Emotio\:n\b Space\b and Society\b 7\b 13''25.234. Ungar\b M.\b & Liebenberg\b L. (2013). A measure of resilience with contextual sensitivity: T\:he CYRM-28: Exploring th\:e tension between homogeneity an\:d heterogeneity in resilience theory and research. \fn S. Prince-Embury (Ed.)\b Resilience in children\b adolescents\b and adults (pp\:. 213''225). doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4939-3235. United States Global Change Research Program. (2016). The impacts of climate change on human h\:ealth in the united states: a scientific assessment. Washington\b D.C.: Author. doi:10.7930/J0R49NQX236. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Climate change and the he\:alth of occupational groups. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-06/documents/occupational-health-cli- mate-change.pdf2 3 7. Van Dijk\b M. L.\b De \:Groot\b R. H. M.\b Van Acker\b F.\b | Savelberg\b H. C. M.\b & Kirsc\:hner\b P. A. (2014). Active commuting to school\b cognitive performance\b and academic achievement: An observational study in Dutch adolescents using accelerometers. BMC Public Health\b 14\b 799. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-799238. Van Zomeren\b M.\b Spears\b R.\b &\: Leach\b C. W. (2010). Experimental evidence for a dual pathway model analysis of coping with the clim\:ate crisis. Journal of Environmental Psychology\b 30(4)\b 339''346. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.02.006239. Vida\b S.\b Durocher\b M.\b Ouarda\b T.\b & Gosselin\b P. (2012). Relationship between ambient temperature and humidity and visits to mental health em\:ergency departments in Quebec. Psychiatric Services\b 63(11)\b 1150''1153.240. Voggesser\b G.\b Lynn\b K.\b Daigle\b J.\b Lake\b F.\b & Ranco\b D. (2013). Cultural impacts to tribes from climate change influences on forests. Climatic Change\b 120\b 615''626.241. Wang\b S.\b Zhang\b J.\b Zeng\b X.\b Zeng\b Y.\b Wang\b S.\b & Chen\b S. (2009). Association of traffic-related air pollution w\:ith children's neurobehavioral functions in Qua\:nzhou\b China. Environmental Health Perspectives\b 117\b 1612''1618.242. Wasini\b S.\b West\b C.\b Mills\b J.\b & Usher\b K. (2014). The psychosocial impact of \:natural disasters among adult survivors: An integrative review. \fssues in Mental Health Nursing\b 35\b 420''436.243. Weber\b E. U.\b & Stern\b P. (2011). Public understanding of climate change in the Uni\:ted States. American Psychologist\b 66(4)\b 315''328. doi:10.1037/a0023253244. Weine\b S. M.\b Ware\b N.\b Hakizimana\b L.\:\b Tugenberg\b T.\b Currie\b M.\b Dahnweih\b G.\b & Wulu\b J. (2014). Fostering resilience\b Protective agents\b resources\b and mechanisms for adolescent refugees' psychosocial wellbeing. Adolescent Psychiatry\b 4\b 164''176. doi:10.2174/221067660403140912162410245. Weissbecker\b \f.\b & Czinez\b J. (2011). Humanitarian \:crises: The need for cultural competence and local capacity\: building. \fn \f. Weissbecker (Ed.)\b Climate change and human well-being: global c\:hallenges and oppor\:tunities (pp. 79''96). New York\b NY: Springer.246. Wener\b R. E.\b & Evans\b G. W. (2007). A morning stroll: Levels of physical activty in car\: and mass transit commuting. Environment and Behavior\b 39(1)\b 62''74. doi:10.1177/00139165062955712 4 7. Wickes\b R.\b Zahnow\b R.\b Taylor\b M.\b & Piquero\b A. R. (2015). Neighborhood structure\b social capital\b and\: community resilience: Longitudinal evidence from the 2011 Brisbane flood disaster. Social Science Quarterly\b 96\b 330''353. doi:10.1111/ssqu.12144248. Wildcat\b D. (2013). \fntroduction: Climate change and indigenous peoples \:of the USA. Climatic Change Journal\b\: 120\b 509''515.249. World Heart Federation. (2016). Cardiovascular disease risk factors: Stress. Retrieved from http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/ cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors/stress/250. Yun\b K.\b Lurie\b N.\b & Hyde\b P. S. (2010). Moving mental health into the disaster-preparednessspotlight. The New England Journal \:of Medicine\b 363(13)\b 1193''1194. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1008304251. Ziska\b L.\b Crimmins\b A.\b \:Auclair\b A.\b DeGrasse\b S.\b Garofalo\b J. F.\b Khan\b A. S.\b . . \:. Walls\b \f. (2016). Ch. 7: Food safety\b nutrition\b and di\:stribution. \fn: The impacts of climate change on human hea\:lth in the United States: A scientific assessment (pp. 189''216). Washington\b D.C.: U.S. Global Change Research Program.252. Zivin\b J.\b & Shrader\b J. (2016). Temperature extremes\b health\b and human c\:apital. The Future of Children\b 26\b 31''50.
66 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: \fmpacts\b \fmplications\b and Guidance American Psychological Association | ecoAmerica 67213. Self-Brown\b S.\b Anderson\b P. L.\b Edwards\b S. M.\b & McGill\b \:T. M. (2013). Child maltreatment and disaster prevention: Qualitative study of community agency perspectives. Western Journal of Eme\:rgency Medicine\b 14(4)\b 402''408.214. Seligman\b M. E. P.\b & Peterson\b C. (2003). Positive clinical psychology. \fn L. G. Aspinwall & V. M. Staudinger (Eds.)\b A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental\: questions and future directions for a positive psychology. Washington\b D.C.: American Psychological Association.215. Shenesey\b J. W.\b & Langhinrichsen-\:Rohling\b J. (2015). Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of \:the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill. Psychological Trauma: Theory\b Research\b Practice\b and Policy\b 7\b 252''258. doi:10.1037/a0035182216. Shepherd\b S.\b & Kay\b A. (2012). On the perpetu\:ation of ignorance: System dependence\b system justification\b and the motivated avoidance of sociopolitical \:information. Journal of Personality and Soci\:al Psychology\b 102\b 264''280.217. Shonkoff\b J.\b Garner\b A.\b & the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and\: Family Health\b Committee on Early Childhood\b Adoption\b and Depend\:ent Care\b and Section on Developmental and Beh\:avioral Pediatrics. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childh\:ood adversity and toxic stress. American Academy of Pediatrics\b 129\b e232''246. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2663218. Shuman\b E. K. (2010). Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal \:of Medicine\b 362(12)\b 1061''1063.219. Silver\b A.\b & Grek-Martin\b J. (2015). ''Now we understand what community really means'': Reconceptualizing the role of sense of pla\:ce in the disaster recovery process. Journal of Environmental Psychology\b 42\b 35''41.220. Simister\b J.\b & Cooper\b C. (2005). Thermal stress in the USA: Effects on violence and on employee behaviour. Stress and Health: Journ\:al of the \fnternational Society for the \fnvestigation of Stress\b 21(1)\b 3''15. doi:10.1002/smi.1029221. Simpson\b D. M.\b Weissbecker\b \f.\b & Sephton\b S. E. (2011). Extreme weather-related events: \fmplications for mental health and well-being. \fn \f. Weissbecker (Ed.)\b Climate change and human well-being: Global c\:hallenges and opportunities (pp. 57''78). New York\b NY: Springer.222. Somasundaram\b D. J.\b & van de Put\b W. A. C. M. (2006). Management of trauma in special pop\:ulations after a disaster. The Journal of Clin\:ical Psychiatry\b 67(Suppl 2)\b 64''73.223. Stain\b H. J.\b Kelly\b B.\b Carr\b V. J.\b Lewin\b T. J.\b Fitzgerald\b M.\b & Fragar\b L. (2011). The psychological impact of\: chronic environmental adversity: Responding to prolonged drought. Social Scien\:ce & Medicine\b 73(11)\b 1593''1599. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.016224. Stain\b H. J.\b Kelly\b B.\b Lewin\b T. J.\b Higginbotham\b N.\:\b Beard\b J. R.\b & Hourihan\b F\:. (2008). Social net\:works and mental health among a farming population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology\b 43(10)\b 843''849. 225. Stanke\b C.\b Kerac\b M.\b Prudhomme\b C.\b Medlock\b J.\b & Murray\b V. (2013). Health effects of drought: A systematic review of the evidence. PLOS Currents Disasters. doi:10.1371/currents.dis.7a2cee9e980f91ad7697b570bcc4b004226. Stockholm Environment \fnstitute. (2016). Building brid\:ges and changing minds: \:\fnsights from climate communication research practice. Discussion brief. Stockholm\b Sweden. Retrieved from https://www.sei-international.org/cli-mate-services/publications2 2 7. Swim\b J.\b Clayton\b S.\b Doherty\b T.\b Gifford\b R.\b Howard\b G.\b Reser\b J.\b . . . Weber\b E. U. (2009). Psychology and global climate change: Addressing a multifaceted phenomenon and set of challeng\:es. Rep. of APA Task Force on the \fnterface between Psychology and GlobalC\:limate Change (p. 108). Retrieved from www.apa.org/science/about/pub-lications/climate-change-booklet.pd\:f228. Syal\b S.\b Wilson\b R.\b Crawford\b J. J.\b & Lutz\b J. (2011). Climate change and human he\:alth-what influences the adoption of adaptation programming in the Unit\:ed States public health system? Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change\b 16(8)\b 911''924. doi:10.1007/s11027-011-9302-1229. Tapsell\b S. M.\b & Tunstall\b S. M. (2008). \:''\f wish \f'd never heard of Banbury'': The relationship between ''place'' and the health impacts \:of flooding''. Healt\:h & Place\b 14(2)\b 133''154.230. Terpstra\b T. (2011). Emotions\b trust\b and perceived risk: Affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior. Risk Analysis\b 31(10)\b 1658''1675. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01616.x 231. Trtanj\b J.\b Jantarasami\b L.\b Brunkard\b J.\b Collier\b T.\b Jacobs\b J.\b Lipp\b E.\b . . . Thurston\b J. (2016). Climate impacts on water- related illness. The impacts of climate change on human health in the Unit\:ed States: A scientific assessment (pp. 157''188). Washington\b D.C.: U.S. Global Change \:Research Program. doi:10.7930/J03F4MH232. Trumbo\b C.\b Lueck\b M.\b Marl\:att\b H.\b & Peek\b L. (2011). The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane\: outlook and optim\:istic bias. Risk Analysis\b 31(12)\b 1907''1918. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01633.x233. Tschakert\b P.\b Tutu\b R.\b & Alcaro\b A. (2013). Embodied experiences of landscape and \:climatic changes in landscapes of everyday life in Ghana. Emotio\:n\b Space\b and Society\b 7\b 13''25.234. Ungar\b M.\b & Liebenberg\b L. (2013). A measure of resilience with contextual sensitivity: T\:he CYRM-28: Exploring th\:e tension between homogeneity an\:d heterogeneity in resilience theory and research. \fn S. Prince-Embury (Ed.)\b Resilience in children\b adolescents\b and adults (pp\:. 213''225). doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4939-3235. United States Global Change Research Program. (2016). The impacts of climate change on human h\:ealth in the united states: a scientific assessment. Washington\b D.C.: Author. doi:10.7930/J0R49NQX236. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Climate change and the he\:alth of occupational groups. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-06/documents/occupational-health-cli- mate-change.pdf2 3 7. Van Dijk\b M. L.\b De \:Groot\b R. H. M.\b Van Acker\b F.\b | Savelberg\b H. C. M.\b & Kirsc\:hner\b P. A. (2014). Active commuting to school\b cognitive performance\b and academic achievement: An observational study in Dutch adolescents using accelerometers. BMC Public Health\b 14\b 799. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-799238. Van Zomeren\b M.\b Spears\b R.\b &\: Leach\b C. W. (2010). Experimental evidence for a dual pathway model analysis of coping with the clim\:ate crisis. Journal of Environmental Psychology\b 30(4)\b 339''346. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.02.006239. Vida\b S.\b Durocher\b M.\b Ouarda\b T.\b & Gosselin\b P. (2012). Relationship between ambient temperature and humidity and visits to mental health em\:ergency departments in Quebec. Psychiatric Services\b 63(11)\b 1150''1153.240. Voggesser\b G.\b Lynn\b K.\b Daigle\b J.\b Lake\b F.\b & Ranco\b D. (2013). Cultural impacts to tribes from climate change influences on forests. Climatic Change\b 120\b 615''626.241. Wang\b S.\b Zhang\b J.\b Zeng\b X.\b Zeng\b Y.\b Wang\b S.\b & Chen\b S. (2009). Association of traffic-related air pollution w\:ith children's neurobehavioral functions in Qua\:nzhou\b China. Environmental Health Perspectives\b 117\b 1612''1618.242. Wasini\b S.\b West\b C.\b Mills\b J.\b & Usher\b K. (2014). The psychosocial impact of \:natural disasters among adult survivors: An integrative review. \fssues in Mental Health Nursing\b 35\b 420''436.243. Weber\b E. U.\b & Stern\b P. (2011). Public understanding of climate change in the Uni\:ted States. American Psychologist\b 66(4)\b 315''328. doi:10.1037/a0023253244. Weine\b S. M.\b Ware\b N.\b Hakizimana\b L.\:\b Tugenberg\b T.\b Currie\b M.\b Dahnweih\b G.\b & Wulu\b J. (2014). Fostering resilience\b Protective agents\b resources\b and mechanisms for adolescent refugees' psychosocial wellbeing. Adolescent Psychiatry\b 4\b 164''176. doi:10.2174/221067660403140912162410245. Weissbecker\b \f.\b & Czinez\b J. (2011). Humanitarian \:crises: The need for cultural competence and local capacity\: building. \fn \f. Weissbecker (Ed.)\b Climate change and human well-being: global c\:hallenges and oppor\:tunities (pp. 79''96). New York\b NY: Springer.246. Wener\b R. E.\b & Evans\b G. W. (2007). A morning stroll: Levels of physical activty in car\: and mass transit commuting. Environment and Behavior\b 39(1)\b 62''74. doi:10.1177/00139165062955712 4 7. Wickes\b R.\b Zahnow\b R.\b Taylor\b M.\b & Piquero\b A. R. (2015). Neighborhood structure\b social capital\b and\: community resilience: Longitudinal evidence from the 2011 Brisbane flood disaster. Social Science Quarterly\b 96\b 330''353. doi:10.1111/ssqu.12144248. Wildcat\b D. (2013). \fntroduction: Climate change and indigenous peoples \:of the USA. Climatic Change Journal\b\: 120\b 509''515.249. World Heart Federation. (2016). Cardiovascular disease risk factors: Stress. Retrieved from http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/ cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors/stress/250. Yun\b K.\b Lurie\b N.\b & Hyde\b P. S. (2010). Moving mental health into the disaster-preparednessspotlight. The New England Journal \:of Medicine\b 363(13)\b 1193''1194. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1008304251. Ziska\b L.\b Crimmins\b A.\b \:Auclair\b A.\b DeGrasse\b S.\b Garofalo\b J. F.\b Khan\b A. S.\b . . \:. Walls\b \f. (2016). Ch. 7: Food safety\b nutrition\b and di\:stribution. \fn: The impacts of climate change on human hea\:lth in the United States: A scientific assessment (pp. 189''216). Washington\b D.C.: U.S. Global Change Research Program.252. Zivin\b J.\b & Shrader\b J. (2016). Temperature extremes\b health\b and human c\:apital. The Future of Children\b 26\b 31''50.
68 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 69GLOSSARYAcute: A condition that i\b \bevere and \budden-on\bet. (pg. 2\m4)Adaptation: Modification to fit a changed environment or adju\bt to cultural \burrounding\b. (pg. 25)Agency: The feeling of being th\me agent exerting power over a given action. (pg. 38)\mAggression: Ho\btile or violent be\mhavior or attitude\b toward another; readine\b\b to attack or confront. (pg. 26)Anxiety: A negative emotional \btate occurring in \bome form\b of mental di\bor\mder that cau\be nervou\bne\b\b, fear, apprehen\bion, and worry. (pg. 24)Arousal: Heightened phy\biological activity \mcau\bed by reaction to \btimuli. (pg. 26)\fassandras: With origin\b in Greek mythology, the Ca\b\bandra \byndrome occur\b when valid warning\b or concern\b are di\bmi\b\bed or di\bbelieved. (pg. 59)\fausality: The mental experience that one event follow\b another becau\be on\me cau\bed the other. (pg. 38)\fhronic: A condition that i\b a long-developing \byndrome. Note that a chronic condition may cau\be an acute condition. (pg. 24, 29)\fommunity efficacy: The \ben\be within a \mcommunity that member\b have the re\bource\b and the ability to u\be them to achieve common goal\b. (pg. 48\m)\fritical incident s\ltress management: An adaptive, \bhort-term p\bychological helping proce\b\b that focu\be\b \bolely on an \mimmediate and identifiable problem. It can range from pre-incident preparedne\b\b to acute cri\bi\b management to po\bt-cri\bi\b follow-up. (pg. 50)\birectly: An impact that occur\b through immediate interaction of an activi\mty. (pg. 24) \bysregulation: An abnormality or \mimpairment in the metabolic, ph\my\biological, or p\bychological regulation proce\b\be\b. (pg. 38)Ecoanxiety: A chronic fear of environmental doom. (pg. 29)Ecomigration: The migration of population\b for economic or ecological rea\bon\b; often occur\b a\b a re\bult of the deterioration of land. (pg. \m31)Environmental refugees: People who have been forced to permanently or temporarily leave their traditional habitat becau\be of a natural or triggered environmental di\bturbance that \beriou\bly jeopardize\b their quality of\m life or exi\btence. (pg. 31)Food insecurity: Being without reliable acce\b\b to food that i\b \bufficient in qua\mntity and quality. (pg. 10)Food safety: Handling, preparation, and \btorage of food in way\b that prevent food-borne illne\b\b. (pg. 13)Group identity: Sen\be of belonging \mto a group. (pg. 32)Healthy community: A community with a \btrong \bocial fabric and mutual \bup\mport, that encourage\b civic involvement, allow\b people to expre\b\b them\belve\b, and maintain\b \btructure and order (Moo\b, 2008). (\mpg. 47)Indirectly: An impact that i\b produced away from or a\b a re\bult of a complex impact pathway. Al\bo known a\b \becondary or even third-level. (pg. 24)Intergroup: A group that deal\b with two or more collection\b of different people; taking \mplace or being between group\b. (pg. 23)Mental health: The ability to function cognitively and emotionally\m. Meta-analysis: A \btati\btical technique that look\b for \bignificant pattern\b of re\bult\b acro\b\b multiple \bcientific \btudie\b. (pg. 24)Mindfulness: A mental \btate achieved by focu\bing one'\b awarene\b\b on the pre\bent moment, while calmly\m acknowledging and accepting one'\b feeling\b, thought\b, \mand bodily \ben\bation\b, u\bed a\b a the\mrapeutic technique. (pg. 45)Motivated cognition: A p\bychological phenomenon that illu\btrate\b how incoming information can be \belectiv\mely interpreted and u\bed to reach \bpecific, bia\bed \mconclu\bion\b rather than one\b ba\be\md on an unbia\bed a\b\be\b\bment of the evidence. (pg. 19)Post-traumatic growth: Po\bitive p\bychological change experienced a\b a re\bult of a challeng\me or adver\bity in order to increa\be functioning. \m(pg. 42)Psychological distance: The extent to which an individual thin\mk\b about an event, per\bon, or idea a\b ab\btract and \beparate from hi\b or her current reality, in\btead of being concrete and directly experienced. (pg. 18,6)Psychopathology: A mental di\border in which an individual di\bpl\may\b amoral and anti\bocial behavior and lack\b the \mability to love or e\btabli\bh meaningful per\bonal \mrelation\bhip\b. (pg. 24)Phobic: Relating to phobia, which i\b a\m per\bi\btent and irrational fear of a \bpecific object, activity, or \bituation that lead\b to a de\bire to avoid it. (pg. 24)Resilient communities: Communitie\b that continue\b to function and offer\b aid and kindne\b\b through adver\bity. (pg. 47)Risky behavior: A life\btyle activity that place\b a per\bon at increa\bed ri\bk of \buffering a particular condition, illne\b\b, or injury. (pg. 25)Resilience: The ability of a per\m\bon (or a community) to function in the f\mace of adver\bity, to \burvive, and, perhap\b, even to thrive (Hobfoll, Steven\b, & Zalta, 2015). The capacity to recover quickly from adver\bity or difficultie\m\b. (pg. 10, 42) Self-efficacy: People'\b belief in their o\mwn ability to \bucceed in a \bituation or to accompli\bh a ta\bk. (pg. \m44)Self-regulation: A per\bon'\b ability to direct and control hi\b or her behavior and impul\be\b. (\mpg. 26)Sense of self: An individual'\b perception of hi\b or her\belf, or \belf-image. (pg. 48)Social capital: The aggregate of \bocial re\bource\b or network\b of relation\bhip\b that enable a community to function effectively. (pg. 31)Social cohesion: The willingne\b\b of member\b of a \bociety to cooperate with each other i\mn order to \burvive and pro\bper. (pg. 31)Solastalgia: The lived experience of negatively perceived change to a home environment. (pg. 27)Somatize: To experience p\bychological di\btre\b\b in the form of phy\bical \bymptom\b, \buch a\b headache\b or \btomachache\b. (pg. 38)Somatic: Mental di\border\b characterized by an empha\bi\b on phy\bical \bymptom\b, \buch a\b pain or fatigue. (pg. 24)Suicidal ideation: Suicidal thought\b,\m or thought\b about how to kill one\belf, which can range from a detailed plan \mto a fleeting con\bideration that doe\b not include \mthe final act of killing one\b\melf. (pg. 24) Worldviews: Set\b of deeply hel\md belief\b and attitude\b about how the world work\b and how people \bhould relate to one another. (pg. 19)
68 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance American P\bychological A\b\bociation | ecoAmerica 69GLOSSARYAcute: A condition that i\b \bevere and \budden-on\bet. (pg. 2\m4)Adaptation: Modification to fit a changed environment or adju\bt to cultural \burrounding\b. (pg. 25)Agency: The feeling of being th\me agent exerting power over a given action. (pg. 38)\mAggression: Ho\btile or violent be\mhavior or attitude\b toward another; readine\b\b to attack or confront. (pg. 26)Anxiety: A negative emotional \btate occurring in \bome form\b of mental di\bor\mder that cau\be nervou\bne\b\b, fear, apprehen\bion, and worry. (pg. 24)Arousal: Heightened phy\biological activity \mcau\bed by reaction to \btimuli. (pg. 26)\fassandras: With origin\b in Greek mythology, the Ca\b\bandra \byndrome occur\b when valid warning\b or concern\b are di\bmi\b\bed or di\bbelieved. (pg. 59)\fausality: The mental experience that one event follow\b another becau\be on\me cau\bed the other. (pg. 38)\fhronic: A condition that i\b a long-developing \byndrome. Note that a chronic condition may cau\be an acute condition. (pg. 24, 29)\fommunity efficacy: The \ben\be within a \mcommunity that member\b have the re\bource\b and the ability to u\be them to achieve common goal\b. (pg. 48\m)\fritical incident s\ltress management: An adaptive, \bhort-term p\bychological helping proce\b\b that focu\be\b \bolely on an \mimmediate and identifiable problem. It can range from pre-incident preparedne\b\b to acute cri\bi\b management to po\bt-cri\bi\b follow-up. (pg. 50)\birectly: An impact that occur\b through immediate interaction of an activi\mty. (pg. 24) \bysregulation: An abnormality or \mimpairment in the metabolic, ph\my\biological, or p\bychological regulation proce\b\be\b. (pg. 38)Ecoanxiety: A chronic fear of environmental doom. (pg. 29)Ecomigration: The migration of population\b for economic or ecological rea\bon\b; often occur\b a\b a re\bult of the deterioration of land. (pg. \m31)Environmental refugees: People who have been forced to permanently or temporarily leave their traditional habitat becau\be of a natural or triggered environmental di\bturbance that \beriou\bly jeopardize\b their quality of\m life or exi\btence. (pg. 31)Food insecurity: Being without reliable acce\b\b to food that i\b \bufficient in qua\mntity and quality. (pg. 10)Food safety: Handling, preparation, and \btorage of food in way\b that prevent food-borne illne\b\b. (pg. 13)Group identity: Sen\be of belonging \mto a group. (pg. 32)Healthy community: A community with a \btrong \bocial fabric and mutual \bup\mport, that encourage\b civic involvement, allow\b people to expre\b\b them\belve\b, and maintain\b \btructure and order (Moo\b, 2008). (\mpg. 47)Indirectly: An impact that i\b produced away from or a\b a re\bult of a complex impact pathway. Al\bo known a\b \becondary or even third-level. (pg. 24)Intergroup: A group that deal\b with two or more collection\b of different people; taking \mplace or being between group\b. (pg. 23)Mental health: The ability to function cognitively and emotionally\m. Meta-analysis: A \btati\btical technique that look\b for \bignificant pattern\b of re\bult\b acro\b\b multiple \bcientific \btudie\b. (pg. 24)Mindfulness: A mental \btate achieved by focu\bing one'\b awarene\b\b on the pre\bent moment, while calmly\m acknowledging and accepting one'\b feeling\b, thought\b, \mand bodily \ben\bation\b, u\bed a\b a the\mrapeutic technique. (pg. 45)Motivated cognition: A p\bychological phenomenon that illu\btrate\b how incoming information can be \belectiv\mely interpreted and u\bed to reach \bpecific, bia\bed \mconclu\bion\b rather than one\b ba\be\md on an unbia\bed a\b\be\b\bment of the evidence. (pg. 19)Post-traumatic growth: Po\bitive p\bychological change experienced a\b a re\bult of a challeng\me or adver\bity in order to increa\be functioning. \m(pg. 42)Psychological distance: The extent to which an individual thin\mk\b about an event, per\bon, or idea a\b ab\btract and \beparate from hi\b or her current reality, in\btead of being concrete and directly experienced. (pg. 18,6)Psychopathology: A mental di\border in which an individual di\bpl\may\b amoral and anti\bocial behavior and lack\b the \mability to love or e\btabli\bh meaningful per\bonal \mrelation\bhip\b. (pg. 24)Phobic: Relating to phobia, which i\b a\m per\bi\btent and irrational fear of a \bpecific object, activity, or \bituation that lead\b to a de\bire to avoid it. (pg. 24)Resilient communities: Communitie\b that continue\b to function and offer\b aid and kindne\b\b through adver\bity. (pg. 47)Risky behavior: A life\btyle activity that place\b a per\bon at increa\bed ri\bk of \buffering a particular condition, illne\b\b, or injury. (pg. 25)Resilience: The ability of a per\m\bon (or a community) to function in the f\mace of adver\bity, to \burvive, and, perhap\b, even to thrive (Hobfoll, Steven\b, & Zalta, 2015). The capacity to recover quickly from adver\bity or difficultie\m\b. (pg. 10, 42) Self-efficacy: People'\b belief in their o\mwn ability to \bucceed in a \bituation or to accompli\bh a ta\bk. (pg. \m44)Self-regulation: A per\bon'\b ability to direct and control hi\b or her behavior and impul\be\b. (\mpg. 26)Sense of self: An individual'\b perception of hi\b or her\belf, or \belf-image. (pg. 48)Social capital: The aggregate of \bocial re\bource\b or network\b of relation\bhip\b that enable a community to function effectively. (pg. 31)Social cohesion: The willingne\b\b of member\b of a \bociety to cooperate with each other i\mn order to \burvive and pro\bper. (pg. 31)Solastalgia: The lived experience of negatively perceived change to a home environment. (pg. 27)Somatize: To experience p\bychological di\btre\b\b in the form of phy\bical \bymptom\b, \buch a\b headache\b or \btomachache\b. (pg. 38)Somatic: Mental di\border\b characterized by an empha\bi\b on phy\bical \bymptom\b, \buch a\b pain or fatigue. (pg. 24)Suicidal ideation: Suicidal thought\b,\m or thought\b about how to kill one\belf, which can range from a detailed plan \mto a fleeting con\bideration that doe\b not include \mthe final act of killing one\b\melf. (pg. 24) Worldviews: Set\b of deeply hel\md belief\b and attitude\b about how the world work\b and how people \bhould relate to one another. (pg. 19)
70 Mental Health and Our Changing Climate\f Impact\b, Implication\b, and Guidance1730 Rhode I\bland Avenue NW, Suite 200Wa\bhington, D.C. 20036870 Market Street, Suite 428San Franci\bco, CA 941022 0 2 . 4 5 7. 1 9 0 0ecoAmerica.orgecoAmerica builds a critical mass of institutional leadership\f public support\f and political will for definitive climate solutions in the \bnited States.Thi\b wa\b printed with a Certified Green Partner, en\buring that the paper contain\b fiber\b from \bu\btainable and well''managed fore\bt\b, and the u\be of vegetable''ba\bed ink.
SJWBLMLGBBTQQIAAPK
Organizers cancel Women's March Jan. 19 due to 'overwhelmingly white' participants | WJLA
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 18:51
A crowd fills Independence Avenue looking towards the U.S. Capitol and the stage, lower right, during the Women's March on Washington, Saturday, Jan. 21, 2017 in Washington. THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
EUREKA, Calif. (KRCR) '-- The organizers of the annual Women's March have decided not to hold a rally in Eureka on Jan. 19, as previously planned, because they say participants do not represent the diversity of the area.
"This decision was made after many conversations between local social-change organizers and supporters of the march," organizers said in a press release.
They said organizers will continue to meet and discuss how to broaden representation to create an event that represents Humboldt County.
"Up to this point, the participants have been overwhelmingly white, lacking representation from several perspectives in our community," the press release went on to say. "Instead of pushing forward with crucial voices absent, the organizing team will take time for more outreach. Our goal is that planning will continue and we will be successful in creating an event that will build power and community engagement through connection between women that seek to improve the lives of all in our community."
The group said it is exploring holding an event in March to celebrate International Women's Day. Anyone interested in helping organize these events are welcome and encouraged to attend.
The Eureka Women's March organizing committee encourages local supporters to attend the Martin Luther King Jr. Celebration in Eureka on Jan. 21, Martin Luther King Jr. Day.
Tech News
BBC Releases 16,000 WAV Files of Sound Effects and Field | Reverb News
Thu, 27 Dec 2018 21:17
Britain's national radio station has shared a huge cache of sound files from its archives'--16,000 recordings from across the world and throughout its 90-year history of broadcasting.
Download the full collection of 16,000+ soundeffects from the BBC archives
Download via BBCAs you may imagine from a station that began near the end of Britain's imperial era and continued to aspire to global news coverage, there is a huge diversity in the sound files.
The collection includes audio clips such as "South American parrot talking and screeching" and "Morocco: Marrakesh, market square with music & distant traffic," as well as charming local fare like various "Westminster Abbey bells" and "1 lorry passing slowly." The set also includes sound effects created in the BBC studios for radio plays and other programs.
While the files retain their copyrights by the BBC, they are available for free to download and use for all "personal, educational, or research purposes," and can be requested (and presumably licensed) for commercial use.
Check out all of the sound files for yourself here. And if you find any good snare hits, let us know in the comments.
More sexist and weird Computer Ads plus last NA Newsletter of 2018
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 22:55
Dear Producer, Tomorrow is the last show of 2018 and we will be celebrating show 1099 as well as New Years. So please help the show finish the year on a positive note by donating any amount to the show you can afford by clicking here.We also begin the new $20.19 subscription level for 2019. Click here for that.
And consider and Executive Producership to finish 2018 by clicking here.
Tomorrow's show will be important as the 2020 drumbeat has already begun for every possible Democrat presidential candidate imaginable. While the media has decided to promote Bernie, Biden and Beto (the three b's), it is unclear who will emerge since almost every well-known Democrat thinks he or she could be President. Laying in wait, though, is Hillary who is taking names as the media has gone out of its way to ignore her. It's as if they are taking orders from someone, it is so obvious. They leave her off polling results and they never mention her in context as a primary candidate. Then there is the constant barrage of impeachment talk mostly coming from the NY Times. The theme is not whether Trump will be impeached, but when he will be impeached as if it is a done deal when it is not.Only a few democrats would vote for an impeachment for starters. These would be the ones in secure districts where Democrats could run a barn animal and win. There are maybe 100 of these. The others cannot risk it and will not risk it. They will develop the excuse that they'd vote for impeachment if there was more evidence. Or they will wait until the Mueller investigation is finished. This will be the top excuse, you can be sure.
As discussed before this is part of a strategy to keep Trump synonymous with impeachment to beat him in 2020 not to actually impeach him.
Trump will have 2020 competition within the party too. The thoroughly unlikeable and full of himself John Kasich of Ohio claims he is running in 2020. Who knows who else will crop up.Of course, your No Agenda Show will begin to focus on International news and events with only occasional looks at the 2020 campaign. Even Hillary knows that it does not work out for those who start campaigning too far in advance to the point where they wear out their welcome.
In 2019 we expect to reemphasize the bigger picture from an International perspective more so than the last couple of years where the trivial seemed to dominate the news feeds, especially in the USA.Help us by closing out 2018 with a contribution in support of the show. You are the only means of support for the show. Click here and help.
Your co-host, PS Checks should be sent directly to the No Agenda Show, Box 339, El Cerrito CA 94530. Your support means everything. The Show is healthier with sustaining donations known as subscriptions. Here are a few to choose from.The favorite is the lucky $33.33 a month.
Click here for that. It has superseded the once popular $11.11 month. More lucky numbers click here.
Sexist Computer Ads and more celebrities
Magic Number
January 10 strike date set for 33,000 Los Angeles teachers
Fri, 28 Dec 2018 13:17
By Dan Conway 24 December 2018Last week, the United Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) announced that it had set a strike date of January 10 for 33,000 teachers after failing to reach an agreement with the district after more than 18 months of negotiations.
The announcement came a few days after as many as 50,000 educators and their supporters marched in the nation's second largest school district to demand increased wages, a reduction in class sizes and the hiring of nurses and other critical staff. Teachers in Oakland, Fremont and other California cities are also pressing for strike action as part of the resumption of teachers' strikes, which saw statewide walkouts earlier this year in West Virginia, Oklahoma, Arizona and other states.
The demonstration in Los AngelesEver since the previous contract expired in June 2017, the UTLA has sought to prevent a walkout in defiance of a 98 percent strike mandate by rank-and-file teachers. This included tying teachers up in worthless state mediation and fact-finding schemes.
Even in his announcement of the deadline, UTLA President Alex Caputo-Pearl made it clear that he would call off strike action if district officials gave the union some gesture to sell the members. ''We will strike on January 10 unless we see an addressing of the crucial issues that shape education,'' the UTLA president declared.
On the question of salary, the district had initially proposed a 3 percent increase retroactive to the 2017-2018 academic year along with a 3 percent increase in the next conditional upon the district's financial health. The union has given its blessing to this insulting pay offer from the banker-turned school superintendent Austin Beutner, which is barely above the rate of inflation and will do nothing to relieve educators facing crushing housing, health care and debt servicing costs.
According to the December 19 press release, the union is opposed to the ''unacceptable strings attached'' to the pay raise, not the meager amount. This includes ''making it harder to qualify for healthcare in retirement and requiring more work hours for already overworked educators.'' There is little doubt that the UTLA is willing to crawl back from this position in order to prevent a strike.
From the beginning, the union has told teachers to place their confidence in a supposedly neutral fact-finding panel, which is headed by a former federal mediation official and includes an attorney from a pro-employer law firm and a negotiator for the UTLA's parent organization, the California Teachers Association.
Teachers holding Socialist Equality Party placardsAt the same time, the panel said an agreement based on the proposals of either side would lead to more spending cutbacks, and its chair has recommended a sharp decrease in retiree health care benefits to pay for any salary increases. ''Making some adjustment for future teachers is warranted and it may help in the future to free up more money for salaries as opposed to diverting so much money to retiree health benefits.''
While the panel found only marginal differences in the bargaining positions of the two parties and recommended a quick resolution. While little separates the positions of the union, district and state officials, there is a vast gap between all of them and the aspirations of teachers and the needs of their students.
This underscores with the utmost urgency calls by the WSWS Teacher Newsletter for teachers to form rank-and-file committees independently of the trade unions to conduct a genuine fight.
In opposition to the UTLA's efforts to isolate teachers, rank-and-file committees should expand the districtwide strike to all 30,000 school support staff and thousands of charter school instructors and staff.
At the same time, these committees should establish links of communication with broader sections of workers throughout Los Angeles and teachers in Oakland, Freemont and across the state to prepare a statewide strike. Rank-and-file committees should take the conduct of the struggle out of the hands of the UTLA and oversee all negotiations and contract votes to prevent any backroom deals.
According to its more recent strike handbook, the UTLA plans to pay teachers nothing for the first 10 days of the strike and then force teachers to apply for loans through the California Credit Union. Meanwhile the CTA is paying its president Eric Heins a $317,000 compensation package.
The UTLA has not called a walkout in three decades'--the strike fund belongs to workers, not union bureaucrats. Rank-and-file committees should demand the payment of full pay and benefits for the duration of the strike.
Maria, who has taught in the district since 2002, recently told the World Socialist Web Site that her students come from all around the globe, including Mexico, Guatemala, Russia and Cambodia. ''If we strike,'' Maria said, ''Beutner will say we don't care about the children. But he's always involved in secret meetings with business and charter schools. And then there's the union'--they also unionize the charter schools. How can they be with us if they're for charters?''
The UTLA and CTA are aligned with the Democratic Party, which is no less an enemy of teachers and public education than the Republicans. Democrats like Governor Brown have overseen billions in tax cuts for big corporations and the rich, while systematically starving public education of vital resources. The state of California is now 43rd in the nation in per-pupil spending even though it is home to more than 140 billionaires and would be the fifth largest economy in the world if it were a separate country.
The unions are doing everything to prevent a real struggle that would immediately come into conflict with incoming Governor Gavin Newsom, the Democratic supermajority in the state legislature and the Democrats who control the Los Angeles city government and school district. But such a struggle is what is necessary.
The fight to defend the right to public education and to eradicate poverty and other social ills that afflict students in Los Angeles demands the political mobilization of the working class against the capitalist profit system and both corporate-controlled political parties. What is required is a fight for socialism and vast redistribution of wealth to meet human need, not private profit.
Sign up for the WSWS Teacher NewsletterThe WSWS urges teachers and supporters to sign up for the Teacher Newsletter for frequent updates and to leave your comments or questions. To do so, click here.
EuroLand
GeenStijl: Duitse NPO: "Mark Rutte naar Brussel"
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 15:53
geenstijl.nl maakt gebruik van cookies en vergelijkbare technieken van haar of derden om I) het gedrag van bezoekers vast te leggen en te analyseren om de websites en apps te verbeteren, II) om het mogelijk te maken content via social media te delen en III) om de inhoud van haar websites en advertenties beter af te stemmen op jouw interesses en IV) om informatie te verzamelen over jouw voorkeuren en de informatie toe te voegen aan jouw klantprofiel. Zo kunnen we jou ook buiten geenstijl.nl relevante aanbiedingen doen. Als u verder surft accepteer je deze cookies en ga je akkoord met de verwerking van de (persoons)gegevens die met behulp van cookies kunnen worden verzameld en verwerkt voor de onder I) tot en met IV) genoemde doeleinden.
Voor meer informatie, klik dan hier voor ons privacy statement.
Witches
Witches, witchcraft gaining popularity in Denver, Colorado
Sat, 29 Dec 2018 15:56
Hailey Jonoubeh breathed deeply and closed her eyes, clasping a deck of tarot cards in her hands. She shut out the light streaming through her downtown Denver apartment, the ambulance wails from the city streets below and her black cat Raja perched on the window sill.
Jonoubeh exhaled, asking the cards the same question she does each morning: What do I need to know today?
The three she plucked from the deck denoted a need to leave her comfort zone, to think before she speaks and to trust her intuition. Jonoubeh groaned, offering a resigned smile. They were the same cards she'd been drawing all month, she said.
Jonoubeh is a witch '-- more specifically, a bruja, which means ''witch'' in Spanish. The 26-year-old is a member of a vibrant witchcraft community in Denver.
Once unmentionable, witchcraft is now trendy, witches and academics who study the craft agree. It's having a moment, not just in Denver, but in the broader culture '-- enchanting a new generation of magic-seekers and affording mature practitioners the chance for more outspoken coven lovin'.
''It is showing up everywhere, for sure,'' said Rory Lula McMahan, a pagan priestess in Denver. ''It's hip and cool and faddish, and I have mixed feelings about that. '... It means the mainstream is shifting, and there's more acceptance and exploration, but I also worry a witch being faddish means people think listening to Stevie Nicks and wearing black lipstick is what it's all about.
''How do you break through the exposure to get to the value?''
Helen H. Richardson, The Denver Post
Hailey Jonoubeh reads her daily tarot cards at her home on Dec. 11, 2018, in Denver. She has an avid interest in tarot cards and the practice of modern day witchcraft.''How friendly and normal we are''The 12 women and one young man shaking off a frosty December night inside a Denver shop brimming with potions, crystals and tarot cards were trying to unearth that value for themselves.
''Witch 101'' was in session, presided over by McMahan, a member of the Denver witchcraft community for more than 20 years, who explained that her title was akin to pagan clergy.
''It wasn't that long ago that people like us would have been in danger for meeting this way,'' McMahan told the class.
Helen A. Berger, a resident scholar at the Brandeis University Women's Studies Research Center, has been studying the witchcraft movement for 30 years and said she has seen an undeniable increase in interest and members.
''People are really coming out of the broom closet, as they say,'' she said.
While there aren't reliable numbers to determine how many practicing witches reside in the United States, Berger said all one has to do to get a clear picture is peer into the pop-culture crystal ball.
Urban Outfitters and Anthropologie, known for trendy clothing and gifts, now hawk magical kits and spell books. The #WitchesofInstagram hashtag on the picturesque social media platform is a collection of more than 2 million posts. Demand for more classes and merchandise prompted Missy Rhysing '-- owner of Denver's Ritualcravt shop, where ''Witch 101'' is held '-- to make plans to move the shop to a larger space early next year.
In the meantime, students trickled into McMahan's cramped class, ogling the occult curiosities around them: a replica of a hand detailing palm-reading guidelines, ''Unbreak My Heart'' handcrafted tea, a candle spell kit to promote prosperity.
McMahan gave a three-hour crash course on the basics of witchery. She went over handouts about the moon phases manipulating people's moods the same way they dictate the ebb and flow of the ocean tides. She spoke of witchcraft's nature-based spirituality and focus on social justice. She stressed embracing diversity and authenticity.
At the beginning of class, students divulged how they came to find themselves there: a queer woman felt her sexual orientation was disparaged in her Christian community and sought more welcoming spiritual company; one woman said she was giving in to years of repressing magical feelings like clairvoyance; the lone man drove all the way from Wyoming on a quest to find a spirituality that felt right.
''My hope is that people come in and see how friendly and normal we are,'' said Rhysing, the shop's owner. ''I'm a mom. I have three dogs. I'm a homeowner in the neighborhood. My house doesn't look like the 'Blair Witch.' ''
Rhysing cracked a smile.
''Well, it might a little bit.''
Helen H. Richardson, The Denver Post
Herbs and teas are available for purchase on Dec. 6, 2018, at Ritualcravt, a local store that offers classes like ''Witch 101'' in Denver. The store is located at 2842 W. 44th Ave.''Reconnecting with the Earth''Like many of the classes offered at the shop, ''Witch 101'' was full. McMahan already is accepting reservations for her 2020 year-long coven training, where she guides a new group of witches in their spiritual journey. (The 2019 coven's already booked.) Ritualcravt soon will shed its 800-square-foot location at 2842 W. 44th Ave., growing into a 4,500-square-foot space at 44th and Wadsworth Boulevard.
''People in Denver's witchcraft community keep asking for more,'' Rhysing said. ''More books. More plants. More classroom space.''
Rhysing dabbled in witchcraft on and off throughout her adult life, becoming more dedicated about 12 years ago when she lived in Santa Fe, she said.
''For me, being a witch is reclaiming that word,'' she said. ''It's reconnecting with the Earth. Reconnecting with our own cultural traditions and walking that path in a modern-day setting.''
Berger, who first began studying witchcraft as a historical sociologist interested in the Salem witch trials, explained that the modern-day witches she's studied tend to be progressive, feminist, accepting of all types of sexual orientation, politically active and concerned about the environment.
Despite what Netflix's reboot of the 1990s classic ''Sabrina the Teenage Witch'' would have viewers believe, Rhysing underscored with exasperation that witchcraft does not equate to devil worship or satanism.
Rhysing isn't a fan of ''The Chilling Adventures of Sabrina,'' which portrays witchcraft as hand in hand with devil worship. She echoed all the witches The Denver Post interviewed for this story, stressing that their practices involve customs such as meditation, spells and an attunement to nature '-- not conjuring up evil.
''It's all about the intention,'' McMahan told her rookie witches during class. ''You're not going to accidentally open a portal to hell or something when your intention is good. That's not how it works.''
So how does it work? For Rhysing, magically.
Rhysing abides by the moon phases and uses candles to help with spells, which she said she uses sparingly.
On one occasion a few years back, Rhysing's teenage son was being kept awake by a recurring nightmare. ''I've never raised him to do any of this, but I knew I could help him,'' she said.
Rhysing instructed her son to write his dream on a piece of parchment, bind it with a black thread and burn it. Then, they held a stone and charmed it with good sleep and peace, she said.
''Afterward, he slept like a rock,'' Rhysing said. ''That was the moment he was like, 'Woah, my mom really is a witch.' ''
Jonoubeh prefers tarot cards as her medium of choice.
The young woman gives herself a reading to start every day and enjoys watching her friends' reactions when she reads for them. She hopes to someday be a professional tarot reader, but she wields her deck free of charge at the moment as she learns more about the trade.
''I come from a Latina family who's pretty religious, and they are very strong with their faith,'' Jonoubeh said. ''I was always interested in magic and brujas. I had an attraction to the occult, and it scared me at first. But I learned it wasn't dark. Magic and witches, to me, is just about there being more to humanity than meets the eye.''
Kari Tornow, left, waves her arms in the air as the sun rises while she and her friends take part in a drumming ceremony to celebrate the winter solstice at Red Rocks Amphitheatre on Dec. 21, 2018, in Denver. The drumming ceremony was held to symbolically drum up the sun. While not everyone who participates in the drumming identifies as pagan, the solstices are important dates in the pagan tradition.''Women being strong together''A hawk circling Red Rocks Amphitheatre at dawn on the morning of Dec. 21 had a bird's-eye view of the hundreds of people who rose early to celebrate the Yule winter solstice '-- a tradition sacred to pagans and other cultures signaling the changing of the seasons and a welcoming of brighter, longer days.
The ceremony exuded a primal quality with revelers beating drums, their rhythm reverberating between rock formations. The darkness ripened into a sky lit on fire with the rising sun.
Some burned sage, others danced and yipped, and a businessman dressed in a full suit raised his hands toward the orange-singed clouds before heading off to work.
Kat McLaughlin donned a witch's hat, shadows dancing across her face from the flame of a candle she held. The 29-year-old Denver resident said she wouldn't consider herself a dedicated member of the witch or pagan community, instead dabbling in some of the traditions and having fun with the parts that appealed to her.
''For me, this community is about women being strong together,'' McLaughlin said. ''Look at us all out here enjoying a sunrise together. That's magic.''
Clips
VIDEO-Trumpadministrationasksinvestorforadviceonstockmarkets
Sun,30Dec201815:59
Ahigh-rankingTrumpadministrationofficialreachedouttoatleastonewell-knowninvestorforadviceonmarketsafterarecentdrubbingforstocks,sourcestoldCNBC.
Thecalltookplaceafterasell-offonChristmasEve,theworstdayofDec.24tradingever.TheDowJonesIndustrialAverage,S&P500andNasdaqalldroppedmorethan2percentMonday,asrumorsswirledaboutPresidentDonaldTrump'sdesiretofireFederalReserveChairmanJeromePowellandDefenseSecretaryJamesMattisresignedamiddisagreementswiththepresident.Themajorindexesthenspikedabout5percentonWednesday.
Theadministration,whichhasjudgedTrump'ssuccessinpartonstockmarketperformance,is"determined"toboostequities,thesourcessaid.ThesourcessaidtheinvestoradvisedtheofficialtotellthepresidenttoendhiscriticismofPowellonTwitter,stopadministrationturnoverandreachatradedealwithChinainordertohelpmarkets.
Trumpcelebratedaconsistentriseforstocksduringhisfirstyearinoffice.ButmarketshavefalteredthisyearamidatradewarwithChina,concernsabouttheFed'sfourinterestratehikesandfearsaboutslowingglobalgrowth.AsofFridaymorning,stockswereontrackfortheirworstDecembersince1931,withtheS&Pdownabout10percent.
TrumphastriedtoblamemarketcarnageontheFed.BeforetheplungeMonday,thepresidenttweetedthat"theonlyproblemoureconomyhasistheFed."HecontendedtheU.S.centralbankdoesnot"haveafeelfortheMarket."
ThetweetfollowedtheFed'sdecisiontoraisethetargetrangeforitsbenchmarkinterestratebyaquarterpointto2.25to2.5percent.
TheTrumpadministrationhasdeniedthatthepresidentwantstofirePowell,theheadoftheindependentcentralbank.ItisunclearwhetherTrumpevenhastheauthoritytoremovetheFedchair.
'--CNBC'sJacobPramukcontributedtothisreport
SubscribetoCNBConYouTube.
VIDEO-DogWalkingAppAttracts$300MillionInvestmentFromSaudiArabia:NPR
Sun,30Dec201815:48
Adog-walkingappnamed"Wag"justgota$300millioninvestmentfromSaudiArabia.Thebigbusinessisincreasinglycrowdingouttheindependentdogwalkingcompaniesthatusedtodominate.
ARISHAPIRO,HOST:
Americanshavenearly90millionpetdogs.Andthatnumberhasgrownlately,whichmeansmoreopportunityfordogwalkers.Inmanyplaces,thisisacottageindustry.Now,techcompaniesaregettingintothemarketwithon-demandapps.
KQED'sSamHarnetthasthisreportonhowthatcouldaffectsmalldogwalkingbusinesses.Andafriendlywarning-thesoundsinthisstorycouldgetyourdogabitwoundup.
(SOUNDBITEOFDOGSBARKING)
SAMHARNETT,BYLINE:BillPeacockbuilthisSanFranciscodogwalkingbusinessthroughaseriesofbrandingshticks,mostofthemcowboy-themed.
BILLPEACOCK:Hithere.I'mWilliamPeacock,WildBillPeacock,TheDogWrangler,akaTheCowboyPoopFairyPrincess.
HARNETT:Billhasdeerhornsboltedtothetopofhistruckandamusicalcarhorntoexcitehiscaninecompanions.
(SOUNDBITEOFCARHORN)
HARNETT:Hechargesaround$25perdog,walksuptoadozenatatimeanddoestworunsaday.Heknowseachandeveryoneofhisdogsbyname.
PEACOCK:Sue,Mullbery,Caley,Barney,Trucks,Howdie,Daisy,McDuff,Leila,andthenthetwoendsareMaybellandMontana.
HARNETT:Eachoneevenhasathemesong.
PEACOCK:(Singing)McDuff,McDuff,McDuff.
HARNETT:Aftermorethan15yearsinthebusiness,Billnowhascompetitionfromon-demandwalkingservices.
(SOUNDBITEOFARCHIVEDRECORDING)
UNIDENTIFIEDPERSON#1:Thisisyourdog.Heneedsawalkwhileyou'reatworktoday.That'swhereWag!comesin.
(SOUNDBITEOFARCHIVEDRECORDING)
UNIDENTIFIEDPERSON#2:Atrover.com,we'rethedog-care-second-only-to-youdogpeople.
HARNETT:Thesuccessofon-demandserviceslikeUberandLyfthasinvestorspouringmillionsofdollarsintothesepetapps.Wag!alonerecentlygot$300millionfromSaudiArabianinvestors.Thesecompaniesrunthetypicalgigmodel-hiringcontractorswhoarepaidperwalkandorderedonaphone.Theytakesingledogsfor30-to60-minuteon-leashwalks.
PEACOCK:Iseethemwalkingaroundtheblockwiththeircellphonesout,takingvideooftheirleashwalkaroundtheblock.
HARNETT:Billdoesnotsendhishumanclientsvideosoftheirdogs.Butafewyearsago,hetriedtogrowhisbusinesswiththesamekindofcontractormodelthattheappcompaniesuse.
PEACOCK:We'vesortofexploded.Ihadsixvehicleswithdeerhornsontheroof.
HARNETT:Then,hesayssomeofhisworkerscomplainedtoCalifornia'slabordepartment.Likemanygigworkers,theyfelttheywereemployees,notcontractors,whichmeanstheyshouldgetovertime,paidbreaksandprotectionslikeworkers'comp.Billsayshecouldn'tprovidethat.
PEACOCK:Theyfinedus$18,000,andwegothammered,anditfoldedthebusiness.Andwewere,youknow,thekindofbusinessAmericasupposedlywants-husbandandwife.
HARNETT:WhiletheindependentcontractormodelbackfiredonBill,it'shelpingWag!andRoverexpandintocitiesaroundthecountry.They'vebeenabletoshieldthemselvesfromthekindofproblemsBillranintobymakingtheirworkerssignmandatoryarbitrationagreements,standardpracticeinthegigworld.Theseobligatetheemployeestohandlecomplaintsbehindcloseddoors.
(SOUNDBITEOFDOGBARKING)
HARNETT:Meanwhile,Bill'stryingtosurvivebyofferingsomethingdifferent,amorepersonaldogwalkingexperience.
PEACOCK:Mulberry,comeon.Thesearegoodhills.Wegottoshowthemhowweplayfetchonthehill.Comehere.
HARNETT:Billtakeshisdogsinapackforanoff-leashromponthecoast.
(SOUNDBITEOFDOGSBARKING)
PEACOCK:Oh,Howdy,you'repayingattention?OK,we'regoingtogoupthere.
HARNETT:Thesearethekindsofwalksdogsreallyneed,Billsays,notjustacruisearoundtheblockorneighborhood.Hehopespetownerswillseethevalueinanindependentwalkerlikehimastheon-demanddogcarecompaniescontinuetogrow.
(SOUNDBITEOFCARHORN)
HARNETT:ForNPRNews,I'mSamHarnett.
Copyright(C)2018NPR.Allrightsreserved.Visitourwebsitetermsofuseandpermissionspagesatwww.npr.orgforfurtherinformation.
NPRtranscriptsarecreatedonarushdeadlinebyVerb8tm,Inc.,anNPRcontractor,andproducedusingaproprietarytranscriptionprocessdevelopedwithNPR.Thistextmaynotbeinitsfinalformandmaybeupdatedorrevisedinthefuture.Accuracyandavailabilitymayvary.TheauthoritativerecordofNPR'sprogrammingistheaudiorecord.
VIDEO-DangerousCobaltMinesinCongoPoseChallengesforBigTech-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201815:37
VIDEO-"GovernorMoonbeam"WantsToGoBackToSpaceToFixClimateChange!-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201814:06
VIDEO-911networkrestoredafter'technicalglitch'causesmassoutage-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201814:03
VIDEO-FCCInvestigatingAfterNationwide911Outage|NBCNightlyNews-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201813:59
VIDEO-ReportOnParklandSchoolShootingFindsPoliceWere"UNPREPAREDANDOVERWHELMED"(BYONETEENAGER)-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201813:53
VIDEO-Smokingvvaping:Watchlabtestresults-BBCNews
Sun,30Dec201813:47
Ifyou'regoingtotrytoquitsmokinginthenewyear,tryvaping,aUKgovernmentadvisorybodysays.
PublicHealthEnglandhaslaunchedacampaignvideoshowingthedangersoftraditionalcigarettes,andhascarriedoutanexperimentdemonstratinghowe-cigarettesaremuchlessharmful.
Itsayspeoplecansearch"Smokefree"forNHSadviceonquitting.
VIDEO-Congoexpulsion;Viennamanhunt;andDubaiprincessclaim:Fivestoriestoknowabouttoday-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201813:36
VIDEO-TheDemocraticRepublicofCongopicksasuccessortoPresidentJosephKabila-YouTube
Sun,30Dec201813:27
VIDEO-WatchEpicMeltdownByVapeShopEmployeeTriggeredByTrump-SupportingCustomer|ZeroHedge
Sun,30Dec201812:26
AnAtlantavapeshopemployeewithaprominentneckbeardisoutofajobaftergettingmegatriggeredbyacustomerwearingaTrumpt-shirtanda"MakeAmericaGreatAgain"hat.
TheemployeeofXhaleCitydeniedservicetotheTrump-supportingcustomer,screaming"Ifyoudonotstoprecordinginmystore,I'mgoingtocallthepoliceandaskyoutoleave,"towhichthecustomerencouragedtheemployeetocallthecops.
"F*ckoffdude!F*ckoff!Getthef*ckoutofhere!,"screechedtheemployee,whothenwentonarantcallingPresidentTrumpa"treasonousasshole,"beforeassaultingthecustomer.
"Leavethestore!Leavethestore!Leavethestore!F*ckoff!Getthef*ckout!"screamedtheemployee,asanothercustomerstoodbywatchingtheincident.
Inresponsetotheincident,XhaleCityannouncedoverFacebookthattheemployeehadbeenterminated.TheyhavesinceshutdowntheirFacebookpage.
"Tonight,wehadanemployeeactimproperlytowardacustomer,"readsthestatement."XhaleCitydoesnottoleratethiskindofbehaviorfromitsemployees.Whenweidentifiedtheemployeeatfault,wefiredhimimmediately.We'vealsospokentothecustomerandapologized.Wevalueourclientsandtreatthemwithrespectanddignity,regardlessoftheirpoliticalviews."
(h/tTheGatewayPundit)
VIDEO-MichaelMooreOnHow2019CouldBeEvenCrazierThan2018|AllIn|MSNBC-YouTube
Sat,29Dec201819:12
VIDEO-WhiteHousenotexpectingtohearfromDemocratsagainonborderfundingnegotiationsuntilPelosilocksupspeakership|FoxNewsVideo
Sat,29Dec201819:02
(C)2018FOXNewsNetwork,LLC.Allrightsreserved.Thismaterialmaynotbepublished,broadcast,rewritten,orredistributed.Allmarketdatadelayed20minutes.
NewPrivacyPolicy-
NewTermsofUse(What'sNew)-
FAQ
VIDEO-UNPREPAREDANDOVERWHELMED|SouthFloridaSunSentinel|SunSentinel
Sat,29Dec201818:14
FailuresbytheBrowardCountySheriff'sOfficeandschooldistrictcostchildrentheirlivesatMarjoryStonemanDouglasHighSchool.
AgunmanwithanAR-15firedthebullets,butaseriesofblunders,badpolicies,sketchytrainingandpoorleadershiphelpedhimsucceed.Informationreportedover10monthsbytheSouthFloridaSunSentinelreveals58minutesofchaosoncampusmarkedbynoonetakingcharge,deputiesdawdling,falseinformationspreading,communicationsparalyzedandchildrenstrandedwithnowheretohide.
Tobesure,anumberofteachersandpoliceofficersperformedheroically.Butanexaminationoftheday'seventsrevealsthattheSheriff'sOfficeandschooldistrictwereunpreparedforthecrisis.
Here'saminute-by-minutelookatthosecriticalmomentsonFeb.14,2018.
2:19:54p.m.SecurityentrustedtounarmedcoachesAcampuswatchmanhasachancetostopgunmanNikolasCruzbeforeanybloodisshed.Buthedoesn'tdoit.
Medinashouldn'thavebeeninthatjob''schoolinvestigatorshadrecommendedhebefiredforsexuallyharassingstudents,butdistrictadministratorsoverruledthem.
Medinaisthefirstofthreeschoolemployeeswhofailtocallforaschoollockdownafterlearningagunmanisoncampus.
2:21:16p.m.Secondunarmedmonitorspotsgunman,turnstheotherwayDavidTaylor,thecampusmonitorwhowasalertedbyMedina,walksintothefirst-floorhallwaytowardCruz,whogoesintothestairwell.Atthatpoint,Cruzhasyettopullhisgunfromthecarrybag.
Taylorturnsaround,latertellinginvestigatorsheintendedtousestairsattheoppositeendofthehallwaytointerceptCruzonthesecondfloor.
2:21:23p.m.AnotherCodeRedmissedThesecondchancetolockdowntheschoolismissedwhenfreshmanChrisMcKennaentersthefirst-floorstairwellandseesCruzloadinghisgun.
Cruztellshim"You'dbettergetoutofhere.Thingsaregonnastartgettingmessy."
McKennarunsfromthebuildingandinformsAaronFeis,afootballcoachandcampusmonitor,thatthereissomeonewithagun.
ThereisnoevidencethatFeis,whohasaradio,callsaCodeRed.
2:21:38p.m.WatchmanhidesinclosetCruzfireshisfirstshots,killingfreshmenMartinDuque,LukeHoyerandGinaMontaltointhehallwayofthefirstfloor.
Taylor,thecampusmonitor,hearsgunshotsandracesuptothesecondfloor.Heducksintoajanitor'scloset.TaylorhasaradiobutdoesnotcallaCodeRed.
Schooldistrictpolicieswereinsufficientandemployeeswereuncertainwhocouldorderthatthecampusbelockeddown.
Cruzstalksthefirstfloorunchallenged.Heentersnoclassroomsandshootsthroughthewindowsatpeopleinhislineofsight.
Cruzkillssixstudentsintheseclassrooms'--AlyssaAlhadeff,NicholasDworet,AlainaPetty,HelenaRamsay,AlexSchachterandCarmenSchentrup.
Thesimplestofsecuritymeasurescouldhavesavedlives.Buttheschooldistrictfailedtorequirethatclassroomshavedesignated''hardcorners'''--areaswherestudentscouldhideoutsidethelineofsightofagunmanlookingthroughadoorway.
TwosecurityexpertshadadvisedStonemanDouglasteachersandadministratorstodesignatethesesafespaces,butonlytwoteachersinBuilding12didso.Mostclassroomcornersthatcouldhaveprovidedrefugewereinsteadblockedbyteachers'desksandotherfurniture.
2:22:13p.m.Thefirst911callThefirst911callertellsaCoralSpringsoperatorthatthere'sashooterattheschool.Gunshotsareheardinthebackground.
2:22:39p.m.LedintothelineoffireTherepeatedfailurestocallaCodeRedbecomecatastrophicwhentheshootingsetsoffafirealarm.
Insteadofhidingintheirclassrooms,astheywouldduringaCodeRed,somestudentsandteachersstreamoutofclassroomsintohallways,astheywouldiffacingafire.
Atthesametime,DeputyScotPeterson''theschoolresourceofficerandtheonlyarmedlawmanoncampus''runstomeetwithMedina,thecampusmonitorwhofirstsawCruz.
2:22:41p.m.911delaysBrowardCounty'sdisjointed911systemslowsthelawenforcementresponse.
Becausethefirst911callisfromacellphone,itgoestothecityofCoralSprings.ButtheSheriff'sOfficehandlespolicecallsforneighboringParkland,sotheCoralSpringsoperatormustwastepreciousminutestransferringthecalltotheSheriff'sOffice.
2:22:51p.m.Athleticdirectorrushestohelp,getskilledDeputyPetersonandanothercampusmonitormeetMedina,getintohisgolfcart,anddrivetowardBuilding12.
AthleticdirectorandcampusmonitorChrisHixonisalreadyatBuilding12.HeentersthedoubledoorsatthewestendofthehallandrunstowardCruz.
CruzshootsHixon,whocrawlstotakecoverinanearbydoorway.Cruzfindshimabout30secondslaterandshootshimagain.
2:23:17p.m.ArmedbutnoactionPetersonfinallyarrivesontheeastsideofBuilding12.Hedrawshisgun,buthefailstogoinsidethebuilding.
Overhispoliceradiohesayshecanhearfirecrackersor"possibleshotsfired"inBuilding12.Thestatementconflictswithhislateraccount:thathewasunsurewherethesoundswerecomingfrom.
Feis,thecampusmonitorandfootballcoach,opensthedoortotheweststairwellandcomesface-to-facewithCruz.Cruzshootshim.
Thecarnageisastoundingonthefirstfloor,whereCruzkills11andwounds13.
2:23:36p.m.SavedonthesecondfloorCruzheadsuptheweststairwelltothesecondfloorbutfindsthehallwayempty.
Someteachers,probablyhearinggunfirebelow,hadtakenstepstoprotectthechildren.Theyhadcoveredthewindowsinclassroomdoorssoashootercouldnotseein.Somehuddlechildrenawayfromthegunman'slineofsight.
Cruzfiresintotwoof10rooms,butnooneishurt.
2:23:48p.m.DeputyhidesfromthecrisisDeputyPetersontakescoverbetweenBuildings7and8asCruzprowlsthesecondfloor.
Insteadofconfrontingthekiller,heradiosforanearbyintersectiontobeblockedoff.
Heisstilltheonlyarmedlawenforcementofficeroncampus.
2:24:00p.m.Lockedclassroom,nowheretohideStudentsonthethirdfloorareinitiallyunawarethere'sashooterinthebuildingandarecrowdingthehallwaysbecauseofthefirealarm.Nowhearingtheshots,theybegintorunbacktowardclassrooms.
SocialstudiesteacherErnieRospierskidirectsstudentsbackintoclassrooms,buthisdoorlocksbehindhimwithhiskeysinside.
Rospierskiandseveralstudentsarestrandedinthehall.
Cruzisonhisway.
2:24:32p.m.VulnerableonthethirdfloorCruzgoesupthestairwelltothethirdfloor,whereabout20peopleremainstrandedinthemiddleofthehallway.
Hefiresmultipleroundsintothecrowd.
GeographyteacherScottBeigelisholdingopenhisclassroomdoor.Asheushersstudentsin,Cruzshootsandkillshim.
2:24:42p.m.Blockingtrafficandfailingtorespond2:24:54p.m.Finally,aCodeRedCruz'sassault,whichwouldspan5minutesand32secondsfromfirstshottolast,ishalfoverwhensomeonefinallydeclaresaCodeRed.
CampusmonitorElliottBonnercallsthealertafterdrivinghisgolfcarttothesouthwestcornerofBuilding12,whereheseesFeis'bodyandhearsgunshots.
Bonner,whoisunarmed,backsawayfromthesceneinhiscart.
2:25:10p.m.ConfusionaboutgunshotsDeputyKratzaddstotheconfusionwitharadiobroadcast.HesayshehearsshotsbythefootballfieldnorthwestofBuilding12''raisingquestionsaboutwheretheshooteris.
2:25:12p.m.Restroomslocked,studentscan'tescapegunmanAnearlierdecisiontolockrestroomsbecausestudentswerevapinginthemnowtrapsthosewhotrytofindrefugeonthethirdfloor.
TheyhavenowheretohidefromCruzandhisbullets.
CruzkillsseniorMeadowPollackandfreshmanCaraLoughranoutsidealockedclassroom;theydiehuddledtogether.CruzshootsseniorJoaquinOliveroutsidealockedbathroom.
2:25:30p.m.TeachersavesstudentsRospierskifleeswith10studentstowardastairwellasCruzfiresdownthehall.
Twoofthestudents,JaimeGuttenbergandPeterWang,arehit.WangdiesinthehallwayandGuttenberginthestairwell,butothersgetawayasRospierskiholdsthedoorclosedfrominsidethestairwelltokeepCruzfromadvancing.
Bythetimeheisdone,Cruzkillssixandwoundsfouronthethirdfloor.Noneofthedeadareinclassrooms.
It'snowbeennearlyfourminutessinceCruzstartedshooting,anddeputiesPetersonandKratzarestillnotgoingtowardBuilding12.
2:25:35p.m.ProtectedbyhurricaneglassUnabletogetintothestairwell,Cruzheadstoanearbyteachers'lounge.
Cruzshootsattheglass,targetingstudentsandteachersastheyfleeacrossthecampusbelow,buttheglasswon'tbreakandnooneonthegroundishit.
2:25:38p.m.Peterson'slockdownorderDeputyPeterson,overhisradio,ordersaschoollockdowninsteadoforderingdeputiestowardthebuilding.Heremainssafelyoutside.
2:26:07p.m.Moredeputieshangback'--eventhoughtheycanhearthegunshotsSinceColumbine,officersaretaughttorushtowardgunshotsandneutralizethekiller.ButthefirstBrowarddeputiesdon'trushin.
BrowardSheriffScottIsraellaterrevealsthathepersonallychangeddepartmentpolicytosaythatdeputies''may''insteadof''shall''rushin.
2:27:03p.m.Failingtotakecontrol2:27:10p.m.DeputiesdawdleasshotsfiredThelastfivegunshotscanbeheardonthebodycamofDeputyJoshStambaugh.AfterparkingatHolmbergRoadnearthesceneoftheshooting,heretrieveshisbulletproofvestfromthetrunk,putsitonandtakescoverbehindhiscar.
Afterfiveminutesthere,hegetsintohiscaranddrivestotheotherendofthecampustotakeapositionontheSawgrassExpresswayoverlookingtheschool.
ThefinalshotCruzfires,frominsidetheteachers'lounge,canbeheardat2:27:10p.m.
2:27:54p.m.Cruzescapes,copshavenoideaCruztakesoffhisriflevest,dropshisAR-15inastairwell,headsdownthestairs,dartsoutofthebuildingandrunsacrosscampus'--allwhilepolicethinkhe'sstillinside.
2:28:00p.m.CopsprotectthemselvesAfewsecondslater,Peterson,stillhidingsoutheastofBuilding12,tellsdeputiesovertheradiotostayatleast500feetawayfromthebuilding.
ThewarningisoneofatleasttwotimesaBrowarddeputyurgesanotherofficertoprotectthemselves,notconfrontthekiller.
ThoughpoliceofficerssinceColumbinehavebeentrainedtoimmediatelyconfrontthekiller,someBrowarddeputiesattheParklandmassacrewouldlaterstruggletorecallwhentheylasthadactiveshootertrainingordetailsofwhattheylearned.
2:28:53p.m.FooledbyvideodelayThesurveillancecamerasintheschoolarenotmonitoredinrealtime.
AssistantPrincipalJeffMorfordandschoolsecurityofficerKelvinGreenleafentertheschool'scameraroomtorewindandreviewsurveillancevideo,butdeputiesdon'trealizethefootageisdelayed20minutes.
MorfordrelaysinformationaboutCruz'swhereaboutstoPetersonandotherschoolofficials.Cops,believingthevideoislive,continuesearchingforCruzinthebuilding'--delayingaidtoinjuredstudents.
2:29:35p.m.Sheriff'scommanderoverwhelmedBrowardSheriff'sCapt.JanJordan,headoftheParklanddistrict,arrivesattheschool'sadministrationbuildingandisquicklyoverwhelmedasshetriestocoordinateofficers.
Thefalteringradiosystemfrustratesher.Shespendsherfirstsevenminutesattheschoolintheadministrativebuildingandthengoestoanearbycartotryagainwiththeradiosystem.
SheeventuallymovestoanotherareanearBuilding12,whereshetakescoverbehindacartomeetwithofficers.
2:29:33p.m.Nocommandpost''againTheSheriff'sOfficefailstoimmediatelysetupacommandpost''justastheagencyfailedtodoafteramassshootingattheFortLauderdaleairporttheyearbefore.
ABrowarddeputyasksthatthecommandpostbesetuptohelpcontroltheresponse,butitisn'tdoneforanotherhalf-hour.
2:32:42p.m.CoralSpringspoliceofficersrushinTheshootinghasbeenoverforfiveminutesbeforeanypoliceofficersenterthebuilding.
FourCoralSpringsofficersenterthroughthewestdoors,wheretheyseeChrisHixonshot.TwoofficerspullHixonoutofthebuildingandontoagolfcart.Hewillnotsurvive.
TheCoralSpringsofficerslatertellinvestigatorstheirtrainingwasclear''runtowardthegunfire.
CoralSpringsOfficerRaymondKerner,theschoolresourceofficeratnearbyJ.P.TaravellaHighSchool,wouldtellinvestigators:
''Basically,whatwe'retrainedtodoisjustgetrighttothethreatasquickaspossibleandtakeoutthethreatbecauseeverytimeyouhearashotgooffitcouldpotentiallybeakidgettingkilledoranybodygettingkilledforthatmatter.''
2:33:04p.m.CommanderfailstoactCapt.Jordanordersthataperimeterbeestablishedaroundtheschool''amisguidedapproachwhenfacinganactiveshooter.
BeforeColumbine,settingupaperimeterwasstandard.AfterColumbine,policeweretrainedtorushtowardthegunshots.
Jordandoesnotestablishacommandpostorcallforofficerstogofindtheshooter.
2:34:11p.m.MorebadinformationfromPetersonDeputyPetersonaddsmorebadinformationtoachaoticscene.
Stillshelteringbyabuilding,hetellsaCoralSpringsofficertheshooterisonthesecondorthirdfloor.
Inreality,Cruzhasbeenoutofthebuildingformorethansixminutes.
2:34:27p.m.FirstdeputyinsideBrowardDeputyWilliamHanksentersBuilding12throughthewestdoors,oneminuteand45secondsafterCoralSpringsofficersfirstentered.
2:36:00p.m.MoreofficersrushinAbout18officers,themajorityfromCoralSprings,headintotheeastsideofBuilding12aboutthistime.
Moresheriff'sdeputiesbegintoenterthebuildingaswell.
2:37:18p.m."Dream-like"Withoutacommandpostestablished,deputiesremainconfusedaboutwhoisincharge.
BrowardLt.StephenO'Neilltakescommandoftheresponseearlyon,recognizingthelackofdirectionfromsupervisors.HelatersaysJordanhada''dream-like''naturetoherspeechandthatshe''wasnotengagedwiththeproblem."
O'Neillworkstokeeptheroadsbytheschoolclearformorerespondingvehiclesandtocreateanareawhereofficerscanstageduringtheresponse.ButdoingsoalsoslowsthepoliceresponseintoBuilding12.
2:40:16p.m.EvacuationofBuilding12OfficersbeginamassevacuationofsurvivorsfromBuilding12.
2:53:24p.m.GunmanlonggoneAssistantPrincipalMorford,inthevideoroom,broadcastsoverschoolradiosthatCruzisleavingthethirdfloorandheadedtothesecondfloor.OfficersbelieveMorfordiswatchingthevideoinrealtime,butinfactCruzhasalreadywalkedtoanearbyWalmartandorderedadrinkatSubway.
VideofromSgt.RichardRossman'sbodycamshowsofficersrelayingCruz'smovementsovertheradioandAssistantPrincipalWinfredPorter,outsidewiththepolice,incorrectlyconfirmingthevideoislive.
2:53:40p.m.CruzonthemoveCruzleavesWalmartandheadstoanearbyMcDonald's.Hestaysthereaminuteandthenleaves.
2:57:59p.m.OfficersreachthirdfloorThreeCoralSpringsofficersreachthethirdfloorandfindCruz'sgun,vestandthebodyofJaimeGuttenberg.
DeputiesinBuilding12,stillbelievingthegunmanisinside,areexperiencingradioproblems.Bodycamvideorecordsonedeputysayingheneedstogooutsidetousehisradio.
3:02:20p.m.ThetruthaboutthevideoCopsfinallylearnthatthesurveillancevideoisdelayed.
Sgt.Rossmanhasknownitforsevenminutes'--atatimewheneveryminutewascritical'--buthehasnotbroadcastitovertheradiountilnow.
3:11:20p.m.Hidingfor48minutesSchoolResourceOfficerPetersonleavesthespotwherehehasremainedshelteredfornearly48minutes,watchingasotherofficersenterthebuilding.
3:17:45p.m.FinalclassroomenteredAlmostanhouraftertheshootingbegan,officersenterthefinalroominBuilding12.
CreditsBasedonreportingby:TonyaAlanez,DavidFleshler,StephenHobbs,LisaJ.Huriash,PaulaMcMahon,MeganO'MatzandScottTravis
Design&Development:AricChokey
Editing:DanaBanker,RandyRoguskiandDavidSchutz
Sources:TheSouthFloridaSunSentinelcompiledinformationfrominterviews,witnessstatementstoinvestigators,policereports,bodycamerafootage,911recordings,policeradiotransmissionsandtheMarjoryStonemanDouglasHighSchoolPublicSafetyCommission.
VIDEO-WhitePeopleMowingTheirLawnsIsRayciss!SezMadison"Educator"CRINGE-YouTube
Sat,29Dec201816:29
VIDEO-'BlackMirror:Bandersnatch'MakesYouChooseYourOwnAdventure:NPR
Sat,29Dec201806:28
FionnWhiteheadplaysStefan,programmercreatingamid-'80sadventuregameinBlackMirror:Bandersnatch.Netflixhidecaption
togglecaptionNetflixFionnWhiteheadplaysStefan,programmercreatingamid-'80sadventuregameinBlackMirror:Bandersnatch.
NetflixNetflixishungry,andit'sgotitseyeonajuicysliceofinteractivity.
Thestreamingservicestarteditsoriginalsbusinesswithprestigedramasandcomedies.Butitsappetiteincreases,andnowitalsowantstobeyoursourceforholidayschlock,bakingcompetitions,homerenovationshows,documentaries,animation,stand-upspecials,andromanticcomedies.Andit'slookingfornewareasthatitcanown,newwaysitcanmakeitselfessential,newworldsitcandominate.Anewfilmthatcanfollowavarietyofpathsdependingonchoicesmadebytheviewer'--afilmthat'salmostagame'--isthenextdirectionitwouldliketostompitsgiantfeet.
BlackMirror,asciencefictionanthologyseriesfocusedonthehorrorsoftechnology,wasoriginallyonBritishtelevision.Now,Netflixmakesitdirectlyforitsstreamingservice.OnFriday,BlackMirrorreleaseditslatestinstallment,calledBlackMirror:Bandersnatch.Setin1984,it'saboutayoungprogrammernamedStefanworkingonagameadaptationofafamous"chooseyourownadventure"book.Forthosewhoaren'tfamiliar,CYOAbooks(whichreallyexisted)arebookswhereatcertainpoints,thestoryasksyoutomakeadecision.Somethinglike,"Ifyoupickupthestick,turntopage49.Ifyouleavethestickontheground,turntopage51."Andyouwouldfollowthestoryfromthere.CYOAwasanelementary,low-techversionofinteractivity,longbeforetoday'scomplexopen-worldgameswereavailable.
TheinnovationofBandersnatchitselfisthatitfunctionssimilarly.Whileyou'rewatchingthefilm,onNetflix,onyourtelevision,achoicewillcomeuponthescreen,andyou'lluseyourremote(oryourcomputerorfingerorwhatever)tochoosetheoptionyouwant.Thefirstchoice,forinstance,iswhatStefanwillhaveforbreakfastfromthetwocerealshisfathershowshim.Whicheveryouchoose,that'swhatyouseehisfatherhandhim.Asyoucanimagine,thechoicesgrowmoresignificantthanthatlaterinthefilm.
Itwouldhavebeengoodtoseethistechnologydemonstratedonastrongerstory.WhileitobviouslymakessenseforStefantobedevelopingaCYOAgameinsideaNetflixCYOAmovieabouthim'--that'skindofthejoke'--youdon'treallylearnenoughaboutwhoheistocareabouthim.Sure,he'sgettingangryandwonderingifhe'slosingitwhileheworksonhisgame,butthat'sprettyelementary"isolatedartistwhomightgomad"stuff,anditdoesn'treallyholdupanarrativeonitsown.
Butwhilethestorysagsabit,theexecutionislargelyseamless.There'salullintheactionwhileyoumakeeachchoice(ifyoudon'tchoose,there'salwaysadefaultoption),butitgenerallydoesn'tactuallyhitchorpauseorhiccupbeforeitcontinues.Itrollsrighton,asinstructedbyyou.ShouldStefansayyesornotoatemptingoffer?Shouldhetakemedicationornot?ShouldhelistentotheThompsonTwinsoracompilationcassette?
Thenoveltyisinteresting,andinacoupleofplaces,thestoryflirtswithsomegreatideasaboutcontrolandfreewillthathaveaconnectiontotheveryfactthatyouare'--tosomedegree'--dictatingthenarrativeyousee.BandersnatchhasacoupleofclassicBlackMirror-ishtrickstospring,andonafirstviewing(whichmighttakeyouanhourandahalforso),they'realotoffun.
ButthisisalongwayfrombeingafullydevelopedconceptthatNetflixcandeployforotherformslikeromancesorcomedies(asrepresentativeshavesuggesteditmight).There'sjustadistance,notyetbridged,betweenwhatamovieisandwhataCYOAbookis'--letalonewhatagameis.
AfterthefirsttimeyoufollowBandersnatchthroughtooneofwhatNetflixsaysareitsfiveendings,itquicklybecomestiresometotrytofindothers.Fastforwardandrewindareoflimiteduse'--youcanjump10secondsaheadorback,butonlywithintheunbrokensegmentyou'rewatching,betweenthelastchoiceyoumadeandthenextone.Thatmeansyoucan't,forinstance,makeachoiceandthenjumpbackpastthechoicepointandtrytheotherone,likeyoucanwithaCYOAbook.Thesoftwaresortofbehaveslikeitrememberswhatyou'vealreadyseen,butinpartfortechnicalreasonsandinpartbecausealotofsegmentslookalikeandhappeninthesamesettingsandinvolvethesameelements,youcan'timmediatelysay,"Oh,I'veseenthispart"anddoubleback.(Again,thisiscrucialtoCYOAnavigationonpaper.)
Asforcomparisonstogames,ingameswherepeoplearewillingtotryagainandagaintoreachtheendofasprawlinggame,they'reusuallytryingtosolvepuzzlesordevelopgameskills.Theyhavetofigureouthowtobeatthatmonster,openthatbridge,getpastthatgate.Buthere,tryingtofindallthevariationsisjustamatterofguessing,wanderingthroughbinarychoicesuntilsomethinghappensthatyouhaven'talreadyseen.Whentherubberhitstheroad,afilmisstilllinearinawaythatabookisn't.Tryingtoseewhatotheroptionsmightleadto,Iwoundupwatchingscenessixorseventimesthatwerenotinterestingenoughtowatchsixorseventimes.
TherearealsosomemomentsthatIfounddeeplyfrustratingwheretherearen'treallytwochoices'--there'sonlyone,inthattheothercreatesaloopwhereyou'resimplyshownthesamesegmentofstoryagaintoforceyouintochoosingtheonethatwillactuallymoveyouforward.Similarly,Stefanjoltsawakequitealot,andsometimesit'sclearlyjustawaytopushyouintoanewsituation.
Moretroublesomeisthefactthatbecausemanychoicesleadtothesameoutcomesandmanypathsformloops,thestorycan'thelpbutloseitsnarrativeintegrityasyouexperimentwithit.Whenyou'vealreadyseenitonceallthewaythroughandyoukeepexploring,you'llkeepthinking,"DidtheeventI'mrememberingalreadyhappeninthisversionI'mwatchingnow,oronlyinthefirstone?"There'ssomeefforttomakethisafeatureratherthanabugwithalotofjabberabouttimeandastorythatispartlyaboutlosingyourgriponreality.Butthatmakesforaprettyflimsyexplanationofwhatbecomesaprettytediousviewingexperience.
It'seasytowriteallthisoffunder"theymeanttodothat."Youcouldchoosetobelievethatit'sintentionalthatthestoryfallsapartandthatyoubecomedisorientedandcan'tfigureoutwhat'soccurredinthisversionandwhathasn't.Butyou'reprobablynotsupposedtobebored,whichIeventuallywas.Andyou'reprobablynotsupposedtorealizeyoudon'tactuallycarewhathappenstoanyofthepeople,whichIeventuallydid.
Thisisapieceoftelevisionthatisespeciallyeagertoconvinceyoutoviewitmorethanonce'--multipleviewingswiththeirattendantobsessivesaresurelyoneupsideofinteractivity.Unfortunately,it'sespeciallypoorlysuitedtobeingwatchedmorethanonce.Afteryourfirsttimethrough,whenyou'llseemostofthethingsthatareinterestingaboutit(includingsomethatarecharminglyself-referentialborderingon"cute"),you'relikelytoexperiencerapidlydiminishingreturnsasyoutrytofindthingswithinthestoryitselftopayattentionto.Infact,youmayevenwindupaggravated,mutteringtoyourself,"QUITSHOWINGMETHESAMESCENEINTHERECORDSTORE."(Just,youknow.Forexample.)
Experimentationisgood.Justgettingthisthingontoastreamingplatforminaworkableandintactconditionisahugeaccomplishment.AndpartsofBandersnatchareundeniablyclever.Butthismodelisstillthesmartwatchoftelevision,ifyouwill'--kindofacoolgadgettomessaroundwith,andgoodforcertainthings.Butit'snotanythingyouparticularlyneed,andit'snotreadytoreplacethethingsitmighthopetoconvinceyouitcanrenderobsolete.
VIDEO-KidsTellingDirtyJokes:Izzabella-YouTube
Sat,29Dec201806:17
VIDEO-GatwickAirportDroneIncident,DarkerCommercialTruths?(FilmedonOsmoPocket)-YouTube
Sat,29Dec201806:16
VIDEO-McClatchy'sMichaelCohenPragueReportCitedThirdHandEvidence
Sat,29Dec201805:52
VIDEOMcClatchyReporterSaysReportonCohen'sPragueTripCitedThird-HandEvidenceMcClatchy'sGregGordon,oneofthejournalistsbehindtheexplosivereportonthepresident'sex-lawyerMichaelCohenvisitingPragueamidthe2016election,admittedthathedidnotseefirst-handsomeoftheprimaryevidenceusedinthepiece.
OnThursday,McClatchyreportedthatthereisevidenceshowingCohenvisitedtheCzechRepublicduringTrump'spresidentialrun,which'--iftrue'--wouldconfirminformationfromtheSteeledossier.McClatchycitedthird-handinformationfromforeignintelligenceagenciesasplacingCoheninPragueduringthattimeframe,whichwasreportedlygatheredviacellphonedata.
WhileonMSNBClastnight,JoyReidaskedGordonifheandhiscolleaguePeterStonecited''anythingthatyouwereabletophysicallyseeforyourselves?''
''Iwishwehad.Weheldoutforawhileforthat,anditcameatimewhenwethoughtwehadacriticalmass.Itisacompetitivebusiness,''hereplied.
Gordancontinued:''Someofthesourceshavegovernmentsources,andsomeofthesourcesarepeoplewhohavetoldusthattheyhavetrustedintelligence-typesourcesthattheygetinformationfrom.Wedon'tknowthespecifics,butwehaveusedthesesourcesonmanysubjects,andtheyhavebeenveryaccurate.''
Previouslyinthesegment,GordanwasaskedtorespondtoCohendenyingtheMcClatchyreportandstatinghenevervisitedtheCzechRepublicduringthe2016campaign.
''AllIcansaytothatwe'rejustgonnahavetoseehowthissortsoutbecauseMichaelCohenasweallknowhasbeenconvictedoflyingabouthisdealingswiththeTrumphotelinRussia,he'sbeenconvictedbeingdeceitfulinanumberofways,sohiscredibilityisnothigh,''Gordanremarked.''Wehavetofollowwhatoursourceswhowetrustandhavedevelopedoverthistwo-yearperiodtellus.''
Watchabove,viaMSNBC.
[imageviascreengrab]
Haveatipweshouldknow?tips@mediaite.com
VIDEO-JEANCLAUDEJUNCKERISSTILLDRUNK(2018compilation)-YouTube
Sat,29Dec201805:42
VIDEO-Theonly'Russianbots'tomeddleinUSelectionsbelongedtoDemocrat-linked'experts''--RTUSANews
Sat,29Dec201800:49
UScyber-securityexpertshaveblamedRussiaformeddlinginAmericanelectionssince2016.NowithasemergedthatauthorsofaSenatereporton'Russian'meddlingactuallyrana''falseflag''meddlingoperationthemselves.
AweekbeforeChristmas,theSenateIntelligenceCommitteereleasedareportaccusingRussiaofdepressingDemocratvoterturnoutbytargetingAfrican-Americansonsocialmedia.Itsauthors,NewKnowledge,quicklybecameahouseholdname.
DescribedbytheNewYorkTimesasagroupof''techspecialistswholeanDemocratic,''NewKnowledgehastiestoboththeUSmilitaryandintelligenceagencies.ItsCEOandco-founderJonathonMorganpreviouslyworkedforDARPA,theUSmilitary'sadvancedresearchagency.Hispartner,RyanFox,isa15-yearveteranoftheNationalSecurityAgencywhoalsoworkedasacomputeranalystfortheJointSpecialOperationsCommand(JSOC).Theiruniqueskillsetshavemanagedtoattracttheeyeofinvestors,whopumped$11millionintothecompanyin2018alone.
Alsoonrt.comRacist'Russians'targetedAfrican-Americansin2016electionploy,reportsclaimMorganandFoxhavestruckgoldinthe''Russiagate''racket,whichsprungintobeingafterHillaryClintonblamedMoscowforDonaldTrump'spresidentialvictoryin2016.Morgan,forexample,isoneofthedevelopersoftheHamilton68Dashboard,theonlinetoolthatpurportstomonitorandexposenarrativesbeingpushedbytheKremlinonTwitter.ThedashboardisbankrolledbytheGermanMarshallFund'sAllianceforSecuringDemocracy''acollectionofDemocratsandneoconservativesfundedinpartbyNATOandUSAID.
Itisworthnotingthatthe600''Russia-linked''Twitteraccountsmonitoredbythedashboardarenotdisclosedtothepublic,makingitimpossibletoverifyitsclaims.ThisinconveniencehasnotstoppedHamilton68frombecomingago-tosourceforhysteria-hungryjournalists,however.
Fromthewayitwasformedtothesecrecyofits"methods"totheblatantlyfalseassumptionsonwhichitsclaimsrest,"Hamilton68"isprobablythesinglemostsuccessfulmediafraud&USpropagandacampaignI'veseensinceI'vebeenwritingaboutpolitics.It'strulyshocking.
'--GlennGreenwald(@ggreenwald)February22,2018Trollhuntersorbotfarm?NewKnowledge'svictorylapwasshort-lived.OnDecember19,aNewYorkTimesstoryrevealedthatMorganandhiscrewhadcreatedafakearmyofRussianbots,aswellasfakeFacebookgroups,inordertodiscreditRepublicancandidateRoyMooreinAlabama's2017specialelectionfortheUSSenate.
WorkingonbehalfoftheDemocrats,Morganandhiscrewcreatedanestimated1,000fakeTwitteraccountswithRussiannames,andhadthemfollowMoore.TheyalsooperatedseveralFacebookpageswheretheyposedasAlabamaconservativeswhowantedlike-mindedvoterstosupportawrite-incandidateinstead.
Inaninternalmemo,NewKnowledgeboastedthatithad''orchestratedanelaborate'falseflag'operationthatplantedtheideathattheMoorecampaignwasamplifiedonsocialmediabyaRussianbotnet.''
Itworked.ThebotnetclaimmadeasplashonsocialmediaandwasfurtheramplifiedbyMotherJones,whichbaseditsstoryonexpertopinionfromMorgan'sotherdubiouscreation,Hamilton68.
Ultimately,Mooreendeduplosingtheracebyaminiscule1.5percentagepoints''makinghisopponentDougJonesthefirstDemocrattorepresentAlabamaintheUSSenateinover25years.
MoneytrailandweakapologiesThingsgotevenweirderwhenitturnedoutthatScottShane,theauthoroftheTimespiece,hadknownaboutthemeddlingformonths,becausehespokeataneventwheretheorganizersboastedaboutit!
ShanewasoneofthespeakersatameetinginSeptember,organizedbyAmericanEngagementTechnologies,agrouprunbyMikeyDickerson,PresidentBarackObama'sformertechczar.DickersonexplainedhowAETspent$100,000onNewKnowledge'scampaigntosuppressRepublicanvotes,''enrage''Democratstoboostturnout,andexecutea''falseflag''tohurtMoore.Hedubbedit''ProjectBirmingham.''
Thisgetsevenweirder:NYTreporter@ScottShaneNYT,whobroketheAlabamadisinfoopstory,learnedofitinearlySeptemberwhenhespokeatanoff-the-recordeventorganizedbyoneofthefirmsthatperpetratedthedeceptionhttps://t.co/gIAytOh2yy
'--DanCohen(@dancohen3000)December28,2018Themoneyfortheventurecamefroma$750,000contributiontoAETbyReidHoffman,thebillionaireco-founderofLinkedInandabigDemocratdonor.Oncethatemerged,Hoffmanofferedapublicapologyforhisconnectiontotheshadyoperation,butinsistedthathedidn'tknowwhathismoneywasgoingtowards.
''Ifindthetacticsthathavebeenrecentlyreportedhighlydisturbing,''Hoffmansaidinastatement.
''Forthatreason,IamembarrassedbymyfailuretotrackAET'--theorganizationIdidsupport'--morediligentlyasitmadeitsowndecisionstoperhapsfundprojectsthatIwouldreject.''
AsforShane,hetoldBuzzFeedthathewas''shocked''bytherevelations,buthadsignedanondisclosureagreementattherequestofAET,sohecouldnottalkaboutitfurther.
SpinanddenialShane'sspinonthetalewasthatNewKnowledge''imitatedRussiantactics''aspartofan''experiment''thathadabudgetof''only''$100,000andhadnoeffectontheelection.Yetthesetacticsareonlyconsidered''Russian''becauseNewKnowledgeandsimilaroutfitssaidso!Moreover,NewKnowledge'sbudgetinAlabamawasgreaterthanthereportedamountspentby''Russians''onthe2016USpresidentialelection,yetMoscow'sallegedmeddlingwassupposedtobedecisive,whileNewKnowledge'sfailed?
NewKnowledgerespondedtotheTimesstorybyinsistingthatthe''falseflag''operationwasactuallyabenignresearchproject.InastatementpostedonTwitter,thecompany'sCEOclaimedthatitsactivitiesduringtheAlabamaSenateracewereconductedinorderto''betterunderstandandreportonthetacticsandeffectsofsocialmediadisinformation.''
Morganemphasizedthatheinnowaytookpartinaninfluencecampaign,andwarnedpeoplenottomischaracterizehis''research.''
WhiletheNewYorkTimesseemedsatisfiedwithhisexplanation,otherspointedoutthatMorganhadusedtheHamilton68dashboardtogivehis''falseflag''morecredibility''misleadingthepublicabouta''Russian''influencecampaignthatheknewwasfake.
NewKnowledge'sprotestationsapparentlydidn'tconvinceFacebook,whichannouncedlastweekthatfiveaccountslinkedtoNewKnowledge''includingMorgan's''hadbeensuspendedforengagingin''coordinatedinauthenticbehavior.''
MeddlersunmaskedThefinalnailinthecoffinofMorgan'sstorycameonThursday,whentheleakedsecretafter-actionreportfrom''ProjectBirmingham''waspublishedonline,showingthatthosebehindtheAlabamacampaignknewperfectlywellwhattheyweredoingandwhy.
So,itturnsouttherereallywasmeddlinginAmericandemocracyby''Russianbots.''Excepttheyweren'trunfromMoscoworSt.Petersburg,butfromtheofficesofDemocratoperativeschieflyresponsibleforcreatingandamplifyingthe''Russiagate''hysteriaoverthepasttwoyearsinatextbookcaseofpsychologicalprojection.
Thinkyourfriendswouldbeinterested?Sharethisstory!
VIDEO-SEPTEMBERCLUES-FullDocumentary-9/11TVFakery.mp4-YouTube
Fri,28Dec201815:23
VIDEO-DRCongoelection:EUcondemnsexpulsionofenvoyBartOuvry-BBCNews
Fri,28Dec201813:12
ImagecopyrightGettyImagesImagecaptionPoliceclashedwithoppositionsupportersineasternDRCongoonThursdayTheEuropeanUnion(EU)hascondemnedtheDemocraticRepublicofCongo'sdecisiontoexpelitsambassadoraheadofcrucialelectionsonSunday.
TheorderforBartOuvrytoleavewithin48hourswas"completelyunjustified",anEUspokeswomansaid.
DRCongosaidithadtakenthedecisioninretaliationforsanctionsimposedonrulingpartypresidentialcandidateEmmanuelRamazaniShadary.
Therun-uptoDRCongo'spollhasbeenmarredbyviolenceandchaos.
OnThursday,oppositionsupportersransackedanEbolaassessmentcentreintheeasterncityofBenitoprotestagainsttheelectioncommission'sdecisiontopostponethepollthereandintwootherareasuntilMarch.
WhyCongomatters:
ClashesalsobrokeoutintheoppositionstrongholdsofGomaandButembo,bothintheeastofthecountry.
TheelectioncommissionsaidthepollinBeni,ButemboandthewesterntownofYumbiwouldbedelayeduntilMarchbecauseofinsecurityandanEbolaoutbreakintheeast,whichhassofarclaimedmorethan300lives.
WithPresidentJosephKabila'ssuccessorduetobesworninnextmonth,itappearsthevotesofmorethanamillionpeoplecouldbediscounted.
ButinaninterviewwiththeBBC,MrKabilainsistedthatpostponingthevoteuntilafterthefinalresultwasduetobedeclaredwaslawful.
Mediaplaybackisunsupportedonyourdevice
MediacaptionElectionofficialsaredoingeverythingbythebook,MrKabilatoldtheBBC"Don'tworry,thelawhascateredforsuchissues,"MrKabilasaid.
HeisbackingMrShadary,hisformerinteriorminister,whoisfacingastrongchallengefromex-oiltycoonMartinFayuluandFelixTshisekedi,thesonofthelateveteranoppositionleaderEtienneTshisekedi.
Whatledtothediplomaticrow?SanctionswerefirstimposedonMrShadaryin2017forhumanrightsviolations,includingacrackdownontheopposition.
Keypresidentialhopefuls:
On10December,EUforeignministersextendedatravelbanandassetfreezeonMrShadaryand13otherpeopleover"theobstructionoftheelectoralprocessandtherelatedhumanrightsviolations".
OnThursday,DRCongo'sForeignMinisterLeonardSheOkitundusaidthegovernmenthad"patiently"askedtheEUtosuspendthesanctionsuntilaftertheelections,butithadrefused.
Mediaplaybackisunsupportedonyourdevice
MediacaptionDRCongo:WhyareUNbluehelmetsthere?DRCongohadthereforebeenforcedtotakereciprocalaction,and"punish"theEUforits"reprehensiblebehaviour",headded.
Initsreaction,theEUsaiditconsideredtheexpulsionofMrOuvry,aBelgiannational,asregrettableand"completelyunjustified".
"OntheeveofverychallengingelectionsinDRC,suchadecisioncanonlybeconsideredcounterproductive,"aspokeswomantoldtheBBC.
HowdoAfricannationsseethecrisis?TheSouthAfricanDevelopmentCommunity(Sadc),aregionalblocwhichincludesDRCongo,hassentadelegationtothecountryinabidtoeasetensionsaheadofthepoll.
Zambia'sForeignMinisterJoelMalanjitoldtheBBCthedelegationplannedtoholdaroundtablediscussionwithallpresidentialcandidateslateronFriday.
Thedelegation'svisittoDRCongocomesaftereightAfricanstates-Angola,akeyalleyofMrKabila-jointlyexpressed"strongconcernoveractsofviolence"duringthecampaignandcalledfor"peaceful,free,democraticandtransparent"elections.
TheirinterventionwasseenascrucialasDRCongohasneverhadanorderlytransferofpowersinceindependencefromBelgiumin1960,andtheoppositionfearsthatthepollwillberiggedinfavourofMrShardary.Thecommissioninsiststhattheelectionwillbecredible.
WhatisthesignificanceofDRCongo?ThevastcentralAfricanstateisrichinmineralresourcesandistheworld'sleadingproducerofcobalt,usedtopowermobilephonesandelectriccars.
However,ithashighlevelsofpoverty,badinfrastructure,andapoliticalandbusinesseliteaccusedofenrichingitselfattheexpenseofthepoor.
Ithasalsobeenatthecentreofwhatsomeobserverscall"Africa'sworldwar",between1997and2003.
Thewar,whichdraggedinregionalstates,claimeduptosixmillionlives,eitherasadirectresultoffightingorbecauseofdiseaseandmalnutrition.

Art

Image
Load image
Image
Load image

All Clips

Governor Moonbeam Wants To Go Back To Space To Fix Climate Change.mp3
mental-health-climate-APA.pdf
Joy Reid-Greg Grodon McClatchy-2-Cohen in Prague SLEUTHING-MOTIVES-NO COLLUSION.mp3
Joy Reid-Greg Grodon McClatchy-1-Cohen in Prague SOURCES.mp3
The Democratic Republic of Congo picks a successor to President Joseph Kabila.mp3
Dangerous Cobalt Mines in Congo Pose Challenges for Big Tech-ARTISINAL MINERS.mp3
Local African Reporter on Congo election delay.mp3
CenturyLink 911 Spokeshole-TECHNICAL GLITCH.mp3
Adam glitch opener ISO.mp3
CenturyLink 911 outage FCC investigating.mp3
cummin diesel TWO NBC.mp3
dramatic shutdown report NBC.mp3
hallie jackson trump politicizing border death.mp3
hands clapping thumbs up ISO.mp3
mumia abu jamal again DN.mp3
New cal laws regarding pet shops NBC.mp3
oldest vet dies leave recommendation.mp3
PBS on meat adds probably WEHT.mp3
saudi arabia leadership update DN.mp3
screwball report on indian murders.mp3
century link and 911.mp3
congo update DN.mp3
cummin diesel Four segue of the year NBC.mp3
cummin diesel ONE NBC.mp3
cummin diesel Three kick NBC.mp3
NPR on BlackMirror Bandersnatch.mp3
LA Times papers not printed due to foreign virus.mp3
Report On Parkland School Shooting Finds Police Were 'UNPREPARED AND OVERWHELMED'.mp3
CSPAN gov shutdown line caller 5-Trump Voter.mp3
CSPAN gov shutdown line caller 6 COASTGUARD.mp3
Madison Board of Education open session-University Educator on White Liberalism and Supremacy.mp3
Meltdown By Vape Shop Employee.mp3
Transgender Woman Gets Mad At Gamestop Employee For Calling Her A Man.mp3
VICE-Kids Telling Dirty Jokes- Izzabella.mp3
Image
Load image
The only ‘Russian bots’ to meddle in US elections belonged to Democrat-linked ‘experts’ REID HOFFMAN of LinkdIn.mp3
  • 0:00
    oh okay Adam curry
  • 0:04
    Jhansi Devorah and Sunday December 30th
  • 0:06
    2018 this is your award-winning Gitmo
  • 0:09
    nation media assassination episode 1099
  • 0:11
    this is no agenda in the clue do in the
  • 0:22
    morning everybody
  • 0:23
    hi Madame Curie and from northern
  • 0:25
    Silicon Valley but I'm looking back on
  • 0:28
    all kinds of things
  • 0:29
    hey hey why are we working I'm John
  • 0:31
    Steve or we're working because we're
  • 0:37
    true artists
  • 0:40
    okay we need the money
  • 0:46
    because people want to have some real
  • 0:48
    information when everybody is gone well
  • 0:52
    they're Adela substitutes are in yeah
  • 0:54
    but the substitutes typically are no
  • 0:56
    good they're doing retrospectives look
  • 0:58
    back they bring in the B guests that's
  • 1:01
    the worst
  • 1:01
    yeah they do might be Michael Moore was
  • 1:04
    on speaking of the beat yes yes Michael
  • 1:07
    Moore was on Chris Chris for an hour
  • 1:09
    this buddy well yeah because at the end
  • 1:12
    of the year don't worry about her get on