1434: Second Lady

Adam Curry & John C. Dvorak

3h 36m
March 17th, 2022
Share at 0:00

Executive Producers: Andrea Marrs, Nick Yarema, Anonymous, Sir Richard of the Purple Sage, Daniel Hollingsworth, Kerry Rollins, Elliot, Vann Betzel, CapitalistAgenda aka Matthew Peterson, Sir Janosky AM, Sheila Nemitz, Dawn-Elise Snipes, Alex Ryan, florence jennings, Sir Rock Chuck Knight of the Snake River Plain, Reilly Miller

Associate Executive Producers: Jay Kell, Ivan Ivan Huerta-Bernal, Baron Anon Cop of the Bay Area, Kirk Gibson, Dawn Igler, Dame Nancy of the Confused, Michael Day, Sir Allan Bose

Cover Artist: Dame Kenny-Bien

Chapters

Hide suggested chapters
0:00
Start of Show
Woodstock
12:40
NYT “The more sanctions the merrier”.
Guest producer
18:38
What is the fate of Swift?
Guest producer
22:55
Putin predicts End of the Era. Lack of financial trust would erradicate West global dominance
Guest producer
29:19
Victoria Nuland
Guest producer
43:13
Lara Logan Knows War
RealCraigTalks
50:28
Correct history of Russia and Ukraine in WWII
Guest producer
54:29
Entanglements
Guest producer
1:02:51
What does India think of Facebook changing the rules
Guest producer
1:05:23
Deconstruction of The View
Guest producer
1:11:12
Yale School of Management professor shaming big companies into pulling out of Russia
Guest producer
1:20:06
Super Yacht News: No compliance = no insurance
Guest producer
1:43:48
China
Guest producer
1:49:11
Executive Producer Credits
Gallop
1:49:56
2253 Trolls
Guest producer
2:33:06
COVID in China
Guest producer
2:41:06
Biden uses wrong pronouns ‘second lady’
Guest producer
2:53:58
’Shrinkflation’ / Thanx to Clipcastodian NA champ
Guest producer
3:00:00
Smell-O-Vision
Guest producer
3:28:55
ISOs
Guest producer
3:32:24
Suggested chapter: EoS Mixes
This is a suggested chapter
Guest producer
0
/ 0
Suggest a new chapter
Ukraine
Putin's Wednesday address
The Russian president says the “myth of the Western welfare state, of the so-called golden billion, is crumbling”
Russian President Vladimir Putin has opined that the latest rounds of unprecedented sanctions imposed on Russia by the US and its allies over the Kremlin’s military campaign in Ukraine, mark the end of an era. According to Putin, from now on the West will be losing its “global dominance” both politically and economically.
Speaking on Wednesday, the Russian head of state proclaimed that the “myth of the Western welfare state, of the so-called golden billion, is crumbling.” Moreover, it is the “whole planet that is having to pay the price for the West’s ambitions, and its attempts to retain its vanishing dominance at any cost,” Putin said.
The president predicted food shortages across the world as Western sanctions against Russia are adversely affecting the entire global economy.
Touching on the decision by several Western powers to freeze Russia’s central bank assets, Putin claimed that this would only serve to irreparably undermine trust in those nations, and make other countries think twice before placing their reserves in the care of those countries. According to him, nearly half of Moscow’s assets were “simply stolen” by the West.
What is the USA Off-Ramp?
Cancelling Russia
Will Russia get Re-platformed?
Food Intelligence
Energy
This is one of those moments - someday you will be asked "where were you when you heard that Saudi Arabia said they'd abandon the petrodollar?"
Great Reset
OTG
PedoBear
Mandates and Boosters
New Variants
Climate Change
Elites
The Purge
STORIES
Sarah Bloom Raskin withdraws herself from consideration to the Federal Reserve Board - CNN
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 15:16
(CNN)Sarah Bloom Raskin has withdrawn from consideration to be a nominee for the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.
Raskin submitted her
withdrawal in a letter to President Joe Biden.
Biden nominated Raskin in January for the position of vice chair of supervision at the Fed, a role that would have made her a powerful regulator in the banking world.
But Raskin, a former Fed governor who was deputy Treasury secretary during the Obama administration, faced stiff opposition in the Senate based on her stance on climate change and fear that she could discourage banks from lending to fossil fuel companies.
In her letter to Biden withdrawing her nomination, which was shared with CNN, she wrote that many "in and outside the Senate are unwilling to acknowledge the economic complications of climate change and the toll it has placed, and will continue to place, on Americans. "
"It was '-- and is '-- my considered view that the perils of climate change must be added to the list of serious risks that the Federal Reserve considers as it works to ensure the stability and resiliency of our economy and financial system," she added. "This is not a novel or radical position."
The decision to withdraw comes after it became clear she would not have the votes to be confirmed by the US Senate.
Sen. Joe Manchin, a West Virginia Democrat, announced his opposition to the nomination on Monday, setting off a White House scramble to find Republican support in a 50-50 Senate.
None materialized, rendering her nomination all but dead, even as White House officials continued to support the selection.
Raskin's withdrawal was first reported by the New Yorker.
In a statement on Tuesday, Biden said Raskin was qualified for the job and blamed partisan politics and attacks from special interests for her inability to gain support.
"Despite her readiness '-- and despite having been confirmed by the Senate with broad, bipartisan support twice in the past '-- Sarah was subject to baseless attacks from industry and conservative interest groups," Biden said. "Unfortunately, Senate Republicans are more focused on amplifying these false claims and protecting special interests than taking important steps toward addressing inflation and lowering costs for the American people."
Opponents, including Manchin, Senate Republicans and the US Chamber of Commerce, argued that Raskin's promotion of green energy, renewable resources and environmental issues threatened to keep gas prices high -- particularly at a time when the Russia-Ukraine conflict is sending fuel prices through the roof.
On Monday, Manchin '-- who is not a member of the Senate Banking Committee that votes on Fed nominations '-- said Raskin's "previous public statements have failed to satisfactorily address my concerns about the critical importance of financing an all-of-the-above energy policy to meet our nation's critical energy needs."
Senate Republicans
boycotted a vote last month in protest of Raskin's nomination, halting a slate of pending nominees for the central bank, including the renomination of Fed Chair Jerome Powell.
Raskin's candidacy, however, was hailed by progressives.
Biden has pledged to make the Fed more diverse in terms of both its gender and racial makeup and urged the Senate Banking Committee to confirm his other nominees, Philip Jefferson and Lisa Cook -- who would be the first Black woman to serve on the Fed's board.
"This group has the experience, judgment, and talent necessary to lead the Federal Reserve at this critical moment in our economic recovery, and the Senate should move their nominations forward," Biden said.
Liberals want Canada to be a leader in ''lab meat'' production | True North
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 15:12
During a Commons industry committee meeting, Liberal MPs lamented the fact that Canada was not a leader in producing alternative sources of protein like ''lab meat'' or insects.
On Mar. 4, Minister of Innovation, Science and Industry Francois-Philippe Champagne was testifying before parliamentarians on his mandate letter when the discussion turned toward climate change and the purported threat to global temperatures caused by the agricultural sector.
Liberal MP Nathaniel Erskine-Smith referred to a report by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), asking whether the federal government would invest in the technology.
''Lab or 'clean meat' is one potential contributor to the human demand for protein in the future. That's obviously a high-risk, high-reward initiative. It's one that the U.S., Singapore and Israel are all pursuing. Canada is not, unfortunately, at the moment. Entrepreneurs are leaving the space in Canada, unfortunately. I wonder if you would turn your mind to high-risk, high-reward research via the net-zero accelerator?'' said Erskine-Smith.
''Totally, and I appreciate the question. I'd like to be invited back to the committee to discuss that more. I'm seeing people nodding, so it may happen,'' replied Champagne. ''I agree with you. We should be a leader in forestry tech, biotech, clean tech, fin tech, and ag tech. I totally agree with you and your colleague that we need to do more.''
On Feb. 28, the IPCC released its sixth assessment report, titled Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. One chapter of the report addresses ''alternative sources of protein for food and feed.''
''Laboratory or ''clean meat'' is one potential contributor to the human demand for protein in the future,'' wrote the IPCC. ''Livestock feeds can make use of other protein sources: insects are generally rich in protein and can be a significant source of vitamins and minerals. Black soldier fly, yellow mealworm and the common housefly have been identified for potential use in feed products in the EU.''
Hardline environmentalists have been advocating to replace meat with alternatives such as artificial products, insects and algae for some time now as a way to reduce carbon emissions produced by the agricultural sector.
In 2013, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization released a report saying that the world should drop their prejudices and get ready to start consuming bugs.
''Common prejudice against eating insects is not justified from a nutritional point of view. Insects are not inferior to other protein sources such as fish, chicken and beef,'' the report's authors wrote.
This article's headline and opening paragraph were corrected on Mar. 15. An earlier version suggested that ''lab meat'' was derived from insect-based protein. The two are separate products.
We're asking readers, like you, to make a contribution in support of True North's fact-based, independent journalism.
Unlike the mainstream media, True North isn't getting a government bailout. Instead, we depend on the generosity of Canadians like you.
How can a media outlet be trusted to remain neutral and fair if they're beneficiaries of a government handout? We don't think they can.
This is why independent media in Canada is more important than ever. If you're able, please make a tax-deductible donation to True North today. Thank you so much.
52% of young adults in US are living with their parents amid COVID-19 | Pew Research Center
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 15:05
(iStock)The coronavirus outbreak has pushed millions of Americans, especially young adults, to move in with family members. The share of 18- to 29-year-olds living with their parents has become a majority since U.S. coronavirus cases began spreading early this year, surpassing the previous peak during the Great Depression era.
In July, 52% of young adults resided with one or both of their parents, up from 47% in February, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of monthly Census Bureau data. The number living with parents grew to 26.6 million, an increase of 2.6 million from February. The number and share of young adults living with their parents grew across the board for all major racial and ethnic groups, men and women, and metropolitan and rural residents, as well as in all four main census regions. Growth was sharpest for the youngest adults (ages 18 to 24) and for White young adults.
The share and number of young adults living with their parents rose during the Great Recession era a decade ago, as family became an economic refuge for many. We wanted to see whether young adults again resorted to that ''private safety net'' amid widespread shutdowns and rough economic conditions caused by the coronavirus pandemic.
The analysis of recent trends and characteristics is based on the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPS is the nation's premier labor force survey and is the basis for the monthly national unemployment rate released on the first Friday of each month. The CPS is based on a sample survey of about 60,000 households. All estimates use complete datasets supplied by the Census Bureau; the estimates are not seasonally adjusted.
The CPS somewhat overstates the number of young adult college students who live with their parents. That is because unmarried college students residing in dormitories are counted as living with their parents. So the CPS cannot be used to measure the migration of college students living in dormitories to their parents' homes since the onset of the pandemic. Not all unmarried college students ages 18 to 29 live in dormitories or with their parents. In February 2020, of the 12.6 million unmarried 18- to 29-year-old college students counted in the CPS, 5.2 million lived neither in dormitories nor with their parents.
The COVID-19 outbreak has affected data collection efforts by the U.S. government in its surveys, especially limiting in-person data collection. This resulted in a 15.3 percentage point decrease in the response rate for the CPS in July 2020. It is possible that some measures of employment and enrollment and its demographic composition are affected by these changes in data collection.
Analysis of historical trends in young adults' living arrangements for the years 1900-1990 is based on decennial census data from the U.S. Census Bureau.
Sample data from IPUMS for the censuses of 1900-1990 were analyzed online using the IPUMS Survey Documentation and Analysis system (SDA).
The CPS and census public-use microdata have variables identifying each individual respondent's parents if they live in the household '' mother and/or father and, in recent years, a second mother or second father. We used these variables to determine which individuals were living with one or more parents.
The total number of young adults living with parents would have been even higher had we included those living with the parents of their spouse or partner. Among 18- to 29-year-olds, 1.3%, or 680,000 people, did so in July 2020, according to the CPS; this group has remained relatively stable over the past decade. We omitted this group to be consistent with the historical decennial census data.
The share of young adults living with their parents is higher than in any previous measurement (based on current surveys and decennial censuses). Before 2020, the highest measured value was in the 1940 census at the end of the Great Depression, when 48% of young adults lived with their parents. The peak may have been higher during the worst of the Great Depression in the 1930s, but there is no data for that period.
The share of young adults living with parents declined in the 1950 and 1960 censuses before rising again. The monthly share in the Current Population Survey has been above 50% since April of this year, reaching and maintaining this level for the first time since CPS data on young adults' living arrangements became available in 1976.
Young adults have been particularly hard hit by this year's pandemic and economic downturn, and have been more likely to move than other age groups, according to a Pew Research Center survey. About one-in-ten young adults (9%) say they relocated temporarily or permanently due to the coronavirus outbreak, and about the same share (10%) had somebody move into their household. Among all adults who moved due to the pandemic, 23% said the most important reason was because their college campus had closed, and 18% said it was due to job loss or other financial reasons.
These new living arrangements may have an impact not just on young adults and their families, but on the U.S. economy overall, reflecting the importance of the housing market to overall economic growth. Even before the outbreak, the growth in new households trailed population growth, in part because people were moving in with others. Slower household growth could mean less demand for housing and household goods. There also may be a decline in the number of renters and homeowners, and in overall housing activity. Between February and July 2020, the number of households headed by an 18- to 29-year-old declined by 1.9 million, or 12%. The total went from 15.8 million to 13.9 million.
The vast majority of young adults who live with their parents '' 88% '' live in their parents' home, and this group accounts for the growth in the population of adult children living with their parents. Nearly all of the remainder live in their own homes along with their parents, or in homes headed by other family members. These shares have been relatively stable for the past decade.
Most of the increase in young adults living with parents was among the youngest adultsThe youngest adults (ages 18 to 24) accounted for most of the growth in the number of 18- to 29-year-olds living with their parents from February to July '' 2.1 million of the 2.6 million increase was attributable to them. Most in this youngest age group already lived with their parents, but the share grew to 71% in July from 63% in February.
The pattern is consistent with employment losses since February. The youngest adults have been more likely than other age groups to lose their jobs or take a pay cut. The share of 16- to 24-year-olds who are neither enrolled in school nor employed more than doubled from February (11%) to June (28%) due to the pandemic and consequent economic downturn.
It is worth noting that in these Current Population Survey numbers, unmarried students who reside in on-campus college dorms are counted as living in their family home, so any increase in young adults living with parents this year would not be due to the pandemic-related closure of college dorms in the spring.
That said, there generally is a seasonal pattern to young adults living with their parents: The share tends to rise slightly in the summer, after college final exams. In 2019, for example, the share living with their parents rose by less than 2 percentage points in July compared with February. But this year, the increase was much sharper '' more than 5 points.
Racial and ethnic differences in the share of young adults living with parents have narrowedIn past decades, White young adults have been less likely than their Asian, Black and Hispanic counterparts to live with their parents. That gap has narrowed since February as the number of White young adults living with their mothers and/or fathers grew more than for other racial and ethnic groups.
In fact, Whites accounted for about two-thirds (68%) of the increase in young adults living with their parents. As of July, more than half of Hispanic (58%) and Black (55%) young adults now live with their parents, compared with about half of White (49%) and Asian (51%) young adults.
Young men are more likely than young women to live with their parents, and both groups experienced increases in the number and share residing with mom, dad or both parents since the beginning of the coronavirus outbreak. Similarly, a higher share of young adults in metropolitan areas compared with rural ones live with their parents now, but the number in both areas grew from February to July.
By region, the number and share of young adults living with parents grew throughout the country. Growth was sharpest in the South, where the total rose by more than a million and the share increased by 7 percentage points, from 46% to 52%. But the Northeast retained its status as the region where the highest share of young adults live with parents (57%).
Correction (Sept. 9, 2020): An earlier version of this post incorrectly stated the percentage point growth in the share of 18- to 29-year-olds residing in the South who are living with a parent. This share grew by 7 percentage points from February 2020 (46%) to July 2020 (52%). The percentage point change is computed from unrounded shares.
Congress passes massive spending bill that gives salary increases
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 15:00
WASHINGTON, D.C.- According to reports, on Wednesday, March 9th, Congress released a $1.5 trillion omnibus bill that will allocate $5.9 billion of fiscal 2022 Legislative Branch funding to increasing the allowance and salaries of their staff.
As Congress brings back earmarks, the gateway drug for more spending is back in business. https://t.co/890Y90Cjrc
'-- Garry Smith (@GarryRSmith) March 12, 2022
As Americans face an economic crisis, historic inflation, and surging gas prices, this bill does absolutely nothing to help those who are truly in need.
The legislation would grant $774.4 million for the Members Representational Allowance, which essentially funds the House budgets for lawmakers, including staffer salaries and $1.7 billion for House operations.
According to a bill summary by the House Appropriations Committee:
''This $134.4 million, or 21 percent, boost over the previous fiscal year marks the largest increase in the MRA appropriation since it was authorized in 1996.''
While the bill does not technically provide a pay raise for members of Congress, who earn an annual salary of $174,000, house staffers who members use to run errands, and family members of Congressional lawmakers who are often put on payroll, will see a pay increase.
The measure would also provide the Senate with $1.1 billion for salaries and operations and $7 million for Senate intern salaries. The Capitol Police department would receive $602.5 million, which is $87 million more than it was provided in the 2021 fiscal year.
Congress reaches finish line on spending package that omits aid for COVID tests, treatment https://t.co/mVoniYbd5M via @WIExaminer #VoteBlue2022 #IStandWithUkraine
'-- swell (@swell) March 12, 2022
Sen. Jack Reed (D-RI), chair of the Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee, said in a statement:
''This bill is essential to keeping our democracy and the legislative branch of government functioning in a safe and accessible manner. At a time when the U.S. Capitol and the Capitol Police continue to operate amidst immense challenges, this agreement ensures they have the resources and staffing to protect the Capitol complex.''
Reportedly, the 2,741-page omnibus spending package is also loaded with funding ''pet projects'' for lawmakers.
A list of all the earmarks attached to the bill spans 367 pages. For example, Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren and Sen. Ed Markey secured $995,000 for ''Grid Resilience and Equity in the Energy Transition'' research at the University of Massachusetts.
The Heritage Foundation reported that this funding will allow the left to redistribute taxpayer dollars to fix alleged inequality in the energy system. Warren and Markey also have a $500,000 earmark for Worcester State University to increase diversity and inclusion for STEM students to study climate change.
In another example, Rhode Island Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse and Sen. Jack Reed secured $1.6 million of federal taxpayer funding for Roger Williams University for the ''development of equitable growth of shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island.''
In another example, New York Rep. Jamaal Bowman was able to secure $496,000 in the name of ''health equity'' for ''pool improvements'' in his home district. According to Bowman, these are ''essential capital improvements'' to YMCA pools.
Congress passes $1.5 trillion spending bill to avert government shutdown, provide billions to Ukraine https://t.co/oHncpIh0Lu via @nbcnews
'-- John Staehle (@staehle_john) March 12, 2022
The massive spending bill is on its ways to President Joe Biden's desk after the Senate cleared it late on Thursday, March 10th, on a 68-31 vote.
As the bill heads to Biden's desk for final approval, surging inflation is hitting all sectors of the economy and Americans are facing a real struggle. While the inflation rate was 1.4 percent when Biden entered the White House, the inflation rate has since soared to 7.9 percent in February, which is the highest level since 1982.
According to a report by Moody's Analytics, inflation is costing the average household $276 more per month, or about $1,000 per quarter.
Do you want to join our private family of first responders and supporters? Get unprecedented access to some of the most powerful stories that the media refuses to show you. Proceeds get reinvested into having active, retired and wounded officers, their families and supporters tell more of these stories. Click to check it out.
Report: Biden cut lines from State of the Union Speech supporting stock trading ban for CongressMarch 4th, 2022
WASHINGTON, DC '' President Biden reportedly cut lines from his State of the Union address, backtracking on endorsing a bipartisan plan to ban members of Congress from trading in stocks.
Interesting
Report: Biden Admin Cut Line from SOTU Speech Endorsing Ban on Congress Trading Stocks https://t.co/h4OkaYgOUV
'-- Eric 🇺🇸🌴🍊 (@EROTHCJ5) March 2, 2022
An early draft of the speech included a message of support for banning members of Congress from holding or trading in personal stocks, according to a report in The Washington Post.
When asked about the change on Monday, aides said the economic portion of the President's address would focus on making more goods in America, reducing prices, promoting competition, and removing employment barriers.
Restricting Congress members from the stock market became popular with Americans and some lawmakers following the revelation in late 2021 that 54 members of Congress failed to properly report their financial trades as mandated by the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012, also known as the STOCK Act.
There is presently a law on the books that requires lawmakers to publicly disclose stock transactions and other financial dealings made by themselves or their immediate family to combat insider trading.
We live in a country where congress members can openly engage in insider trading and fraud, but fugitive task forces are activated to find a man who sang for $35 and a sandwich 🐠https://t.co/EaHBDKNEql
'-- Clever Pseudonym (@minimoogles) March 3, 2022
Media outlet Insider spent hundreds of hours over five months reviewing nearly 9,000 financial-disclosure reports for every sitting lawmaker and their top-ranking staffers.
From December 13 to December 18, 2021, Insider published more than two-dozen articles revealing 57 members of Congress and 182 senior-level congressional staffers who have violated a federal conflicts-of-interest law.
The investigation also determined that 75 Congress members held stocks in COVID-19 vaccine makers Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, or Pfizer in 2020. Insider pointed out that many of the lawmakers conducted these transactions during the early weeks of the pandemic.
Can anyone justify Congress failing to even consider a ban on congressional insider trading until 2022?
Having raised the issue of congressional corruption for years, we're glad to see Congress finally take action.
Several questions remain overlooked. /1 https://t.co/TfYaEUNzzv
'-- Shahid Buttar for Congress (@ShahidForChange) March 1, 2022
The President's removal of mentioning the ban in Tuesday's State of the Union speech signals that he is punting the issue back to Congress and offers an opportunity for Republicans to make the ban a central issue in the upcoming midterm elections in their effort to regain control of the House.
The refusal to support the ban is also in conflict with his own former boss, former President Barack Obama, who urged Congress to send him a similar bill during his State of the Union address in 2012.
During the speech, President Obama said:
''Send me a bill that bans insider trading by members of Congress; I will sign it tomorrow. Let's limit any elected official from owning stocks in industries they impact.''
Stopping short of a full ban, President Obama eventually signed the STOCK Act, clarifying that it was illegal for members of Congress to engage in insider trading and also setting the disclosure rule.
The push for the ban picked up speed when House Speaker Nancy Pelosi spoke out against it in December. At the time she stated:
''We're a free-market economy. They should be able to participate in that.''
Yes Congress does insider trading. pic.twitter.com/F5yMGa3koJ
'-- Lee the Delivery Guy (@Lee79362100) March 3, 2022
Although she had recently changed her tune and offered support for the ban, her initial refusal to support the idea gave fuel to the push to establish the ban.
According to Rep. Chip Roy (R-TX), who co-sponsored a bill with Rep. Abigail Spanberger (D-VA) last year that would ban members of Congress from trading individual stocks:
''The news of the speaker's comments blew the lid off the issue.''
Start with Congress'... how about all the politicians who made insider trading moves just before the shutdowns?! https://t.co/QEDAHLjih6
'-- wayne (@WayneCafariella) March 2, 2022
Banning members of Congress from trading stocks is popular among American citizens, according to a Trafalgar Group survey.
The survey found that 76 percent of Americans believe lawmakers have an ''unfair advantage'' when it comes to the stock market. Only five percent support permitting the practice.
Pelosi family either has really good timing or inside info on stock trades, growing net worth to over $315 millionOctober 14, 2021
WASHINGTON, DC- When the founding fathers developed our system of government, it was never intended as a means for our political leaders to get wealthy. Yet here we are. The House and Senate are both chock full of very wealthy people, in many cases multi-millionaires.
One of the more flagrant examples of turning a political career into exorbitant wealth is Speaker Nancy Pelosi, who has served in Congress for nearly 34 years. During that time, Pelosi has managed to amass a net worth of $315 million as of 2020, according to a Watters World investigation by Fox News' Jesse Watters.
Watters started looking into Pelosi after her pork-laden improperly named ''infrastructure'' bill failed to gain traction in Congress as members of her own caucus couldn't reach an agreement. Watters condemned Pelosi's policies, slamming them for making it ''harder and harder for average Americans to accumulate wealth,'' while saddling them with confiscatory taxes and ''destroying the dollar with reckless spending.''
While average Americans have difficulty accumulating wealth, members of Congress have no such issues, especially Pelosi. While her salary as Speaker earns her a salary in the low six-figure range, Crazy Nancy sits as one of the wealthiest members of Congress.
Watters was curious to know what Pelosi's secret sauce was and the answer came in the name of her husband, Paul Pelosi.
''After they got married, Paul opened up a real estate and venture capital firm. And through his connections, he pushed Nancy into the political world, helping her get elected to Congress in 1987,'' Watters said.
''The couple has timed the market perfectly over the years, while Nancy's been a Washington insider,'' Watters said. ''Real estate, stocks, the Pelosi's always know what the right investment is.''
Among the Pelosi's holdings include a mansion in Napa Valley worth a tidy $25 million, a waterfront condominium in Washington, D.C. worth over $2 million, and a brick mansion in California's Pacific Heights. Not bad for low six figures.
Watters found however that wasn't all of the Pelosi's real estate fortune. Watters noted that Paul Pelosi owns commercial properties in San Francisco which ''combined [are] worth up to $50 million.''
The year 2018 began to accelerate the Pelosi's wealth, when it exploded.
''That year, her financial disclosure report revealed a net worth of over $114 million. IN 2019, Pelosi's assets total up to a whopping $271 million and in 2020, those numbers went up even more to as high as $315 million,'' an increase of nearly 300%.
Not bad for three years of investment.
The Pelosi's haven't only earned their money in the real estate market.
''In 2007, Visa worried the new Democrat Congress would target their swipe fees, costing them billions. So they hired a team of lobbyists who descended on Pelosi,'' Watters said. ''''Visa's CEO personally met with her. She got donations from them. One of his advisers left and became a Visa lobbyist himself.''
After this, an amazing stroke of luck befell the Pelosi's.
''Suddenly, Paul Pelosi got a phone call from his broker. He was in luck,'' Watters continued. ''Paul was offered a prescreened invite to get in early on Visa's $18 billion IPO. Did Nancy and her husband hesitate? No, they bought between $1 million and $5 million worth of Visa stock.
But it gets better. While Pelosi was speaker, bills that would have hurt Visa's stock price were blocked in the House, with Visa's shares going up over 200 percent during the time, making the Pelosi's a fortune on paper.''
''In January [2021], the Pelosi's got a million dollars of Tesla stock right before Joe Biden announced electric car incentives in June. The Pelosi family cashed in big time just before Congress was set to pounce on Big Tech. Mr. Pelosi exercised options on Google's parent company, Alphabet, making an easy $5.3 million.''
In most places that is called ''insider trading.'' Remember last year when former Georgia Sen. Kelly Loeffler and others were excoriated by the media for seizing on the COVID-19 pandemic by making some convenient stock moves? Pelosi makes Loeffler look like an amateur, yet all we hear are crickets.
But wait, there's more.
''In March, Paul Pelosi exercised $2 million worth of Microsoft options, just two weeks before the tech giant got a $22 billion contract to equip the U.S. Army with high tech headsets,'' Watters said.
''The Pelosi's have never been indicted for insider trading, but her marriage investments and access, combined with extremely fortunate timing, have created a lot of suspicions [emphasis added] All we're doing is following the money, and there sure is a lot of it,'' Watters concluded.
Remember this the next time Pelosi talks about ''millionaires and billionaires.''
Want to make sure you never miss a story from Law Enforcement Today? With so much ''stuff'' happening in the world on social media, it's easy for things to get lost.
Beijing Capitulates: Chinese Stocks Soar, Hong Kong Markets Jump By Most Ever After China Vows To Prop Up Markets | ZeroHedge
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:59
Yesterday, we had a feeling that China would finally do something to arrest the collapse in its local stocks...
HK stocks will rip higher
'-- zerohedge (@zerohedge) March 15, 2022... and little did we know that just a few hours later we would see the biggest surge in Hong Kong stock history, coupled with a furious surge in China's CSI300.
Two days after we said that JPM's call that Chinese internet stock are uninvestable and that the bank's wholesale downgrade of Chinese tech would mark the bottom...
Wholesale capitulation. Time to buy pic.twitter.com/eS0xc7vtTD
'-- zerohedge (@zerohedge) March 14, 2022... not even we had any idea what would happen last then 48 hours later, because after a brutal year for Chinese stocks, on Wednesday long-suffering China bulls finally got their long-awaited payday.
The Wednesday session was looking like a tepid bounce off multi-year lows until the headlines started rolling from Beijing... that's when everything exploded.
In a brief statement carried by state media, China's top financial policy body vowed to ensure stability in capital markets, support overseas stock listings, resolve risks around property developers and complete the crackdown on Big Tech "as soon as possible." In short, China vowed to make everything better again.
Yi Gang, governor of the People's Bank of China, followed with a statement on the PBOC website, saying the central bank would help implement the policies, adding that he held a meeting Wednesday noon to study implementation of the State Council's promises including keeping the capital market stable.
While the pledges from President Xi Jinping's government offered little clarity over what authorities may do to achieve their goals, it was the first time China publicly addressed investors' top concerns in one coordinated swoop. The move underscored Xi's focus on ensuring economic and financial stability before a Communist Party congress at which he's expected to secure at least another five years in power.
In any case, Beijing's explicit backstop guarantee led to an epic market meltup and short squeeze, and by the time trading ended just after 4 p.m. local time on Wednesday, the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index was up 12.5% in its best session since October 2008.
Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. surged 27%, while JD.com Inc. jumped 36%. Property stocks rallied the most in more than a decade. The Hang Seng Tech index jumped by 22%, the most ever...
... while China's benchmark CSI300 index rose the most intraday since July 2020 after having lost as much as 1% in the morning session. It plunged more than 7% in the previous two days.
The euphoria carried over to the US premarket where Alibaba and US-listed Chinese ADRs soared in a mirror move: some of the most notable premarket movers included Alibaba +20%, Didi +37%, Pinduoduo +25%, Baidu +14.
''It's the end of capitulation,'' said Peter Garnry, head of equity and quantitative strategy at Saxo Bank. ''This confirms that the Chinese government sees healthy and strong equity markets as key for the country going forward. The equity market is totally sentiment driven right now and everyone is looking for an excuse to buy, though the headwinds for Chinese equities are still enormous.''
''Usually the market's natural bottom comes after the policy bottom, which we are seeing now,'' says Li Weiqing, fund manager at JH Investment Management Co. ''This time around things may be different, as the rout was looking like a financial crisis; the macro figures are also pointing to a bottom. But even if this is not the end, we can at least expect more stability in the next week or so''
As we noted earlier this week, the need for Beijing to do something was growing more urgent with every passing day as stocks slumped lower and lower, threatening systemic stability. Global confidence in Chinese financial markets was by some metrics the weakest since the financial crisis in 2008, with stocks cratering on Monday by the most since the Lehman failure, while a relentless plunge in credit and record outflows from government bonds undermined the currency's strength.
Xi also faced more political pressure to bolster the economy, with rising Covid cases spurring lockdowns that threaten to hinder growth and disrupt life for millions of people. The State Council statement made a veiled reference to his political imperatives, calling on all parties ''to deeply understand the significance of the '''two establishes''' in keeping the economy and markets stable -- jargon that affirms Xi's position as the Communist Party's most important figure.
Government departments should ''actively introduce policies that benefit markets,'' according to a meeting of the Financial Stability and Development Committee, led by Vice Premier Liu He, who's in charge of overall economic policy.
China also said it supports firms listing overseas and has achieved positive progress in discussions with Washington over Chinese stocks on U.S. exchanges, Xinhua's report of the meeting said, adding that both sides are working to formulate a detailed cooperation plan. Concern that companies like Alibaba might need to delist from overseas markets had been a major driver of the selloff in recent days; the news will see the stocks double or triple on short notice.
The equity slump began last year in large part because of policies introduced by Beijing, including crackdowns on tech firms and property developers. More recently investors had started to brace for worst-case scenarios like sanctions against China for its perceived support of Russia. It all came at a time of increased market turmoil globally with Russia on the brink of a default and the Federal Reserve set to raise interest rates.
AS discussed on Monday, the pace of selling in China had been savage: the Hang Seng China gauge plunged 24% this month through Tuesday. The drawdown Golden Dragon China Index recently surpassed the drop observed during the Lehman collapse.
Even after Wednesday's surge, the index is down about 40% in the past year, the worst performance globally. Chinese stocks in the U.S. have lost 75% from their 2021 peak, while the yield on Chinese junk dollar debt has surged above 27% for the first time.
The yuan has also started to look vulnerable. Selling momentum in the offshore Chinese currency on Monday reached an intensity only seen a handful of times in the past five years. The yuan suffered the biggest real-money net outflows among all global emerging-market currencies last week, according to Citigroup calculations based on client trades, Bloomberg reported.
Naturally, a short squeeze likely exacerbated the gains. Short selling comprised about a quarter of Hong Kong's total daily turnover on Monday and Tuesday. Such speculators traded more than 10 million Tencent shares on Monday, the most in more than a year.
Of course, sparking a short squeeze is one thing, extending the move is another and for Wednesday's rally to continue, China's policy makers will need to follow through with actions. Promises to keep markets stable were vocalized in January by the securities regulator, which has made no known intervention since. Assurances of dialog with the U.S. regarding the auditing Chinese ADRs have been made before. The easing of funding rules for property firms have so far been incremental.
The rally's staying power will also depend on the reaction of foreign investors, whose role in Chinese markets has never been so important. Between the start of 2019 and the end of 2021, overseas holdings of local stocks increased by more than 242% to 3.9 trillion yuan ($613 billion). Inflows into the nation's bond market rose by 129% to 4.1 trillion yuan.
In any case, a heavy-handed approach to managing market swings can backfire, like it did for China after a stock bubble burst in 2015, when botched interventions helped accelerate selling. The CSI 300 didn't recover its 2015 high until five years later.
''I do not believe this is a turning point -- we are in a very turbulent period,'' said Sean Debow, chief executive officer of Eurizon Capital Asia. ''In order to catch a falling knife you have to have very very strong conviction, and we don't have that yet.''
The bottom line is that for China to truly see a bounce in stock, it will need to engage in massive stimulus despite Beijing's well-known atavism to doing just that with China's economy already at record debt levels. However, at the end of the day, when picking between a social crisis and "just a little more debt", China will always pick the latter.
And now that Chinese stocks are fixed - if only for now - we look forward to Jerome Powell who today is set to take a first step in the opposite direction, and instead of propping up stocks, the Fed chair will hike rates for the first time since Dec 2018. We wonder how long before he too is forced to pull a China to bail out the precious, precious stocks...
A single Ukrainian billionaire funded Hunter Biden, President Volodymyr Zelensky, and the neo-nazi Azov Battalion -- Puppet Masters -- Sott.net
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:56
(L-R) Hunter Biden, Ihor Kolomoysky, and Vladimir Zelensky
Kolomoysky Owns Burisma HoldingsThe real person who was the benefactor to, and the boss of, Vice President Joe Biden's son, Hunter Biden, at the Ukrainian gas company Burisma Holdings, was not the CEO of Burisma Holdings, Mykola Zlochevsky, but it was instead Ihor Kolomoysky, who was part of the newly installed Ukrainian Government, which the Obama Administration itself had actually just installed in Ukraine, in what the head of the "private CIA" firm Stratfor correctly called "the most blatant coup in history."
Shortly after the Obama Administration's Ukrainian coup, on March 2, 2014, Kolomoysky, who supported Yanukovych's overthrow, was appointed the governor of Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. Hunter Biden, with no experience in the industry or region, would join Kolomoysky's Burisma Holdings two months later on May 12, 2014.
A 2012 study of Burisma Holdings done in Ukraine by the AntiCorruption Action Centre (ANTAC), an investigative nonprofit co-funded by American billionaire George Soros and the U.S. State Department, found that the true owner of Burisma Holdings was none other than Ukrainian billionaire-oligarch Ihor Kolomoysky.
The study, which was funded to dig up corruption on the Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych, instead found that Ihor Kolomoysky "managed to seize the largest reserves of natural gas in Ukraine".
Burisma Holdings changed owners in 2011 when it was taken over by an off-shore Cyprus enterprise called Brociti Investments Ltd, and subsequently, moved addresses under the same roof as Ukrnaftoburinnya and Esko-Pivnich, two Ukrainian gas companies which happened to be also owned by Kolomoysky through off-shore entities in the British Virgin Islands.
Oleh Kanivets, who worked as CEO of Ukrnaftoburinnya, confirmed Kolomoysky as the owner of Burisma Holding in the 2012 report saying, "The Privat Group is the immediate owner. This company was founded by Mykola Zlochevsky some time ago, but he later sold his shares to the Privat Group."
In other words, Hunter Biden's boss and benefactor at Burisma Holdings is the same Ukrainian billionaire-oligarch who also claimed the position of boss and benefactor over Volodymyr Zelensky before he became Ukraine's president.
Kolomoysky Owns 1+1 Media Group
Kolmoysky, who currently holds a net worth of $1.8 billion making him the 1750th richest person in the world, owns holdings in metal, petroleum, and the media sector, where he has had a long history with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky.
For years, Zelensky's company produced shows for Kolmoysky's TV network, 1+1 Media Group, one of the largest media conglomerates in Ukraine. Zelensky achieved national fame portraying a president on a hit television sitcom called, Servant of the People, which was broadcasted on a channel owned by Kolmoysky.
In 2019, Kolmoysky's media channels gave a big boost to Zelensky's presidential campaign, while Kolmoysky even provided security, lawyers, and vehicles for Zelensky during his campaign. Kolmoysky's bodyguard and lawyer accompanied Zelensky on the campaign trail as Zelensky was chauffeured around in a Range Rover owned by one of Kolmoysky's companies.
The Pandora Papers showed that Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky and his TV production partners were beneficiaries of a web of offshore firms created in 2012, the same year Zelensky's production company entered into a deal with Kolomoysky's media group, which allegedly received $41 million in funds from Kolomoysky's Privatbank.
Zelensky's political rival, President Petro Poroshenko commented on their connection during the campaign trail, "Fate intended to put me together with Kolomoyskiy's puppet in the second round of the elections."
After Zelensky's victory, Kolomoysky, who had spent the last few years living between Israel and Switzerland, returned to Ukraine to keep up his relationship with the new president, nominating over 30-lawmakers to Zelensky's newly established party and maintaining influence with many of them in parliament.
Kolomoysky Funds The Azov, Aidar, and Dnipro BattalionsIgor Kolomoysky has been a top funder of the Azov Battalion since it was formed in 2014. He has also bankrolled private militias like the Dnipro and Aidar Battalions and has personally deployed them to protect his financial interests.
Aljazeera: Before becoming part of Ukraine's armed forces, who funded Azov? The unit received backing from Ukraine's interior minister in 2014, as the government had recognised its own military was too weak to fight off the pro-Russian separatists and relied on paramilitary volunteer forces.These forces were privately funded by oligarchs-the most known being Igor Kolomoisky, an energy magnate billionaire and then-governor of the Dnipropetrovska region.
Newsweek: Groups of right-wing Ukrainian nationalists are committing war crimes in the rebel-held territories of Eastern Ukraine, according to a report from Amnesty International, as evidence emerged in local media of the volunteer militias beheading their victims.Armed volunteers who refer to themselves as the Aidar battalion "have been involved in widespread abuses, including abductions, unlawful detention, ill-treatment, theft, extortion, and possible executions", Amnesty said...
The Aidar battalion is publicly backed by Ukrainian oligarch Ihor Kolomoyskyi, who also allegedly funds the Azov, Donbas, Dnepr 1, Dnepr 2 volunteer battalions, operating under orders from Kiev.
Reuters: Some of Ukraine's private battalions have blackened the country's international reputation with their extremist views. The Azov battalion, partially funded by Taruta and Kolomoisky, uses the Nazi Wolfsangel symbol as its logo, and many of its members openly espouse neo-Nazi, anti-Semitic views. The battalion members have spoken about "bringing the war to Kiev," and said that Ukraine needs "a strong dictator to come to power who could shed plenty of blood but unite the nation in the process." Kolomoysky's Battalions Shell Civilians In Donbas
The Luhansk and Donetsk regions comprise a larger region known together as Donbas. In May 2014, shortly after the Obama administration's Maidan-coup, the two regions held a referendum on seceding from Ukraine, in which 96% of Lukansk and 89% of Donetsk voted for the creation of two new independent entities in eastern Ukraine.
Moscow said the vote reflected the "will of the people," but the European Union called the elections "illegal and illegitimate", which quickly turned violent and descended into an all-out conflict between Russian-backed separatist forces and the Ukrainian military and pro-government militias.
Donbas became the epicenter of a battle for global influence between NATO and Moscow in which the homes, schools, and offices of innocent civilians were simply collateral damage, and water, electricity, and gas were regularly shut off for the residents who paid the ultimate price.
The War in Donbas has continued to this day killing an estimated 14,000 while tearing eastern Ukraine's Donbas region into shreds.
Human Rights Watch reported on July 24, 2014, that Ukrainian government forces and pro-government militias had indiscriminately used unguided Grad rockets in populated areas, which violated international humanitarian law, the laws of war, and constituted war crimes.
While the Ukrainian government officials denied using Grad rockets in Donetsk, a Human Rights Watch investigation on the ground strongly indicated that Ukrainian government forces were responsible for the attacks and earlier in the month, Al Jazeera journalist had even filmed Ukrainian forces with Grad rocket launchers on the road to Donetsk.
While Kolomoysky's Azov battalion led the post-coup government's
assault on the self-declared republics of Luhansk and Donetsk, a 2014 Amnesty International
report accused Kolomoysky's Aidar Battalion of war crimes in Donbas specifically citing, "widespread abuses, including abductions, unlawful detention, ill-treatment, theft, extortion, and possible executions".
In October 2014, Human Rights Watch reported that Ukrainian government forces and pro-government militias were responsible for the widespread use of cluster munitions in populated areas in Donetsk city.
"It is shocking to see a weapon that most countries have banned used so extensively in eastern Ukraine," said Mark Hiznay, senior arms researcher at Human Rights Watch. "Ukrainian authorities should make an immediate commitment not to use cluster munitions and join the treaty to ban them."
This is not to say that both sides were not guilty of war crimes as Russian-backed separatists were also accused of using unguided rockets, shooting down
civilian planes, and both sides have been accused of numerous
war crimes.
The Minsk II agreement in 2015 ended the worst fighting and set up a buffer zone around the breakaway republics, but the deadly civil war has continued to drag on in the region until this day. Heavy weapons were banned by the Minsk agreements but were still frequently used, and to devastating effect.
Children's schools in Donetsk have been hit so many times by indiscriminate shelling that basements are set up as make-shift bomb shelters and windows are piled high with sandbags. Donbas has also become one of the most landmine contaminated places on earth putting more than 220,000 children at risk.
"The shelling doesn't leave a child's psyche unscathed. Children are traumatized. They are terrified. There are children who become very emotional. They pour their feelings out," said Iryna Morhun, the Principal of Krasnohorivka School, which was hit by a direct strike.
"On the other side, there are children who keep this pain inside. It's very sad to see children who should be having a happy childhood suffer because of this war."
Hunter Biden's Laptop Talks About "Children Burned Alive" In Donetsk
The nonprofit research group, Marco Polo, which is doing a comprehensive report on Hunter Biden's laptop, made the connection between Hunter Biden's text messages and Kolomoysky's massacres in eastern Ukraine.
Text messages found on Hunter Biden's laptop, show Hunter Biden asking Hallie Biden, his brother's widow and his mistress, if she believed that he had "children burned alive in DONETSK" or "children killed in donetsk, Ukraine".
Most likely, in reference to Kolomoysky, his reported Burisma Holdings boss, who was also funding the neo-Nazi Azov Battalion that was accused of war crimes and the shelling of civilians in eastern Ukraine.
In 2018, Congress banned U.S. arms from going to the Ukrainian Azov Battalion which used neo-Nazi insignia, openly accepted neo-Nazis into its ranks, and had been accused of 'ISIS-Style' War Crimes including beheadings.
"White supremacy and neo-Nazism are unacceptable and have no place in our world," Rep. Ro Khanna (D-Calif.), an outspoken critic of providing lethal aid to Ukraine, said in a statement to The Hill on Tuesday. "I am very pleased that the recently passed omnibus prevents the U.S. from providing arms and training assistance to the neo-Nazi Azov Battalion fighting in Ukraine."
Text messages between Hunter Biden and Hallie Biden.
In 2016, Kolomoysky's Privatbank collapsed amid accusations of embezzlement and fraud. The bank failure cost the Ukrainian government '-- and by extension the American and European taxpayers who propped it up with aid funds '-- about
$5.5 billion in a bailout.
In 2020, the Justice Department moved to seize Kolomoysky's U.S. properties after accusing the oligarch of embezzling and defrauding billions of dollars from PrivatBank and laundering it into American properties, including a steel plant in Kentucky, a commercial high rise in Cleveland, and a Motorola manufacturing plant in Illinois.
(C) Michael Sallah
Source: Investigative Journalist Michael SallahIn March 2021, the Biden administration barred Kolomoisky and members of his family from traveling to the United States because of "involvement in significant acts of corruption."
It is highly unlikely Kolomoisky would have returned to the United States considering the Justice Department had already begun seizing his properties the year before and he had reportedly been traveling between Switzerland, Israel, and Ukraine in fear of being extradited to the United States.
As I am writing this, the U.S. Congress is approving another $14 billion in aid for Ukraine that will undoubtedly be funneled into the family members of corrupt U.S. and Ukrainian politician's bank accounts and oligarch's off-shore financial entities before making its way to the neo-Nazi battalions congress banned from receiving U.S. arms in 2018.
Do the people pushing so hard for war with Russia know about the "children burned alive" in Donetsk? Do they know that we are arming neo-Nazi battalions who have been shooting rockets and dropping cluster bombs on children in Donbas for the last 8-years?
Russian central bank sells all $26.7 billion at one-week repo auction | Reuters
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:56
An exterior view shows Russia's Central Bank headquarters in Moscow, Russia March 29, 2021. A sign reads: "Bank of Russia". REUTERS/Maxim Shemetov
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comMarch 15 (Reuters) - Russia's central bank provided banks with all 3 trillion roubles ($26.73 billion) at a one-week repo auction on Tuesday, facing demand of 4.84 trillion roubles, as lending institutions scramble to manage their liquidity amid collapsing Russian markets.
The auction's limit was set at 3 trillion roubles.
The bank also said it had raised 1.5 trillion roubles at a one-day deposit auction.
($1 = 112.2470 roubles)
Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com Reporting by Reuters
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Jeffrey Sonnenfeld - Wikipedia
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:47
American academic
Jeffrey Sonnenfeld (born April 1954) is the Lester Crown Professor in the Practice of Management at Yale School of Management, and Senior Associate Dean for Leadership Studies. Sonnenfeld is best known as the founder and CEO of Chief Executive Leadership Institute (CELI), affiliated with Yale University.[1]
Sonnenfeld has advised thousands of CEOs as well as multiple U.S. Presidents and nominees from both parties, including Joseph Biden, Donald Trump, and Bill Clinton as a conduit between top business and political leaders.[2] In addition to convening regular CEO conferences, in the immediate aftermath of the 2020 United States presidential election and the 2021 United States Capitol attack, Sonnenfeld convened top executives for several high-level, off-the-record discussions to plan the collective response from the business community.[3] He is the first academician to have rung the opening bells of both the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq Stock Exchange, having done so 10 times.[4]
Biography [ edit ] Early life [ edit ] Born in Philadelphia, April 1, 1954, Jeffrey Sonnenfeld is the son of Burton Sonnenfeld, a men's clothing retailer, and Rochelle Sonnenfeld, a healthcare planner and community leader, who came to the US as a refugee immigrant from Russian pogroms.[5] Sonnenfeld earned his AB, MBA, and doctorate at Harvard University. At age 26, he joined the faculty of the Harvard Business School where he taught for 10 years.[6]
Career [ edit ] After a decade at Emory University, Sonnenfeld joined the faculty at Yale, bringing with him the CEO College and launching the Chief Executive Leadership Institute.[7] At Yale, he built a new department of Executive Programs, offering 35 programs a year to roughly 2,000 top leaders with sessions in New Haven, New York City, Beijing, New Delhi, Mumbai, and Shanghai, and opened Yale University's first outpost in Washington, D.C. in 2011. His 2007 book, Firing Back (with Andrew Ward, Harvard Business School Press), studies the paths to resilience for felled CEOs, as well as victims from natural disasters, warfare, and other forms of disruption and adversity.
At Yale SOM, Sonnenfeld teaches the popular course "Strategic Leadership Across Sectors", which is consistently the school's most popular and oversubscribed course. Sonnenfeld's previous students from Harvard, Emory, and Yale have gone on to become CEOs and leaders in a wide variety of fields.[8] Sonnenfeld continues to be active in the local community and currently resides in Connecticut with his wife, Clarky, and their two daughters, Sophie and Lauren.
Yale Chief Executive Leadership Institute [ edit ] Sonnenfeld is the founder of Chief Executive Leadership Institute (CELI), a non-profit educational and research institute focused on CEO leadership and corporate governance, and the world's first school for chief executives.[9] He pioneered the program as a prototype at the Harvard Business School in 1987 and 1988.[10] In 2000, this institute moved to Yale University where it presently resides.
Sonnenfeld's CEO Summits have drawn leaders from business, government, public policy, nonprofits, NGOs, and higher education. Past attendees have included Stephen Schwarzman, Jamie Dimon, Lloyd Blankfein, Ray Dalio, Ashton Carter, Elaine Chao, Maurice Greenberg, Dina Powell, Robert Hormats, Carla Hills, Farooq Kathwari, John Bogle, John Whitehead, Albert Gordon, Jeffrey Bewkes, Randall Stephenson, David Shulkin, Wilbur Ross, Steven Mnuchin, Anthony Scaramucci, Peter Orszag, John Negroponte, Chris Shays, Indra Nooyi, Kevin Rudd, Steven Mnuchin, Ken Langone, David Solomon, Peter Navarro, Bob Woodward, Roland Betts, Peter Salovey, Danny Meyer, Brian Duperreault, Joanne Lipman, Jeff Zucker, Stefano Pessina, Dennis Muilenburg, Alex Gorsky, David Abney, Robert Lighthizer, Jared Kushner, Joe Biden, Pete Buttigieg, Richard Blumenthal, Gina Raimondo, Janet Yellen, Larry Bacow and many other influential leaders from across sectors. In December 2019, The Chief Executive Leadership Institute celebrated its 100th CEO Summit in New York City.[10]
On behalf of Yale University, Sonnenfeld is responsible for presenting the prestigious Yale Legend of Leadership Award and the Yale Lifetime of Leadership Award. Past recipients have included Colin Powell, Carla Hills, Stephen Schwarzman, Maurice Greenberg, John Whitehead, John Bogle, Albert Gordon, David Stern, Bernard Marcus, Bob Iger, Indra Nooyi, Janet Yellen, Ginni Rometty, Mary Barra, Brian Moynihan, David Rubenstein, Marillyn Hewson, Jamie Dimon, and Ken Frazier.[11]
His scholarly research focus is in management and social responsibility, and he has published in journals such as Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, The Academy of Management Review, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Social Forces, Human Relations, and Human Resource Management, as well as authored many books, including The Hero's Farewell: What Happens When CEOs Retire (Oxford University Press, 1988) and Firing Back: How Great Leaders Overcome Adversity (Harvard Business School Press, 2007) with Emory alumnus Andrew Ward. Sonnenfeld has served on the editorial boards of several journals, and his professional activities also include membership on various non-profit organization and public company boards.
Sonnenfeld earned the 2018 Ellis Island award from the US Ellis Island Foundation. He was Harvard's first John Whitehead Faculty Fellow and won outstanding educator awards at Yale, Emory and the American Society for Training and Development. Additionally, he was the winner of ATT's "Hawthorn Award for Social Research in Industry" and Richard D. Irwin Award for Management Research. He was also awarded the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award by the Boy Scouts of America. Sonnenfeld was listed by Business Week as one of the "ten B-school professors who are influencing contemporary business thinking"[12] and one of the "100 most influential players in corporate governance" by National Association of Corporate Director's Directorship.[13]
He is on the board of IEX,[14] Lennar, Atlas Merchant Capital, the Ellis Island Honor Society, the National Council on Aging, and a representative of Governor Ned Lamont on the AdvanceCT Board of Directors. He is a member of the Ellis Island Foundation Trustees and is a board member for Advance Connecticut with the Connecticut Economic Resource Center.
Selected publications [ edit ] Sonnenfeld, J., Kusin, M., & Waltonz, E. (2013). What CEOs Really Think of Their Boards. Harvard Business Review, 91(4), 98''106.Sonnenfeld, J., "The Jamie Dimon Witch Hunt", New York Times op-ed, May 8, 2013. Argued that having separate individuals serving as board chair and CEO is "no panacea that ensures good economic results or good governance" as the JPMorgan Chase chairman, president and CEO, a CELI participant, faced a proxy vote favoring separation.Hayibor, S., Agle, B., Sears, G., Sonnenfeld, J., & Ward, A. (2011). Value Congruence and Charismatic Leadership in CEO-Top Manager Relationships: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(2), 237''254. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0808-y.Sonnenfeld, J. A., & Ward, A. J. (2007). FIRING BACK: How Great Leaders Rebound After Career Disasters. Harvard Business Review, 85(1), 76''84.Gandossy, R., & Sonnenfeld, J., ed. (2004). Leadership and Governance from the Inside Out. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.Sonnenfeld, J. A. (2002). What Makes Great Boards Great. Harvard Business Review, 80(9), 106''113.Epstein, C., Olivares, F., Bass, B., Graham, P., Schwartz, F. N., Siegel, M. R., Mansbridge, J., Lloyd, K., Wyskocil, P., Cohen, A., Bradford, D., Sonnenfeld, J., & Goldberg, C. (1991). Ways Men and Women Lead. Harvard Business Review, 69(1), 150''160.Sonnenfeld, J. A. (1988). The Hero's Farewell: what happens when CEOs retire. New York: Oxford University Press.Sonnenfeld, J. A. (1984). Managing Career Systems: Channeling the Flow of Executive Careers, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.Sonnenfeld, J. A., (1981). Corporate Views of the Public Interest, Boston: Auburn House.Sonnenfeld, J., & Lawrence, P. R. (1978). Why do companies succumb to price fixing? Harvard Business Review, 56(4), 145''157.Sonnenfeld, J. (1978). Dealing with the aging work force. Harvard Business Review, 56(6), 81''92.References [ edit ] ^ "Yale CELI". ^ "Business Insider". ^ "Time". ^ "Yale CELI". ^ "Washington Post". ^ "Yale CELI". ^ "Yale CELI". ^ "Glenn Rifkin Profile". ^ "Yale CELI". ^ a b Rifkin, G. (2011, Winter). CEO Master Class, Briefings Magazine, The Korn/Ferry Institute. ^ "Yale CELI". ^ Macsai, D. (2007, Aug 22). B-School All-Stars, BusinessWeek, 13. ^ Directorship 100. (cover story). (2007, Sep). NACD Directorship, 33(4), 21-37. ^ Executive Team, IEX , retrieved October 26, 2017 External links [ edit ] Chief Executive Leadership InstituteYale School of Management
Jane Fonda Climate PAC '-- Donate via ActBlue
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:30
The science is clear: We have to cut our fossil fuel emissions in half in the next eight years to avoid complete climate disaster. That means we have just four election cycles to elect politicians who will stand up to the fossil fuel industry and fight for the future of our planet.
It's not too late to make a change, but we need to act right away. Join us with a contribution today.
Contribution rulesI am a U.S. citizen or lawfully admitted permanent resident (i.e., green card holder).This contribution is made from my own funds, and funds are not being provided to me by another person or entity for the purpose of making this contribution.I am at least eighteen years old.I am not a federal contractor.I am making this contribution with my own personal credit card and not with a corporate or business credit card or a card issued to another person.By proceeding with this transaction, you agree to ActBlue's terms & conditions.
Feds admit breaking law with delay in case against alleged Jan. 6 rioter - POLITICO
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:18
But during a chaotic afternoon hearing held by videoconference before U.S. District Judge Randy Moss, defense attorneys for Denney dropped their earlier bid to dismiss the case and instead sought to have him plead guilty before prosecutors could add more charges to a single-count indictment a grand jury returned last week.
The move seemed to take prosecutors and the judge by surprise, since defendants almost never plead guilty at a federal court arraignment on a grand jury indictment.
''This, obviously, is nothing I was prepared to decide today,'' said Moss, an appointee of Barack Obama.
An attorney for Denney, William Shipley, said he hoped the quick guilty plea would preclude the government from obtaining a grand jury indictment of his client on charges beyond the single charge of assault on a police officer with a dangerous weapon.
''I don't put it past them to run to the grand jury again to try to once again escape the trap that they've built for themselves,'' Shipley said.
It's not totally clear that the plea would foreclose additional charges, but Moss said there could be an argument that adding more charges later over the same conduct violated Denney's protections against double jeopardy.
Shipley pressed to proceed with the guilty plea at Monday's hearing or, failing that, on Tuesday, but Moss expressed concerns about rushing the process. The charge Denney faces can carry a term of up to 20 years in prison. The judge also cautioned that, under federal sentencing rules, so-called ''uncharged conduct'' can be used to lengthen a sentence.
''I have real concerns about Mr. Denney's rights,'' the judge warned. ''Your client could end up with a very lengthy sentence in a sort of rush to cut the government off.''
Shipley asked Moss to order the government not to return an indictment until Denney's guilty plea can be taken. The judge declined to do that, but set a hearing for Thursday afternoon, when Denney can seek to offer a guilty plea.
Denney was arrested in Mansfield, Texas, on Dec. 13 on a criminal complaint charging that he grappled with police at the Capitol, swung a metal pole at an officer and threw projectiles at a line of police. He appeared in federal court in Del Rio, Texas, on Dec. 14 and Dec. 17, where a magistrate judge ordered that he remain in custody and be transferred to Washington to face charges.
Denney then seemed to disappear from the court system for a couple of months. Records show he arrived Jan. 31 at a jail in Warsaw, Va., used to hold some federal court suspects. Denney's attorney, John Pierce, was aware by Feb. 4 of his client's arrival in Virginia, emails show.
Scheduling of an initial court appearance in Washington for Denney was discussed among the lawyers involved and court personnel, but seems to have gone unresolved until Feb. 25, when he was puzzlingly given a court date two weeks later although the court's duty magistrate judge typically sees Jan. 6 defendants nearly every weekday.
Denney's lawyers filed an emergency motion for his release on March 2, citing the protracted delays in his appearance and the failure of the government to obtain an indictment in his case within 30 days of his initial court appearance in Texas.
During a hearing last week, a federal magistrate judge in Washington scolded prosecutors over their handling of the case. U.S. Magistrate Judge Zia Faruqui said the Justice Department seemed overwhelmed by the work required to pursue criminal cases against the nearly 800 defendants they have charged in the Capitol riot.
''The government has chosen to charge the largest case ever,'' said Faruqui, who noted he was formerly a prosecutor in the same U.S. Attorney's Office leading the investigation. ''If they do not have the resources to do it, they ought not do that. '... It feels like the government has bitten off more than it can chew here.''
Faruqui also apologized profusely to Denney.
''You have been lost for months,'' the judge said. ''There's no excuse to treat a human being like that. '... There is no circumstance under which any person should be forgotten.''
Faruqui ruled that the government had violated Denney's rights under the 1974 law designed to expedite criminal proceedings in federal court. However, the judge said he could not release Denney because '-- on the same day as his first court appearance in Washington last week '-- prosecutors obtained a single-count grand jury indictment charging him with assaulting a police officer with a metal pole amidst the Jan. 6 riot.
''To be sure, the government failed to comply with the Speedy Trial Act in this case. But there is no evidence of bad faith, a pattern of neglect, or something more than an isolated incident that resulted from a number of unfortunate factors,'' wrote Rozzoni, who is based in New Mexico and is one of dozens of prosecutors across the country helping D.C.-based prosecutors handle the slew of Jan. 6 cases.
Moss agreed Monday that the case had been mishandled by not getting Denney in front of a judge in Washington quicker. ''Things did not work the way they should have with respect to Mr. Denney, and I understand that concern. ... He's been incarcerated longer than he should have,'' the judge said.
Shipley also took on the substance of the case at Monday's hearing, contending that his client never swung a metal pole during the riot. ''It's a piece of plastic PVC ... not a metal pipe, not a steel pipe, not an iron pipe, not a lead pipe,'' the defense attorney said. ''The facts here are not that extreme.''
Most of the nearly 800 defendants have been released within days of their arrests. However, several dozen have been ordered detained pending trial, often in cases where they are accused of violent assaults on police officers. A handful of people are being detained on accusations of conspiring to organize the storming of the Capitol in a bid to block or delay Congress from certifying President Joe Biden's win in the 2020 presidential election.
While Faruqui said last week that Denney's case was an aberration and prosecutors termed it ''an isolated incident,'' early last year, there were numerous unexplained delays in Jan. 6 defendants making their first court appearances. In one case, Faruqui himself complained forcefully about the three weeks it appeared to take for one detained defendant to be transferred from a Virginia jail to D.C. '-- a roughly two-hour drive.
''The buck has got to stop somewhere and it stops with the judges because that's our job to keep the system moving'....It's just not acceptable,'' the judge said last March at a hearing for Capitol riot defendant Jonathan Mellis. ''Whatever little solace it is, we are going to figure out what happened and ensure it doesn't happen to somebody else.''
Plea Bargains Are Being Discussed for Sept. 11 Defendants - WSJ
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:11
Lawyers for alleged mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and four co-defendants say talks are under way on deal that would lead to guilty pleas but no death sentences
March 15, 2022 4:55 pm ETWASHINGTON'--Military prosecutors have begun plea negotiations at Guantanamo Bay with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and four co-defendants accused of orchestrating the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, a deal under which the defendants would admit guilt and prosecutors forgo pursuit of a death sentence, defense attorneys said.
If successful, the negotiations could end a legal saga that has lasted nearly two decades, beginning with the capture in Pakistan of Mr. Mohammed, the alleged mastermind of the attacks. Mr. Mohammed and other...
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
WASHINGTON'--Military prosecutors have begun plea negotiations at Guantanamo Bay with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and four co-defendants accused of orchestrating the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, a deal under which the defendants would admit guilt and prosecutors forgo pursuit of a death sentence, defense attorneys said.
If successful, the negotiations could end a legal saga that has lasted nearly two decades, beginning with the capture in Pakistan of Mr. Mohammed, the alleged mastermind of the attacks. Mr. Mohammed and other detainees were allegedly tortured in overseas ''black site'' interrogation centers and were finally interned in the high-security prison at Guantanamo Bay, where a seemingly irreconcilable conflict between fairness to the accused and deference to the Central Intelligence Agency's secrets has stymied trials for years.
''Negotiated agreements represent one path to ending military commissions, stopping indefinite detention at Guantanamo Bay, and providing justice,'' said attorney Alka Pradhan, who represents one of the defendants, Ali Abdul Aziz Ali, also known as Ammar al-Baluchi.
A Pentagon spokesman declined to comment. Representatives for the Justice Department didn't immediately respond to requests for comment.
The discussions, reported earlier by the New York Times , may be different for each of the five detainees, according to a person familiar with the matter. The others are Walid bin Attash, Ramzi Binalshibh and Mustafa al Hawsawi.
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
Figures considered more peripheral to the plot, such as Mr. Hawsawi and Mr. al-Baluchi, may seek more lenient terms, including the possibility of eventual release or the chance to serve their sentences in other countries, the person said. In the past, plans to try the Sept. 11 defendants in federal court or negotiate plea deals were scuttled after political blowback or opposition from senior officials.
The military commissions now operating at Guantanamo descend from former President George W. Bush's November 2001 order authorizing tribunals to try noncitizens accused of war crimes without regard to constitutional protections or appeals to the federal courts. The Supreme Court voided that plan in 2006 and since then successive acts of Congress retooled military commissions to more closely resemble courts-martial, where U.S. service members are tried.
But many legal questions remain unresolved, including which constitutional rights apply in military commissions. The prosecutions remain mired in pretrial hearings that have focused on the degree to which evidence of the defendants' treatment in CIA custody can be weighed in evaluation of the government's case and in mitigation of potential punishment.
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
There has been little debate regarding the defendants' guilt. In 2008, saying they sought martyrdom, the five men attempted to plead guilty in an earlier iteration of the commission system. A military judge, unsure of whether capital defendants were permitted to plead guilty, declined to accept the pleas, and the proceedings later were restarted under a modified framework.
Because the defendants' treatment stands beyond the bounds of any legal system'--a Senate Intelligence Committee report said Mr. Mohammed was waterboarded at least 183 times'--defense lawyers have suggested they would argue the government should be sanctioned by removing the death penalty from consideration.
Aware that a military jury or appellate court could make such findings, in 2017 the then-head of the military commissions apparatus, Harvey Rishikof, began exploring a potential plea deal. After word spread, then-Defense Secretary Jim Mattis dismissed Mr. Rishikof for what Mr. Mattis said were unrelated reasons.
The circumstances now, however, are different. While the legal obstacles to a capital trial remain, several longtime commissions prosecutors, including Brig. Gen. Mark Martins and Robert Swann, have since retired. President Biden opposes both the death penalty and the continued operation of Guantanamo Bay.
Earlier this month, the U.S. repatriated to Saudi Arabia detainee
Advertisement - Scroll to Continue
Mohammed al-Qahtani, the alleged 20th hijacker authorities believed would have joined the terrorists on United 93 had an immigration officer not refused him entry at Orlando International Airport in August 2001.
Mr. al-Qahtani initially had been slated to be charged along with the current Sept. 11 defendants; a row for him was built in the Guantanamo courtroom. In 2009, the military commissions head dismissed charges against Mr. Qahtani after finding he had been tortured while in military custody.
Write to Jess Bravin at jess.bravin+1@wsj.com
Covid News: China to Use Pfizer Treatment as Outbreak Grows - The New York Times
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:10
Global roundup
Image Samples of Pfizer's Paxlovid tablets. Credit... Thomas Hansmann/Pfizer, via Associated Press China has revised the country's pandemic guidelines to include the use of antiviral pills made by Pfizer, as the country scrambles to contain its biggest outbreak since the early days of the pandemic.
The country's medical products regulator last month approved Pfizer's Paxlovid treatment for emergency use. The government's move to include it in its Covid-19 treatment guidelines was announced this week.
The authorities have had to modify their policies to accommodate a rising number of cases in more than two dozen provinces. According to the latest guidelines, people who test positive for the virus and have only mild symptoms will no longer be required to be hospitalized, but should instead stay in centralized isolation facilities.
The health commission also shortened the quarantine period for patients who have been discharged from the hospital or isolation facilities. Earlier, the government approved the use of rapid antigen tests by the public to help detect cases more quickly.
China is enduring its biggest surge this month since the coronavirus first emerged in the city of Wuhan more than two years ago.
The country is one of the last holdouts of a strategy that aims to completely eradicate the virus.
''The epidemic in some areas is surging rapidly, and the risk of spread and spillover in the society is relatively high,'' Lei Zhenglong, the deputy director of the National Health Commission's Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention, said on Tuesday.
The surge in cases has prompted the Chinese authorities to lock down residents, close factories and stop truck traffic, snarling already frayed supply chains. On Wednesday, Foxconn, the Taiwanese electronics firm that assembles Apple's iPhones, said that it had resumed some production in the city of Shenzhen at factory compounds where employees live on the grounds.
In other virus news from around the world:
In '‹'‹South Korea, officials reported a record 400,741 cases on Wednesday. The country has been slowly opening up as officials loosened certain social distancing regulations like dropping mandatory vaccine passes for entry into businesses and public spaces.
Nicola Sturgeon, the first minister of Scotland, said the legal requirement to wear masks on public transportation and in some places indoors would be extended until April.
Japan said Wednesday it was planning to end coronavirus restrictions in Tokyo and 17 other prefectures next week, noting that the number of new Omicron cases had dropped significantly.
'-- Alexandra Stevenson and Amy Chang Chien
Image California, New York, New Jersey and Illinois, home to roughly a third of the nation's low-income renters, have already spent billions in emergency aid paying back rent for tenants at risk of eviction, and they have requested more funding, citing affordable housing shortages and rising rents. Credit... Doug Mills/The New York Times The Biden administration has clawed back $377 million in federal emergency housing aid from states and counties, most of them controlled by Republicans, and redirected the cash to states that have been clamoring for more help, including New York, California and New Jersey.
The $46 billion Emergency Rental Assistance Program, first enacted by Congress in 2020, succeeded in preventing a wave of evictions stemming from the downturn caused by the pandemic. But Treasury Department officials, increasingly concerned that evictions might rise after the program winds down, have tried to ensure that none of the remaining funding goes unspent while pushing states to find other funding sources to assist poor tenants.
In recent months, White House officials have pressured governors in states with unspent funds to turn over the money to local governments within their states. Now they are going one step further, pulling back cash from states with relatively few tenants '-- like Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming '-- or localities that failed to efficiently distribute the aid, including Alabama, Arkansas and several counties in Texas.
The money, in turn, is being diverted to four states that have tapped out their allotted amounts '-- with $136 million in additional aid headed to California, $119 million to New York, $47 million to New Jersey and $15 million to Illinois, according to a spreadsheet provided by a senior administration official.
New York officials were happy with their windfall but said it fell far short of the $1.6 billion in additional aid requested by the state.
''This is better,'' said Representative Ritchie Torres, a Democrat whose district includes the South Bronx, which has some of the highest eviction and poverty rates in the country. ''But it's a pitiful drop in the bucket compared to what we need.''
The four states, home to roughly a third of the nation's low-income renters, have already spent billions in emergency aid paying back rent for tenants at risk of eviction, and they have requested more funding, citing affordable housing shortages and rising rents. In January, their governors '-- Gavin Newsom of California, Kathy Hochul of New York, Philip D. Murphy of New Jersey and J.B. Pritzker of Illinois, all Democrats '-- called on Treasury Secretary Janet L. Yellen to shift cash from low-spending states into their accounts, saying that tenants were ''facing an immediate need now.''
Treasury officials responded with the reallocation '-- but made it clear the well is running dry, and states will soon have to begin making hard choices by using their own revenues, or other federal pandemic relief funding, to bankroll anti-eviction initiatives that might have been buoyed by President Biden's stalled social spending bill.
'-- Glenn Thrush
Image Commuters crossing London Bridge at sunrise in late February. Credit... Tom Nicholson/Reuters As the Asia-Pacific region struggles with its first Omicron surge, it appears that Europe may be heading for a second jump, just as countries on both continents have rapidly lifted most pandemic restrictions.
Global cases, which bottomed out in early March, are rising again, driven by high caseloads in Asia and Europe, according to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. Cases per capita in Europe were already far higher than any other region in the world when they began creeping up again recently.
Parts of Asia are enduring their worst outbreaks ever as the Omicron variant continues its first sweep through the continent. The situation is especially dire in China, an outlier that remains committed to stamping out the virus, as well as New Zealand and South Korea, countries that like others around Asia have moved on from what had been some of the world's strictest Covid rules.
In Europe, some are bracing for what could be another Omicron wave, with cases on the rise again in France, Britain, Italy and elsewhere and again approaching record levels in Germany. And the war in Ukraine has prompted fears that another outbreak could explode there at any time.
This comes weeks after many European countries thought they were free of the worst of Covid and raced to lift restrictions in February and March.
On Tuesday, the Netherlands announced it would drop most of its remaining pandemic restrictions, including its mask mandate, on March 23. Cases have just started declining after surges in February and March, according to Our World in Data.
Austria, the first Western democracy to impose a general Covid vaccine mandate, abandoned the requirement last week. Caseloads have now surged to record levels there, according to Our World in Data.
Dr. Eric Topol, the founder and director of the Scripps Research Translational Institute, said that loosening restrictions in Europe may have contributed to a spike in cases. Other factors could include waning vaccine immunity and the rapid spread of a more contagious Omicron subvariant, BA.2, he said.
Dr. Topol said Europe's worst periods throughout the pandemic have been a harbinger of what was to come in the United States.
''Every time we followed suit within a matter of weeks,'' he said.
While caseloads in the United States have declined drastically since their record highs in mid-January, according to a New York Times database, Dr. Topol said one indicator that will be closely watched for an early sign of a new spike will be wastewater sewage data.
Because people excrete the virus through their stool, wastewater can be used to predict where the coronavirus is or will be prevalent and if a new variant is circulating.
About 38 percent of active U.S. wastewater sampling sites reported an increase in coronavirus levels from Feb. 24 to March 10, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's wastewater data tracker, which surveys 688 wastewater sites across the country.
Dr. Jay Varma, an epidemiologist who was a senior health adviser to former Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York City, warned that people should be prepared for another wave of cases and not let their guard down.
''We have to plan for the worst and hope for the best, like hurricane season,'' he said.
Emma G. Fitzsimmons contributed reporting.
'-- Alyssa Lukpat
Image Karl Lauterbach, left, the German federal minister of health, and Chancellor Olaf Scholz during a Cabinet meeting in Berlin on Wednesday. Lawmakers discussed ending most of the country's national pandemic restrictions. Credit... Pool photo by Andreas Gora BERLIN '-- Two years to the day after Germany first locked down because of fears that coronavirus cases would overwhelm its health care system, German lawmakers on Wednesday discussed ending most of the country's nationwide pandemic policies.
The complexities of Germany's three-party coalition government are coloring the issue. The smallest of the three parties, the Free Democrats, campaigned on criticism of the nation's pandemic restrictions. Under a compromise the party reached with its partners, the government has proposed letting most of the measures lapse, with the proviso that individual states can impose their own local restrictions if cases there threaten to overburden health care systems. The proposal drew sharp criticism from opposition parties.
Reports of new coronavirus cases in Germany have soared again to record heights this month, as a renewed surge driven by the Omicron variant sweeps the country, only a month after the first peak of the Omicron surge in mid-February.
The country is now averaging more than 200,000 new cases a day, an increase of nearly 50 percent from two weeks ago, according to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. Deaths have increased 23 percent to about 200 a day. The number of intensive-care hospital beds in use by Covid patients has remained relatively stable over the past few weeks, at slightly more than 2,000 patients.
As in many other European countries, proponents of dropping restrictions in Germany argue that the country's fairly high vaccination rate '-- 76 percent of the population has been fully vaccinated '-- and the Omicron variant's tendency to cause severe illness less often make the reported numbers of new cases a less important consideration than before.
Still, many lawmakers who have supported strict measures during the pandemic are balking at the idea of dropping virtually all of them now. Ates G¼rpinar of the left-wing Linke party said the government's proposal amounted to making ''chaos and contamination'' its strategy.
Some members of the governing parties that support the measure also let their displeasure show. Maria Klein-Schmeink of the Green party pointedly wore a pink face mask throughout her remarks to the Parliament '-- lawmakers must wear them when seated but generally take them off to address the chamber '-- and she acknowledged that the proposal was the result of a compromise.
''Of course, it is very difficult to stand by it,'' she said.
The surge in infections on Germany reached into the parliamentary debate itself, when a deputy had to replace B¤rbel Bas, the chamber's president, in leading the discussion because Ms. Bas had tested positive for the virus. Of the six parliamentarians who usually enforce debate rules and etiquette, four are infected.
The current law governing pandemic measures will expire on March 19, and lawmakers are scheduled to vote Friday on new rules to take effect after that.
The proposal made by Chancellor Olaf Scholz's coalition government would require masks on public transportation and in some settings with vulnerable populations, like nursing homes and hospitals; masks would be optional anywhere else. Restaurants, bars and night clubs would be allowed to open at full capacity and would no longer have to check patrons' vaccination certificates.
Many German states have already announced that they would continue strict rules through a transition period lasting until the beginning of April.
'-- Christopher F. Schuetze
Image Nurses administering doses of Covid-19 vaccines in Moscow in July. Credit... Sergey Ponomarev for The New York Times Russia's Sputnik V vaccine against the coronavirus will have to wait longer for a decision on emergency use authorization by the World Health Organization.
A W.H.O. official said on Wednesday that the organization was forced to delay the assessment process for the vaccine because of difficulties created by Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
''We were supposed to go do inspections in Russia on the 7th of March, and these inspections were postponed for a later date,'' said Dr. Maringela Sim£o, an assistant director general of the W.H.O., at a news conference in Geneva. ''The assessment, along with inspections, have been affected because of the situation.''
Dr. Sim£o said that obstacles to booking flights into Russia and using credit cards while there were among the many issues confronting the agency's inspectors. After Russian forces invaded Ukraine on Feb. 24, most Western countries closed their airspace to Russian aircraft, and Mastercard and Visa suspended operations in Russia.
Dr. Sim£o said a new timetable would be drawn up as soon as possible.
The two-dose Sputnik V was developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia's Ministry of Health. Russia began distributing the vaccine in the fall of 2020, and regulators in more than 70 countries have approved it for use, according to the Russian Direct Investment Fund, which backed the vaccine's development.
But Sputnik V has not yet been approved by the European Union's main drug regulator or the World Health Organization. Russians and other travelers who have received the vaccine have had a difficult time entering the European Union or the United States.
Though President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia has called Sputnik a medical breakthrough, the country repeatedly failed to follow international procedure and provide all the data foreign regulators need to assess safety of a vaccine that was rushed through large-scale clinical trials to speed its release in the fall of 2020. An E.U. health official accused Russia's government last fall of repeatedly delaying inspections of Russian facilities. But Russian officials insist that the delays in the approval process have been political.
Russia cleared a hurdle in February 2021 with the publication in the British medical journal The Lancet of late-stage trial results showing that Sputnik V vaccine was safe and highly effective. Even then, many countries, including Brazil and South Africa, have rejected using it. Ukraine also does not recognize Russia's Sputnik V vaccine.
The United Nations-backed Covax program that distributes vaccines globally to low- and moderate-income nations cannot use vaccines that are not approved by the W.H.O.
About half of Russian adults have been fully vaccinated, according to the Our World in Data project at the University of Oxford.
'-- Adeel Hassan
Image A student getting vaccinated on Wednesday at a school in Ahmedabad, India. Credit... Ajit Solanki/Associated Press India on Wednesday started administering coronavirus vaccines to children ages 12 to 14, as schools across the country reopen after two years of pandemic closures.
The first day of the drive to inoculate over 71 million children in that age group came on national vaccination day, an annual event promoting vaccination and celebrating the country's victory over polio.
Since January, children ages 15 to 17 have been getting inoculated. Those 12 to 14 will receive Corbevax, a vaccine that has been approved for emergency use in children and that uses standard protein-vaccination technology that is widely available around the world, making it relatively cheap and easy to produce.
Health experts have stressed that mass vaccinations could be the only way for India to fully emerge from the pandemic. India's campaign to vaccinate its 1.4 billion people is being carried out by an army of health care workers, who have sometimes trekked through inhospitable terrain and weathered snow and rain to carry out vaccinations.
So far, the country has administered about 1.8 billion doses, and about 60 percent of the population is fully vaccinated, according to the Our World in Data project at the University of Oxford.
Schools began reopening in some places in February, and across the country more recently as cases decline.
India, which has been hit hard by multiple coronavirus waves, has officially recorded about 43 million coronavirus cases. On Wednesday, the country recorded 2,876 new cases, but the average number of daily cases has decreased by 68 percent from the average two weeks ago, according to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. The death toll is officially at 516,072.
Experts have said that the actual toll is most likely far higher than what is officially reported in part because deaths are often underreported.
In January, India recommended booster shots for frontline workers and people over 60 with underlying conditions, but on Wednesday, it expanded that to include anyone over the age of 60. Health experts have been calling on the government to administer booster doses to fight new variants.
''If children are safe, then the country is safe,'' said Mansukh Mandaviya, the federal minister for health. ''I request guardians of all children and persons in the 60 and above age group to come forward and take the vaccine shot.''
'-- Sameer Yasir
Image If the plan is adopted, New Yorkers who have received at least one dose of a coronavirus vaccine but have yet to receive a booster will receive a notice with a location and an appointment for the shots. Credit... James Estrin/The New York Times Mark Levine, the Manhattan borough president, and Dr. Jay Varma, a top health adviser to former Mayor Bill de Blasio, called on the city on Wednesday for a plan to encourage New Yorkers to get their booster shots and protect residents from any future waves of the coronavirus.
The suggested plan is driven by the potential threat of a new variant, which could cause a fresh rise in cases and hospitalizations and the need for more ''forceful'' action, Dr. Varma said.
The plan also comes as Mayor Eric Adams has been aggressively promoting efforts to rebuild the city's economy in recent weeks, removing the vaccination mandate for indoor activities and mask mandates for schools. The mayor has also been encouraging tourists to visit New York, telling people at a recent news conference in Times Square to come and ''spend money.''
If the plan were to be adopted, New Yorkers who have received at least one dose of a coronavirus vaccine but have yet to get a booster would receive a text, an email and a postcard with a location and an appointment to get the shots. The plan also suggests reinstating the $100 incentive for receiving the booster shot, a program that was introduced by Mr. de Blasio and reintroduced by Mr. Adams in February, although it expired at the end of the month.
''I am thrilled at the progress we've made in the past two months and exhilarated by the increasing return to normal life in New York City,'' Mr. Levine said in an interview. ''We need this.''
The effect of the Omicron wave over the winter was a major setback for the city's recovery, he said, one that he doesn't want to see again. ''There are steps we can take now to prepare ourselves, so that we can blunt the severity of a future wave.''
Positive test rates, deaths and hospitalizations in New York City have all fallen in recent weeks, according to a New York Times database. An average of 662 daily cases were being reported as of Tuesday, compared with more than 40,000 a day during the peak of the Omicron wave.
Booster shots have been shown to be 90 percent effective at preventing hospitalization from the Omicron variant, and were found to be especially beneficial against infection and death for people ages 50 and older. But new city vaccination data shows wide disparities among residents who have received their booster shots.
Almost half of Manhattan has been boosted, compared with only 27 percent in the Bronx. Citywide, while 36 percent of the city's residents overall had received their dose as of Tuesday, only 24 percent of Black residents got a booster, compared with 57 percent of Asian and Pacific Islander residents.
Mr. Levine and Dr. Varma's plan also suggested broader Covid safety measures, calling for the city to provide frontline workers and people in communities hardest hit by the pandemic with ''Covid safety bags,'' which would contain rapid test kits and masks. It also suggests that government agencies allow more flexibility for remote work, as well as establish a new program to improve data collection on positive coronavirus test rates.
In a statement on Wednesday, Patrick Gallahue, a spokesman for the city's health department, said the city's case tracking system was ''constantly evolving'' and that the department was open to all recommendations on how to improve the city's Covid response.
''Data on race and poverty, as well as other characteristics, are considered in our data and we especially appreciate their prioritization,'' he added. ''Equity has been, and must continue to be, at the center of the recovery.''
The speed at which Mr. Adams has relaxed the city's Covid safety precautions has worried some who have argued that the vaccination mandate allowed more people to feel safer going out in the city.
In an interview, Dr. Varma said he believed it would be difficult to get residents to comply with the mandates if they were reinstated. At this point, he added, the city should focus on preventing as many deaths as possible through an increased effort to get its residents boosted.
''We need to focus on the things that government absolutely can and should do,'' Dr. Varma said. ''To me, that includes very targeted, directed outreach for people to get vaccinated.''
'-- Ashley Wong
Image New Zealand's border closures during the pandemic were among the strictest in the world. Credit... Mark Tantrum/Wellington International Airport, via Getty Images New Zealand, whose border closures were among the strictest in the world, plans to welcome back foreign tourists months ahead of schedule in a bid to bolster the country's economic recovery, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced on Wednesday.
Vaccinated Australians will be allowed to enter from just before midnight on April 12. Vaccinated travelers with valid visas and those from visa-waiver countries such as Canada and the United States can enter from May 1.
''We are sending a very clear message that we are accelerating our economic recovery,'' Ms. Ardern said at a news conference on Wednesday. She added, ''In short, we're ready to welcome the world back.''
The announcement comes as cases remain near peak levels in New Zealand, which, like other countries, is facing economic uncertainty and rapidly rising inflation. The government on Tuesday announced cuts to the cost of fuel among other measures to tackle a ''cost of living crisis.''
Incoming travelers will not be required to quarantine on arrival, but must take a supervised rapid coronavirus test before entering and two additional tests in the first week of their stay. These tests are intended to prevent the spread of new variants, Ms. Ardern said.
The government had intended to allow tourists back starting in July, with a full reopening planned for October. But after an outbreak of the Omicron variant sent cases in the country surging to more than 20,000 per day, tourism operators and businesses pushed to bring forward that timeline. They argued that borders should not remain closed to try to keep the variant out because of it has already spread around the globe.
New Zealand closed its borders early in the pandemic, allowing only a trickle of citizens to return, and later essential workers, and mandating a two-week hotel quarantine on arrival. The border closures allowed New Zealand to maintain a ''zero-Covid'' policy for most of the pandemic, with total deaths and hospitalizations among the lowest in the world.
But the policy also crippled its international tourism sector, which previously catered to millions of foreign visitors each year. Some companies say revenues have plunged by 95 percent since the pandemic began, while others have had to target the less lucrative domestic market.
'-- Natasha Frost
Volvo Owners May Soon Be In For a Special Treat At Starbucks | Torque News
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 13:33
Volvo is moving forward with a plan to create 60 pilot installations of ChargePoint DC Fast chargers at up to 15 Starbucks stores. The fast chargers will be at locations along a 1,350-mile route between Starbucks ' HQ city of Seattle and Denver. Volvo says the installations will begin this summer.
Related Story: Many Public DC Fast Chargers For Electric Vehicles Are Slower Than You'd Think
The three companies involved offered these statements:''Volvo Cars wants to give people the freedom to move and lower their impact on the environment,'' said Anders Gustafsson, Sr. Vice President Americas and President and CEO, Volvo Car USA. ''Working with Starbucks we can do that by giving them enjoyable places to relax while their cars recharge.''
''We are thrilled to partner with Volvo Cars to test how we can charge our customers' electric vehicles at Starbucks stores, said Michael Kobori, Chief Sustainability Officer at Starbucks. ''Imagine a future where Starbucks helps our customers to connect----more sustainably.''
''ChargePoint is enabling accessible EV charging opportunities anywhere drivers need it,'' said Pasquale Romano, President and CEO of ChargePoint. ''We're excited to support Volvo Cars' road to electrification, and help provide a premium driving experience for its customers to plan charging stops around their favorite Starbucks locations in select west coast destinations.''
ChargePoint's fastest DC chargers can bring an EV like the Volvo C40 Recharge from about 20 percent to about 90 percent charge in roughly 40 minutes. While their cars are recharging outside, Volvo owners and their passengers can relax comfortably inside with their favorite Starbucks beverage.
Volvo Recharge model owners can use the Google embedded in their infotainment system to find and access the ChargePoint charging stations at participating Starbucks locations. Other EV brand owners are not being excluded from using these chargers. That would be crazy! Rather, all EV drivers of any brand capable of DC fast charging will be able to use these stations for a fee. Drivers of Volvo Cars will get the added benefit of having access to these stations free of charge, or at a lower than market rate.
If you were shopping for a new EV, would the ability to access limited locations with free charging be a factor in your choice of models? Tell us in the comments below.
Image of EV owner parking in front of Starbucks for 40 minutes courtesy of Volvo.
John Goreham is a long-time New England Motor Press Association member and recovering engineer. John's interest in EVs goes back to 1990 when he designed the thermal control system for an EV battery as part of an academic team. After earning his mechanical engineering degree, John completed a marketing program at Northeastern University and worked with automotive component manufacturers, in the semiconductor industry, and in biotech. In addition to Torque News, John's work has appeared in print in dozens of American news outlets and he provides reviews to many vehicle shopping sites. You can follow John on TikTok @ToknCars, on Twitter, and view his credentials at Linkedin
Re-Publication. If you wish to re-use this content, please contact Torque News for terms and conditions.
Covid: White House says U.S. will run out of money to fight pandemic
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 13:26
A healthcare worker prepares a dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine at a vaccination clinic in the Peabody Institute Library in Peabody, Massachusetts, on Wednesday, Jan. 26, 2022.
Vanessa Leroy | Bloomberg | Getty Images
The White House on Tuesday warned the U.S. won't have enough booster shots and lifesaving Covid treatments for Americans if Congress fails to pass $22.5 billion in additional pandemic funding.
Senior Biden administration officials, on a call with reporters, said the U.S. could face another wave of Covid infections in the coming months, even as new cases and hospitalizations have dramatically declined from the peak of the unprecedented omicron surge in January. Infections are already on the rise again in major European nations, such as the U.K. and Germany. China is battling its worst outbreak since 2020.
The officials warned the funding is urgently needed to get ahead of another Covid wave. House Democrats last week stripped $15 billion in coronavirus funding, which was already less than Biden requested, from a broader spending bill after failing to reach a bipartisan agreement with Republicans. The GOP has insisted that Congress offset new Covid money by cutting funds for state and local governments allocated for the spring, a demand many Democrats were unwilling to accept.
The senior administration officials told reporters the federal government will not be able to purchase enough booster shots, vaccines that target specific variants or more antiviral pills beyond the 20 million already on order from Pfizer if more funding isn't approved.
There is also no more funding for additional monoclonal antibody treatments, including an order planned for March 25, the officials said. If more funding doesn't come through, the federal government will have to cut state allocations of monoclonal antibodies by more than 30% starting next week, they said.
The federal government will also not be able to maintain sufficient Covid testing capacity beyond June in the event of another surge, the officials said. During the omicron wave, there was a run on at-home tests and in-person clinics, resulting in hourslong lines and empty pharmacy shelves.
Uninsured people will also no longer have coverage for Covid testing and treatments, according to the White House. The fund that covers them will stop accepting new claims a week from now, forcing health-care providers to either absorb the costs or turn patients away, the officials said. The fund will completely end in early April and the uninsured will no longer have coverage for vaccinations, they said.
Some investments made in surveillance of new Covid variants will also have to be wound down, the officials said, leaving the U.S. without the capabilities it needs to stay on top of how the virus is evolving. The emergence of the highly mutated omicron variant blindsided the U.S. and much of the world in November.
The White House said the money is also needed to fund the development of a vaccine that covers a range of Covid variants, and support the administration's efforts to help increase the vaccination rate in developing nations. Without the money, the risk will rise that new variants will emerge, the officials said. Omicron emerged in South Africa and Botswana, and the delta variant was first identified in India.
'-- CNBC's Ylan Mui contributed to this report.
Face masks will not be required on KLM, four other airlines | NL Times
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 12:32
Wednesday, March 16, 2022 - 10:14
KLM, Transavia, Corendon, and TUI Nederland will not oblige passengers to wear face masks on their planes from next week. On Tuesday, the Cabinet announced that it would scrap almost all coronavirus rules from March 23, but masks will remain mandatory on planes because that is part of an international agreement. But Transavia and TUI called that "irresponsible" because it would increase the number of aggressive passengers, NH Nieuws reports.
KLM called it "disappointing" that the government decided to keep face masks mandatory on flights while scrapping the rule in the rest of the Netherlands. "The industry considers this approach inappropriate given the stage of the pandemic. Moreover, it is at odds with European and international developments that we follow closely," the Dutch airline said in a statement. "We are currently in consultation with the Dutch government because we believe that wearing face masks is no longer explainable to our passengers."
A Transavia spokesperson told NH Nieuws that the airline was "displeased" and "dismayed" to find out that the Cabinet was scrapping mandatory face masks on public transport but not on planes. According to Transavia, it is not true that this is due to international agreements because European advice only urgently recommends a face mask. "Flight safety is thus endangered because this measure leads to non-compliance and more aggression."
TUI Nederland is extremely disappointed and even angry, a spokesperson said to the regional broadcaster. "Passengers are less and less willing to comply with this obligation, while it is disappearing in the rest of society. It can no longer be explained or defended. This has recently led to an increase in aggression on board towards our crew and passengers," the spokesperson said. "A safe journey for our passengers and our staff is our top priority. We urge the Cabinet to convert this obligation to wear a face mask into an urgent recommendation. We will no longer monitor compliance with the mask obligation on board."
KLM, TUI, and Transavia will all recommend face masks on their planes. Corendon said it would stop advising or enforcing face mask use completely.
4 Disney employees arrested in Polk County human trafficking campaign, deputies say | WFLA
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 11:54
POLK COUNTY, Fla. (WFLA) '-- Over 100 people were arrested by the Polk County Sheriff's Office during ''Operation March Sadness 2,'' a six-day undercover investigation that focused on human trafficking, prostitution, and child predators.
According to the sheriff's office, four Disney employees were among the 108 arrests, including a Kissimmee man who worked as a lifeguard at Disney's Polynesian Village Resort.
Deputies said Xavier Jackson, 27, who worked as a lifeguard at the resort, sent sexual images and graphic descriptions of ''what he wanted to do'' to an undercover detective posing as a 14-year-old girl. Deputies said Jackson also bragged about working as a lifeguard at the resort.
Three other Disney employees were arrested during the operation, including a 24-year-old Orlando man who worked at the Cosmic Restaurant. Deputies said the man worked at Disney for four years.
''This is huge,'' Polk County Sheriff Grady Judd said. ''Four arrests of this magnitude is simply remarkable.''
Sheriff Judd also added 66-year-old Daniel Peters, of Illinois, to the list of arrests mentioned during a Wednesday morning press conference. Judd said Peters served as a judge in Cook County (4th Sub Circuit) and as a special assistant for legal affairs at the Cook County Sheriff's Office in Illinois.
Deputies said Peters requested an attorney, to which Sheriff Judd replied, ''Well judge, you need an attorney. You got problems.''
Peters was charged with soliciting a prostitute.
Polk County detectives said they identified prostitutes who posted online advertisements as well as ''johns'' who sought the prostitutes online. The sheriff's office said the operation ''had the intent to identify and free any victims who were being forced into prostitution (human trafficking), or anyone participating in the trafficking of victims.''
DHS Collected Americans' Financial Records In Bulk: Sen. Wyden | ZeroHedge
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 11:51
Authored by Ken Silva via The Epoch Times (emphasis ours),
A patrol car with the Department of Homeland Security logo in Washington on July 27, 2017. (Paul J. Richards/AFP via Getty Images)The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has collected Americans' financial records in bulk, according to Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.).
Wyden revealed the existence of a DHS financial surveillance program in a March 8 letter to the department's inspector general, calling for an investigation into the previously unknown activities.
Wyden said he has recently learned that Homeland Security Investigations (HSI)'--a law enforcement component of DHS'--was operating an ''indiscriminate and bulk surveillance program that swept up millions of financial records about Americans.''
''After my staff contacted HSI about the program in January 2022, HSI immediately terminated the program,'' Wyden wrote to DHS Inspector General Joseph Cuffari.
The senator said his office was briefed by HSI on Feb. 18'--the first time Congress had been told about the program.
''HSI told my staff that it used custom summonses to obtain approximately six million records about money transfers above $500, to or from Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico,'' Wyden wrote. ''HSI obtained these records using a total of eight customs summonses, which it sent to Western Union and Maxitransfers Corporation (Maxi), demanding records for a six-month period following the order.''
Wyden said the HSI financial surveillance activities are highly problematic for numerous reasons, including the fact that only eight summonses were used to obtain more than 6 million records.
''The customs summonses authority only permits the government to seek records that are 'relevant' to an investigation,'' he said.
''HSI should have known that this authority could not be used to conduct bulk surveillance, particularly after the Department of Justice inspector general harshly criticized the Drug Enforcement Administration in 2019 for using subpoenas to conduct a bulk surveillance program involving records of international phone calls.''
Wyden also said the HSI database allows hundreds of law enforcement agencies ''unfettered access'' to the financial records without any court supervision.
The fact that DHS immediately shuttered the program after being contacted by the senator further suggests a lack of internal oversight, he said.
''I write to request that you thoroughly investigate the program to determine whether HSI's surveillance of Americans was consistent with DHS policy, statutory law, and the United States Constitution,'' the letter reads.
Reacting to Wyden's revelations, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) called the HSI program ''blatantly illegal.''
''This practice presents real-world harms to people who, for good reason, would like to keep private the transfer of money and the identifying information that goes with it,'' EFF, an international nonprofit digital rights group, said in a March 10 statement.
''Sharing financial and other personally identifying records of domestic violence survivors, asylum seekers, and human rights activists could expose them to danger, particularly given that TRAC allows hundreds of law enforcement agencies unfettered access to these records.''
EFF agreed with Wyden's call for an investigation into the program, noting that the 6 million-plus records should be immediately purged. It also said companies such as Western Union and Maxi should stand up to the government and protect consumer privacy.
''Companies like Western Union and Maxi should stop caving to these overbroad administrative subpoenas for sensitive customer information by filing motions to quash. These administrative subpoenas are government requests'--not official warrants, signed by a judge, that legally compel the company to hand over all of this data,'' EFF stated.
''Companies should answer only when compelled by law to do so. Until then, they have an obligation to protect their customers' information, and that obligation should extend to protections from overly-broad and easily rebuttable government fishing expeditions.''
Western Union offered the following statement when contacted by The Epoch Times: ''Western Union is committed to protecting the personal data of our customers, as well as combatting serious criminal activity such as money laundering, human trafficking, and human smuggling.
''We also actively work with law enforcement agencies globally to promote privacy principles while enabling law enforcement to combat crime. We are unable to comment further on law enforcement investigations.''
Maxi didn't respond by press time to an email from The Epoch Times seeking comment.
Saudi Arabia considering pricing oil sales with Chinese currency over US dollars: Report | Washington Examiner
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 11:12
| March 15, 2022 09:25 PM
Saudi Arabia i s considering the Chinese yuan to price some of its oil transactions rather than the predominantly used U.S. dollar, according to a report.
Around 80% of global oil sales are conducted in U.S. dollars, but that level of dominance may not last with talks about a currency shake-up between Gulf nations and their counterparts in China, which buys more than 25% of Saudi Arabia's oil, as reported by the Wall Street Journal. That would mark a significant change for the Saudis, who have been trading oil exclusively in U.S. dollars for decades.
SAUDI ARABIA KILLS 81 PEOPLE SUSPECTED OF TIES TO TERRORISM
Talks about yuan-priced oil contracts between the two countries have been on and off over the past six years but have become more frequent as Saudi Arabia's relationship with the United States becomes increasingly strained, sources told the publication.
The Biden administration released a report in February 2021 accusing Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman of having "approved" the 2018 operation that resulted in the death of Jamal Khashoggi, a columnist for the Washington Post. Prior to this, President Joe Biden pulled U.S. support "for offensive operations" taking place in Yemen, signaling a break with Saudi Arabia and a clear shift from the Trump administration's Middle East policy.
Additionally, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have said they are concerned about the U.S. taking part in talks geared toward reviving the Iran nuclear deal.
"The dynamics have dramatically changed," a Saudi official told the Wall Street Journal. "The U.S. relationship has changed. China is the world's biggest crude importer, and they are offering many lucrative incentives to the kingdom."
The report also cited a senior U.S. official who described the notion of Saudis selling oil to China in yuan as ''highly volatile and aggressive'' and ''not very likely.''
Saudi Arabia threatened to use other currencies aside from the U.S. dollar to sell oil over a bill in 2019 that would have allowed OPEC members to be hit by antitrust lawsuits, according to Reuters. The proposed legislation has been proposed several different times but has never passed.
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE FROM THE WASHINGTON EXAMINER
Biden announced March 8 that the U.S. would be banning oil and natural gas imports from Russia as a means to impose added economic pressure on Russian President Vladimir Putin to stop his war in Ukraine.
As Biden sought options to boost production, leaders from Saudi Arabia and the UAE declined White House requests to speak with the president, the Wall Street Journal previously reported. The White House denied there were any "rebuffed" calls.
David Simon - Wikipedia
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:17
American author, journalist, and television writer and producer
David Judah Simon[1] (born February 9, 1960) is an American author, journalist, and television writer and producer best known for his work on The Wire (2002''08).
He worked for The Baltimore Sun City Desk for twelve years (1982''95), wrote Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets (1991), and co-wrote The Corner: A Year in the Life of an Inner-City Neighborhood (1997) with Ed Burns. The former book was the basis for the NBC series Homicide: Life on the Street (1993''99), on which Simon served as a writer and producer. Simon adapted the latter book into the HBO mini-series The Corner (2000).
He was the creator, executive producer, head writer, and show runner for all five seasons of the HBO television series The Wire (2002''2008). He adapted the non-fiction book Generation Kill into a television mini-series, and served as the show runner for the project. He was selected as one of the 2010 MacArthur Fellows[2] and named an Utne Reader visionary in 2011.[3] Simon also created the HBO series Treme with Eric Overmyer, which aired for four seasons. Following Treme, Simon wrote the HBO mini-series Show Me a Hero with journalist William F. Zorzi, a colleague first at The Baltimore Sun and again later on The Wire. Simon and frequent collaborator George Pelecanos reunited to create original series The Deuce. The drama about the New York porn industry in the 1970s and 1980s stars Maggie Gyllenhaal and co-producer James Franco, and aired from 2017 to 2019. Simon's next series, The Plot Against America, debuted in 2020.
Early life and education [ edit ] Simon was born in Washington, D.C., the son of Dorothy Simon (n(C)e Ligeti), a homemaker, and Bernard Simon, a former journalist and then public relations director for B'nai B'rith for 20 years.[4][5][6][7] Simon was raised in a Jewish family, and had a bar mitzvah ceremony.[8] His family roots are in Russia, Belarus, Hungary, and Slovakia (his maternal grandfather had changed his surname from "Leibowitz" to "Ligeti").[6][9][10] He has a brother, Gary Simon, and a sister, Linda Evans, who died in 1990.[7]
In March 1977, when Simon was still in high school, Simon's father was one of a group of over 140 people held hostage (and later released) in Washington, D.C. by former national secretary of the Nation of Islam Hamaas Abdul Khaalis in the Hanafi Siege.[11][12][13]
Simon graduated from Bethesda-Chevy Chase High School in Bethesda, Maryland, and wrote for the school newspaper, The Tattler. In 1983, he graduated from the University of Maryland, College Park. While at college he wrote and was Editor for The Diamondback, and became friends with contemporary David Mills.[14]
Career [ edit ] Journalism [ edit ] Upon leaving college, Simon worked as a police reporter at The Baltimore Sun from 1982 to 1995.[17] Simon was hired by the Baltimore Sun for a piece he wrote about Lefty Driesell, who was then the men's basketball coach at the University of Maryland. Driesell had been extremely frustrated that one of his players was suspended from playing for sexual impropriety and called the victim, threatening to destroy her reputation if she did not withdraw her complaint. This was all done while the university administration was listening to the call, but they did nothing. Lefty Driesell was later given a 5-year contract and, in 2018, he was inducted into the ACC Hall of Fame.
Simon spent most of his career covering the crime beat.[17][18] A colleague has said that Simon loved journalism and felt it was "God's work".[18] Simon says that he was initially altruistic and was inspired to enter journalism by The Washington Post ' s coverage of Watergate but became increasingly pragmatic as he gained experience.[18]
Simon was a union captain when the writing staff went on strike in 1987 over benefit cuts.[19] He remained angry after the strike ended and began to feel uncomfortable in the writing room.[19] He searched for a reason to justify a leave of absence and settled on the idea of writing a novel.[19] "I got out of journalism because some sons of bitches bought my newspaper and it stopped being fun," says Simon.[20]
In 1988, disillusioned, Simon took a year's leave to go into the Baltimore Police Department Homicide Unit to write a book.[21]
Book [ edit ] Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets [ edit ] Simon's leave of absence from The Sun resulted in his first book Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets (1991). The book was based on his experiences shadowing the Baltimore Police Department homicide unit during 1988.[17] The idea came from a conversation on Christmas Eve 1985 in the unit office, where Det. Bill Lansey told him, "If someone just wrote down what happens in this place for one year, they'd have a goddamn book."[19] Simon approached the police department and the editors of the paper to receive approval. The detectives were initially slow to accept him, but he persevered in an attempt to "seem '... like part of the furniture". However, he soon ingratiated himself with the detectives, saying in the closing notes of the book, "I shared with the detectives a year's worth of fast-food runs, bar arguments and station house humor: Even for a trained observer, it was hard to remain aloof."[18] During one instance, Simon even assisted with an arrest. Two detectives Simon was riding with pulled their car to a curb to apprehend two suspects, but Detective Dave Brown got his trenchcoat caught in a seat belt when he tried to exit the car. Brown told Simon to assist Detective Terry McLarney himself, and Simon helped apprehend and search one of the suspects.[22]
The book won the 1992 Edgar Award for Best Fact Crime book.[23] The Associated Press called it "a true-crime classic".[22] The Library Journal also highly recommended it, and Newsday described it as "one of the most engrossing police procedural mystery books ever written".[22] Simon credits his time researching the book as altering his writing style and informing later work. He learned to be more patient in research and writing, and said a key lesson was not promoting himself but concentrating on his subjects.[18] Simon told Baltimore's City Paper in 2003 that Homicide was not traditional journalism. "I felt Homicide the book and The Corner were not traditional journalism in the sense of coming from some artificially omniscient, objective point of view," said Simon. "They're immersed in the respective cultures that they cover in a way that traditional journalism often isn't."[20]
Television [ edit ] Homicide: Life on the Street [ edit ] The publishers of Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets were eager for a screen adaptation and submitted it to numerous directors but there was little interest.[19] Simon suggested that they send the book to Baltimore native and film director Barry Levinson. Levinson's assistant Gail Mutrux enjoyed the book and both she and Levinson became attached as producers.[19] The project became the award-winning TV series Homicide: Life on the Street (1993''1999), on which Simon worked as a writer and producer.[17]
Simon was asked by Mutrux to write the show's pilot episode but declined, feeling he did not have the necessary expertise.[24] He collaborated with his old college friend David Mills to write the season two premiere "Bop Gun".[18][25] The episode was based on a story by executive producer Tom Fontana and featured Robin Williams in a guest starring role that garnered the actor an Emmy nomination. Simon and Mills won the WGA Award for Best Writing in a Drama for the episode.[18] Simon also received Austin Film Festival's Outstanding Television Writer Award in 2010.
Simon left his job with the Baltimore Sun in 1995 to work full-time on Homicide: Life on the Street during the production of the show's fourth season. Simon wrote the teleplay for the season four episodes "Justice: Part 2"[26] and "Scene of the Crime" (with Anya Epstein).[27] For season five he was the show's story editor and continued to contribute teleplays writing the episodes "Bad Medicine"[28] and "Wu's on First?" (again with Epstein).[29] He was credited as a producer on the show's sixth and seventh seasons. He wrote the teleplays for parts two and three of the sixth-season premiere "Blood Ties"[30][31] (the latter marking his third collaboration with Epstein) and provided the story for the later sixth-season episodes "Full Court Press"[32] and "Finnegan's Wake" (with James Yoshimura).[33] He provided the story for the seventh season episodes "Shades of Gray" (with Julie Martin),[34] "The Same Coin" (again with Yoshimura)[35] and "Self Defense" (with Eric Overmyer).[36] Simon wrote the story and teleplay for the seventh season episodes "The Twenty Percent Solution"[37] and "Sideshow: Part 2".[38] Simon, Martin and teleplay writer T. J. English won the Humanitas Prize in the 60 minutes category for the episode "Shades of Gray".[39] Simon was nominated for a second WGA Award for Best Writing in a Drama for his work on "Finnegan's Wake" with Yoshimura and Mills (who wrote the teleplay).[40]
Simon has said that he thought the show was a "remarkable drama" but that it did not reflect the book.[19] He has also said that when writing for the show he had to put his experiences of the real detectives aside as the characters became quite different, particularly in their more philosophical approach to the job.[24] Simon said that TV must find shorthand ways of referencing anything real.[18]
The Corner [ edit ] In 1997 he co-authored, with Ed Burns, The Corner: A Year in the Life of an Inner-City Neighborhood, the true account of a West Baltimore community dominated by a heavy drug market.[41][42] Simon credits his editor John Sterling with the suggestion that he observe a single drug corner.[17] He took a second leave of absence from the Baltimore Sun in 1993 to research the project.[18][43] Simon became close to one of his subjects, drug addict Gary McCullough, and was devastated by his death while he was writing the project.[18] Simon says that he approached the research with the abstract idea that his subjects may die because of their addictions but it was not possible to fully prepare for the reality.[18] He remains grateful to his subjects saying "This involved people's whole lives, there's no privacy in it. That was an enormous gift which many, many people gave us. Even the most functional were at war with themselves. But they were not foolish people. And they made that choice."[18]
The Corner was named a Notable Book of the Year by The New York Times.[44] Simon again returned to his journalism career after finishing the book but felt further changed by his experiences. He said he "was less enamored of the braggadocio, all that big, we're-really-having-an-impact talk" and no longer believed that they were making a difference; he left his job at The Sun within a year for work on NBC's Homicide.[18]
Soon after Homicide concluded Simon co-wrote (with David Mills) and produced The Corner as a six-hour TV miniseries for HBO.[19] The show received three Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries or a Movie, for Simon and Mills.[19]
The Wire [ edit ] Simon was the creator, show runner, executive producer and head writer of the HBO drama series The Wire.[43] Many of The Wire's characters and incidents also came from Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets. After the fourth season, Simon signed on to produce the fifth and final season of The Wire, which focused on the role of mass media in society.[46]
Again he worked with Ed Burns on creating the show. Originally they set out to create a police drama loosely based on Burns' experiences when working on protracted investigations of violent drug dealers using surveillance technology.[47] During this time Burns had often faced frustration with the bureaucracy of the police department, which Simon equated with his own ordeals as a police reporter for The Baltimore Sun.[48] Writing against the background of current events, including institutionalized corporate crime at Enron and institutional dysfunction in the Catholic Church, the show became "more of a treatise about institutions and individuals than a straight cop show."[49]
They chose to take The Wire to HBO because of their existing working relationship from The Corner. Owing to its reputation for exploring new areas, HBO was initially dubious about including a cop drama in their lineup, but eventually agreed to produce the pilot[49][50] after ordering a further two scripts to see how the series would progress.[51] Carolyn Strauss, the president of HBO entertainment, has said that Simon's argument that the most subversive thing HBO could do was invade the networks' "backyard" of police procedurals helped to persuade them.[17]
The theme of institutional dysfunction was expanded across different areas of the city as the show progressed. The second season focused on the death of working-class America through examination of the city ports.[52] The third season "reflects on the nature of reform and reformers, and whether there is any possibility that political processes, long calcified, can mitigate against the forces currently arrayed against individuals."[52] For the fourth season Simon again turned to Burns' experience, this time his second career as a Baltimore public school teacher in examining the theme of education.[17][53] The fifth season looked at the media, as well as continuing themes such as politics from earlier seasons.
Simon was reunited with his The Corner producers Robert F. Colesberry and Nina K. Noble on The Wire.[46] Simon credits Colesberry for achieving the show's realistic visual feel because of his experience as a director. They recruited Homicide star and director Clark Johnson to helm the pilot episode. The completed pilot was given to HBO in November 2001.[51] Johnson returned to direct the second episode when the show was picked up, and would direct the series finale as well, in addition to starring in the fifth season.
Simon approached acclaimed crime fiction authors to write for The Wire. He was recommended the work of George Pelecanos by a colleague while working at the Baltimore Sun because of similarities between their writing. The two writers have much in common including a childhood in Silver Spring, attendance at the University of Maryland and their interest in the "fate of the American city and the black urban poor."[51] Simon did not read Pelecanos initially because of territorial prejudice; Pelecanos is from Washington.[19] Once Simon received further recommendations including one from his wife Laura Lippman he tried Pelecanos' novel The Sweet Forever and changed his mind.[51] He sought out Pelecanos when recruiting writers for The Wire. The two met at the funeral of a mutual friend shortly after Simon delivered the pilot episode.[51] Simon pitched Pelecanos the idea of The Wire as a novel for television about the American city as Pelecanos drove him home.[51] Pelecanos became a regular writer[55] and later a producer for the show's second[56] and third seasons.[57] Simon and Pelecanos collaborated to write the episode "Middle Ground"[58][59] which received the show's first Emmy nomination, in the category Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series.[60]
Pelecanos left the production staff following the third season to focus on his next novel; Simon has commented that he missed having him working on the show full-time but was pleased that he continued to write for them and was a fan of the resultant book The Night Gardener.[61] Similar to Simon's own experience in researching Homicide Pelecanos spent time embedded with the Washington DC homicide unit to research the book.
Crime novelist Dennis Lehane has also written for the series starting with the third season.[57][62] Lehane has commented that he was impressed by Simon and Burns' ear for authentic street slang.[51]
Eric Overmyer was brought in to fill the role of Pelecanos as a full-time writer producer.[61][63] He had previously worked with Simon on Homicide where the two became friends.[61] Simon has said that he was impressed with Overmyer's writing particularly in synthesizing the story for "Margin of Error" as the episode is the height of the show's political storyline but must also progress other plot threads.[61]
Simon and his writing staff were nominated for the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Dramatic Series at the February 2009 ceremony for their work on the fifth season.[64] Simon and Burns collaborated to write the series finale "-30-" which received the show's second Emmy nomination, again in the category Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series.[65]
Simon has stated that he finds working with HBO more comfortable than his experiences with NBC on Homicide and that HBO is able to allow greater creative control because it is dependent on subscribers rather than on viewing figures.[41] He has said that he feels unable to return to network television because he felt pressure to compromise storytelling for audience satisfaction.[19]
Generation Kill [ edit ] Simon produced and wrote Generation Kill for HBO with Ed Burns. They again worked with Nina Noble as a producer. The miniseries is an adaption of the non-fiction book of the same name. It relates the first 40 days of the 2003 invasion of Iraq as experienced by 1st Reconnaissance Battalion and their embedded reporter, Evan Wright. Simon and Burns worked with Wright in adapting his book into the series.[66]
Treme [ edit ] Simon collaborated with Eric Overmyer again on Treme,[67] a project about musicians in post-Katrina New Orleans.[51] Overmyer lives part-time in New Orleans, and Simon believed his experience would be valuable in navigating the "ornate oral tradition" of the city's stories.[51] Simon also consulted with New Orleans natives Donald Harrison Jr., Kermit Ruffins, and Davis Rogan while developing the series.[68] The show focuses on a working-class neighborhood, and is smaller in scope than The Wire. The series premiered on April 11, 2010, on HBO and ran for four seasons.
Treme is named after the Faubourg Treme neighborhood in New Orleans that is home to many of the city's musicians.[67] Simon stated that the series would explore beyond the music scene to encompass political corruption, the public housing controversy, the criminal-justice system, clashes between police and Mardi Gras Indians, and the struggle to regain the tourism industry after the storm.[69] One of the principal characters in the pilot script runs a restaurant.[68] The series was filmed on location and was expected to provide a boost to the New Orleans economy.[69] Simon's casting of the show mirrored that of The Wire in using local actors wherever possible.[68] Wendell Pierce, who had previously played Bunk Moreland on The Wire, stars in the series. Clarke Peters, also of The Wire, is another series regular. Many other stars of The Wire have appeared in Treme, these include Steve Earle, Jim True-Frost, James Ransone, and Anwan Glover.[70]
Show Me a Hero [ edit ] In 2014, HBO greenlit production for Simon's next project Show Me a Hero, a six-hour miniseries co-written with William F. Zorzi and the episodes directed by Academy Award-winner Paul Haggis. The miniseries is an adaptation of the nonfiction book of the same name by Lisa Belkin and tells the story of Nick Wasicsko, the youngest big-city mayor in the country who is thrust into racial controversy when a federal court orders to build a small number of low-income housing units in the white neighborhoods of Yonkers, New York.[71] Oscar Isaac stars as Wasicsko and leads a cast, which includes Catherine Keener, Jim Belushi, Bob Balaban and Winona Ryder. The miniseries premiered on August 16, 2015.[72]
The Deuce [ edit ] The Deuce is a 2017 drama television series set in Times Square, New York focusing on the rise of the porn industry in the 1970s-80s. Created and written by Simon along with frequent collaborator George Pelecanos, the series pilot began shooting in October 2015.[73] It was picked up to series in January 2016. It premiered on September 10, 2017, and is broadcast by HBO in the United States.[74]
The Deuce tells the story of the legalization and ensuing rise of the porn industry in New York beginning in the 1970s and its ongoing rise through the mid-1980s. Themes explored include the rise of HIV, the violence of the drug epidemic and the resulting real estate booms and busts that coincided with the change.
The Plot Against America [ edit ] An adaptation of Philip Roth's novel, The Plot Against America is an alternate history told through the eyes of a working-class Jewish family in Newark, New Jersey; as they watch the political rise of Charles Lindbergh, an aviator-hero and xenophobic populist, who becomes president and turns the nation toward fascism.[75] The six-part miniseries premiered on March 16, 2020, on HBO.
Projects in development [ edit ] Parting the Waters:[76] With Taylor Branch, James McBride, Ta-Nehisi Coates, and Eric Overmyer.[77][78][79] About Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement, based on one of the volumes of the books America in the King Years written by Taylor Branch, specifically At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965''1968.[80] The project was to be produced by Oprah Winfrey,[81] but was shelved.[82]The Avenue: A book with William F. Zorzi Jr., on the Baltimore drug epidemic from 1951 to late 1980s[83]The Good Friday Plot: Miniseries about Abraham Lincoln[83] based upon Manhunt: The Twelve-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer by James L. Swanson[84] and American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies by Michael W. Kauffman.[85]Capitol Hill: A collaboration with Carl Bernstein set in Capitol Hill, it examines partisanship and the role money plays in influencing national governance. The series was ordered to pilot by HBO in 2015 but has not received a subsequent season order.[73][86]Legacy of Ashes: On the Central Intelligence Agency,[83] based on the 2007 book Legacy of Ashes by Tim Weiner. The show was taken to the BBC[87] and would have had Anthony Bourdain on the writing staff.[88]The Pogues: Musical project with the help of the late Philip Chevron in development at The Public Theater in New York City, with Laura Lippman and George Pelecanos[89]A Dry Run: The Lincolns in Spain: A historical miniseries set during the Spanish Civil War about the Abraham Lincoln and George Washington Battalions, which were composed of volunteers from the United States who wanted to help the Spanish Republic overcome fascism. Mark Johnson will be the series producer and Mediapro will be the series' production company.[90][91]Writing process [ edit ] Simon is known for his realistic dialogue and journalistic approach to writing.[51] He says that authenticity is paramount and that he writes not with a general audience in mind but with the opinions of his subjects as his priority.[51] He has described his extensive use of real anecdotes and characters in his writing as "stealing life".[92]
In a talk that Simon gave to a live audience in April 2007 at the Creative Alliance's storytelling series, Simon disclosed that he had started writing for revenge against John Carroll and Bill Marimow, the two most senior editors at The Baltimore Sun when Simon was a reporter at the paper.[93] Simon said he had watched Carroll and Marimow "single-handedly destroy" the newspaper and that he spent over ten years trying to get back at them.[93]
Anything I've ever accomplished as a writer, as somebody doing TV, anything I've ever done in life, down to, like, cleaning up my room, has been accomplished because I was going to show people that they were fucked up, wrong, and that I was the fucking center of the universe and the sooner they got hip to that, the happier they would all be.[93]
One of the actions Simon took was to name a character in The Wire after Marimow and make the character "a repellent police-department toady."[94] Carroll left The Baltimore Sun to become editor at the Los Angeles Times and resigned in 2005 after budget cuts were announced.[93] "He stands up like a [bleeping] hero, takes a bullet," said Simon.[93] In 2006 Marimow was diagnosed with prostate cancer, something that Simon said "took the edge off" his grudge.[93] Carroll and Marimow "were fuel for 10 years of my life. ... And now, I got nothing," Simon said.[93]
When asked about these comments, Simon said that he had spoken with "some hyperbole and, I hope, comic effect", adding that his basic viewpoint was: "that simple revenge is both empty and beside the point and that a good story carefully told has to speak to larger themes. You do not tell an ornate, careful story over ten hours of HBO airtime merely to bust on any given soul."[93]
Views on journalism [ edit ] In an interview in Reason in 2004, Simon said that since leaving the newspaper business he has become more cynical about the power of journalism.[41] "One of the sad things about contemporary journalism is that it actually matters very little. The world now is almost inured to the power of journalism. The best journalism would manage to outrage people. And people are less and less inclined to outrage," said Simon.[41] "I've become increasingly cynical about the ability of daily journalism to effect any kind of meaningful change. I was pretty dubious about it when I was a journalist, but now I think it's remarkably ineffectual."[41]
While testifying at a 2009 Senate hearing regarding the future of journalism in America, Simon indicted what he saw as poor online journalism, calling the phrase citizen journalist "Orwellian to [his] ears."[95] Simon ended his testimony by declaring, "I don't think anything can be done to save high-end journalism."[95]
Political views [ edit ] Simon has described himself as a social democrat, broadly supporting the existence of capitalism while opposing "raw, unencumbered capitalism, absent any social framework, absent any sense of community, without regard to the weakest and most vulnerable classes in society", which he described as "a recipe for needless pain, needless human waste, (and) needless tragedy". He has criticized the idea of trickle-down economics.[96]
In 2013, Simon compared the global surveillance disclosures uncovered by Edward Snowden to a 1980s effort by the City of Baltimore to record the numbers dialed from all pay phones.[97] The city believed that drug traffickers were using pay phones and pagers, and a municipal judge allowed the city to record the dialed numbers. The placement of the payphone number recorders formed the basis of The Wire's first season. Simon argued that the media attention regarding the surveillance disclosures is a "faux scandal."[97][98]
During a November 2013 speech at the Festival of Dangerous Ideas in Sydney, he said that America has become "a horror show" of savage inequality as a result of capitalism run amok, and that "unless we reverse course, the average human being is worthless on planet Earth. Unless we take stock of the fact that maybe socialism and the socialist impulse has to be addressed again; it has to be married as it was married in the 1930s, the 1940s and even into the 1950s, to the engine that is capitalism."[99][100]
Simon has also spoken out publicly against crime journalist Kevin Deutsch, disputing the portrayal of Baltimore's illegal drug trade in Deutsch's book, Pill City: How Two Honor Roll Students Foiled the Feds and Built a Drug Empire. Simon has described the book as "a wholesale fabrication."[101]
During the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, Simon praised Bernie Sanders for "rehabilitating and normalizing the term socialist back into American public life", but opposed some attacks against Hillary Clinton which he felt focused on her presumed motives rather than the substance of policies.[96]
Personal life [ edit ] In 1991, Simon was married to graphic artist Kayle Tucker. They had a son. The marriage ended in divorce.
In 2006, Simon married best-selling Baltimore novelist and former Sun reporter Laura Lippman in a ceremony officiated by John Waters.[102][103] They have a daughter, who was born in 2010.[104]
Simon's nephew, Jason Simon, is a guitarist and vocalist for the psychedelic rock band Dead Meadow.[105] The band was mentioned in an episode of The Wire.
Simon was the 2012 commencement speaker for the Georgetown University College of Arts and Sciences, as well as the speaker for the Bethesda-Chevy Chase High School graduation.[106]
In 2019, Simon joined a host of other writers in firing their agents as part of the WGA's stand against the ATA after failing to come to an agreement on their "Code of Conduct". Simon's statement to the writers union was widely circulated. He had previously led the rallying cry about the unfair practices of packaging by the major talent agencies.[107][108]
Works and publications [ edit ] [ edit ] Simon, David (January 20, 2008). "Does the News Matter To Anyone Anymore?". The Washington Post . Retrieved 2012-08-20 . Simon, David (March 1, 2009). "In Baltimore, No One Left to Press the Police". The Washington Post . Retrieved 2012-08-20 . Simon, David (July 16, 2009). "Build the Wall". Columbia Journalism Review . Retrieved 2012-08-20 . Non-fiction books [ edit ] Simon, David (1991). Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-48829-4. OCLC 23356235Simon, David & Burns, Edward (1997). The Corner: A Year in the Life of an Inner-City Neighborhood. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 978-0-767-90030-0. {{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) OCLC 36857674Filmography [ edit ] Producer [ edit ] Writer [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ "Commencement - Bachelor of General Studies". University of Maryland College Park. December 1983. p. 47 . Retrieved 14 August 2015 . David Judah Simon ^ "David Simon: 2010 MacArthur Fellow". MacArthur Foundation . Retrieved 28 September 2010 . ^ "David Simon: Television Man". Utne Reader. November''December 2011 . Retrieved 19 October 2011 . ^ "Gets B'nai B'rith Press Post" (PDF) . The New York Times. 13 August 1956 . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ "Bernard Simon, Longtime B'nai B'rith Staffer, Dead at 89". B'nai B'rith. 21 April 2010 . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ a b Shefler, Gil (16 November 2010). "Pulling no punches, down to The Wire: David Simon, creator of the HBO series, discusses his Jewish upbringing, his characters, and his motivations". The Jerusalem Post . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ a b Brown, Emma (22 April 2010). "Bernard Simon, public relations director for B'nai B'rith, dies". The Washington Post . Retrieved 19 July 2015 '' via The Baltimore Sun. ^ "David Simon drew from his Jewish heritage to write 'The Plot Against America' ". 30 March 2020. ^ "David Simon - Pickles and Cream". davidsimon.com. 18 July 2012 . Retrieved 2 February 2017 . ^ " 'The Plot Against America' Explains How Genocide 'Can Happen Here' Says Producer". 11 March 2020. ^ Simon, Bernard (15 March 1977). "Maybe, He Thought, He'd Wind Up at Entebbe" (PDF) . The New York Times . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ Reinhold, Robert (12 March 1977). "Shaken Hostages Tell of Days of Terror" (PDF) . The New York Times . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ "Joy, Tears, Prayers and Sorrow Mark End of 39-hour Siege B'nai B'rith Leaders Appeal for Measures to". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 14 March 1977 . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ Hinson, Hal (2 June 2002). "Television/Radio; Revisiting Baltimore's Embattled Streets". The New York Times . Retrieved 11 October 2007 . ^ "MacArthur Fellows Program, David Simon =". MacArthur Foundation. 2010 . Retrieved March 28, 2015 . [permanent dead link ] ^ "The President Interviews the Creator of "The Wire" About the War on Drugs". whitehouse.gov. March 26, 2015 . Retrieved March 28, 2015 '' via National Archives. ^ a b c d e f g Drumming, Neil (2006-09-15). "High Wire Act". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-01-09 . Retrieved 2006-09-27 . ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rose, Cynthia. "The originator of TV's 'Homicide' remains close to his police-reporter roots". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 1999-04-28 . Retrieved 2006-09-28 . ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mary Alice Blackwell. "Fun comes down to 'The Wire' ". Daily Progress . Retrieved 2014-05-30 . ^ a b McCabe, Bret (May 28, 2003). "Under The Wire". Baltimore City Paper. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012 . Retrieved 2010-09-14 . ^ Maron, Marc (14 April 2016). "Episode 698 - David Simon". WTF with Marc Maron . Retrieved 20 April 2016 . ^ a b c Kalat, David P. (1998). Homicide: Life on the Street: The Unofficial Companion. Los Angeles, California: Renaissance Books. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-58063-021-4. ^ "Edgar Award Archives". Mystery Writers of America. Archived from the original on September 15, 2006 . Retrieved 2006-09-29 . ^ a b David Simon (1998). Homicide: Life on the Street season 4 interviews (DVD). NBC. ^ Stephen Gyllenhaal (director), Tom Fontana (story), David Simon and David Mills (teleplay) (1994-01-06). "Bop Gun". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 2. Episode 01. NBC. ^ Peter Medak (director), Tom Fontana and Henry Brommell (story), David Simon (teleplay) (1996-02-23). "Justice: Part 2". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 4. Episode 14. NBC. ^ Kathy Bates (director), Tom Fontana, Henry Brommell and Barry Levinson (story), David Simon and Anya Epstein (teleplay) (1996-04-12). "Scene of the Crime". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 4. Episode 18. NBC. ^ Kenneth Fink (director), Tom Fontana and Julie Martin (story), David Simon (teleplay) (1996-10-25). "Bad Medicine". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 5. Episode 4. NBC. ^ Tim McCann (director), Julie Martin and James Yoshimura (story), David Simon and Anya Epstein (teleplay) (1997-02-07). "Wu's on First?". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 5. Episode 15. NBC. ^ Nick Gomez (director), Tom Fontana and James Yoshimura (story), David Simon (teleplay) (1997-10-24). "Blood Ties: Part 2". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 6. Episode 2. NBC. ^ Mark Pellington (director), Tom Fontana, Julie Martin and James Yoshimura (story), David Simon and Anya Epstein (teleplay) (1997-10-31). "Blood Ties: Part 3". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 6. Episode 3. NBC. ^ Clark Johnson (director), David Simon (story), Phillip B. Epstein (teleplay) (1998-04-03). "Full Court Press". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 6. Episode 18. NBC. ^ Steve Buscemi (director), James Yoshimura and David Simon (story), David Mills (teleplay) (1998-04-24). "Finnegan's Wake". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 6. Episode 21. NBC. ^ Adam Bernstein (director), Julie Martin and David Simon (story), T. J. English (teleplay) (1999-01-08). "Shades of Gray". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 7. Episode 10. NBC. ^ Lisa Cholodenko (director), James Yoshimura and David Simon (story), Sharon Guskin (teleplay) (1999-01-29). "The Same Coin". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 7. Episode 12. NBC. ^ Barbara Kopple (director), David Simon and Eric Overmyer (story), Yaphet Kotto (teleplay) (1999-04-09). "Self Defense". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 7. Episode 18. NBC. ^ Clark Johnson (director), David Simon (writer) (1998-10-30). "The Twenty Percent Solution". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 7. Episode 04. NBC. ^ Edwin Sherin (director), David Simon (writer) (1999-02-19). "Sideshow: Part 2". Homicide: Life on the Street. Season 7. Episode 15. NBC. ^ "60 Minute Category". Humanitas Prize. Archived from the original on 2007-03-15 . Retrieved 2006-09-28 . ^ Nick Madigan (1999-01-14). "Cable pix please WGA". Variety . Retrieved 2006-09-28 . ^ a b c d e Jesse Walker (October 2004). "David Simon Says". Reason Magazine . Retrieved 2006-09-27 . ^ "The Corner: About the Book". Random House . Retrieved 2006-10-03 . ^ a b "David Simon Biography". HBO . Retrieved 2007-10-03 . ^ "Notable Books of the Year 1997 '' Non-Fiction". The New York Times . Retrieved 2006-09-29 . ^ a b Wiltz, Teresa (3 September 2007). "Down to "The Wire": It's a Wrap for Gritty TV Series". The Washington Post . Retrieved 3 September 2007 . ^ Guardian Members (22 October 2014). "David Simon on why he created The Wire - Observer Ideas". Archived from the original on 2021-11-18 . Retrieved 2 February 2017 '' via YouTube. ^ Steiner, Linda; Guo, Jing; McCaffrey, Raymond; Hills, Paul (August 2012). "The Wire and repair of the journalistic paradigm". Journalism. 14 (6): 703''720. doi:10.1177/1464884912455901. S2CID 146157813. ^ a b Ian Rothkirch (2002). "What drugs have not destroyed, the war on them has". Salon.com. ^ Alvarez, Rafael (2004). The Wire: Truth Be Told. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 18''19, 35''39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Margaret Talbot (2007). "Stealing Life". The New Yorker . Retrieved 14 October 2007 . ^ a b Richard Vine (2005). "Totally Wired". The Guardian Unlimited. London . Retrieved 1 May 2010 . ^ "A Teacher in Baltimore". HBO . Retrieved 2006-10-03 . ^ "Season 1 crew". HBO. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-14 . ^ "Season 2 crew". HBO. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-14 . ^ a b "Season 3 crew". HBO. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-14 . ^ "Episode guide '' episode 36 middle ground". HBO. 2004 . Retrieved 2006-08-09 . ^ David Simon, George P. Pelecanos (2004-12-12). "Middle Ground". The Wire. Season 3. Episode 11. HBO. ^ "Emmy award archives". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-16 . ^ a b c d "Exclusive David Simon Q&A". AOL. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-14 . ^ "Dennis Lehane biography". HBO. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-16 . ^ "Season 4 crew". HBO. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-10-16 . ^ "2009 Writers Guild Awards Television, Radio, News, Promotional Writing, and Graphic Animation Nominees Announced". WGA. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-12 . Retrieved 2008-12-12 . ^ "60th Primetime Emmy Awards". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences . Retrieved 2009-03-31 . ^ "HBO drafts cast for 'Kill' mini". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 3 June 2007. ^ a b "Wire Creator Heads to New Orleans". Zap2It. 2008 . Retrieved 13 July 2008 . ^ a b c Dave Walker (2008). "More on David Simon's 'Treme' ". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009 . Retrieved 13 July 2008 . ^ a b Dave Walker (2008). "HBO sets drama series in Treme with focus on city's musicians". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010 . Retrieved 13 July 2008 . ^ Dave Walker (2008). "New Orleans native Wendell Pierce set to star in 'Treme' ". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010 . Retrieved 13 July 2008 . ^ Nellie Andreeva (30 June 2014). "HBO Greenlights David Simon Miniseries Starring Oscar Isaac and Catherine Keener". Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved 20 May 2015 . ^ Amanda Kondolojy (20 May 2015). " 'Show Me a Hero' to Premiere on HBO Sunday August 16th at 9pm". Archived from the original on 24 May 2015 . Retrieved 20 May 2015 . ^ a b Andreeva, Nellie (6 August 2015). "David Simon '70s Times Square Porn Drama Starring James Franco, Capitol Hill Drama With Carl Bernstein Get HBO Pilot Orders". Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved 2 February 2017 . ^ "David Simon's HBO Porn Drama Starring James Franco Picked Up to Series". The Hollywood Reporter. 19 January 2016. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (November 8, 2018). "HBO Orders 'The Plot Against America' Miniseries From David Simon & Ed Burns". Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved November 8, 2018 . ^ "Ta-Nehisi Coates Signs With UTA". hollywoodreporter.com. 6 April 2016 . Retrieved 2 February 2017 . ^ "David Simon - A Maryland Film Festival panel slated". davidsimon.com. 4 May 2015 . Retrieved 2 February 2017 . ^ Kaltenbach, Chris (4 May 2015). "Md. Film Fest panel to feature David Simon, Ta-Nehisi Coates, Taylor Branch, James McBride". The Baltimore Sun . Retrieved 15 August 2015 . ^ Cep, Casey N. (11 May 2015). "Telling the Story of Civil Rights: A Conversation in Baltimore". The New Yorker . Retrieved 15 August 2015 . ^ Branch, Taylor (2006). At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68 (2006 Hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-85712-1. OCLC 62118415. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (5 March 2014). " 'The Wire's David Simon Takes On Oprah-Produced HBO Mini On Martin Luther King". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media, LLC . Retrieved 15 August 2015 . ^ Simon, David (July 26, 2021). "Rest in power, Bob Moses. Perhaps my single greatest professional regret is that a miniseries based on the Taylor Branch trilogy did not find purchase at HBO. Moses, of course, as centerpiece. First season of Westworld pulled an amazing number and our funds went to season two". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2021-07-26. ^ a b c Simon, David. "In Development". David Simon . Retrieved 15 August 2015 . ^ Swanson, James L. (2006). Manhunt: The Twelve-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer (1st ed.). New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-060-51849-3. OCLC 61253945. ^ Kauffman, Michael W. (2004). American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies (1. ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50785-4. OCLC 55000441. ^ Rose, Lacey (6 August 2015). "HBO Orders Two David Simon Pilots, James Franco to Star In Porn Drama". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved 25 September 2015 . ^ Simon, David. "Yes. Legacy of Ashes now being developed by the BBC, in conjunction with myself, Ed Burns and Dan Fesperman". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2021-09-12. ^ "Tony". The Audacity of Despair. 2018-06-11 . Retrieved 2021-09-12 . ^ Goodman, Amy (26 August 2015). "Two Separate Americas: David Simon's New Mini-Series Looks at "Hypersegregation" in Public Housing". Democracy Now! . Retrieved 27 August 2015 . video interview that includes full transcript ^ Hopewell, John (9 April 2018). " 'The Wire's' David Simon Developing New Series Set During Spanish Civil War (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety . Retrieved 7 May 2018 . ^ Clarke, Stewart (21 May 2018). "Michael Douglas, Ava DuVernay, David Simon Board New Shows for Atrium TV". Variety . Retrieved 29 May 2018 . ^ Margaret Talbot (2007). "Stealing Life". The New Yorker . Retrieved 14 October 2007 . Simon's gift is in recognizing an anecdote [...] for the found parable that it is '-- "stealing life," as he once described it to me '-- and knowing which parts to steal. ^ a b c d e f g h Vozzella, Laura (6 January 2008). "Baltimore Sun. Fake newsroom, real anger". Articles.baltimoresun.com . Retrieved 14 September 2010 . ^ Bowden, Mark (January 2008). "The Angriest Man In Television". The Atlantic. ^ a b "Testimony, U.S. Senate Commerce Committee, Hearing on The Future of Newspapers". The Audacity of Despair. 6 May 2009. ^ a b Sheehan, Helena; Sweeney, Sheamus (10 March 2018). "The Wire and the World". Jacobin . Retrieved 10 March 2018 . ^ a b Duncan, Ian. "David Simon weighs in on NSA surveillance." The Baltimore Sun. June 8, 2013. Retrieved on June 12, 2013. ^ "We are shocked, shocked'..." (Archive) David Simon Blog. June 7, 2013. Retrieved on June 12, 2013. ^ David Simon (7 December 2013). David Simon: 'There are now two Americas. My country is a horror show'. The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2013. ^ David Simon on America as a Horror Show. Moyers & Company, 31 January 2014. ^ "Fake Pill City - The Millions". The Millions. 2017-02-22 . Retrieved 2017-03-15 . ^ Zak, Dan (28 September 2010). " 'The Wire' writer David Simon among MacArthur genius grant winners". The Washington Post . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ Weiss, Max (August 2009). "The Baltimore Grill: Laura Lippman". Baltimore Magazine. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015 . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ Pinckley, Diana (3 October 2010). "Author Laura Lippman on her husband David Simon, New Orleans life and her love for mysteries". The Times-Picayune . Retrieved 19 July 2015 . ^ "Dead Meadow Gets Some Help From Uncle Dave". New York. 2008 . Retrieved 2008-07-20 . ^ "LivingSocial CEO Tim O'Shaughnessy and Producer of "The Wire" David Simon among this year's commencement speakers". georgetownvoice.com. 4 May 2012 . Retrieved 2 February 2017 . ^ "Damon Lindelof, Hart Hanson Among Top Showrunners Posting Termination Letters In Wake Of Failed WGA-ATA Negotiations". Deadline. ^ " 'The Wire' Creator David Simon Rips "Greedhead" Agencies Over Packaging, Urges Lawsuit Against ATA By The Deadline Team The Deadline Team More Stories By The Deadline Samantha Bee Goes Inside George And Kellyanne Conway Feud With 'Fifty Shades Of Grey' Parody Rob Riggle To Headline Discovery Channel's 'Global Investigator' 'Avengers: Endgame' Stars Kick Off Week Of Appearances On 'Jimmy Kimmel Live' VIEW ALL". Deadline. Further reading [ edit ] Bowden, Mark (January 2008). "The Angriest Man in Television". The Atlantic. "David Simon on Katrina Anniversary: New Orleans 'May Be the Greatest Gift We Have to Offer' ". Democracy Now!. August 26, 2015. Keller, Bill (6 May 2015). "Why Baltimore Is Burning, By the Man Who Wrote 'The Wire' ". Newsweek. Talbot, Margaret (October 14, 2007). "The crusader behind 'The Wire' ". New Yorker. "The Drug War Has to End: David Simon on "The Wire" & Over-Policing of the Poor". Democracy Now!. August 26, 2015. " 'The Wire's' David Simon and George Pelecanos". Fresh Air. September 23, 2004. "Two Separate Americas: David Simon's New Mini-Series Looks at Hypersegregation in Public Housing". Democracy Now!. August 26, 2015. External links [ edit ] Simon, David. The Audacity of Despair. David Simon's blog.David Simon at IMDb
Visit us safely | MoMA
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 23:07
We look forward to welcoming you to our galleries. We are now open at full capacity. For everyone's health and safety, COVID-19 vaccination (age 5+) and masks (age 2+) are required for all visitors.
Hours and arrivalMoMA is open from 10:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily and until 7:00 p.m. on Saturdays.
Monday mornings from 10:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. are reserved exclusively for members and their guests.
Free admission for New York City residents on the first Friday evening of every month, from 4:00 to 8:00 p.m., is made possible by UNIQLO.
Use the main entrance of the Rockefeller Building on 53rd Street, close to Sixth Avenue and just east of our flagship Museum Store.
For film screenings taking place in the Roy and Niuta Titus Theaters 1 and 2 or the Celeste Bartos Theater 3 during weekdays, please use the main Museum entrance. For screenings beginning after the Museum is closed or on weekends, please enter at the Ronald S. and Jo Carole Lauder Building entrance at 11 West 53rd Street for Titus 1 and 2 or at 4 West 54th Street for the Celeste Bartos Theater 3.
Please arrive during the 30-minute window of your timed ticket. If your plans change and you are unable to visit during your selected day/time, contact [email protected] for a refund or to change your selection.
Our checkroom is closed. Scooters, skateboards, rolling bags, and all items over 11 — 17 — 5'' [28 — 43 — 13 cm] are not permitted in the Museum. All bags will be inspected upon arrival. Please wear backpacks on the front of your chest or carry them to the side.
Entry is by timed ticket only. For the best availability, book tickets in advance online. See our Discounts page for more on free admission categories, including select colleges, other museum staff, active military, and more.
There are several private parking garages located near MoMA, and some offer special rates for our visitors.
What's open?TheatersOur theaters are now open. Proof of vaccination and masks are required for admission to indoor screenings.
For film screenings taking place in the Roy and Niuta Titus Theaters 1 and 2 or the Celeste Bartos Theater 3 during weekdays, please use the main Museum entrance. For screenings beginning after the Museum is closed or on weekends, please enter at the Ronald S. and Jo Carole Lauder Building entrance at 11 West 53rd Street for Titus 1 and 2 or at 4 West 54th Street for the Celeste Bartos Theater 3.
Learn more about our health and safety guidelines for indoor screenings and our general theater policies, and see what's playing.
Restaurants and caf(C)sThe Modern
The Modern Bar Room is open for indoor dining. Walk-ins are welcome and reservations can be made up to 7 days in advance.
Lunch, Tuesday''Saturday, 11:30 a.m.''2:30 p.m. Dinner, Tuesday''Saturday, 5:00 p.m.''9:00 p.m.Caf(C) 2
Located on the second floor of the Museum, Caf(C) 2 offers a diverse menu of rustic Italian cooking to be enjoyed at an array of communal tables, ideal for refueling in between gallery visits.
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Sunday 11:00 a.m.''4:00 p.m. Friday and Sunday 11:00 a.m.''5:00 p.m.Espresso Bar
Located on the second floor of the Museum.
Friday''Sunday, 10:30 a.m.''5:00 p.m.Terrace Caf(C)
The Museum's sixth-floor Carroll and Milton Petrie Terrace Caf(C) is open for dining indoors and, weather-permitting, on the outdoor terrace.
Monday''Thursday, 11:00 a.m.''4:00 p.m. Friday''Sunday, 11:00 a.m.''5:00 p.m.MoMA admission ticket holders can receive a discount at local restaurants. You can also check out some staff picks for where to eat in midtown'--we recommend you confirm each establishment's availability directly.
Programs and eventsUse QR codes throughout the Museum to access features created to enhance your visit, from maps to audio guides to artist interviews. Learn more.
While some of our in-person programming is suspended, you can explore our exhibitions and collections online on Magazine, with artist projects, videos, and other resources. We're also sharing art-making activities and workshops that you can enjoy from home.
The Crown Creativity Lab, Heyman Family Art Lab, and classrooms are currently closed. Performances, gallery talks, and other in-person events are currently suspended.
For membersMembers can reserve member timed tickets online. Standard guest quantity limits pertaining to each member category apply. Monday mornings are exclusively for members: From 10:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., MoMA is open to members and their guests only.
For a contactless visit, use your digital membership card. If you need a new digital card or would like to get an updated version, visit membership.moma.org and go to ''manage your membership.''
Entry to the Museum will be through the main entrance of the Rockefeller Building, just east of our flagship Museum Store, at 11 West 53rd Street only. The member entrance and checkroom are temporarily closed.
For questions about Corporate Member admission, contact [email protected] .
Visiting MoMA PS1MoMA PS1, MoMA's contemporary art affiliate in Long Island City, Queens, is open 12:00-6:00 p.m. Thursday to Monday and open until 8:00 p.m. on Saturday.
COVID-19 vaccination (age 5+) and face masks (age 2+) are required for all visitors. Visitors are encouraged to book advance timed tickets online. Tickets remain free for all New York City residents, made possible by The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation.
MoMA members receive priority access, subject to capacity restrictions, and do not need to book in advance. An allocation of timed tickets is reserved for members each hour; guest privileges apply.
In advance of your visit, discover even more from PS1 on your phone with the Bloomberg Connects app, a new digital experience. Read wall text, hear directly from artists, and uncover the building's history with this multimedia visitor guide.
PS1's checkroom is currently closed. Visitors will not be admitted with bags larger than 11 — 17 — 5'' (28 — 43 — 13 cm).
Socially-distanced seating has been added to PS1's outdoor Courtyard to offer visitors a safe social space. Face masks are optional in the outdoor Courtyard.
Mina's restaurant is open for window service Thursday through Sunday with a limited food and beverage menu.
The Artbook @ MoMA PS1 Bookstore is open during regular hours, with capacity limits and designated entrance/exit.
Our policiesOur policies are also available to download in English, Fran§ais, Deutsch, Italiano, Espa±ol, Portuguªs, í•'국어 (Korean), 日æ'¬èªž (Japanese), and 中文 (Mandarin).
All visitors (ages 5+) to The Museum of Modern Art and its Stores must show proof of COVID-19 vaccination authorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration or by the World Health Organization: two doses of an approved vaccine or one dose of Johnson & Johnson. We continue to require masks for visitors (ages 2+) and staff in all indoor areas of the Museum; complimentary face masks are available.
To enter the Museum and its Stores in Midtown and SoHo, you may show any of these accepted forms of proof of COVID-19 vaccination (together with a valid photo ID for ages 18+):
NYC COVID Safe App CLEAR Health Pass New York State Excelsior App or Excelsior Plus App A photo or hard copy of an official immunization record of a vaccine administered from within or outside the U.S. For visitors who received an immunization within the U.S., a photo or hard copy of their CDC vaccination card or other official immunization record showing proof of the following vaccines is acceptable: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, or an active (not placebo) COVID-19 vaccine candidate that is part of a U.S.-based clinical trial For visitors who received an immunization outside of the U.S., in addition to those listed above, proof of the following vaccines is acceptable: AstraZeneca/SK Bioscience, Serum Institute of India/COVISHIELD and Vaxzevria, Sinopharm-BBIBP, or Sinovac.We are working to keep you safe and healthy, but we cannot guarantee you won't be exposed to COVID-19. By entering MoMA or MoMA PS1 you assume the risk of such exposure.
If you feel sick or have a cough, sore throat, shortness of breath or trouble breathing, fever, chills, loss of smell, or muscle pain, or if you have been exposed to COVID-19, contact your health care provider and please do not visit MoMA or MoMA PS1.
We may share your name and email address with a governmental health authority should that information be requested for COVID-19 contact tracing purposes. If you do not want your name or email address used for these purposes, please email [email protected] .
Admire artwork from a distance, at least an arm's length. And no touching art, platforms, or cases (unless a sign or label says it's okay).
Sketching and writing is allowed in the galleries with pencils only. Please use sketchbooks no larger than 8 ½ by 11 inches.
Still photography is permitted for personal, noncommercial use only unless otherwise noted. Video is not permitted. Flash, tripods, and camera extension poles are not allowed.
Baby strollers are welcome, but stroller access may occasionally be limited in certain galleries. For your safety, strollers are not permitted on escalators and we ask that you not carry children on your shoulders.
At MoMA, we celebrate creativity, openness, tolerance, and generosity. We aim to be an inclusive place'--both onsite and online'--where diverse cultural, artistic, social, and political positions are welcome.
We're committed to working together to create a safe experience for our team and visitors, and our professionally trained frontline staff are here to help you. We have a zero-tolerance policy for individuals who endanger staff, visitors, artwork, or any Museum property, or who engage in verbal or physical harassment, discriminatory or threatening behavior, or otherwise interfere with the experience of others. The Museum will refuse or revoke admission to individuals who violate these policies.
For everyone's safety, please follow the instructions of security officers.
Sherrilyn Ifill - Wikipedia
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 22:37
American lawyer
Sherrilyn Ifill (born December 17, 1962) is an American lawyer. She is a law professor and president and director-counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.[1] She is the Legal Defense Fund's seventh president since Thurgood Marshall founded the organization in 1940. Ifill is also a nationally recognized expert on voting rights and judicial selection.[2] In 2021, Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world on its annual Time 100 list.
Early life and education [ edit ] Sherrilyn Ifill was born on December 17, 1962, in Baltimore, Maryland[3] to Lester and Myrtle. She is the youngest of 10 children.[4] Her mother passed away when Ifill was 6 years old.[4] She graduated from Hillcrest High School.[5] Ifill has a B.A. from Vassar College and a J.D. from New York University School of Law.[1]
She and the late PBS NewsHour anchor Gwen Ifill were first cousins. Their family immigrated to the U.S. from Barbados,[6] with Sherrilyn's and Gwen's fathers, who were brothers, both becoming African Methodist Episcopal ministers.[7]
Career [ edit ] While in law school, Ifill interned for Judge A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. the first summer and at the United Nations Centre for Human Rights the second summer.[2] Her first job out of law school was a one-year fellowship with the ACLU in New York.[8] She then served as assistant counsel at the Legal Defense Fund, litigating Voting Rights Act cases including the landmark Houston Lawyers' Association v. Attorney General of Texas.[8] In 1993, she joined the faculty of the University of Maryland Law School, where she taught for two decades.[9][10] She is the author of On the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the 21st Century,[11][12] a 2008 finalist for the Hurston-Wright Legacy Award for Nonfiction.[13]
Ifill regularly appears in the media for her expertise on topics like affirmative action,[14][15] policing,[16] judicial nominees,[17] and the Supreme Court.[18] Ifill has announced that she will step down from the role of president and director-counsel in the spring of 2022, to be replaced by Janai Nelson, currently the associate director-counsel at LDF.[19]
Personal life [ edit ] Ifill is married to Ivo Knobloch.[4] They have three children.[3]
Honors and awards [ edit ] In 2016, Ifill won the Society of American Law Teachers Great Teacher Award.[20]
Ifill was an American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow in 2019.[21] In 2020, Glamour magazine gave her a Woman of the Year award, calling her a "civil rights superhero."[22] In 2021, Ifill was included on the Time 100, Time ' s annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world.[23]
See also [ edit ] Joe Biden Supreme Court candidatesReferences [ edit ] ^ a b Thompson, Krissah (January 22, 2013). "Sherrilyn Ifill is to be head of NAACP legal defense and educational fund". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ a b "Alumnus/Alumna of the Month | NYU School of Law". www.law.nyu.edu . Retrieved February 19, 2017 . ^ a b "Sherrilyn Ifill's Biography". The HistoryMakers . Retrieved June 19, 2020 . ^ a b c Thompson, Krissah (January 22, 2013). "Sherrilyn Ifill is to be head of NAACP legal defense and educational fund". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 . Retrieved June 19, 2020 . ^ "Shaping the Civil Rights Discourse: Sherrilyn Ifill '84 - Vassar, the Alumnae/i Quarterly". vq.vassar.edu . Retrieved June 19, 2020 . ^ Alcindor, Yamiche (November 19, 2016). "Thousands of Mourners Celebrate Gwen Ifill's Tenacity and Grace". The New York Times . Retrieved February 1, 2017 . ^ Fineman, Howard (November 20, 2016). "Gwen Ifill's Funeral Was A Revival Meeting For America". HuffPost. ^ a b Okpalaoka, Ugonna (November 19, 2012). "Sherrilyn Ifill named head of NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund". The Grio . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ Edney, Hazel Trice (November 26, 2012). "NAACP Legal Defense Fund Names Sherrilyn Ifill Next President". Politic365. Archived from the original on April 10, 2018 . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ "Closing Statements" (interview with Sherrilyn Ifill). NYU Law Magazine. 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2020. ^ Levy, Peter B. "On the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century." The Journal of Southern History 75.2 (2009): 474. ^ "Nonfiction Book Review: On the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century by Sherrilyn A. Ifill, Author Beacon Press (MA) $25.95 (204p) ISBN 978-0-8070-0987-1". Publishers Weekly. January 29, 2007 . Retrieved January 13, 2021 . ^ "The Arena: Sherrilyn Ifill Bio". Politico. Archived from the original on May 27, 2009 . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ Hefling, Kimberly; Gerstein, Josh (June 23, 2016). "Supreme Court upholds college affirmative action program". Politico . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ Brown, Emma; Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle (June 23, 2016). "Affirmative action advocates shocked '' and thrilled '' by Supreme Court's ruling in University of Texas case". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ Rubenstein, Samuel (November 21, 2014). "BPR Interview: Sherrilyn Ifill". Brown Political Review . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ Burke, Lauren Victoria (March 18, 2016). "Garland Nomination: Black Advocates Want Him Vetted". NBC News . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ Barnes, Robert (May 1, 2016). "Scalia's death affecting next term, too? Pace of accepted cases at Supreme Court slows". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 15, 2016 . ^ "Sherrilyn Ifill to Step Down After Nearly a Decade of LDF Leadership; Longtime Deputy Janai Nelson to Lead LDF" (PDF) . NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. LDF Media. November 17, 2021 . Retrieved November 17, 2021 . ^ Society of American Law Teachers (May 16, 2016). "Update on SALT Activities." Retrieved February 19, 2017. ^ "2019 Fellows and International Honorary Members with their affiliations at the time of election". members.amacad.org . Retrieved March 9, 2020 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ John-John Williams IV. "Sherrilyn Ifill Honored as Civil Rights Superhero." Baltimore Sun, October 20, 2020, p. A2. ^ Specker, Lawrence (September 15, 2021). "Time's '100 most influential' list includes trio with Alabama ties". AL.com . Retrieved November 10, 2021 . External links [ edit ] Sherrilyn Ifill at NAACP LDFAppearances on C-SPAN Sherrilyn Ifill on Twitter
Heritage Foundation '-- Non Profit Data
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 22:33
Kay Coles JamesPRESIDENT40$504,136Kim HolmesEXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT40$349,643James W DemintPRESIDENT0$328,837Edwin J FeulnerTRUSTEE10$327,949James CarafanoVP, DAVIS INST. FOR NAT'L SECURITY40$283,101Becky Norton DunlopRONALD REAGAN DISTINGUISHED FELLOW40$271,209Genevieve WoodDIR., DONOR COMMS. & SPOKESPERSON40$256,549Robert BlueyVP, COMMUNICATIONS40$248,342Wesley DyckVP, PERSONNEL40$247,106Miguel M GonzalezSENIOR FELLOW40$243,175Carsten WalterSR. DIR., DEVELOPMENT OPERATIONS40$242,769Jack SpencerVP, INST. FOR ECONOMIC FREEDOM40$240,930John MalcolmVP, INST. FOR CONSTITUTIONAL GOV'T40$236,129Bridgett WagnerVP, POLICY PROMOTION40$235,573Jennifer PattersonVP, INST. FOR FAMILY, COMM., & OPP.40$231,231Eric KorsvallVP, OPERATIONS40$227,634John BackielVP, FINANCE & ACCOUNTING40$225,127Richard MillerDIR., CENTER FOR INT'L TRADE & ECON40$220,560Andrew McindoeVP, DEVELOPMENT40$182,979Thomas BinionVP, GOVERNMENT RELATIONS40$166,915Christopher ByrnesGENERAL COUNSEL & SECRETARY40$162,873John MitnickSVP, GENERAL COUNSEL, & SECRETARY40$160,744John FogartyVP, DEVELOPMENT40$140,537Edwin Meese IiiTRUSTEE10$114,100William L WaltonTRUSTEE2$0Brian TracyTRUSTEE2$0Thomas A Saunders IiiTRUSTEE2$0Anthony J SalibaTRUSTEE2$0Robert PenningtonTRUSTEE2$0Nersi Nazari PhdTRUSTEE2$0Abby MoffatTRUSTEE2$0Hon J William Middendorf IiTRUSTEE2$0Rebekah MercerTRUSTEE2$0Mark A KolokotronesTRUSTEE2$0William J HumeTRUSTEE2$0Virginia HeckmanTRUSTEE2$0Ryan HaggertyTRUSTEE2$0Malcolm Stevenson Forbes JrTRUSTEE2$0Larry P Arnn PhdTRUSTEE2$0Michael W GlebaVICE CHAIRMAN2$0Barb Van Andel-GabyCHAIRMAN2$0
Considering History: Operation Paperclip and Nazis in America | The Saturday Evening Post
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:57
Weekly NewsletterThe best of The Saturday Evening Post in your inbox!
This series by American studies professor Ben Railton explores the connections between America's past and present.
On September 20, 1945, the infamous Nazi scientist Wernher von Braun arrived at Fort Strong, a U.S. military site on Long Island in Boston Harbor. In a period when many of von Braun's Nazi colleagues were preparing to be tried in the Nuremberg war crimes trials that would commence exactly two months later, von Braun and other Nazi scientists were instead being brought to the United States to serve as prized members (and often leaders) of teams researching the space program, weapons technology, and other initiatives. Known as Operation Paperclip, this secret endeavor, led by the federal government's newly created Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), would eventually bring more than 1600 German scientists '-- many of them former Nazis '-- to America between 1945 and 1959.
Wernher von Braun in front of five F-1 engines of the Saturn V Dynamic Test Vehicle (NASA)The Soviet Union was similarly pursuing Nazi scientists for its own weapons and space programs, and so Operation Paperclip can be framed as part of the incipient Cold War, a reflection of how quickly and thoroughly the two nations pivoted from their tenuous World War II alliance to this new, multi-decade conflict. Yet at the same time, the relationship between the U.S. government and these Nazi scientists cannot be separated from the longstanding, deeply rooted presence of Nazis and antisemitism in America. From prominent figures and voices to mass movements and rallies, the two decades leading up to World War II featured numerous connections between Americans and Nazi Germany, links that reveal that Nazism was never simply a foreign or enemy force.
104 German rocket scientists who worked in America after World War II (NASA)One of those Americans with close ties to Nazi Germany was also one of the most successful and famous Americans of the early 20th century: Henry Ford. The automobile inventor and entrepreneur wasn't just a strident anti-Semite'--he was apparently an influence on the rise of German Nazism and even Adolf Hitler himself. Between 1920 and 1927, Ford and his aide Ernest G. Liebold published The Dearborn Independent, a newspaper that they used principally to expound anti-Semitic views and conspiracy theories; many of Ford's writings in that paper were published in Germany as a four-volume collection entitled The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem (1920-1922). Heinrich Himmler wrote in 1924 that Ford was ''one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters,'' and Hitler went further: in Mein Kampf (1925) he called Ford ''a single great man'' who ''maintains full independence'' from America's Jewish ''masters''; and in a 1931 Detroit News interview, Hitler called Ford an ''inspiration.'' In 1938, Ford received the Grand Cross of the German Eagle, one of Nazi Germany's highest civilian honors.
Henry Ford (Library of Congress)After his 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic, aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh was another of the period's most famous Americans, and in 1938 Lindbergh likewise received a Cross of the German Eagle in 1938, this one from German air chief Hermann Goering himself. Over the next two years, Lindbergh's public opposition to American conflict with Nazi Germany deepened, and despite subsequent attempts to recuperate that opposition as fear over Soviet Russia's influence, Lindbergh's views depended entirely on anti-Semitic conspiracy theories that equaled Ford's. In a September 1939 nationwide radio address, for example, Lindbergh argued, ''We must ask who owns and influences the newspaper, the news picture, and the radio station, '... If our people know the truth, our country is not likely to enter the war.'' Seen in this light, Lindbergh's role as spokesman for the era's America First Committee makes clear that that organization's non-interventionist philosophies during World War II could not and cannot be separated from the antisemitism and Nazi sympathies of figures like Lindbergh and Ford.
American Nazism was much more than just a perspective held by elite anti-Semites '-- it was very much a movement. And like so many problematic social movements, it featured a demagogic voice to help spread its alternative realities '-- in this case, the Catholic priest turned radio host Charles Edward Coughlin. By the time World War II began, Coughlin had been publicly supporting both Nazi Germany and anti-Semitic conspiracy theories for years; his weekly magazine, Social Justice, ran for much of 1938 excerpts from the deeply anti-Semitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a text that contributed directly to Hitler's views and the Holocaust. Both Social Justice and Coughlin's radio show were hugely popular throughout the 1930s '-- a separate post office was constructed in his hometown of Royal Oak, Michigan just to process the roughly 80,000 letters he and show received each week'--illustrating that American Nazism and anti-Semitism were widespread views in the period.
Coughlin's newspaper, Social Justice, being sold in New York in 1939 (Library of Congress)No moment reflected that American movement better than the February 20, 1939 rally that brought more than 20,000 Nazi supporters to New York's Madison Square Garden. The rally was put on by the German American Bund, a national organization which consistently sought to wed pro-Nazi Germany sentiments to direct appeals to mythic images of American identity and patriotism. To that end, the rally was held on George Washington's birthday, and the stage featured a portrait of Washington flanked by both American flags and Nazi flags/swastikas. After the rally opened with a performance of ''The Star-Spangled Banner,'' Bund secretary James Wheeler-Hill proclaimed in his introductory speech that ''If George Washington were alive today, he would be friends with Adolf Hitler.'' And in his closing speech, Bund leader Fritz Julius Kuhn went further, arguing that ''The Bund is open to you, provided you are sincere, of good character, of white gentile stock, and an American citizen imbued with patriotic zeal.''
The February 1939 German American Bund rally at Madison Square Garden in New York (The Nazis Strike, 1943)Yet many other Americans expressed their patriotic zeal by opposing this Nazi rally. An estimated 100,000 protesters gathered outside the Garden, dwarfing the 20,000 or so Nazi sympathizers inside. The protesters featured World War I veterans, members of the Socialist Workers Party, and countless other local and national organizations and communities. And inside the rally, one young man took such opposition a step further: Kuhn's speech was interrupted when Isadore Greenbaum, a 26-year-old Jewish-American plumber's assistant from Brooklyn (and future World War II naval sailor), charged the stage. Greenbaum was attacked by Bund guards, pulled away by police, and charged with disorderly conduct, for which he paid a $25 fine to avoid a 10-day jail sentence. But he was not the least bit apologetic, later stating, ''Gee, what would you have done if you were in my place listening to that s.o.b. hollering against the government and publicly kissing Hitler's behind while thousands cheered? Well, I did it.''
More than 100,000 anti-Nazi protesters outside of Madison Square Garden, 1939 (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, National Archives and Records Administration, public domain)Isadore Greenbaum (Stars & Stripes, December 8, 1944)Greenbaum and his fellow protesters make clear that these pro-Nazi sentiments were in no way unopposed in, nor exemplary of, 1930s America. But neither can those figures mitigate the troubling realities of the rally and its reflection of widespread American support for Hitler and the Nazis, support that included some of the nation's most famous individuals as well as tens of thousands of other Americans. In a moment when Nazi imagery and sentiments have returned to American social and political debates, we would do well to remember their deep roots in our culture.
Featured image: German American Bund parade in New York City in 1937 (Library of Congress)
Become a Saturday Evening Post member and enjoy unlimited access. Subscribe now
Elon Musk blasted for tweeting Adolf Hitler meme | TheHill
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:52
Tech entrepreneur Elon Musk Elon Reeve MuskHillicon Valley '-- Meta faces privacy violation fine in Ireland Tesla hikes prices twice in a week due to rising costs Elon Musk challenges Putin on Twitter to 'single combat' for Ukraine MORE is facing intense backlash after posting a meme on social media featuring Adolf Hitler.
Musk was responding on Twitter to a news report that the Canadian government had ordered financial institutions not to interact with dozens of crypto addresses tied to the nation's ongoing trucker protests.
In a post sent at 2:46 a.m., Musk tweeted a picture of Adolf Hitler with the caption "Stop comparing me to Justin Trudeau Justin Pierre James TrudeauFive things to watch for during Zelensky's address to Congress White House scoffs at Russian sanctions Zelensky urges Canadian parliament to support no-fly zone over Ukraine MORE . I had a budget."
ADVERTISEMENT
Musk, a bombastic businessman known for his controversial statements on politics, pop culture and economics, was hit with widespread condemnation for the tweet, which was still published as of Thursday morning.
"[Musk] has exercised extremely poor judgment by invoking Hitler to make a point on social media," the American Jewish Committee said in a post of its own. "Comparing Trudeau to a genocidal dictator who murdered millions is not an appropriate way to criticize policies. He must apologize immediately."
Others pointed out that Musk has posted pictures of Hitler on social media on previous occasions.
Musk, who hosted "Saturday Night Live" during a recent season, made headlines most recently when a doctors group representing more than 17,000 physicians filed a complaint against a program funded by Musk they said was conducting harmful research on monkeys.
Henry Ford - Wikipedia
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:49
American industrialist and businessman (1863''1947)
Henry Ford
Born ( 1863-07-30 ) July 30, 1863DiedApril 7, 1947 (1947-04-07) (aged 83)Resting placeSt. Martha's Episcopal Church Cemetery, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.OccupationEngineer, industrialist, philanthropistYears active1891''1945Known forFounding and leading the Ford Motor Company Pioneering a system that launched the mass production and sale of affordable automotives to the publicTitlePresident of Ford Motor Company1906''1919 and 1943''1945Political party Spouse(s) ChildrenEdsel FordHenry Ford (July 30, 1863 '' April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist, business magnate, founder of the Ford Motor Company, and chief developer of the assembly line technique of mass production. By creating the first automobile that middle-class Americans could afford, he converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into an accessible conveyance that profoundly impacted the landscape of the 20th century.
His introduction of the Ford Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As the Ford Motor Company owner, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism", the mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace. His intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout North America and major cities on six continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation and arranged for his family to permanently control it.
Ford was also widely known for his pacifism during the first years of World War I, and for promoting antisemitic content, including The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, through his newspaper The Dearborn Independent, and the book The International Jew.
Early life Henry Ford was born July 30, 1863, on a farm in Springwells Township, Michigan.[1] His father, William Ford (1826''1905), was born in County Cork, Ireland, to a family that had emigrated from Somerset, England in the 16th century.[2] His mother, Mary Ford (n(C)e Litogot; 1839''1876), was born in Michigan as the youngest child of Belgian immigrants; her parents died when she was a child and she was adopted by neighbors, the O'Herns. Henry Ford's siblings were Margaret Ford (1867''1938); Jane Ford (c. 1868''1945); William Ford (1871''1917) and Robert Ford (1873''1934). Ford finished eighth grade at a one room school,[3] Springwells middle school. He did not go to high school or college.[citation needed ]
His father gave him a pocket watch when he was 12. At 15, Ford dismantled and reassembled the timepieces of friends and neighbors dozens of times, gaining the reputation of a watch repairman.[4] At twenty, Ford walked four miles to their Episcopal church every Sunday.[5]
Ford was devastated when his mother died in 1876. His father expected him to take over the family farm eventually, but he despised farm work. He later wrote, "I never had any particular love for the farm'--it was the mother on the farm I loved."[6]
In 1879, Ford left home to work as an apprentice machinist in Detroit, first with James F. Flower & Bros., and later with the Detroit Dry Dock Co. In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the family farm, where he became adept at operating the Westinghouse portable steam engine. He was later hired by Westinghouse to service their steam engines. During this period, Ford also studied bookkeeping at Goldsmith, Bryant & Stratton Business College in Detroit.[7]
Ford stated two significant events occurred in 1875 when he was 12. He received a watch, and he witnessed the operation of a Nichols and Shepard road engine, "...the first vehicle other than horse-drawn that I had ever seen". In his farm workshop, Ford built a "steam wagon or tractor" and a steam car, but thought "steam was not suitable for light vehicles," as "the boiler was dangerous." Ford also said that he "did not see the use of experimenting with electricity, due to the expense of trolley wires, and "no storage battery was in sight of a weight that was practical." In 1885, Ford repaired an Otto engine, and in 1887 he built a four-cycle model with a one-inch bore and a three-inch stroke. In 1890, Ford started work on a two-cylinder engine.
Ford stated, "In 1892, I completed my first motor car, powered by a two-cylinder four horsepower motor, with a two-and-half-inch bore and a six-inch stroke, which was connected to a countershaft by a belt and then to the rear wheel by a chain. The belt was shifted by a clutch lever to control speeds at 10 or 20 miles per hour, augmented by a throttle. Other features included 28-inch wire bicycle wheels with rubber tires, a foot brake, a 3-gallon gasoline tank, and later, a water jacket around the cylinders for cooling. Ford added that "in the spring of 1893 the machine was running to my partial satisfaction and giving an opportunity further to test out the design and material on the road." Between 1895 and 1896, Ford drove that machine about 1000 miles. He then started a second car in 1896, eventually building three of them in his home workshop.[8]
Marriage and family Henry Ford in 1888
(aged 25)
Ford married Clara Jane Bryant (1866''1950) on April 11, 1888, and supported himself by farming and running a sawmill.[9] They had one child, Edsel Ford (1893''1943).[10]
Career In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit. After his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time and money to devote attention to his experiments on gasoline engines. These experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of a self-propelled vehicle, which he named the Ford Quadricycle. He test-drove it on June 4. After various test drives, Ford brainstormed ways to improve the Quadricycle.[11]
Also in 1896, Ford attended a meeting of Edison executives, where he was introduced to Thomas Edison. Edison approved of Ford's automobile experimentation. Encouraged by Edison, Ford designed and built a second vehicle, completing it in 1898.[12] Backed by the capital of Detroit lumber baron William H. Murphy, Ford resigned from the Edison Company and founded the Detroit Automobile Company on August 5, 1899.[12] However, the automobiles produced were of a lower quality and higher price than Ford wanted. Ultimately, the company was not successful and was dissolved in January 1901.[12]
With the help of C. Harold Wills, Ford designed, built, and successfully raced a 26-horsepower automobile in October 1901. With this success, Murphy and other stockholders in the Detroit Automobile Company formed the Henry Ford Company on November 30, 1901, with Ford as chief engineer.[12] In 1902, Murphy brought in Henry M. Leland as a consultant; Ford, in response, left the company bearing his name. With Ford gone, Leland renamed the company the Cadillac Automobile Company.[12]
Teaming up with former racing cyclist Tom Cooper, Ford also produced the 80+ horsepower racer "999," which Barney Oldfield was to drive to victory in a race in October 1902. Ford received the backing of an old acquaintance, Alexander Y. Malcomson, a Detroit-area coal dealer.[12] They formed a partnership, "Ford & Malcomson, Ltd." to manufacture automobiles. Ford went to work designing an inexpensive automobile, and the duo leased a factory and contracted with a machine shop owned by John and Horace E. Dodge to supply over $160,000 in parts.[12] Sales were slow, and a crisis arose when the Dodge brothers demanded payment for their first shipment.
Ford Motor Company In response, Malcomson brought in another group of investors and convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept a portion of the new company.[12] Ford & Malcomson was reincorporated as the Ford Motor Company on June 16, 1903,[12] with $28,000 capital. The original investors included Ford and Malcomson, the Dodge brothers, Malcomson's uncle John S. Gray, Malcolmson's secretary James Couzens, and two of Malcomson's lawyers, John W. Anderson and Horace Rackham. Because of Ford's volatility, Gray was elected president of the company. Ford then demonstrated a newly designed car on the ice of Lake St. Clair, driving 1 mile (1.6 km) in 39.4 seconds and setting a new land speed record at 91.3 miles per hour (146.9 kilometres per hour). Convinced by this success, race driver Barney Oldfield, who named this new Ford model "999" in honor of the fastest locomotive of the day, took the car around the country, making the Ford brand known throughout the United States. Ford also was one of the early backers of the Indianapolis 500.[citation needed ]
Model T The Model T debuted on October 1, 1908. It had the steering wheel on the left, which every other company soon copied. The entire engine and transmission were enclosed; the four cylinders were cast in a solid block; the suspension used two semi-elliptic springs. The car was very simple to drive, and easy and cheap to repair. It was so cheap at $825 in 1908 ($23,760 today), with the price falling every year, that by the 1920s, a majority of American drivers had learned to drive on the Model T,[13][14] despite the fact that drivers who were only familiar with the Model T's unique foot-operated planetary transmission and steering-column operated throttle-cum-accelerator had to learn a completely different set of skills to drive any other gasoline-powered automobile of the time.[citation needed ]
Ford created a huge publicity machine in Detroit to ensure every newspaper carried stories and ads about the new product. Ford's network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in almost every city in North America. As independent dealers, the franchises grew rich and publicized not just the Ford but also the concept of automobiling; local motor clubs sprang up to help new drivers and encourage them to explore the countryside. Ford was always eager to sell to farmers, who looked at the vehicle as a commercial device to help their business. Sales skyrocketed'--several years posted 100% gains on the previous year. In 1913, Ford introduced moving assembly belts into his plants, which enabled an enormous increase in production. Although Ford is often credited with the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and development came from employees Clarence Avery, Peter E. Martin, Charles E. Sorensen, and C. Harold Wills.[15] (See Ford Piquette Avenue Plant)
Sales passed 250,000 in 1914. By 1916, as the price dropped to $360 for the basic touring car, sales reached 472,000.[16]
A 1926 Ford T Roadster on display in India
By 1918, half of all cars in the United States were Model Ts. All new cars were black; as Ford wrote in his autobiography, "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black."[17] Until the development of the assembly line, which mandated black because of its quicker drying time, Model Ts were available in other colors, including red. The design was fervently promoted and defended by Ford, and production continued as late as 1927; the final total production was 15,007,034. This record stood for the next 45 years, and was achieved in 19 years from the introduction of the first Model T (1908).[citation needed ]
Henry Ford turned the presidency of Ford Motor Company over to his son Edsel Ford in December 1918. Henry retained final decision authority and sometimes reversed the decisions of his son. Ford started another company, Henry Ford and Son, and made a show of taking himself and his best employees to the new company; the goal was to scare the remaining holdout stockholders of the Ford Motor Company to sell their stakes to him before they lost most of their value. (He was determined to have full control over strategic decisions.) The ruse worked, and Ford and Edsel purchased all remaining stock from the other investors, thus giving the family sole ownership of the company.[18]
In 1922, Ford also purchased Lincoln Motor Co., founded by Cadillac founder Henry Leland and his son Wilfred during World War I. The Lelands briefly stayed to manage the company, but were soon expelled from it.[19] Despite this acquisition of a premium car maker, Henry displayed relatively little enthusiasm for luxury automobiles in contrast to Edsel, who actively sought to expand Ford into the upscale market.[20] The original Lincoln Model L that the Lelands had introduced in 1920 was also kept in production, untouched for a decade until it became too outdated. It was replaced by the modernized Model K in 1931.[citation needed ]
By the mid-1920s, General Motors was rapidly rising as the leading American automobile manufacturer. GM president Alfred Sloan established the company's "price ladder" whereby GM would offer an automobile for "every purse and purpose" in contrast to Ford's lack of interest in anything outside the low-end market. Although Henry Ford was against replacing the Model T, now 16 years old, Chevrolet was mounting a bold new challenge as GM's entry-level division in the company's price ladder. Ford also resisted the increasingly popular idea of payment plans for cars. With Model T sales starting to slide, Ford was forced to relent and approve work on a successor model, shutting down production for 18 months. During this time, Ford constructed a massive new assembly plant at River Rouge for the new Model A, which launched in 1927.[21]
In addition to its price ladder, GM also quickly established itself at the forefront of automotive styling under Harley Earl's Arts & Color Department, another area of automobile design that Henry Ford did not entirely appreciate or understand. Ford would not have a true equivalent of the GM styling department for many years.[citation needed ]
Model A and Ford's later career By 1926, flagging sales of the Model T finally convinced Ford to make a new model. He pursued the project with a great deal of interest in the design of the engine, chassis, and other mechanical necessities, while leaving the body design to his son. Although Ford fancied himself an engineering genius, he had little formal training in mechanical engineering and could not even read a blueprint. A talented team of engineers performed most of the actual work of designing the Model A (and later the flathead V8) with Ford supervising them closely and giving them overall direction. Edsel also managed to prevail over his father's initial objections in the inclusion of a sliding-shift transmission.[22]
The result was the successful Ford Model A, introduced in December 1927 and produced through 1931, with a total output of more than four million. Subsequently, the Ford company adopted an annual model change system similar to that recently pioneered by its competitor General Motors (and still in use by automakers today). Not until the 1930s did Ford overcome his objection to finance companies, and the Ford-owned Universal Credit Corporation became a major car-financing operation. Henry Ford still resisted many technological innovations such as hydraulic brakes and all-metal roofs, which Ford vehicles did not adopt until 1935''36. For 1932 however, Ford dropped a bombshell with the flathead Ford V8, the first low-price eight-cylinder engine. The flathead V8, variants of which were used in Ford vehicles for 20 years, was the result of a secret project launched in 1930 and Henry had initially considered a radical X-8 engine before agreeing to a conventional design. It gave Ford a reputation as a performance make well-suited for hot-rodding.[23]
Ford did not believe in accountants; he amassed one of the world's largest fortunes without ever having his company audited under his administration. Without an accounting department, Ford had no way of knowing exactly how much money was being taken in and spent each month, and the company's bills and invoices were reportedly guessed at by weighing them on a scale.[citation needed ] Not until 1956 would Ford be a publicly-traded company.[citation needed ]
Also, at Edsel's insistence, Ford launched Mercury in 1939 as a mid-range make to challenge Dodge and Buick, although Henry also displayed relatively little enthusiasm for it.[24]
Labor philosophy Five-dollar wage Time magazine, January 14, 1935
Ford was a pioneer of "welfare capitalism", designed to improve the lot of his workers and especially to reduce the heavy turnover that had many departments hiring 300 men per year to fill 100 slots. Efficiency meant hiring and keeping the best workers.[25]
Ford astonished the world in 1914 by offering a $5 per day wage ($130 today), which more than doubled the rate of most of his workers.[26] A Cleveland, Ohio, newspaper editorialized that the announcement "shot like a blinding rocket through the dark clouds of the present industrial depression".[27] The move proved extremely profitable; instead of constant employee turnover, the best mechanics in Detroit flocked to Ford, bringing their human capital and expertise, raising productivity, and lowering training costs.[28][29] Ford announced his $5-per-day program on January 5, 1914, raising the minimum daily pay from $2.34 to $5 for qualifying male workers.[30][31]
Detroit was already a high-wage city, but competitors were forced to raise wages or lose their best workers.[32] Ford's policy proved that paying employees more would enable them to afford the cars they were producing and thus boost the local economy. He viewed the increased wages as profit-sharing linked with rewarding those who were most productive and of good character.[33] It may have been Couzens who convinced Ford to adopt the $5-day wage.[34]
Real profit-sharing was offered to employees who had worked at the company for six months or more, and, importantly, conducted their lives in a manner of which Ford's "Social Department" approved. They frowned on heavy drinking, gambling, and on what are now called deadbeat dads. The Social Department used 50 investigators and support staff to maintain employee standards; a large percentage of workers were able to qualify for this "profit-sharing".[35]
Ford's incursion into his employees' private lives was highly controversial, and he soon backed off from the most intrusive aspects. By the time he wrote his 1922 memoir, he had spoken of the Social Department and the private conditions for profit-sharing in the past tense. He admitted that "paternalism has no place in the industry. Welfare work that consists in prying into employees' private concerns is out of date. Men need counsel and men need help, often special help; and all this ought to be rendered for decency's sake. But the broad workable plan of investment and participation will do more to solidify the industry and strengthen the organization than will any social work on the outside. Without changing the principle we have changed the method of payment."[36]
Five-day workweek In addition to raising his workers' wages, Ford also introduced a new, reduced workweek in 1926. The decision was made in 1922, when Ford and Crowther described it as six 8-hour days, giving a 48-hour week,[37] but in 1926 it was announced as five 8-hour days, giving a 40-hour week.[38] The program apparently started with Saturday being designated a workday, before becoming a day off sometime later. On May 1, 1926, the Ford Motor Company's factory workers switched to a five-day, 40-hour workweek, with the company's office workers making the transition the following August.[39]
Ford had decided to boost productivity, as workers were expected to put more effort into their work in exchange for more leisure time. Ford also believed decent leisure time was good for business, giving workers additional time to purchase and consume more goods. However, charitable concerns also played a role. Ford explained, "It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either 'lost time' or a class privilege."[39]
Labor unions Ford was adamantly against labor unions. He explained his views on unions in Chapter 18 of My Life and Work.[40] He thought they were too heavily influenced by leaders who would end up doing more harm than good for workers despite their ostensible good motives. Most wanted to restrict productivity as a means to foster employment, but Ford saw this as self-defeating because, in his view, productivity was necessary for economic prosperity to exist.[citation needed ]
He believed that productivity gains that obviated certain jobs would nevertheless stimulate the broader economy and grow new jobs elsewhere, whether within the same corporation or in others. Ford also believed that union leaders had a perverse incentive to foment perpetual socio-economic crises to maintain their power. Meanwhile, he believed that smart managers had an incentive to do right by their workers, because doing so would maximize their profits. However, Ford did acknowledge that many managers were basically too bad at managing to understand this fact. But Ford believed that eventually, if good managers such as he could fend off the attacks of misguided people from both left and right (i.e., both socialists and bad-manager reactionaries), the good managers would create a socio-economic system wherein neither bad management nor bad unions could find enough support to continue existing.[citation needed ]
To forestall union activity, Ford promoted Harry Bennett, a former Navy boxer, to head the Service Department. Bennett employed various intimidation tactics to quash union organizing.[41] On March 7, 1932, during the Great Depression, unemployed Detroit auto workers staged the Ford Hunger March to the Ford River Rouge Complex to present 14 demands to Henry Ford. The Dearborn police department and Ford security guards opened fire on workers leading to over sixty injuries and five deaths. On May 26, 1937, Bennett's security men beat members of the United Automobile Workers (UAW), including Walter Reuther, with clubs.[42] While Bennett's men were beating the UAW representatives, the supervising police chief on the scene was Carl Brooks, an alumnus of Bennett's Service Department, and [Brooks] "did not give orders to intervene".[43] The following day photographs of the injured UAW members appeared in newspapers, later becoming known as The Battle of the Overpass.[citation needed ]
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Edsel'--who was president of the company'--thought Ford had to come to a collective bargaining agreement with the unions because the violence, work disruptions, and bitter stalemates could not go on forever. But Ford, who still had the final veto in the company on a de facto basis even if not an official one, refused to cooperate. For several years, he kept Bennett in charge of talking to the unions trying to organize the Ford Motor Company. Sorensen's memoir[44] makes clear that Ford's purpose in putting Bennett in charge was to make sure no agreements were ever reached.[citation needed ]
The Ford Motor Company was the last Detroit automaker to recognize the UAW, despite pressure from the rest of the U.S. automotive industry and even the U.S. government. A sit-down strike by the UAW union in April 1941 closed the River Rouge Plant. Sorensen recounted[45] that a distraught Henry Ford was very close to following through with a threat to break up the company rather than cooperate. Still, his wife Clara told him she would leave him if he destroyed the family business. In her view, it would not be worth the chaos it would create. Ford complied with his wife's ultimatum and even agreed with her in retrospect. Overnight, the Ford Motor Company went from the most stubborn holdout among automakers to the one with the most favorable UAW contract terms. The contract was signed in June 1941.[45] About a year later, Ford told Walter Reuther, "It was one of the most sensible things Harry Bennett ever did when he got the UAW into this plant." Reuther inquired, "What do you mean?" Ford replied, "Well, you've been fighting General Motors and the Wall Street crowd. Now you're in here and we've given you a union shop and more than you got out of them. That puts you on our side, doesn't it? We can fight General Motors and Wall Street together, eh?"[46]
Ford Airplane Company Like other automobile companies, Ford entered the aviation business during World War I, building Liberty engines. After the war, it returned to auto manufacturing until 1925, when Ford acquired the Stout Metal Airplane Company.
Ford 4-AT-F (EC-RRA) of the Spanish Republican Airline,
L.A.P.E.Ford's most successful aircraft was the Ford 4AT Trimotor, often called the "Tin Goose" because of its corrugated metal construction. It used a new alloy called Alclad that combined the corrosion resistance of aluminum with the strength of duralumin. The plane was similar to Fokker's V.VII-3m, and some say[who? ]that Ford's engineers surreptitiously measured the Fokker plane and then copied it. The Trimotor first flew on June 11, 1926, and was the first successful U.S. passenger airliner, accommodating about 12 passengers in a rather uncomfortable fashion. Several variants were also used by the U.S. Army. The Smithsonian Institution has honored Ford for changing the aviation industry. 199 Trimotors were built before it was discontinued in 1933, when the Ford Airplane Division shut down because of poor sales during the Great Depression.
World War I era Ford opposed war, which he viewed as a terrible waste,[47][48] and supported causes that opposed military intervention.[49] Ford became highly critical of those who he felt financed war, and he tried to stop them. In 1915, the pacifist Rosika Schwimmer gained favor with Ford, who agreed to fund a Peace Ship to Europe, where World War I was raging. He led 170 other peace activists. Ford's Episcopalian pastor, Reverend Samuel S. Marquis, accompanied him on the mission. Marquis headed Ford's Sociology Department from 1913 to 1921. Ford talked to President Woodrow Wilson about the mission but had no government support. His group went to neutral Sweden and the Netherlands to meet with peace activists. A target of much ridicule, Ford left the ship as soon as it reached Sweden.[50] In 1915, Ford blamed "German-Jewish bankers" for instigating the war.[51]
According to biographer Steven Watts, Ford's status as a leading industrialist gave him a worldview that warfare was wasteful folly that retarded long-term economic growth. The losing side in the war typically suffered heavy damage. Small business were especially hurt, for it takes years to recuperate. He argued in many newspaper articles that a focus on business efficiency would discourage warfare because, ''If every man who manufactures an article would make the very best he can in the very best way at the very lowest possible price the world would be kept out of war, for commercialists would not have to search for outside markets which the other fellow covets.'' Ford admitted that munitions makers enjoyed wars, but he argued the most businesses wanted to avoid wars and instead work to manufacture and sell useful goods, hire workers, and generate steady long-term profits.[52]
Ford's British factories produced Fordson tractors to increase the British food supply, as well as trucks and warplane engines. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Ford went quiet on foreign policy. His company became a major supplier of weapons, especially the Liberty engine for warplanes and anti-submarine boats.[8]:'Š95''100,'Š119'Š [53]
In 1918, with the war on and the League of Nations a growing issue in global politics, President Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, encouraged Ford to run for a Michigan seat in the U.S. Senate. Wilson believed that Ford could tip the scales in Congress in favor of Wilson's proposed League. "You are the only man in Michigan who can be elected and help bring about the peace you so desire," the president wrote Ford. Ford wrote back: "If they want to elect me let them do so, but I won't make a penny's investment." Ford did run, however, and came within 7,000 votes of winning, out of more than 400,000 cast statewide.[54] He was defeated in a close election by the Republican candidate, Truman Newberry, a former United States Secretary of the Navy. Ford remained a staunch Wilsonian and supporter of the League. When Wilson made a major speaking tour in the summer of 1919 to promote the League, Ford helped fund the attendant publicity.[55][56]
Coming of World War II and Ford's mental collapse Ford had opposed the United States' entry into World War II[42][57] and continued to believe that international business could generate the prosperity that would head off wars. Ford "insisted that war was the product of greedy financiers who sought profit in human destruction". In 1939, he went so far as to claim that the torpedoing of U.S. merchant ships by German submarines was the result of conspiratorial activities undertaken by financier war-makers.[58] The financiers to whom he was referring was Ford's code for Jews; he had also accused Jews of fomenting the First World War.[42][59] In the run-up to World War II and when the war erupted in 1939, he reported that he did not want to trade with belligerents. Like many other businessmen of the Great Depression era, he never liked or entirely trusted the Franklin Roosevelt Administration, and thought Roosevelt was inching the U.S. closer to war. Ford continued to do business with Nazi Germany, including the manufacture of war materiel.[42] However, he also agreed to build warplane engines for the British government.[60] In early 1940, he boasted that Ford Motor Company would soon be able to produce 1,000 U.S. warplanes a day, even though it did not have an aircraft production facility at that time.[61]:'Š430'Š
Beginning in 1940, with the requisitioning of between 100 and 200 French POWs to work as slave laborers, Ford-Werke contravened Article 31 of the 1929 Geneva Convention.[42] At that time, which was before the U.S. entered the war and still had full diplomatic relations with Nazi Germany, Ford-Werke was under the control of the Ford Motor Company. The number of slave laborers grew as the war expanded even though Nazi authorities did not require German companies to use slave laborers.[citation needed ]
When Rolls-Royce sought a U.S. manufacturer as an additional source for the Merlin engine (as fitted to Spitfire and Hurricane fighters), Ford first agreed to do so and then reneged. He "lined up behind the war effort" when the U.S. entered in December 1941.[62] His support of the American war effort, however, was problematic.
Willow Run Before the U.S. entered the war, responding to President Roosevelt's call in December 1940 for the "Great Arsenal of Democracy", Ford directed the Ford Motor Company to construct a vast new purpose-built aircraft factory at Willow Run near Detroit, Michigan. Ford broke ground on Willow Run in the spring of 1941, B-24 component production began in May 1942, and the first complete B-24 came off the line in October 1942. At 3,500,000 sq ft (330,000 m2), it was the largest assembly line in the world at the time. At its peak in 1944, the Willow Run plant produced 650 B-24s per month, and by 1945 Ford was completing each B-24 in eighteen hours, with one rolling off the assembly line every 58 minutes.[63] Ford produced 9,000 B-24s at Willow Run, half of the 18,000 total B-24s produced during the war.[63][61]:'Š430'Š
Edsel's death When Edsel Ford died of cancer in 1943, aged only 49, Henry Ford nominally resumed control of the company, but a series of strokes in the late 1930s had left him increasingly debilitated, and his mental ability was fading. Ford was increasingly sidelined, and others made decisions in his name.[64] The company was controlled by a handful of senior executives led by Charles Sorensen, an important engineer and production executive at Ford; and Harry Bennett, the chief of Ford's Service Unit, Ford's paramilitary force that spied on, and enforced discipline upon, Ford employees. Ford grew jealous of the publicity Sorensen received and forced Sorensen out in 1944.[65] Ford's incompetence led to discussions in Washington about how to restore the company, whether by wartime government fiat, or by instigating a coup among executives and directors.[66]
Forced out Nothing happened until 1945 when, with bankruptcy a serious risk, Ford's wife Clara and Edsel's widow Eleanor confronted him and demanded he cede control of the company to his grandson Henry Ford II. They threatened to sell off their stock, which amounted to three quarters of the company's total shares, if he refused. Ford was reportedly infuriated, but had no choice but to give in.[67][better source needed ][68] The young man took over and, as his first act of business, fired Harry Bennett.
Antisemitism and The Dearborn Independent All his life, Ford was a conspiracy theorist, as he and his writers drew on a long European tradition of false allegations against Jews. Ford claimed that Jewish internationalism posed a threat to traditional American values, which he deeply believed were at risk in the modern world.[69] Part of his racist and antisemitic legacy includes the funding of square-dancing in American schools because he hated jazz and associated its creation with Jewish people.[70] In 1920 Ford wrote, "If fans wish to know the trouble with American baseball they have it in three words'--too much Jew."[71]
In 1918, Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G. Liebold, purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, The Dearborn Independent. The Independent ran for eight years, from 1920 until 1927, with Liebold as editor. Every Ford franchise nationwide had to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers. With around 700,000 readers of his newspaper, Ford emerged as "a respected spokesman for right-wing extremism and religious prejudice.".[72]
In Germany, Ford's antisemitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch, founder of several antisemitic parties and a member of the Reichstag. In a letter written in 1924, Heinrich Himmler described Ford as "one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters".[73] Ford is the only American mentioned favorably in Mein Kampf, although he is only mentioned twice:[74] Adolf Hitler wrote, "only a single great man, Ford, [who], to [the Jews'] fury, still maintains full independence ... [from] the controlling masters of the producers in a nation of one hundred and twenty millions." Speaking in 1931 to a Detroit News reporter, Hitler said he regarded Ford as his "inspiration", explaining his reason for keeping Ford's life-size portrait next to his desk.[75] Steven Watts wrote that Hitler "revered" Ford, proclaiming that "I shall do my best to put his theories into practice in Germany", and modeling the Volkswagen Beetle, the people's car, on the Model T.[76] Max Wallace has stated, "History records that ... Adolf Hitler was an ardent Anti-Semite before he ever read Ford's The International Jew."[77] Under Ford, the newspaper also reprinted the antisemitic fabricated text The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[78]
On February 1, 1924, Ford received Kurt Ludecke, a representative of Hitler, at home. Ludecke was introduced to Ford by Siegfried Wagner (son of the composer Richard Wagner) and his wife Winifred, both Nazi sympathizers and antisemites. Ludecke asked Ford for a contribution to the Nazi cause, but was apparently refused.[79]
Ford's articles were denounced by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). While these articles explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against Jews, they blamed the Jews themselves for provoking them.[80] According to some trial testimony, none of this work was written by Ford, but he allowed his name to be used as an author. Friends and business associates have said they warned Ford about the contents of the Independent and that he probably never read the articles (he claimed he only read the headlines).[81] On the other hand, court testimony in a libel suit, brought by one of the targets of the newspaper, alleged that Ford did know about the contents of the Independent in advance of publication.[42]
A libel lawsuit was brought by San Francisco lawyer and Jewish farm cooperative organizer Aaron Sapiro in response to the antisemitic remarks, and led Ford to close the Independent in December 1927. News reports at the time quoted him as saying he was shocked by the content and unaware of its nature. During the trial, the editor of Ford's "Own Page", William Cameron, testified that Ford had nothing to do with the editorials even though they were under his byline. Cameron testified at the libel trial that he never discussed the content of the pages or sent them to Ford for his approval.[82] Investigative journalist Max Wallace noted that "whatever credibility this absurd claim may have had was soon undermined when James M. Miller, a former Dearborn Independent employee, swore under oath that Ford had told him he intended to expose Sapiro."[83]
Michael Barkun observed: "That Cameron would have continued to publish such anti-Semitic material without Ford's explicit instructions seemed unthinkable to those who knew both men. Mrs. Stanley Ruddiman, a Ford family intimate, remarked that "I don't think Mr. Cameron ever wrote anything for publication without Mr. Ford's approval."[84] According to Spencer Blakeslee, "[t]he ADL mobilized prominent Jews and non-Jews to publicly oppose Ford's message. They formed a coalition of Jewish groups for the same purpose and raised constant objections in the Detroit press. Before leaving his presidency early in 1921, Woodrow Wilson joined other leading Americans in a statement that rebuked Ford and others for their antisemitic campaign. A boycott against Ford products by Jews and liberal Christians also had an impact, and Ford shut down the paper in 1927, recanting his views in a public letter to Sigmund Livingston, president of the ADL."[85] Wallace also found that Ford's apology was likely, or at least partly, motivated by a business that was slumping as a result of his antisemitism, repelling potential buyers of Ford cars.[42] Up until the apology, a considerable number of dealers, who had been required to make sure that buyers of Ford cars received the Independent, bought up and destroyed copies of the newspaper rather than alienate customers.[42]
Ford's 1927 apology was well received. "Four-fifths of the hundreds of letters addressed to Ford in July 1927 were from Jews, and almost without exception they praised the industrialist..."[86] In January 1937, a Ford statement to The Detroit Jewish Chronicle disavowed "any connection whatsoever with the publication in Germany of a book known as the International Jew".[86] Ford, however, allegedly never signed the retraction and apology, which were written by others'--rather, his signature was forged by Harry Bennett'--and Ford never actually recanted his antisemitic views, stating in 1940: "I hope to republish The International Jew again some time."[87]
In July 1938, the German consul in Cleveland gave Ford, on his 75th birthday, the award of the Grand Cross of the German Eagle, the highest medal Nazi Germany could bestow on a foreigner.[75][88] James D. Mooney, vice president of overseas operations for General Motors, received a similar medal, the Merit Cross of the German Eagle, First Class.[75][89]
On January 7, 1942, Ford wrote another letter to Sigmund Livingston disclaiming direct or indirect support of "any agitation which would promote antagonism toward my Jewish fellow citizens". He concluded the letter with, "My sincere hope that now in this country and throughout the world when the war is finished, hatred of the Jews and hatred against any other racial or religious groups shall cease for all time."[90]
The distribution of The International Jew was halted in 1942 through legal action by Ford, despite complications from a lack of copyright.[86] It is still banned in Germany. Extremist groups often recycle the material; it still appears on antisemitic and neo-Nazi websites. Testifying at Nuremberg, convicted Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach who, in his role as Gauleiter of Vienna, deported 65,000 Jews to camps in Poland, stated: "The decisive anti-Semitic book I was reading and the book that influenced my comrades was ... that book by Henry Ford, The International Jew. I read it and became anti-Semitic. The book made a great influence on myself and my friends because we saw in Henry Ford the representative of success and also the representative of a progressive social policy."[91]
Robert Lacey wrote in Ford: The Men and the Machines that a close Willow Run associate of Ford reported that when he was shown newsreel footage of the Nazi concentration camps, he "was confronted with the atrocities which finally and unanswerably laid bare the bestiality of the prejudice to which he contributed, he collapsed with a stroke '' his last and most serious."[92] Ford had suffered previous strokes and his final cerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1947 at age 83.[93]
International business Ford's philosophy was one of economic independence for the United States. His River Rouge Plant became the world's largest industrial complex, pursuing vertical integration to such an extent that it could produce its own steel. Ford's goal was to produce a vehicle from scratch without reliance on foreign trade. He believed in the global expansion of his company. He believed that international trade and cooperation led to international peace, and he used the assembly line process and production of the Model T to demonstrate it.[94]
He opened Ford assembly plants in Britain and Canada in 1911, and soon became the biggest automotive producer in those countries. In 1912, Ford cooperated with Giovanni Agnelli of Fiat to launch the first Italian automotive assembly plants. The first plants in Germany were built in the 1920s with the encouragement of Herbert Hoover and the Commerce Department, which agreed with Ford's theory that international trade was essential to world peace.[95] In the 1920s, Ford also opened plants in Australia, India, and France, and by 1929, he had successful dealerships on six continents. Ford experimented with a commercial rubber plantation in the Amazon jungle called Fordlndia; it was one of his few failures.
After signing the contract for technical assistance in building Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky) Automobile Plant. Dearborn, Mich., May 31, 1929. Left to right,
Valery I. Mezhlauk, Vice Chairman of VSNKh; Henry Ford;
Saul G. Bron, President of Amtorg.
In 1929, Ford made an agreement with the Soviets to provide technical aid over nine years in building the first Soviet automobile plant (GAZ) near Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky)[96] (an additional contract for construction of the plant was signed with The Austin Company on August 23, 1929).[97] The contract involved the purchase of $30,000,000 worth of knocked-down Ford cars and trucks for assembly during the first four years of the plant's operation, after which the plant would gradually switch to Soviet-made components. Ford sent his engineers and technicians to the Soviet Union to help install the equipment and train the workforce, while over a hundred Soviet engineers and technicians were stationed at Ford's plants in Detroit and Dearborn "for the purpose of learning the methods and practice of manufacture and assembly in the Company's plants".[98] Said Ford: "No matter where industry prospers, whether in India or China, or Russia, the more profit there will be for everyone, including us. All the world is bound to catch some good from it."[99]
By 1932, Ford was manufacturing one-third of the world's automobiles. It set up numerous subsidiaries that sold or assembled the Ford cars and trucks:
Henry Ford in Germany; September 1930
Ford's image transfixed Europeans, especially the Germans, arousing the "fear of some, the infatuation of others, and the fascination among all".[100] Germans who discussed "Fordism" often believed that it represented something quintessentially American. They saw the size, tempo, standardization, and philosophy of production demonstrated at the Ford Works as a national service'--an "American thing" that represented the culture of the United States. Both supporters and critics insisted that Fordism epitomized American capitalist development, and that the auto industry was the key to understanding economic and social relations in the United States. As one German explained, "Automobiles have so completely changed the American's mode of life that today one can hardly imagine being without a car. It is difficult to remember what life was like before Mr. Ford began preaching his doctrine of salvation".[101] For many Germans, Ford embodied the essence of successful Americanism.
In My Life and Work, Ford predicted that if greed, racism, and short-sightedness could be overcome, then economic and technological development throughout the world would progress to the point that international trade would no longer be based on (what today would be called) colonial or neocolonial models and would truly benefit all peoples.[102]
Racing Ford maintained an interest in auto racing from 1901 to 1913 and began his involvement in the sport as both a builder and a driver, later turning the wheel over to hired drivers. He entered stripped-down Model Ts in races, finishing first (although later disqualified) in an "ocean-to-ocean" (across the United States) race in 1909, and setting a one-mile (1.6 km) oval speed record at Detroit Fairgrounds in 1911 with driver Frank Kulick. In 1913, Ford attempted to enter a reworked Model T in the Indianapolis 500 but was told rules required the addition of another 1,000 pounds (450 kg) to the car before it could qualify. Ford dropped out of the race and soon thereafter dropped out of racing permanently, citing dissatisfaction with the sport's rules, demands on his time by the booming production of the Model T, and his low opinion of racing as a worthwhile activity.
In My Life and Work Ford speaks (briefly) of racing in a rather dismissive tone, as something that is not at all a good measure of automobiles in general. He describes himself as someone who raced only because in the 1890s through 1910s, one had to race because prevailing ignorance held that racing was the way to prove the worth of an automobile. Ford did not agree. But he was determined that as long as this was the definition of success (flawed though the definition was), then his cars would be the best that there were at racing.[103] Throughout the book, he continually returns to ideals such as transportation, production efficiency, affordability, reliability, fuel efficiency, economic prosperity, and the automation of drudgery in farming and industry, but rarely mentions, and rather belittles, the idea of merely going fast from point A to point B.
Nevertheless, Ford did make quite an impact on auto racing during his racing years, and he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1996.[104]
Later career and death When Edsel Ford, President of Ford Motor Company, died of cancer in May 1943, the elderly and ailing Henry Ford decided to assume the presidency. By this point, Ford, nearing 80 years old, had had several cardiovascular events (variously cited as heart attacks or strokes) and was mentally inconsistent, suspicious, and generally no longer fit for such immense responsibilities.[105]
Most of the directors did not want to see him as president. But for the previous 20 years, though he had long been without any official executive title, he had always had de facto control over the company; the board and the management had never seriously defied him, and this time was no different. The directors elected him,[106] and he served until the end of the war. During this period the company began to decline, losing more than $10 million a month ($149,560,000 today). The administration of President Franklin Roosevelt had been considering a government takeover of the company in order to ensure continued war production,[66] but the idea never progressed.
Ford grave, Ford Cemetery
His health failing, Ford ceded the company presidency to his grandson Henry Ford II in September 1945 and retired. He died on April 7, 1947, of a cerebral hemorrhage at Fair Lane, his estate in Dearborn, at the age of 83. A public viewing was held at Greenfield Village where up to 5,000 people per hour filed past the casket. Funeral services were held in Detroit's Cathedral Church of St. Paul and he was buried in the Ford Cemetery in Detroit.[93][107]
Personal interests A compendium of short biographies of famous Freemasons, published by a Freemason lodge, lists Ford as a member.[108] The Grand Lodge of New York confirms that Ford was a Freemason, and was raised in Palestine Lodge No. 357, Detroit, in 1894. When he received the 33rd degree of the Scottish Rite in 1940, he said, "Masonry is the best balance wheel the United States has."[109]
In 1923, Ford's pastor, and head of his sociology department, Episcopal minister Samuel S. Marquis, claimed that Ford believed, or "once believed," in reincarnation.[110]
Ford published an anti-smoking book, circulated to youth in 1914, called The Case Against the Little White Slaver, which documented many dangers of cigarette smoking attested to by many researchers and luminaries.[111] At the time, smoking was ubiquitous and not yet widely associated with health problems, making Ford's opposition to cigarettes unusual.
Interest in materials science and engineering Henry Ford had a long-held interest in materials science and engineering. He enthusiastically described his company's adoption of vanadium steel alloys and subsequent metallurgic R&D work.[112]
Ford also had a long-standing interest in plastics developed from agricultural products, particularly soybeans. He cultivated a relationship with George Washington Carver for this purpose.[113][114][115] Soybean-based plastics were used in Ford automobiles throughout the 1930s in plastic parts such as car horns, in paint and other components. The project culminated in 1942, when Ford patented an automobile made almost entirely of plastic, attached to a tubular welded frame. It weighed 30% less than a steel car and was said to be able to withstand blows ten times greater than steel. It ran on grain alcohol (ethanol) instead of gasoline. The design never caught on.[116]
Ford was interested in engineered woods ("Better wood can be made than is grown"[117]) (at this time plywood and particle board were little more than experimental ideas); corn as a fuel source, via both corn oil and ethanol;[118] and the potential uses of cotton.[117] Ford was instrumental in developing charcoal briquets, under the brand name "Kingsford". His brother-in-law, E.G. Kingsford, used wood scraps from the Ford factory to make the briquets.
In 1927, Ford partnered with Thomas Edison and Harvey Samuel Firestone (each contributing $25,000) to create the Edison Botanic Research Corp. in Fort Myers, Florida to seek a native source of rubber.
Ford was a prolific inventor and was awarded 161 U.S. patents.
Florida and Georgia residences and community Ford had a vacation residence in Fort Myers, Florida, next to that of Thomas Edison, which he bought in 1915 and used until approximately 1930. It still stands today as a museum.[119]
He also had a vacation home (known today as the "Ford Plantation") in Richmond Hill, Georgia, which is now a private community. Ford started buying land in this area and eventually owned 70,000 acres (110 square miles) there.[120] In 1936, Ford broke ground for a beautiful Greek revival style mansion on the banks of the Ogeechee River on the site of a 1730s plantation. The grand house, made of Savannah-gray brick, had marble steps, air conditioning, and an elevator. It sat on 55 acres (22 ha) of manicured lawns and flowering gardens. The house became the center of social gatherings with visitations by the Vanderbilts, Rockefellers, and the DuPonts. It remains the centerpiece of The Ford Plantation today.[121] Ford converted the 1870s-era rice mill into his personal research laboratory and powerhouse and constructed a tunnel from there to the new home, providing it with steam. He contributed substantially to the community, building a chapel and schoolhouse and employing numerous local residents.
Preserving Americana Ford had an interest in "Americana". In the 1920s, he began work to turn Sudbury, Massachusetts, into a themed historical village. He moved the schoolhouse supposedly referred to in the "Mary Had a Little Lamb" nursery rhyme from Sterling, Massachusetts, and purchased the historic Wayside Inn. The historical village plan never came to fruition. He repeated the concept of collecting historic structures with the creation of Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. It may have inspired the creation of Old Sturbridge Village as well. About the same time, he began collecting materials for his museum, which had a theme of practical technology. It was opened in 1929 as the Edison Institute. The museum has been greatly modernized and is still open today.
In popular culture In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932), society is organized on "Fordist" lines, the years are dated A.F. or Anno Ford ("In the Year of our Ford"), and the expression "My Ford" is used instead of "My Lord". The Christian cross is replaced with a capital "T" for Model-T.Upton Sinclair created a fictional description of Ford in the 1937 novel The Flivver King.Symphonic composer Ferde Grofe composed a tone poem in Henry Ford's honor (1938).Ford appears as a character in several historical novels, notably E. L. Doctorow's Ragtime (1975), and Richard Powers' Three Farmers on Their Way to a Dance (1985).[122][123]Ford, his family, and his company were the subjects of a 1987 film starring Cliff Robertson and Michael Ironside, based on the 1986 biography Ford: The Man and the Machine by Robert Lacey.In the 2004 alternative history novel The Plot Against America, Philip Roth features Ford as Secretary of the Interior in a fictional Charles Lindbergh presidential administration after Lindbergh's victory over Roosevelt in the 1940 presidential election. The novel draws heavily on the administration's antisemitism and isolationism as a catalyst for its plot.In the 2020 HBO adapted miniseries of the same name, Ford is portrayed by actor Ed Moran.Ford appears as a Great Builder in the 2008 strategy video game Civilization Revolution.[124]In the fictional history of the Assassin's Creed video game franchise, Ford is portrayed as having been a major Templar influence on the events of the Great Depression, and later World War II.[125][126]Honors and recognition In December 1999, Ford was among 18 included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, from a poll conducted of the American people.In 1928, Ford was awarded the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson Medal.In 1938, Ford was awarded Nazi Germany's Grand Cross of the German Eagle, a medal given to foreigners sympathetic to Nazism.[127]The United States Postal Service honored Ford with a Prominent Americans series (1965''1978) 12 postage stamp.He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1946.[128][129]In 1975, Ford was posthumously inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame.[130]In 1985, he was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame.[131]He was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1996.[132]See also Capitalist peace Ford believed trade reduced the chance of warDetroit, Toledo and Ironton RailroadDodge v. Ford Motor CompanyEdison and Ford Winter EstatesFerdinand PorscheFerdinand VerbiestFord family treeJohn BurroughsList of covers of Time magazine (1920s)List of richest Americans in historyList of wealthiest historical figuresOutline of Henry FordPreston TuckerRansom OldsWilliam Benson MayoReferences ^ www.hfmgv.org The Henry Ford Museum: The Life of Henry Ford Archived October 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ^ "The history of Ford in Ireland". Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. ^ Henry Ford'--Biography, Education, Inventions, & Facts . Retrieved February 6, 2022 . ^ Ford, My Life and Work, 22''24; Nevins and Hill, Ford TMC, 58. ^ Evans, Harold "They Made America" Little, Brown and Company. New York ^ Ford, My Life and Work, 24; Edward A. Guest "Henry Ford Talks About His Mother," American Magazine, July 1923, 11''15, 116''20. ^ Watts, Steven (2006). The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century. Random House, Inc. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-307-55897-8. ^ a b Ford, Henry (2019). My Life and Work. Columbia. pp. 12''17. ISBN 9781545549117. ^ "Widow of Automobile Pioneer, Victim of Coronary Occlusion, Survived Him Three Years". Associated Press. September 29, 1950. ^ "Edsel Ford Dies in Detroit at 49. Motor Company President, the Only Son of Its Founder, Had Long Been Ill". Associated Press. May 26, 1943. Edsel Ford, 49-year-old president of the Ford Motor Company, died this morning at his home at Grosse Pointe Shores following an illness of six weeks. ^ The Showroom of Automotive History: 1896 Quadricycle Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ^ a b c d e f g h i Ford R. Bryan, "The Birth of Ford Motor Company" Archived August 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Henry Ford Heritage Association, retrieved August 20, 2012. ^ Richard Bak, Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire (2003) pp. 54''63 ^ "The Life of Henry Ford". Archived from the original on October 5, 2001 . Retrieved November 28, 2013 . ^ Nevins (1954) 1:387''415 ^ Lewis 1976, pp. 41''59 ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , p. 72. ^ Nevins and Hill (1957) vol. 2 ^ "Lincoln Motor Company Plant". National Park Service. August 29, 2018 . Retrieved July 1, 2021 . ^ King 2003 ^ Nevins and Hill (1957) 2:409''36 ^ Sorensen 1956, p. 223 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSorensen1956 (help) . ^ Nevins and Hill (1957) 2:459''78 ^ King 2003 ^ Nevins and Hill (1957) 2:508''40 ^ Using the consumer price index, this was equivalent to $111.10 per day in 2008 dollars. ^ Lewis, Public Image p. 71 ^ Nevins, Ford 1:528''41 ^ Watts, People's Tycoon, pp. 178''94 ^ Ciwek, Sarah (January 27, 2014). "The Middle Class Took Off 100 Years Ago ... Thanks To Henry Ford?". NRP.org. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022 . Retrieved July 29, 2021 . ^ The Learning Network (January 5, 2012). "Jan. 5, 1914 : Henry Ford Implements the $5-a-Day Wage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022 . Retrieved July 29, 2021 . ^ Watts, People's Tycoon, pp. 193''94 ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , pp. 126''30. ^ Lewis, Public Image, 69''70 ^ "Helpful Hints and Advice to Ford Employes [sic]". www.thehenryford.org. Detroit: Ford Motor Company. 1915. pp. 8''9. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022 . Retrieved February 13, 2021 . ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , p. 130. ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , p. 126. ^ Samuel Crowther Henry Ford: "Why I Favor Five Days' Work With Six Days' Pay", World's Work, October 1926 pp. 613''16 ^ a b "May 01, 1926 : Ford Factory workers get 40-hour week". Archived from the original on March 25, 2018 . Retrieved December 1, 2018 . ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , pp. 253''66. ^ Harris, J: Henry Ford, pp. 91''92. Moffa Press, 1984. ^ a b c d e f g h Wallace, Max. (2003). The American axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ^ Wallace 2003, p. 311 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWallace2003 (help) ^ Sorensen 1956, p. 261 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSorensen1956 (help) . ^ a b Sorensen 1956, pp. 266''72 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSorensen1956 (help) . ^ Reuther., Dickmeyer, Elisabeth (2004). Putting the world together : my father Walter Reuther, the liberal warrior. Lake Orion, Mich.: LivingForce Pub. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-9753792-1-9. OCLC 57172289. ^ Henry Ford, Biography (March 25, 1999). A&E Television. ^ Michigan History, January/February 1993 ^ "Examining the American peace movement prior to World War I". April 6, 2017. ^ Watts (2005). The People's Tycoon . A.A. Knopf. pp. 225''49. ISBN 9780375407352. ^ Norwood, Stephen Harlan. Encyclopedia of American Jewish History. Vol. 1. Abc-clio, 2008, p.182 ^ Steven Watts, The people's tycoon: Henry Ford and the American century (Vintage, 2009). Pp 236-237. ^ Allan Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill, Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915''1933 (1957) 2:55''85 ^ Banham, Russ. (2002) The Ford Century. Tehabi Books. ISBN 1-887656-88-X, p. 44. ^ Watts (2005). The People's Tycoon . A.A. Knopf. p. 378. ISBN 9780375407352. ^ John Milton Cooper Jr, Woodrow Wilson: A Biography (2009) p. 521 ^ Baldwin, Neil (2001). Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate. New York: Public Affairs. ^ Stephen Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p. 505 ^ Baldwin ^ "WWII and Ford Motor Company '' Michigan History". ^ a b Sward, Keith (1948). The Legend of Henry Ford. Rinehart & Company Inc . Retrieved April 26, 2020 . ^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p. 508 ^ a b Nolan, Jenny. "Michigan History: Willow Run and the Arsenal of Democracy." The Detroit News, January 28, 1997. Retrieved: August 7, 2010. ^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p. 503 ^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) pp. 522''25 ^ a b Sorensen 1956, pp. 324''333 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSorensen1956 (help) . ^ Yates, Brock. "10 Best Moguls", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p. 45. ^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) pp. 522''27 ^ Michael Alexander, Review of "Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate." Jewish Quarterly Review 94#4 (2004), pp. 716-718 online ^ Pennacchia, Robyn (December 12, 2017). "America's wholesome square dancing tradition is a tool of white supremacy". Quartz . Retrieved June 16, 2019 . ^ Zeitlin, Alan (November 15, 2010). "Jews and Baseball Is a Film You Should Catch". The New York Blueprint. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010 . Retrieved February 6, 2014 . (citing the 2010 documentary film Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story, by Pulitzer Prize winner Ira Berkow) ^ Glock, Charles Y. and Quinley, Harold E. (1983). Anti-Semitism in America. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-87855-940-X, p. 168. ^ Allen, Michael Thad (2002). The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 14, 290. ISBN 978-0-8078-2677-5. See also, Pfal-Traughber, Armin (1993). Der antisemitisch-antifreimaurerische Verschw¶rungsmythos in der Weimarer Republik und im NS-Staat. Vienna: Braum¼ller. p. 39. . See also: Eliten-Antisemitismus in Nazi-Kontinuit¤t. Archived July 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine In: Graswurzelrevolution. December 2003. Pfal-Traughber and Allen both cite Ackermann. Heinrich Himmler als Ideologe. p. 37. ^ Mein Kampf pp. 929, 930 ^ a b c d "Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration". The Washington Post. November 30, 1998. pp. A01 . Retrieved March 5, 2008 . ^ Watts, p. xi. ^ Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindberg and the Rise of the Third Reich, St. Martin's Griffin, New York, p. 52 ^ Rudin, A. James (October 10, 2014). "The dark legacy of Henry Ford's anti-Semitism". The Washington Post . Retrieved January 14, 2018 . ^ Max Wallace. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich, (Macmillan, 2004), pp. 50''54, ISBN 0-312-33531-8. Years later, in 1977, Winifred claimed that Ford had told her that he had helped finance Hitler. This anecdote is the suggestion that Ford made a contribution. The company has always denied that any contribution was made, and no documentary evidence has ever been found (ibid p. 54). However, according to a captured Nazi document, the German subsidiary of Ford made a personal present to Hitler of 35,000 Reichsmarks in honor of his 50th birthday, in April 1939.[75] See also Neil Baldwin, Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate (Public Affairs, 2002), pp. 185''89, ISBN 1-58648-163-0. ^ Ford, Henry (2003). The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7829-3, p. 61. ^ Watts pp. x, 376''87; Lewis (1976) pp. 135''59. ^ Lewis, (1976) pp. 140''56; Baldwin pp. 220''21. ^ Wallace, Max. (2003). The American Axis: Ford, Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 30. ^ Barkun, Michael (1996). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-4638-4, p. 35. ^ Blakeslee, Spencer (2000). The Death of American Antisemitism. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96508-2, p. 83. ^ a b c Lewis, David I. (1976). The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1553-8. , pp. 146''54. ^ Pool & Pool 1978 ^ Kampeas, Ron (February 8, 2020). "At Ford-sponsored Auschwitz exhibit, no sign of founder's role in Nazi machine". Times of Israel . Retrieved February 5, 2022 . ^ Farber, David R. (2002). Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-23804-0, p. 228. ^ "Arnstein & Lehr, The First 120 Years" (Louis A. Lehr, Jr.)(Amazon), p. 32 ^ Baldur von Schirach before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. May 23, 1946. ^ Lacey, Robert (1986). Ford. pp. 218''219. ; which in turn cites:"The Poor Mr Ford". Josephine Fellows Gomon Papers. draft manuscript. Vol. Box 10. Bentley Historical Library. ^ a b "Leader in Production Founded Vast Empire in Motors in 1903. He had Retired in 1945. Began Company With Capital of $28,000 Invested by His Friends and Neighbors. Henry Ford Is Dead. Founder of Vast Automotive Empire and Leader in Mass Production". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 4, 1947. Archived from the original on April 9, 2018 . Retrieved January 1, 2020 . ^ Watts 236''40 ^ Wilkins ^ Melnikova-Raich, Sonia (2011). "The Soviet Problem with Two 'Unknowns': How an American Architect and a Soviet Negotiator Jump-Started the Industrialization of Russia, Part II: Saul Bron". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 37 (1/2): 5''28. ISSN 0160-1040. JSTOR 23757906. ^ Austin, Richard Cartwright (2004). Building Utopia: Erecting Russia's First Modern City, 1930. Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-1-61277-321-6. OCLC 819325601. ^ Agreement Between the Ford Motor Company, the Supreme Council of National Economy, and the Amtorg Trading Corporation, May 31, 1929, Amtorg Records 1929''1930, Acc. 199, box 1a, Benson Ford Research Center, The Henry Ford, Dearborn, Mich. ^ The New York Times, May 5 and 7, 1929. ^ Nolan p. 31. ^ Nolan, p. 31. ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , pp. 242''44. ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , p. 50. ^ Kidder, David S.; Oppenheim, Noah D. (October 14, 2008). The Intellectual Devotional Modern Culture: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently with the Culturati. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-60529-793-4. ^ Sorensen 1956, pp. 100, 266, 271''72, 310''14 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSorensen1956 (help) ^ Sorensen 1956, pp. 325''26 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSorensen1956 (help) . ^ Don Lochbeiler (July 22, 1997). "I think Mr. Ford is Leaving Us". The Detroit News Michigan History. detnews.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012 . Retrieved October 29, 2010 . ^ Denslow 2004, p. 62. ^ "Famous Masons". MWGLNY. January 2014. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. ^ Marquis, Samuel S. ([1923]/2007). Henry Ford: An Interpretation. Wayne State University Press. ^ The Case Against the Little White Slaver ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , pp. 18,65''67. ^ "George Washington Carver '' Visionaries on Innovation". www.thehenryford.org . Retrieved October 22, 2017 . ^ "George Washington Carver begins experimental project with Henry Ford '' July 19, 1942". HISTORY.com . Retrieved October 22, 2017 . ^ "George Washington Carver Examining Soy Fiber, Soybean Laboratory at Greenfield Village, 1939". www.thehenryford.org . Retrieved October 22, 2017 . ^ Lewis 1995 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLewis1995 (help) . ^ a b Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , p. 281. ^ Ford & Crowther 1922 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help) , pp. 275''276. ^ "Fort Myers Museums, Attractions, Things to do | Edison Ford Winter Estates". ^ Seibert, David. "Henry Ford at Richmond Hill". GeorgiaInfo: an Online Georgia Almanac. Digital Library of Georgia . Retrieved November 7, 2016 . ^ "Home". The Ford Field & River Club. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022 . Retrieved July 29, 2021 . ^ Hill, Andrew (August 19, 2015). "EL Doctorow's 'Ragtime' is still timely on tycoons". Financial Times . Retrieved October 11, 2018 . ^ KuÅn­r, Jaroslav (2017). "History, Art and Consumerism'-- Richard Powers' Three Farmers on Their Way to a Dance" (PDF) . CLEaR. 4 (1): 11''16. doi:10.1515/clear-2017-0002 . S2CID 54492211. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2018 . Retrieved October 11, 2018 . ^ Civilization Revolution: Great People Archived March 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine "CivFanatics" Retrieved on September 4, 2009 ^ Bertz, Matt (March 23, 2012). "Assassin's Creed III: Evolution of the Templar Order". Game Informer. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022 . Retrieved February 12, 2021 . ^ Mirowski, Jakub (April 19, 2020). "Adolf Hitler '' Nazi puppet of the order. History according to Assassin's Creed". Game Pressure. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022 . Retrieved February 12, 2021 . ^ Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ^ "Ten pioneers are named to automotive Hall of Fame". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. May 1, 1946. p. 10 . Retrieved March 5, 2016 . ^ "Henry Ford". Hall of Fame Inductees. Automotive Hall of Fame. 1946. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 . Retrieved March 5, 2016 . ^ Francomano, Joe; Lavitt, Darryl; Lavitt, Wayne (1988). Junior Achievement: A History. Junior Achievement, Inc. p. 89. ^ Ford, Henry at the National Aviation Hall of Fame ^ Henry Ford at the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America Bibliography Foust, James C. (1997). "Mass-produced Reform: Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent". American Journalism. 14 (3''4): 411''424. doi:10.1080/08821127.1997.10731933. Higham, Charles, Trading with the Enemy The Nazi''American Money Plot 1933''1949; Delacorte Press 1983Kandel, Alan D. "Ford and Israel" Michigan Jewish History 1999 39: 13''17. covers business and philanthropyKing, Jenny (June 16, 2003). "Lincoln Mercury: Stumbling stepchild" . Automotive News. Detroit. ProQuest 219377741 . Retrieved June 30, 2021 '' via ProQuest. Lee, Albert; Henry Ford and the Jews; Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1980; ISBN 0-8128-2701-5Lewis, David L. (1984). "Henry Ford's Anti-semitism and its Repercussions". Michigan Jewish History. 24 (1): 3''10. Reich, Simon (1999) "The Ford Motor Company and the Third Reich" Dimensions, 13(2):15''17 onlineRibuffo, Leo P. (1980). "Henry Ford and the International Jew". American Jewish History. 69 (4): 437''77. Sapiro, Aaron L. (1982). "A Retrospective View of the Aaron Sapiro-Henry Ford Case". Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly. 15 (1): 79''84. Silverstein, K. (2000). "Ford and the F¼hrer". The Nation. Vol. 270, no. 3. pp. 11''16. Woeste, Victoria Saker. (2004). "Insecure Equality: Louis Marshall, Henry Ford, and the Problem of Defamatory Antisemitism, 1920''1929". Journal of American History. 91 (3): 877''905. doi:10.2307/3662859. JSTOR 3662859. Further reading Memoirs by Ford Motor Company principals Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1922), My Life and Work, Garden City, New York, USA: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. Various republications, including ISBN 9781406500189. Original is public domain in U.S. Also available at Google Books.Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1926). "Today and Tomorrow". Garden City, New York City: Doubleday, Page & Company. Co-edition, 1926, London, William Heinemann. Various republications, including ISBN 0-915299-36-4.Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1930). "Moving Forward". Garden City, New York City: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. Co-edition, 1931, London, William Heinemann.Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1930). "Edison as I Know Him". New York: Cosmopolitan Book Corporation. Apparent co-edition, 1930, as My Friend Mr. Edison, London, Ernest Benn. Republished as Edison as I Knew Him by American Thought and Action, San Diego, 1966, OCLC 3456201. Republished as Edison as I Know Him by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4325-6158-1.Bennett, Harry; with Marcus, Paul (1951). We Never Called Him Henry. New York: Fawcett Publications. LCCN 51036122. .Sorensen, Charles E. (1956), My Forty Years with Ford, with Williamson, Samuel T., New York, New York, USA: Norton, LCCN 56010854 . Various republications, including ISBN 9780814342795.Biographies Bak, Richard (2003). Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire. Wiley ISBN 0-471-23487-7Brinkley, Douglas G. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress (2003)Halberstam, David. "Citizen Ford" American Heritage 1986 37(6): 49''64. interpretive essayJardim, Anne. The First Henry Ford: A Study in Personality and Business Leadership Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Press 1970.Lacey, Robert. Ford: The Men and the Machine Little, Brown, 1986. popular biographyLewis, David I. (1976). The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1553-8. Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1954). Ford: The Times, The Man, The Company. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-book; also online freeNevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1957). Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915''1933. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-bookNevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1962). Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933''1962. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-bookNye, David E. Henry Ford: "Ignorant Idealist." Kennikat, 1979.Watts, Steven. The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century (2005)Specialized studies Baime, A.J. The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit, and an Epic Quest to Arm an America at War (2014)Barrow, Heather B. Henry Ford's Plan for the American Suburb: Dearborn and Detroit. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2015.Batchelor, Ray. Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and Design Manchester U. Press, 1994.Bonin, Huber et al. Ford, 1902''2003: The European History 2 vol Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English; reviewed in Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and Fordism in Europe" in Business History Volume 47, #January 1, 2005 pp. 122''27Brinkley, Douglas. "Prime Mover". American Heritage 2003 54(3): 44''53. on Model TBryan, Ford R. Henry's Lieutenants, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2Bryan, Ford R. Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford Wayne State Press 1990.Dempsey, Mary A. "Fordlandia," Michigan History 1994 78(4): 24''33. Ford's rubber plantation in BrazilDenslow, William R. (2004) [1957]. 10,000 Famous Freemasons. Part. Vol. One, Volume 1, from A to J. Foreword by Harry S. Truman. (Paperback republication ed.). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-7578-5. Grandin, Greg. Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's Forgotten Jungle City. London, Icon, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84831-147-3Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800''1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269, OCLC 1104810110 Jacobson, D.S. "The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the Ford Motor Company at Cork 1912''26." Irish Economic and Social History 1977 4: 36''55. Ford and Irish politicsKraft, Barbara S. The Peace Ship: Henry Ford's Pacifist Adventure in the First World War Macmillan, 1978Levinson, William A. Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1Lewis, David L. "Ford and Kahn" Michigan History 1980 64(5): 17''28. Ford commissioned architect Albert Kahn to design factoriesLewis, David L. "Henry Ford and His Magic Beanstalk" . Michigan History 1995 79(3): 10''17. Ford's interest in soybeans and plasticsLewis, David L. "Working Side by Side" Michigan History 1993 77(1): 24''30. Why Ford hired large numbers of black workersLink, Stefan J. Forging Global Fordism: Nazi Germany, Soviet Russia, and the Contest over the Industrial Order (2020) excerptMcIntyre, Stephen L. "The Failure of Fordism: Reform of the Automobile Repair Industry, 1913''1940: Technology and Culture 2000 41(2): 269''99. repair shops rejected flat ratesMeyer, Stephen. The Five Dollar Day: Labor Management and Social Control in the Ford Motor Company, 1908''1921 (1981)Nevins, Allan, and Frank Ernest Hill. Ford: the Times the Man the Company (1954); Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915''1933 (1957); Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933''1962 (1963) comprehensive scholarly historyNolan; Mary. Visions of Modernity: American Business and the Modernization of Germany (1994)Daniel M. G. Raff and Lawrence H. Summers (October 1987). "Did Henry Ford Pay Efficiency Wages?" (PDF) . Journal of Labor Economics. 5 (4): S57''S86. doi:10.1086/298165. S2CID 158557619. Pietrykowski, Bruce. (1995). "Fordism at Ford: Spatial Decentralization and Labor Segmentation at the Ford Motor Company, 1920''1950". Economic Geography. 71 (4): 383''401. doi:10.2307/144424. JSTOR 144424. Pool, James; Pool, Suzanne (1978), " "Chapter: Ford and Hitler" ", Who Financed Hitler: The Secret Funding of Hitler's Rise to Power, 1919''1933, Dial Press, ISBN 978-0-7088-1756-8. Roediger, David, ed "Americanism and Fordism'--American Style: Kate Richards O'hare's 'Has Henry Ford Made Good?'" Labor History 1988 29(2): 241''52. Socialist praise for Ford in 1916Segal, Howard P. "'Little Plants in the Country': Henry Ford's Village Industries and the Beginning of Decentralized Technology in Modern America" Prospects 1988 13: 181''223. Ford created 19 rural workplaces as pastoral retreatsTedlow, Richard S. "The Struggle for Dominance in the Automobile Market: the Early Years of Ford and General Motors" Business and Economic History 1988 17: 49''62. Ford stressed low price based on efficient factories but GM did better in oligopolistic competition by including investment in manufacturing, marketing, and management.Thomas, Robert Paul. "The Automobile Industry and its Tycoon" Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 1969 6(2): 139''57. argues Ford did NOT have much influence on US industry,Vald(C)s, Dennis Nodin. "Perspiring Capitalists: Latinos and the Henry Ford Service School, 1918''1928" Aztln 1981 12(2): 227''39. Ford brought hundreds of Mexicans in for training as managersWilkins, Mira and Frank Ernest Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents Wayne State University Press, 1964Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, "Ford versus 'Fordism': The Beginning of Mass Production?" Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517''55 (1992), stress on Ford's flexibility and commitment to continuous improvementsExternal links
P. T. Barnum - Wikipedia
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:48
American showman and politician
Phineas Taylor Barnum (; July 5, 1810 '' April 7, 1891) was an American showman, businessman, and politician, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus (1871''2017)[1] with James Anthony Bailey. He was also an author, publisher, and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession ... and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me".[2] According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers."[2] He is widely credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute",[3] although no proof can be found of him saying this.
Barnum became a small business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834. He embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", and soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb.[4] In 1850, he promoted the American tour of Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights. He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum added America's first aquarium and expanded the wax-figure department.
Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut. He spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul, 'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot'--it is still an immortal spirit".[5] He was elected in 1875 as mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was also instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital in 1878 and was its first president.[6] Nevertheless, the circus business, begun when he was 60 years old, was the source of much of his enduring fame. He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome" in 1870, a traveling circus, menagerie, and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years.
Barnum was married to Charity Hallett from 1829 until her death in 1873, and they had four children. In 1874, a few months after his wife's death, he married Nancy Fish, his friend's daughter who was 40 years his junior. They were married until 1891 when Barnum died of a stroke at his home. He was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, which he designed himself.[7]
Early life [ edit ] Barnum was born in Bethel, Connecticut, the son of innkeeper, tailor, and store-keeper Philo Barnum (1778''1826) and his second wife Irene Taylor. His maternal grandfather Phineas Taylor was a Whig, legislator, landowner, justice of the peace, and lottery schemer who had a great influence on him.
Barnum had several businesses over the years, including a general store, a book auctioning trade, real estate speculation, and a statewide lottery network. He started a weekly newspaper in 1829 called The Herald of Freedom in Danbury, Connecticut. His editorials against the elders of local churches led to libel suits and a prosecution which resulted in imprisonment for two months, but he became a champion of the liberal movement upon his release.[citation needed ] He sold his store in 1834.
He began his career as a showman in 1835 when he was 25 with the purchase and exhibition of a blind and almost completely paralyzed slave woman named Joice Heth, whom an acquaintance was trumpeting around Philadelphia as George Washington's former nurse and 161 years old. Slavery was already outlawed in New York, but he exploited a loophole which allowed him to lease her for a year for $1,000, borrowing $500 to complete the sale. Heth died in February 1836, at no more than 80 years old. Barnum had worked her for 10 to 12 hours a day, and he hosted a live autopsy of her body in a New York saloon where spectators paid 50 cents to see the dead woman cut up, as he revealed that she was likely half her purported age.[8][9]
Showman [ edit ] Barnum had a year of mixed success with his first variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", followed by the Panic of 1837 and three years of difficult circumstances. He purchased Scudder's American Museum in 1841, located at Broadway and Ann Street, New York City. He improved the attraction, upgrading the building and adding exhibits, then renamed it "Barnum's American Museum"; it became a popular showplace. He added a lighthouse lamp which attracted attention up and down Broadway and flags along the roof's edge that attracted attention in daytime, while giant paintings of animals between the upper windows drew attention from pedestrians. The roof was transformed to a strolling garden with a view of the city, where he launched hot-air balloon rides daily. A changing series of live acts and curiosities were added to the exhibits of stuffed animals, including albinos, giants, little people, jugglers, magicians, exotic women, detailed models of cities and famous battles, and a menagerie of animals.
Fiji mermaid and Tom Thumb [ edit ] 1866 newspaper advertisement for Barnum's American Museum located on
Ann Street in Manhattan
In 1842 Barnum introduced his first major hoax: a creature with the body of a monkey and the tail of a fish known as the "Feejee" mermaid. He leased it from fellow museum owner Moses Kimball of Boston who became his friend, confidant, and collaborator.[10][11] Barnum justified his hoaxes by saying that they were advertisements to draw attention to the museum. "I don't believe in duping the public", he said, "but I believe in first attracting and then pleasing them."[12]
He followed the mermaid by exhibiting Charles Stratton, the little person called "General Tom Thumb" ("the Smallest Person that ever Walked Alone") who was then four years old but was stated to be 11. With heavy coaching and natural talent, the boy was taught to imitate people from Hercules to Napoleon. He was drinking wine by age five and smoking cigars by age seven for the public's amusement.
In 1843 Barnum hired the Native American dancer fu-Hum-Me, the first of many First Nations people whom he presented. During 1844''45 he toured with General Tom Thumb in Europe and met Queen Victoria, who was amused[13][failed verification ] but saddened by the little man, and the event was a publicity coup. It opened the door to visits from royalty throughout Europe, including the Tsar of Russia, and enabled Barnum to acquire dozens of new attractions, including automatons and other mechanical marvels. During this time he went on a spending spree and bought other museums, including artist Rembrandt Peale's Museum in Philadelphia,[14] the nation's first major museum. By late 1846, Barnum's Museum was drawing 400,000 visitors a year.[4]
Jenny Lind [ edit ] Barnum became aware of the popularity of Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale", during his European tour with Tom Thumb when her career was at its height in Europe. Barnum had never heard her and conceded to being unmusical himself,[15] but he approached her to sing in America at $1,000 a night for 150 nights, all expenses paid by him.[16] He was confident that he could make use of Lind's reputation for morality and philanthropy in his publicity.[15]
Lind demanded the fee in advance and Barnum agreed; this permitted her to raise a fund for charities, principally endowing schools for poor children in Sweden.[17] Barnum borrowed heavily on his mansion and his museum to raise the money to pay Lind[16] but he was still short of funds; so he persuaded a Philadelphia minister that Lind would be a good influence on American morals, and the minister lent him the final $6,000. The contract also gave Lind the option of withdrawing from the tour after 60 or 100 performances, paying Barnum $50,000 if she did so.[17] Lind and her small company sailed to America in September 1850, but she was a celebrity even before she arrived because of Barnum's months of preparations; close to 40,000 people greeted her at the docks and another 20,000 at her hotel. The press was also in attendance, and "Jenny Lind items" were available to buy.[18] When she realized how much money Barnum stood to make from the tour, she insisted on a new agreement which he signed on September 3, 1850. This gave her the original fee plus the remainder of each concert's profits after Barnum's $5,500 management fee. She was determined to accumulate as much money as possible for her charities.[15]
The tour began with a concert at Castle Garden on September 11, 1850, and it was a major success, recouping Barnum four times his investment. Washington Irving proclaimed, "She is enough to counterbalance, of herself, all the evil that the world is threatened with by the great convention of women. So God save Jenny Lind!"[18] Tickets for some of her concerts were in such demand that Barnum sold them by auction, and public enthusiasm was so strong that the press coined the term "Lind mania".[19] The blatant commercialism of Barnum's ticket auctions distressed Lind,[19] and she persuaded him to make a substantial number of tickets available at reduced prices.[20]
On the tour Barnum's publicity always preceded Lind's arrival and whipped up enthusiasm; he had up to 26 journalists on his payroll.[21] After New York, the company toured the east coast with continued success, and later went through the southern states and Cuba. By early 1851, Lind had become uncomfortable with Barnum's relentless marketing of the tour, and she invoked a contractual right to sever her ties with him. They parted amicably, and she continued the tour for nearly a year under her own management.[15] Lind gave 93 concerts in America for Barnum, earning her about $350,000, while Barnum netted at least $500,000 (equivalent to $15,554,000 in 2020).[22]
Diversified leisure-time activities [ edit ] Barnum's next challenge was to change public attitudes about the theater which was widely seen as a so called "den of evil". He wanted to position theaters as palaces of edification and delight, and as respectable middle-class entertainment. He built New York City's largest and most modern theater, naming it the "Moral Lecture Room." He hoped that this would avoid seedy connotations, attract a family crowd, and win the approval of the moral crusaders of New York City. He started the nation's first theatrical matin(C)es to encourage families and to lessen the fear of crime. He opened with The Drunkard, a thinly disguised temperance lecture (he had become a teetotaler after returning from Europe). He followed that with melodramas, farces, and historical plays put on by highly regarded actors. He watered down Shakespearean plays and others such as Uncle Tom's Cabin to make them family entertainment.[citation needed ]
He organized flower shows, beauty contests, dog shows, and poultry contests, but the most popular were baby contests such as the fattest baby or the handsomest twins. In 1853 he started the pictorial weekly newspaper Illustrated News; he completed his autobiography a year later which sold more than a million copies over the course of numerous revisions. Mark Twain loved the book, but the British Examiner thought it "trashy" and "offensive" and wrote that it inspired "nothing but sensations of disgust" and "sincere pity for the wretched man who compiled it".[23]
In the early 1850s Barnum began investing to develop East Bridgeport, Connecticut. He made substantial loans to the Jerome Clock Company to get it to move to his new industrial area, but the company went bankrupt by 1856, taking Barnum's wealth with it. This started four years of litigation and public humiliation. Ralph Waldo Emerson proclaimed that Barnum's downfall showed "the gods visible again" and other critics celebrated Barnum's public dilemma. But Tom Thumb offered his services, as he was touring on his own, and the two undertook another European tour. Barnum also started a lecture tour, mostly as a temperance speaker. By 1860, he emerged from debt and built a mansion which he called "Lindencroft", and he resumed ownership of his museum.
Barnum went on to create America's first aquarium and to expand the wax figure department of his museum. His "Seven Grand Salons" demonstrated the Seven Wonders of the World. The collections expanded to four buildings, and he published a "Guide Book to the Museum" which claimed 850,000 "curiosities".[24] Late in 1860, Siamese Twins Chang and Eng came out of retirement because they needed more money to send their numerous children to college. They had a touring career on their own and went to live on a North Carolina plantation with their families and slaves under the name of Bunker. They also appeared at Barnum's Museum for six weeks. Also in 1860, Barnum introduced "man-monkey" William Henry Johnson, a microcephalic black little person who spoke a mysterious language created by Barnum. In 1862 he discovered giantess Anna Swan and Commodore Nutt, a new Tom Thumb with whom Barnum visited President Abraham Lincoln at the White House. During the Civil War, his museum drew large audiences seeking diversion from the conflict. He added pro-Unionist exhibits, lectures, and dramas, and he demonstrated commitment to the cause. He hired Pauline Cushman in 1864, an actress who had served as a spy for the Union, to lecture about her "thrilling adventures" behind Confederate lines. Barnum's Unionist sympathies incited a Confederate sympathizer to start a fire in 1864. Barnum's American Museum burned to the ground on July 13, 1865, from a fire of unknown origin. Barnum re-established it at another location in New York City, but this also was destroyed by fire in March 1868. The loss was too great the second time, and Barnum retired from the museum business.
Circus King [ edit ] Winter Quarters of the Great Barnum-London Show before 1886
Share of the Barnum and Bailey Ltd, issued January 24, 1902
Barnum did not enter the circus business until he was 60 years old. He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome" in Delavan, Wisconsin, in 1870 with William Cameron Coup; it was a traveling circus, menagerie, and museum of "freaks". It went through various names: "P. T. Barnum's Travelling World's Fair, Great Roman Hippodrome and Greatest Show on Earth", and "P. T. Barnum's Greatest Show on Earth, And The Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows United" after an 1881 merger with James Bailey and James L. Hutchinson, soon shortened to "Barnum & Bailey's". This entertainment phenomenon was the first circus to display three rings.[25] The show's first primary attraction was Jumbo, an African elephant that Barnum purchased in 1882 from the London Zoo. The Barnum and Bailey Circus still contained acts similar to his Traveling Menagerie, including acrobats, freak shows, and General Tom Thumb. Barnum persisted in growing the circus in spite of more fires, train disasters, and other setbacks, and he was aided by circus professionals who ran the daily operations. He and Bailey split up in 1885, but they came back together in 1888 with the "Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show On Earth", later "Barnum & Bailey Circus" which toured the world.
Barnum was one of the first circus owners to move his circus by train, on the suggestion of Bailey and other business partners, and probably the first to own his own train. Given the lack of paved highways in America at that time, this turned out to be a shrewd decision that vastly expanded Barnum's geographical reach. In this new industry, Barnum leaned more on the advice of his partners, most of whom were young enough to be his sons.
Barnum became known as the "Shakespeare of Advertising" due to his innovative and impressive ideas.[26]
Author and debunker [ edit ] Parody of
Jenny Lind's first American tour for P. T. Barnum, New York City, October 1850
Barnum wrote several books, including Life of P. T. Barnum (1855), The Humbugs of the World (1865), Struggles and Triumphs (1869), Forest and jungle, or, Thrilling adventures in all quarters of the globe :[27] and The Art of Money-Getting (1880).[28]
Barnum was often referred to as the "Prince of Humbugs", and he saw nothing wrong in entertainers or vendors using hoaxes (or "humbug", as he termed it) in promotional material, as long as the public was getting value for money. However, he was contemptuous of those who made money through fraud, especially the spiritualist mediums popular in his day; he testified against noted "spirit photographer" William H. Mumler in his trial for fraud, and he exposed "the tricks of the trade" used by mediums to cheat the bereaved. In The Humbugs of the World, he offered $500 ($8,391.63 in 2021) to any medium who could prove power to communicate with the dead.
Role in politics [ edit ] Barnum was significantly involved in politics. He mainly focused on race, slavery, and sectionalism in the period leading up to the American Civil War. He opposed the Kansas''Nebraska Act of 1854, which supported slavery, so he left the Democratic Party which endorsed slavery and became part of the new anti-slavery Republican Party.
Barnum claimed that "politics were always distasteful to me", yet he was elected to the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as Republican representative for Fairfield and served four terms.[29][30] He hired spies to get insider information on the New York and New Haven Railroad lines and exposed a secret that would raise fares by 20 percent.[citation needed ][vague ] He said during the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: "A human soul, 'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab or a Hottentot'--it is still an immortal spirit."[29] He also acknowledged that he had owned slaves when he lived in the South. "I whipped my slaves. I ought to have been whipped a thousand times for this myself. But then I was a Democrat'--one of those nondescript Democrats, who are Northern men with Southern principles".[31]
Barnum was elected for the next four sessions and succeeded Senator Orris S. Ferry. He was the legislative sponsor of a law enacted by the Connecticut General Assembly in 1879 which prohibited the use of "any drug, medicinal article or instrument for the purpose of preventing conception", and also made it a crime to act as an accessory to the use of contraception; this law remained in effect in Connecticut until it was overturned in 1965 by the U.S. Supreme Court in Griswold v. Connecticut.[32][33] He ran for Congress in 1867 and lost to his third cousin William Henry Barnum. In 1875, he worked as mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, and was its first president.[6]
Profitable philanthropy [ edit ] Barnum enjoyed what he publicly dubbed "profitable philanthropy". "If by improving and beautifying our city Bridgeport, Connecticut, and adding to the pleasure and prosperity of my neighbors, [and] I can do so at a profit, the incentive to 'good works' will be twice as strong as if it were otherwise."[34] He was appointed to the Board of Trustees to Tufts University prior to its founding, and he made several significant contributions to the fledgling institution, including a gift of $50,000 (equivalent to $1,388,750 in 2020) in 1883 to establish a museum (later known as Barnum Museum of Natural History) and hall for the Department of Natural History.[35] Tufts made Jumbo the elephant the school's mascot, and Tufts students are known as "Jumbos".[36]
Personal life and death [ edit ] On November 8, 1829, Barnum married Charity Hallett,[37] and they had four children: Caroline Cornelia (1833''1911), Helen Maria (1840''1915), Frances Irena (1842''1844), and Pauline Taylor (1846''1877).[38] His wife died on November 19, 1873,[38] and he married Nancy Fish, the daughter of his close friend John Fish, the following year; Nancy was 40 years younger than he was.[39]
Barnum died from a stroke at home in 1891.[30] He is buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, Connecticut, a cemetery that he designed.[7]
Legacy [ edit ] Barnum built four mansions in Bridgeport, Connecticut: Iranistan, Lindencroft, Waldemere, and Marina. Iranistan was the most notable, a Moorish Revival architecture designed by Leopold Eidlitz with domes, spires, and lacy fretwork inspired by the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, England. It was built in 1848 but it burned down in 1857.[40] The Marina Mansion was demolished by the University of Bridgeport in 1964 in order to build their cafeteria.[41]
At his death, critics praised Barnum for good works and called him an icon of American spirit and ingenuity. He asked the Evening Sun to print his obituary just prior to his death so that he might read it. On April 7, 1891, Barnum asked about the box-office receipts for the day; a few hours later, he was dead.[30]
P. T. Barnum, sculpted by
Thomas Ball (1887), Seaside Park, Bridgeport, Connecticut
In 1893, a statue in his honor was placed by his former partners James Bailey, James A. Hutchinson, and W. W. Cole, at Seaside Park in Bridgeport.[42][43] Barnum had donated the land for this park in 1865. His circus was sold to Ringling Brothers on July 8, 1907, for $400,000 (about $10.45 million in 2017 dollars).[6] The Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey circuses ran separately until they merged in 1919, forming the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.
The city of Bridgeport issued a commemorative coin in 1936 for their centennial celebration, with his portrait for the obverse.[44] Cartoonist Walt Kelly grew up in Bridgeport and named a character in Barnum's honor in his Pogo comic strip. An annual six-week Barnum Festival was held for many years in Bridgeport as a tribute to Barnum.[45] The Bethel Historical Society commissioned a life-sized sculpture to honor the 200th anniversary of his birth, created by local resident David Gesualdi and placed outside the public library.[46] The statue was dedicated on September 26, 2010.[47]
Barnum co-founded the Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Steamboat Company in 1883 with Charles E. Tooker, which continues to operate across the Long Island Sound between Port Jefferson, New York and Bridgeport. The company owns and operates three vessels, one of which is named the M.V. PT Barnum.[48][49] The Barnum Museum in Bridgeport houses many of Barnum's oddities and curiosities.
In popular culture [ edit ] Films and television [ edit ] A Lady's Morals (1930) '' played by Wallace BeeryJenny Lind (1932) '' played by Andr(C) BerleyThe Mighty Barnum (1934) '' played again by Wallace BeeryThe Greatest Show on Earth (1952) '' played by a cast which included many from the Ringling Bros/Barnum & Bailey CircusJules Verne's Rocket to the Moon (1967) '' played by Burl IvesBarnum! (1986) '' played by Michael Crawford; a filmed version of the Broadway musical (see below), filmed in LondonBarnum (1986) '' played by Burt Lancaster; made-for-TV movieP. T. Barnum (1999) '' played by Beau Bridges; made-for-TV movieGangs of New York (2002) '' played by Roger Ashton-GriffithsThe Greatest Showman (2017) '' a musical loosely based around P. T. Barnum and his circus. Hugh Jackman plays Barnum and co-produced the film.[50][51]Theater [ edit ] Barnum (1980) '' Broadway musical based on Barnum's life, with Jim Dale in the title roleBooks [ edit ] The Great and Only Barnum; the Tremendous, Stupendous Life of Showman P. T. BarnumPublications [ edit ] The Life of P. T. Barnum: Written By Himself. Originally published New York: Redfield, 1855. Reprinted., Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2000. ISBN 0-252-06902-1.Struggles and Triumphs, or Forty Years' Recollections of P. T. Barnum. Originally published 1869. Reprinted., Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2003. ISBN 0-7661-5556-0 (Part 1) and ISBN 0-7661-5557-9 (Part 2). 1882 edition at the Internet ArchiveArt of Money Getting, or, Golden Rules for Making Money. Originally published 1880. Reprinted., Bedford, MA: Applewood, 1999. ISBN 1-55709-494-2.The Wild Beasts, Birds, and Reptiles of the World: The Story of their Capture. Pub. 1888, R. S. Peale & Company, Chicago.Why I Am A Universalist. Originally published 1890 Reprint Kessinger Pub Co. ISBN 1-4286-2657-3See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ North American Theatre Online: Phineas T. Barnum ^ a b Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. vi ^ Shapiro, Fred R. The Yale Book of Quotations. New Haven: Yale UP, 2006. p. 44 ^ a b Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 73 ^ Barnum, Phineas (1888). The life of P. T. Barnum. Buffalo, N.Y.: The Courier Company. p. 237 '' via Ebook and Texts Archive '' American Libraries. ^ a b c Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995 ^ a b Rogak, Lisa (2004). Stones and Bones of New England: A guide to unusual, historic, and otherwise notable cemeteries. Globe Pequat. ISBN 978-0-7627-3000-1. ^ Mansky, Jackie (December 22, 2017), P. T. Barnum Isn't the Hero the "Greatest Showman" Wants You To Think '' His path to fame and notoriety began by exploiting an enslaved slave woman, in life and in death, as entertainment for the masses, Smithsonian ^ Freed, Robin. "Joice Heth". MA candidate, University of Virginia American Studies Department. Archived from the original on May 18, 2002 . Retrieved April 8, 2007 . ^ Schweitzer, Marlis. "Barnum's Last Laugh? General Tom Thumb's Wedding Cake in the Library of Congress." Performing Arts Resources 2011; 28.: 116. Associates Programs Source Plus. Web. December 8, 2012. ^ Stabile, Susan M. (2010). "Still(Ed) Lives". Early American Literature. 45 (2): 371''95. doi:10.1353/eal.2010.0020. S2CID 201754107. ^ Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 47 ^ Martin, Gary. " 'We are not amused' '' the meaning and origin of this phrase". Phrasefinder. ^ "Peale's Philadelphia Museum '' Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia". philadelphiaencyclopedia.org. ^ a b c d Rogers, Francis. "Jenny Lind", The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (July 1946), pp. 437''48 (subscription required) ^ a b Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 92 ^ a b Miller, Philip L. "Review: P. T. Barnum Presents Jenny Lind: The American Tour of the Swedish Nightingale", American Music, Spring 1983, pp. 78''80 (subscription required) ^ a b Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 99 ^ a b Linkon, Sherry Lee. "Reading Lind Mania: Print Culture and the Construction of Eighteenth-Century Audiences", Book History, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 94''106 (subscription required) ^ "Jenny Lind's Progress in America", The Observer, October 6, 1850, p. 3 ^ Hambrick, Keith S. "P. T. Barnum Presents Jenny Lind '' The American Tour of the Swedish Nightingale", Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Spring, 1981), pp. 208''09 (subscription required) ^ "America", The Times, June 28, 1851, p. 5 ^ Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 120 ^ Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 138 ^ Mosier, Jennifer L (1999). "The Big Attraction: The Circus Elephant And American Culture". Journal of American Culture. 22 (2): 7. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734x.1999.2202_7.x. ^ "The Shakespeare of Advertising's Rules for Jumbo Success", There's a Customer Born Every Minute, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., October 10, 2015, pp. 103''113, doi:10.1002/9781119201908.ch8, ISBN 9781119201908 ^ Forest and jungle, or, Thrilling adventures in all quarters of the globe : An illustrated history of the animal kingdom, written in easy and instructive form for boys and girls. ^ The Art of Money-Getting ^ a b Barnum, Phineas (1888). The life of P. T. Barnum. Ebook and Texts Archive '' American Libraries. Buffalo, N.Y.: The Courier Company. p. 237. ^ a b c "The Great Showman Dead". The New York Times. April 8, 1891 . Retrieved July 21, 2007 . Bridgeport, Connecticut, April 7, 1891. At 6:22 o'clock to-night the long sickness of P. T. Barnum came to an end by his quietly passing away at Marina, his residence in this city. ^ W., Cook, James (2001). The arts of deception : playing with fraud in the age of Barnum. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674005914. OCLC 876342914. ^ "P. T. Barnum, Justice Harlan, and Connecticut's Role in the Development of the Right to Privacy". Federal Bar Council Quarterly. December 13, 2014 . Retrieved May 9, 2018 . ^ "Connecticut and the Comstock Law". Connecticut History . Retrieved May 9, 2018 . ^ Barnum, P. T. (1883). Struggles and Triumphs; Or, Forty Years' Recollections of P. T. Barnum. Buffalo, N.Y.: The Courier Company. p. 297. ^ Miller, Russell (July 16, 2008). "Light on the Hill, Vol. 1". The Archives at Tufts University. Tufts University. Archived from the original on September 4, 2014 . Retrieved September 3, 2014 . ^ "Get to Know Tufts". April 22, 2010. ^ Barnum, Patrick W. "A One-Name Study for the Barnum/Barnham Surname: Notes for Phineas Taylor Barnum / Charity Hallett". Barnum Family Genealogy (official website). Archived from the original on December 11, 2017 . Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ a b "A One-Name Study for the BARNUM/BARNHAM Surname". Barnum.org. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020 . Retrieved January 6, 2020 . ^ Barnum, Patrick W. "A One-Name Study for the Barnum/Barnham Surname: Notes for Nancy Fish". Barnum Family Genealogy (official website). Archived from the original on December 11, 2017 . Retrieved December 10, 2017 . ^ Barnum Museum Core Exhibits Archived June 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ^ "Marina Park Historic District, Bridgeport City, Fairfield County, Bridgeport CT, 06604". www.livingplaces.com. ^ "Barnum Statue Unveiled". The New York Times. July 4, 1893. ^ George Curtis Waldo (1917). History of Bridgeport and vicinity, Volume 1. S. J. Clarke. pp. 279''280. ISBN 978-1-144-35927-8. ^ Slater, Chuck (November 18, 2001). "A Coin True to Barnum, Controversy and All". The New York Times. ^ Michael Knight, "Barnum Festival Revels in Hoopla and Humbug", The New York Times, June 20, 1975, p. 35. ^ Homayon, Marietta (July 8, 2004). "Town gets grant to promote Barnum". The Danbury News-Times. ^ FitzGerald, Eileen (July 15, 2010). "Barnum's Ivy Island to be showcased at celebration". Danbury News Times. ^ "A Look at the Fleet". The Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Steamboat Company . Retrieved April 18, 2021 . ^ "SHOWMAN BARNUM'S BARN ATTACHED". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York (1890/01/12): 9, col. 5. January 12, 1890. Four mechanic's liens have been filed by workmen, of Port Jefferson, against P.T. Barnum, the showman, for labor and materials on the new barn put up last Fall on the farm of P.T. Barnum at Port Jefferson. ^ Cachero, Paulina (December 20, 2017). " 'The Greatest Showman': 8 of the Film's Stars and Their Real-Life Inspirations". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved September 4, 2018 . ^ Kellem, Betsy Golden (December 22, 2017). "The Greatest Showman: The True Story of P. T. Barnum and Jenny Lind". Vanity Fair . Retrieved September 4, 2018 . Further reading [ edit ] Adams, Bluford. E Pluribus Barnum: The Great Showman and the Making of U.S. Popular Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8166-2631-6.Alderson, William T., ed. Mermaids, Mummies, and Mastodons: The Emergence of the American Museum. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums for the Baltimore City Life Museums, 1992.Barnum, Patrick Warren. Barnum Genealogy: 650 Years of Family History. Boston: Higginson Book Co., 2006. ISBN 0-7404-5551-6 (hardcover), ISBN 0-7404-5552-4 (softcover), LCCN 2005-903696Benton, Joel. The Life of Phineas T. Barnum, [1].Betts, John Rickards. "P. T. Barnum and the Popularization of Natural History", Journal of the History of Ideas 20, no. 3 (1959): 353''368.Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barnum, Phineas Taylor" . Encyclop...dia Britannica. Vol. 03 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 417. Cook, James W. The Arts of Deception: Playing with Fraud in the Age of Barnum. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-00591-0. Relates Barnum's Fiji Mermaid and What Is It? exhibits to other popular arts of the nineteenth century, including magic shows and trompe-l'Å'il paintings.Harding, Les. Elephant Story: Jumbo and P. T. Barnum Under the Big Top. Jefferson, NC.: McFarland & Co., 2000. ISBN 0-7864-0632-1. (129 p.)Harris, Neil. Humbug: The Art of P. T. Barnum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973. ISBN 0-226-31752-8.Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr.; Kunhardt, Philip B., III; Kunhardt, Peter W. (1995). P. T. Barnum: America's Greatest Showman. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-43574-7. Lott, Eric (1993). Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 76''78. ISBN 978-0-19-507832-9. Reiss, Benjamin. The Showman and the Slave: Race, Death, and Memory in Barnum's America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-00636-4. Focuses on Barnum's exhibition of Joice Heth.Saxon, Arthur H. P. T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-231-05687-7.Uchill, Ida Libert. Howdy, Sucker! What P. T. Barnum Did in Colorado. Denver: Pioneer Peddler Press, 2001. OCLC 47773817Jefferson, Margo. On Michael Jackson. New York: Pantheon, 2006. ISBN 978-0-307-27765-7. Critique of Michael Jackson, including his obsession with P. T. Barnum and "Freaks."The Colossal P. T. Barnum Reader: Nothing Else Like It in the Universe. Ed. by James W. Cook. Champaign, University of Illinois Press, 2005. ISBN 0-252-07295-2.Woolf, John. The Wonders: Lifting the Curtain on the Freak Show, Circus and Victorian Age (London: Michael O'Mara, 2019) ISBN 1782439935External links [ edit ] Digital collectionsWorks by P. T. Barnum in eBook form at Standard EbooksWorks by P. T. Barnum at Project GutenbergWorks by or about P. T. Barnum at Internet ArchiveWorks by P. T. Barnum at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Physical collectionsThe Barnum MuseumPhineas Taylor Barnum papers, 1818''1993Barnum's American MuseumThe Lost Museum '' A virtual reproduction of Barnum's American Museum; includes a collection of primary source materialsBiographical informationP. T. Barnum's genealogy Archived May 24, 2018, at the Wayback Machine at the Barnum Family Genealogy websiteP. T. Barnum at Find a GraveP. T. Barnum at Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey CircusEntry on P. T. Barnum in the Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts HistoryFull text of The Life of Phineas T. Barnum Archived August 5, 2004, at archive.today by Joel Benton, from Project GutenbergScholarship and analysisBarnum's circus affiliationP.T. Barnum '' Ultrarunning Promoter (1874)House of Deception '' An article about Barnum's handwriting & signatureP. T. Barnum did not say "There's a sucker born every minute"P. T. Barnum, the Shakespeare of AdvertisingP. T. Barnum and Henry Bergh Bergh was founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).Other linksFacebook Page Bethel Historical Society, P. T. Barnum Monument, "P. T. Barnum '' The Lost Legend" Documentary.An 1890 recording of Barnum's voiceMarina MansionTribute to Ringling Bros.and Barnum & Bailey Circus by brothers Charles Elias Disney & Daniel H. DisneyP. T. Barnum at the Internet Broadway Database
"The International Jew"
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:44
Though some present-day bigots have flocked to newer ideologies such as denial of the Holocaust, much anti-Semitism still revolves around the basic conspiratorial ideas expressed by older anti-Semitic texts. By offering older texts at their Web sites, today's haters demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, thereby legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.
Due to the fame of its publisher, Henry Ford Sr., The International Jew, a four-volume anti-Semitic work first published in the 1920s, has been a particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs. Though Ford publicly apologized twice for publishing The International Jew, online anti-Semites continue to use his name to promote it.
- The Dearborn Independent - The International Jew and The Protocols - The International Jewand Jewish Control - The Spiro Trial and Ford's Apology - Conclusion
The Dearborn Independent The Dearborn Publishing Company published The Dearborn Independent newspaper. At the peak of its popularity, the Dearborn, Michigan paper, owned by auto magnate Henry Ford Sr., boasted a circulation of 700,000. The Dearborn Independent first attacked Jews in its May 22, 1920 issue and continued to do so in 91 subsequent editions.
Many of the paper's anti-Semitic articles were reprinted by the Dearborn Publishing Company in four paper-bound volumes: The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem (November, 1920); Jewish Activities in the United States (April, 1921); Jewish Influences in American Life (November, 1921); and Aspects of Jewish Power in the United States (May, 1922). Collectively known as The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem, these volumes were later published in a variety of languages and disseminated widely in the United States and abroad.
For decades, The International Jew has been in the public domain. It can be reprinted by anyone who wishes to do so. In the late 1950s, anti-Semite Gerald L.K. Smith edited and published an abridged version of The International Jew culled from the original Dearborn Independent articles. The complete text of Smith's version now is easily found at many hate sites on the World Wide Web.
The International Jew and The Protocols Having heard in advance about the Dearborn Publishing Company's plan to attack Jews, E.G. Pipp, editor of The Dearborn Independent, resigned in disgust in April, 1920, and was replaced by William J. Cameron. Ernest Liebold, Henry Ford Sr.'s personal secretary, began to collect anti-Semitic material. Liebold passed this material to Cameron, who oversaw the articles that compose The International Jew, likely writing many of them himself. "When we get through with the Jews," Liebold was quoted in court as saying, "there won't be one of them who will dare raise his head in public."
A version of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the most notorious political forgery of modern times, found its way into Liebold's hands. Taken by the gullible as the confidential minutes of a meeting of Jewish leaders, The Protocols has consistently been held up by anti-Semites as proof that Jews are plotting to take over the world. Even though it has been thoroughly discredited, The Protocols continues to circulate among anti-Semites.
Liebold passed the text of The Protocols on to Cameron, who modernized Brasol's translation and used it as the foundation for The International Jew. Each of the chapters in Gerald L.K. Smith's version of the International Jew begins with a quotation from The Protocols, and one chapter – "An Introduction to the ‘Jewish Protocols' – is devoted to it entirely. One Dearborn Independent article lauded The Protocols as "too terribly real for fiction, too well-sustained for speculation, too deep in its knowledge of the secret springs of life for forgery." "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on," Ford stated in 1921. "They have fitted the world situation up to this time. They fit it now."
The International Jew and Jewish control The International Jew portrayed Jews as monolithic, malicious schemers plotting to control the planet. "If there is one quality that attracts Jews, it is power," the book stated. "Wherever the seat of power may be, thither they swarm obsequiously."
The Dearborn Independent saw Jews as carrying out "revolutionary programs to break up the present control of society." These "revolutionary programs" revolve around economic control: the Jewish plan is "to control the world, not by territorial acquisition, not by military aggression, not by governmental subjugation, but by control of the machinery of commerce and exchange." According to The International Jew, "it is not merely that there are a few Jews among international financial controllers; it is that these world-controllers are exclusively Jews." The book claimed that "the motion picture influence of the United States, of the whole world, is exclusively under the control, moral and financial, of the Jewish manipulators of the public mind."
The International Jew did not portray Jews as individuals, but as a single-minded, calculating cabal. Conflict among Jews, no matter how real, was painted as a sly trick, part of the Jewish plot. Even the conflict between socialist Jews and capitalist Jews was denied. Jewish socialists and Jewish businesspeople were believed to be working in tandem, "with Jewish capital at one end of the Gentile working scheme putting the screws on the manufacturers, and with Jewish agitators and disruptionists and subversives at the other end of the Gentile working scheme putting the screws on the workmen."
In fact, like other people, Jews involve themselves in non-religious and professional activity as individuals, not as Jews. The number of Jews involved in a particular field bears no relationship to "Jewish power" or "Jewish control" of that industry. Jews do not act in concert with other Jews in the same business simply because they happen to be Jewish.
The International Jew also attacked Jews for speaking out about injustice and defending their constitutional rights. "‘Jewish rights' seemed to be summed up in the ‘right' to banish everything from their sight and hearing that suggests Christianity or its Founder," it commented. In fact, these so-called "Attacks on Christianity" were reasonable Jewish objections to governmental expressions of Christianity which clearly violated the separation between church and state enshrined in the Constitution.
According to The International Jew, demonstrably true Jewish accounts of pogroms in Russia were nothing but fabrications. "This propaganda of pogroms – ‘thousands upon thousands of Jews killed' – amounts to nothing except as it illustrates the gullibility of the Press," the book stated. "No one believes this propaganda and governments regularly disprove it." Such statements foreshadowed the pernicious lies spread today by Holocaust deniers.
The International Jew blamed nearly all the troubles it saw in American society on Jews. "Whichever way you turn to trace the harmful streams of influence that flow through society, you come upon a group of Jews," it claimed. Even problems with the "national pastime" were attributed to Jewish influence: "If ‘fans' wish to know the trouble with American baseball, they have it in three words – too much Jew."
The Sapiro Trial & Ford's Apology Jews and others were outraged by The International Jew, and Ford received thousands of complaints. In September 1920, the Central Conference of American Rabbis, the National Council of Jewish Women and B'nai B'rith asked ADL to counteract Ford's work. The League released a pamphlet, The Poison Pen, that targeted the Dearborn Independent and the men behind The International Jew. More than 100 prominent citizens, including President Woodrow Wilson, former Presidents Taft and Roosevelt, W.E.B. DuBois, Clarence Darrow, and William Jennings Bryan, signed The Perils of Racial Prejudice, a statement that urged "all those who are molders of public opinion" to "strike at" The International Jew, which it characterized as "un-American, un-Christian agitation."
Prominent lawyer Samuel Untermeyer penned a widely-published statement describing the pernicious effects of the distribution of The International Jew. He wrote:
Wherever there was a Ford car there was a Ford agency not far away, and wherever there was a Ford agency these vile libelous books in the language of the country were to be found. They, coupled with the magic name of Ford, have done more than could be undone in a century to sow, spread and ripen the poisonous seeds of anti-Semitism and race hatred. These articles are so fantastic and so na¯ve in their incredible fantasy that they read like the work of a lunatic, and but for the authority of the Ford name they would have never seen the light of day and would have been quite harmless if they had. With that name they spread like wildfire and became the Bible of every anti-Semite…
Despite these complaints, The Dearborn Independent continued to attack Jews, even after the publication of the articles that constitute The International Jew. In 1927, the paper printed accusations that Jewish lawyer Aaron Sapiro and a group of Jewish bankers and merchants were seeking to control the nation's wheat farming. Sapiro sued for defamation; his case came to trial in Detroit. Though Sapiro's suit was directed personally at Ford, Cameron testified for many days, claiming full responsibility for the articles. He even went so far as to assert that Ford had never heard of Sapiro. This lie was swiftly exposed when James M. Miller, a former Dearborn Independent employee, swore under oath that Ford had told him he intended to expose Sapiro.
Just before Ford was to take the stand, he was injured in an auto accident. While he recovered, Ford operatives demanded a mistrial after a juror spoke to a news reporter. Following the declaration of a mistrial, Ford issued public statements and apologies to individuals and Jews as a group. On July 16, 1927, an out-of-court settlement of the Sapiro suit was announced.
Though Ford apologized for The International Jew and closed the Dearborn Independent, he later accepted the Grand Cross of the German Eagle from Hitler's Nazi government in July, 1938. Some remain skeptical of his apology, claiming that Ford himself neither wrote nor personally signed it.
Ford again expressed his concern about the circulation of The International Jew following America's entry into the war against Germany, for The Protocols had become a staple of Nazi propaganda. In a 1942 letter to Sigmund Livingston, then ADL national chairman, Ford wrote, "I do not subscribe to or support, directly or indirectly, any agitation which would promote antagonism against my Jewish fellow citizens." He pointed out that he "destroyed copies" of The International Jew when he first apologized and had refused to give "permission or sanction to anyone to use my name as sponsoring such publication, or being the accredited author thereof."
In the decades following Ford's death in 1947, what was once a privately-owned business became a corporation owned in large part by the public. Since then, the Ford family and the Ford Motor Company have engaged
While [The International Jew] once reached thousands, its reach is now even greater on the Internet. in numerous projects and endeavors in the public interest, including many that have been supportive of Jewish concerns. Ford's grandson, Henry Ford II, consistently supported Jewish charities and cultural organizations. In 1997, for example, the Ford Motor Company sponsored the first screening of Steven Spielberg's "Schindler's List," commercial-free, on national network television.
Conclusion As founder and owner of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford Sr. made a positive, lasting contribution to American industry and culture, providing mobility to millions with his inexpensive automobiles. Yet these accomplishments are marred by another of his legacies: his viciously anti-Semitic publication, the International Jew. While that series of books once reached thousands, its reach is now even greater on the Internet. Today, The International Jew can touch a whole new generation, connected to hate via the information superhighway.
Sources: Copyright Anti-Defamation League (ADL). All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.
Yad Vashem - Wikipedia
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:30
Israel's official memorial to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust
Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ×Ö¸×' וַ×(C)ֵׁ×' ; literally, "a memorial and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the Jews who were murdered; honoring Jews who fought against their Nazi oppressors and Gentiles who selflessly aided Jews in need; and researching the phenomenon of the Holocaust in particular and genocide in general, with the aim of avoiding such events in the future.[4]
Established in 1953, Yad Vashem is located on the western slope of Mount Herzl, also known as the Mount of Remembrance, a height in western Jerusalem, 804 meters (2,638 ft) above sea level and adjacent to the Jerusalem Forest. The memorial consists of a 180-dunam (18.0 ha; 44.5-acre) complex containing two types of facilities: some dedicated to the scientific study of the Holocaust and genocide in general, and memorials and museums catering to the needs of the larger public. Among the former there are a research institute with archives, a library, a publishing house, and an educational center, and the International School for Holocaust Studies; among the latter, the Holocaust History Museum, memorial sites such as the Children's Memorial and the Hall of Remembrance, the Museum of Holocaust Art, sculptures, outdoor commemorative sites such as the Valley of the Communities, and a synagogue.
A core goal of Yad Vashem's founders was to recognize non-Jews who, at personal risk and without a financial or evangelistic motive, chose to save Jews from the ongoing genocide during the Holocaust. Those recognized by Israel as Righteous Among the Nations are honored in a section of Yad Vashem known as the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations.
Yad Vashem is the second-most-visited Israeli tourist site, after the Western Wall, with approximately one million visitors each year. It charges no admission fee.
Etymology The name "Yad Vashem" is taken from a verse in the Book of Isaiah (56:5):"[To] them will I give in my house and within my walls a [memorial] and a [name], better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting [name], that shall not be cut off [from memory]."[5][6] Hebrew: ×•Ö°× Ö¸×ªÖ·×ªÖ´Ö¼× ×'Ö¸×--Ö¶×' בְּבֵ××ªÖ´× ×•Ö¼×‘Ö°×—×•Ö¹×žÖ¹×ªÖ·× ×Ö¸×' וָ×(C)ֵׁ×', ×וֹב ×žÖ´×‘Ö¸Ö¼× Ö´××' ×•Ö¼×žÖ´×‘Ö¸Ö¼× ×•Ö¹×ª; ×(C)ֵׁ×' ×וֹ×'Ö¸×' אֶתֶּן ×'וֹ, אֲ×(C)ֶׁר ×'ֹא ×ִכָּרֵת. ). Naming the Holocaust memorial "yad vashem" (Hebrew: ×Ö¸×' וָ×(C)ֵׁ×' , yād wā-Ūm, literally "a memorial and a name") conveys the idea of establishing a national depository for the names of Jewish victims who have no one to carry their name after death. The original verse referred to eunuchs who, although they could not have children, could still live for eternity with the Lord.[7]
History The desire to establish a memorial in the historical Jewish homeland for Jewish victims of the Nazi Holocaust originated during World War II, in response to emerging accounts of the mass murder of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries. Yad Vashem was first proposed in September 1942, at a board meeting of the Jewish National Fund, by Mordecai Shenhavi, a member of Kibbutz Mishmar Ha'emek.[7] In August 1945, the plan was discussed in greater detail at a Zionist meeting in London. A provisional board of Zionist leaders was established that included David Remez as chairman, Shlomo Zalman Shragai, Baruch Zuckerman, and Shenhavi. In February 1946, Yad Vashem opened an office in Jerusalem and a branch office in Tel Aviv, and in June that year convened its first plenary session. In July 1947, the First Conference on Holocaust Research was held at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. However, the outbreak of the 1947''1949 Palestine war brought operations to a standstill for two years.
On 19 August 1953, the Knesset, Israel's Parliament, unanimously passed the Yad Vashem Law, establishing the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, the aim of which was "the commemoration in the Homeland of all those members of the Jewish people who gave their lives, or rose up and fought the Nazi enemy and its collaborators," and to set up "a memorial to them, and to the communities, organizations and institutions that were destroyed because they belonged to the Jewish people."[8]
Valley of the (Destroyed) Communities
On 29 July 1954, the cornerstone for the Yad Vashem building was laid on a hill in western Jerusalem, to be known as the Mount of Remembrance (Hebrew: Har HaZikaron ); the organization had already begun projects to collect the names of individuals killed in the Holocaust; acquire Holocaust documentation and personal testimonies of survivors for the Archives and Library; and develop research and publications. The memorial and museum opened to the public in 1957.[9][10]
The location of Yad Vashem on the western side of Mount Herzl, an area devoid of weighty historical associations, was chosen to convey a symbolic message of "rebirth" after destruction, distinct from the Chamber of the Holocaust, founded in 1948 on Mount Zion.[11][12] Thus, the latter museum, whose walls are lined with plaques memorializing over 2,000 Jewish communities destroyed during the Holocaust,[13][14] portrays the Holocaust as a continuation of the "death and destruction" that plagued Jewish communities throughout Jewish history.[15]
In 1982, Yad Vashem sponsored the International Conference on Holocaust and Genocide, which included six presentations on the Armenian genocide. It later withdrew from the conference after threats by the Turkish government that Jewish lives would be put in danger if the conference went ahead.[16][17][18]
On 15 March 2005, a new Museum complex four times larger than the old one opened at Yad Vashem. It included the Holocaust History Museum with a new Hall of Names, a Museum of Holocaust Art, an Exhibitions Pavilion, a Learning Center and a Visual Center.[19][20] The new Yad Vashem museum was designed by Israeli-Canadian architect Moshe Safdie, replacing the previous 30-year-old exhibition.[21] It was the culmination of a $100 million decade-long expansion project.[22]
Administration In November 2008, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau was appointed Chairman of Yad Vashem's Council, replacing Tommy Lapid.[23] The Vice Chairmen of the council are Yitzhak Arad and Moshe Kantor. Elie Wiesel was Vice Chairman of the council until his death on 2 July 2016.[24]
Yitzhak Arad served as the Chairman of the Directorate from 1972 to 1993. He was succeeded by Avner Shalev, who served as chairman until February 2021.[25] Shalev was succeeded as chairman by Dani Dayan in August 2021.[26]
The Members of the Yad Vashem Directorate are Yossi Ahimeir, Daniel Atar, Michal Cohen, Matityahu Drobles, Avraham Duvdevani, Prof. Boleslaw (Bolek) Goldman, Vera H. Golovensky, Moshe Ha-Elion, Adv. Shlomit Kasirer, Yossi Katribas, Yehiel Leket, Baruch Shub, Dalit Stauber, Dr. Zehava Tanne, Adv. Shoshana Weinshall, and Dudi Zilbershlag.[24]
The Director-General is Dorit Novak. The Head of the International Institute for Holocaust Research and Incumbent is John Najmann. The Chair for Holocaust Studies is Prof. Dan Michman. The Chief Historian is Prof. Dina Porat. The Academic Advisor is Prof. Yehuda Bauer.[24]
Objectives The aims of Yad Vashem are education, research and documentation, and commemoration.[27] Yad Vashem organizes professional development courses for educators both in Israel and throughout the world; develops age-appropriate study programs, curricula, and educational materials for Israeli and foreign schools in order to teach students of all ages about the Holocaust; holds exhibitions about the Holocaust; collects the names of Holocaust victims;[28] collects photos, documents, and personal artifacts; and collects Pages of Testimony memorializing victims of the Holocaust.[29] Yad Vashem seeks to preserve the memory and names of the six million Jews murdered during the Holocaust, and the numerous Jewish communities destroyed during that time. It holds ceremonies of remembrance and commemoration; supports Holocaust research projects; develops and coordinates symposia, workshops, and international conferences; and publishes research, memoirs, documents, albums, and diaries related to the Holocaust.[30] Yad Vashem also honors non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.
The International Institute for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem, founded in 1993, offers guides and seminars for students, teachers, and educators, and develops pedagogic tools for use in the classroom. Yad Vashem trains 10,000 domestic and foreign teachers every year.[31] The organization operates a web site in several languages, including German, Hebrew, Persian, and Arabic.[citation needed ] In 2013 Yad Vashem launched an online campaign in Arabic, promoting Yad Vashem's website. The campaign reached over 2.4 million Arabic speakers from around the globe, and the traffic to Yad Vashem's website was tripled.[32]
The institution's policy is that the Holocaust "cannot be compared to any other event". In 2009 Yad Vashem fired a docent for comparing the trauma Jews suffered in the Holocaust to the trauma Palestinians suffered during 1947''1949 Palestine war, including the Deir Yassin massacre.[33]
Yad Vashem Studies Yad Vashem Studies is a peer-reviewed semi-annual scholarly journal on the Holocaust. Published since 1957, it appears in both English and Hebrew editions.[34]
Museum Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum
Yad Vashem opened to the public in 1957. Its exhibits focused on Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto, the uprisings in Sobibor and Treblinka death camps, and the struggle of survivors to reach Israel.[35]
In 1993, planning began for a larger, more technologically advanced museum to replace the old one. The new building, designed by Canadian-Israeli architect Moshe Safdie, consists of a long corridor connected to 10 exhibition halls, each dedicated to a different chapter of the Holocaust. The museum combines the personal stories of 90 Holocaust victims and survivors and presents approximately 2,500 personal items including artwork and letters donated by survivors and others. The old historical displays revolving around anti-Semitism and the rise of Nazism have been replaced by exhibits that focus on the personal stories of Jews killed in the Holocaust. According to Avner Shalev, the museum's curator and chairman, a visit to the new museum revolve around "looking into the eyes of the individuals. There weren't six million victims, there were six million individual murders."[35]
The new museum was dedicated on 15 March 2005 in the presence of leaders from 40 states and then Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan. President of Israel Moshe Katzav said that Yad Vashem serves as "an important signpost to all of humankind, a signpost that warns how short the distance is between hatred and murder, between racism and genocide".[36]
In April 2019, Yad Vashem will break ground on a new subterranean center to house and conserve millions of artifacts from the Holocaust.[37]
Architecture The first architect involved in the design of Yad Vashem was Munio Weinraub, who worked on the project from 1943 till the 1960s, together with his architectural partner Al Mansfield.[38] He was approached for this purpose by Mordechai Shenhavi, the initiator and first director of the institution.[38] Weinraub's plans were not realised as a whole, but some of his ideas are visible in Yad Vashem today.[38]
The new Holocaust History Museum, designed by Moshe Safdie, is shaped like a triangular concrete prism that cuts through the landscape, illuminated by a 200-meter-long (656 ft) skylight. Visitors follow a preset route that takes them through underground galleries that branch off from the main hall.[22] Safdie is also the architect behind the Children's Memorial and the Deportees (cattle-car) Memorial.
The gates are the work of the sculptor David Palombo (1920''1966).
Hall of Names The Hall of Names containing Pages of Testimony commemorating the millions of Jews who were murdered during the
HolocaustThe Hall of Names is a memorial to the six million Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust. The main hall is composed of two cones: one ten meters high, with a reciprocal well-like cone excavated into the underground rock, its base filled with water. On the upper cone is a display featuring 600 photographs of Holocaust victims and fragments of Pages of Testimony. These are reflected in the water at the bottom of the lower cone, commemorating those victims whose names remain unknown. Surrounding the platform is the circular repository, housing the approximately 2.2 million Pages of Testimony collected to date, with empty spaces for those yet to be submitted.
Since the 1950s, Yad Vashem has collected approximately 110,000 audio, video, and written testimonies by Holocaust survivors. As the survivors age, the program has expanded to visiting survivors in their homes, to tape interviews. Adjoining the hall is a study area with a computerized data bank where visitors can do online searches for the names of Holocaust victims.
Archives The Archive is the oldest department of Yad Vashem. Before presenting an exhibition, Yad Vashem collects items. The best known of these are the historical photographs, as well as the Pages of Testimonies collected from survivors. The latter is a database of personal information about those who survived and those who were murdered in the Holocaust. Yad Vashem has also acquired access to the database of the International Tracing Service of Bad Arolsen of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and these two databases complement each other for research purposes.
Righteous Among the Nations Memorial to the Jewish children murdered by the Nazis
One of Yad Vashem's tasks is to honor non-Jews who risked their lives, liberty, or positions to save Jews during the Holocaust. To this end, a special independent commission, headed by a retired Supreme Court justice, was established. The commission members, including historians, public figures, lawyers, and Holocaust survivors, examine and evaluate each case according to a well-defined set of criteria and regulations. The Righteous receive a certificate of honor and a medal, and their names are commemorated in the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations,[40] on the Mount of Remembrance, Yad Vashem. This is an ongoing project that will continue for as long as there are valid requests, substantiated by testimonies or documentation. Five hundred and fifty-five individuals were recognized during 2011, and as of 2021[update], more than 27,921 individuals have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.[41]
Yad Vashem's declared policy is not to provide meaningful recognition, even in a possible new category, to Jews who rescued Jews, regardless of the number of people their activism saved. The stated reason is that Jews had an obligation to save fellow Jews and do not deserve recognition.[42][43]
Art gallery Yad Vashem houses the world's largest collection of artwork produced by Jews and other victims of Nazi occupation in 1933''1945. The Yad Vashem Art Department supervises a 10,000-piece collection, adding 300 pieces a year, most of them donated by survivors' families or discovered in attics.[44] Included in the collection are works by Alexander Bogen, Alice Lok Cahana, Samuel Bak, and Felix Nussbaum.
Monuments The monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising by Nathan Rapoport, a version of the 1948 Monument to the Ghetto Heroes from Warsaw.Janusz Korczak and the Children, memorial to the educator and the children he refused to leaveMemorial to the Jewish children murdered in the HolocaustThe Memorial to the Deportees, aka "train monument", in memory of the Jews taken to the extermination camps by cattle carsValley of the (Destroyed) Communities, in memory of the Jewish communities of Europe which ceased to exist after the Holocaust Prizes awarded by Yad Vashem Yad Vashem awards the following book prizes:
Yad Vashem Prize for Children's Holocaust LiteratureYad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research, established in 2011 in memory of Abraham Meir Schwartzbaum, Holocaust survivor, and his family who was murdered in the Holocaust. It is awarded annually in recognition of high scholarly research and writing on the Holocaust.[45]Sussman Prize for Paintings of the Shoah.The annual Buchman Foundation Memorial Prize, for writers and scholars for Holocaust-related works. Recipients include:[46]2007: Hanoch Bartov, for Beyond the Horizon, Across the Street2007: Shlomo Aronson, for Hitler, the Allies and the JewsEarlier: Aharon Appelfeld, Alona Frankel (2005),[47] Ida Fink, Dina Porat, Lizzie Doron, Amir Gottfreund, and Itamar Levin.Awards bestowed upon Yad Vashem In 1973, the Pinkas HaKehillot (Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities) project of Yad Vashem was awarded the Israel Prize, for its special contribution to society and the State.[48]In 2003, Yad Vashem was awarded the Israel Prize, for lifetime achievement and its special contribution to society and the State.[49][50]In September 2007, Yad Vashem received the Prince of Asturias Award for Concord.[51] The Prince of Asturias Awards are presented in eight categories. The Award for Concord is bestowed upon a person, persons, or institution whose work has made an exemplary and outstanding contribution to mutual understanding and peaceful coexistence among men, to the struggle against injustice or ignorance, to the defense of freedom, or whose work has widened the horizons of knowledge or has been outstanding in protecting and preserving mankind's heritage.On 25 October 2007, Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev was awarded the L(C)gion d'honneur for his "extraordinary work on behalf of Holocaust remembrance worldwide." French President Nicolas Sarkozy presented Shalev with the award in a special ceremony at the ‰lys(C)e Palace.In 2011, Shalev received the City of Jerusalem's Patron of Jerusalem Award in recognition of his work in the city.[52]Notable visitors Heads of state Presidents Prime Ministers (heads of government) Royalty UN Secretary-Generals Religious figures Others Marlene Dietrich, German-American actor[125]Branko Lustig, Croatian two-time Oscar winning producer and Holocaust survivor[126] Wang Qishan, Vice President of China (2018)[127]See also Gathering the fragmentsInternational Holocaust Remembrance DayList of Israel Prize recipientsList of Righteous Among the Nations by countryThe Holocaust History ProjectYad Vashem: Preserving the Past to Ensure the FutureYom HaShoahReferences ^ Highlights, Yad vashem, 2017 . ^ Highlights, Yad vashem, 2016 [permanent dead link ] . ^ Highlights, Yad vashem, 2015 . ^ "What Is Yad Vashem". yadvashem.org . Retrieved 2 December 2021 . ^ The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation. Jewish Publication Society. 1917. ^ Emendations based on Ibn Ezra and Metzudat David, as quoted by sefaria.org, and on modern usage, c.f. Kennedy Memorial ×Ö¸×' ×§Ö¶× Ö·×'Ö´×. ^ a b Margalit, Avishai (2002). The Ethics of Memory. Harvard University Press . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ Gilbert, Martin (2008). Israel: A History (rev. & upd. ed.). New York: Harper Perennial. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-68812363-5. ^ Silberklang, David (Fall 2003). "More Than a Memorial: The Evolution of Yad Vashem" (PDF) . Yad Vashem Quarterly Magazine. Jerusalem, IL: Yad Vashem (Special Commemorative ed): 6''7. ^ Naor, Mordechai (1998). "1954". The Twentieth Century in Eretz Israel. Translated by Krausz, Judith. Cologne, DE: Konenmann Verlagsgesellschaft. pp. 317''18. ISBN 978-3-89508595-6. ^ Edrei, Arye (7 June 2007). "Holocaust Memorial". In Doron Mendels (ed.). On Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-03911-064-3. ^ Singer, Yehudit (6 May 2008). "60 Years of Commemorating the Holocaust". Shiur Times: 36''37. ^ Amdur Sack, Sallyann (1995). A guide to Jewish genealogical research in Israel. Avotaynu. p. 67. ISBN 0-96263737-8. ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Eber, Shirley; Silvani, Francesca (1998). Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 371. ISBN 1-85828248-9. ^ Stauber, Roni (2007). The Holocaust in Israeli Public Debate in the 1950s: Ideology and memory. Vallentine Mitchell. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-85303723-1. ^ Auron, Yair (2003). "The Israeli Academy and the Armenian Genocide". The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide. Rutgers University Press. pp. 217''225. ISBN 0-7658-0834-X. ^ Baer, Marc D. (2020). Sultanic Saviors and Tolerant Turks: Writing Ottoman Jewish History, Denying the Armenian Genocide. Indiana University Press. pp. 126''127. ISBN 978-0-253-04542-3. ^ Ben Aharon, Eldad (2015). "A Unique Denial: Israel's Foreign Policy and the Armenian Genocide". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 42 (4): 638''654. doi:10.1080/13530194.2015.1043514. S2CID 218602513. ^ "New Holocaust Museum Opens in Jerusalem". The New York Times. 15 March 2005 . Retrieved 15 January 2018 . ^ "The new Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem '' Facts & Figures" (press release). Yad Vashem. 15 March 2005. ^ Lefkovits, Etgar. "Jerusalem: Yad Vashem". Highbeam. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013 . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ a b Ser, Sam. "New Yad Vashem museum to emphasize 'human story' ". Jerusalem Post/Highbeam.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013 . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ "Rabbi Israel Meir Lau Appointed Chairman of the Yad Vashem Council". .yadvashem.org . Retrieved 21 July 2012 . ^ a b c Yad Vashem Magazine. Volume 80. June 2016: "Archived copy" (PDF) . Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 September 2016 . Retrieved 2 August 2016 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) ^ "Three Decades Dedicated to Shoah Commemoration". yadvashem.org. 22 August 2021 . Retrieved 23 August 2021 . ^ "Vowing to reject Holocaust 'distortion,' Dani Dayan appointed head of Yad Vashem". The Times of Israel. 22 August 2021 . Retrieved 23 August 2021 . ^ "The International School for Holocaust Studies". .yadvashem.org . Retrieved 24 April 2012 . ^ About: The Central Database of Shoah Victims Names Archived 18 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine ^ "Yad Vashem - Request Rejected". db.yadvashem.org. Archived from the original on 22 January 2016. ^ Our Memory of the Past and for the Future: Based on the Proceedings of an International Forum in Jerusalem, Israel, 15''21 September 2003. Council of Europe. 2005 . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ "Remembering the Holocaust: Bearing witness ever more". Economist.com. 24 August 2013 . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ Ofer Aderet (11 February 2014). "Yad Vashem finds Muslim clicks on Facebook". haaretz.com . Retrieved 21 September 2014 . ^ Yoav Stern. "Yad Vashem fires employee who compared Holocaust to Nakba". Haaretz, 23 April 2009. "Yad Vashem Fires Employee Who Compared Holocaust to Nakba". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 29 July 2015 . Retrieved 28 December 2014 . ^ "Yad Vashem Studies". The International Institute for Holocaust Research . Retrieved 23 February 2017 . ^ a b Chris McGreal (15 March 2005). " 'This is ours and ours alone' ". Guardian . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ Kofi Annan commented at the opening, "The number of Holocaust survivors who are still with us is dwindling fast. Our children are growing up just as rapidly. They are beginning to ask their first questions about injustice. What will we tell them? Will we say, 'That's just the way the world is'? Or will we say instead, 'We are trying to change things'--to find a better way'? Let this museum stand as a testimony that we are striving for a better way. Let Yad Vashem inspire us to keep striving, as long as the darkest dark stalks the face of the earth." Facing the Consequences of Dividing Israel Archived 6 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine ^ Amanda Borschel-Dan. "Yad Vashem to break ground on new artifacts center on Holocaust Remembrance Day". www.timesofisrael.com . Retrieved 27 March 2019 . ^ a b c Esther Zandberg (31 January 2014). "Holocaust Memorial Yad Vashem Was Already Being Planned in 1942". Haaretz . Retrieved 20 December 2019 . ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Irena Sendler (1910''2008) ^ "Gardens of the Righteous Worldwide - The Yad Vashem Garden of the Righteous". Gariwo. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012 . Retrieved 24 July 2012 . ^ "Names of Righteous by Country". Yad Vashem. 1 January 2021 . Retrieved 27 January 2022 . ^ https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Why-wont-Yad-Vashem-honor-Jewish-rescuers - by Dr. Mordecai Paldiel who directed the Yad Vashem Righteous department for decades ^ https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Yad-Vashem-and-Jewish-rescuers-of-Jews-472621 - by Dr. Mordecai Paldiel ^ Sanders, Edmund (26 December 2010). "Holocaust art endures at Israel's Yad Vashem museum". Articles.latimes.com . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ "The Yad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research 2012". Yadvashem.org . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ "Archived copy" (PDF) . Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 31 October 2013 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) ^ "Buchman Prize - Yad Vashem Judges' Reasons". Alonafrankel.com . Retrieved 25 February 2014 . ^ "Israel Prize Official Site '' Recipients in 1973 (in Hebrew)". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew) '' Recipient's C.V. (2003)". ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew)- Judges' Considerations for Grant of Prize to Recipient in 2003". ^ "Yad Vashem Receives Prince of Asturias Award for Concord". 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. ^ "Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev to Receive 2011 Patron of Jerusalem (Yakir Yerushalayim) Award". Yad Vashem. 7 March 2011 . Retrieved 11 November 2013 . ^ "The President of Chad visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 20 September 1965 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "The President of Mexico visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 7 August 1975 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "The President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat, visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vasehm. 20 November 1977 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "The President of West Germany, Richard von Weizsacker visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 8 October 1985 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "Clinton Offers Prayer of Hope During His Visit to Yad Vashem". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 31 October 1994 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Newsline - January 4, 2000". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 4 January 2000 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "Visit of Croatian President Stipe Mesic to Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 31 October 2001 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "German President Kohler at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 31 January 2005 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "Visit of Serbian President Boris Tadić to Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 8 November 2005 . Retrieved 7 November 2005 . ^ "Putin Visits Israel and Tries to Allay Its Security Worries". New York Times. 29 April 2005 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Polish President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 11 September 2006 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "President Bush Visits Yad Vashem". The White House. 11 January 2008 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Visit of French President Nicolas Sarkozy to Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 23 June 2008 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "President Paul Kagame concludes visit to Israel". The New Times. 15 May 2008 . Retrieved 3 March 2021 . ^ "Visit of President of Germany to Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 28 November 2010 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "President Josipović visits Yad Vashem". Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "Visit of President of Germany Joachim Gauck and Ms. Daniela Schadt to Yad Vashem May 29, 2012". Yad Vashem. 29 May 2012 . Retrieved 25 May 2017 . ^ "President Obama at Yad Vashem Today". Yad Vashem. 22 March 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Serbian President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 28 April 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Cypriot President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 5 May 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Colombian President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 9 June 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "President of the Czech Republic at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 6 October 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Nigerian President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 27 October 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Polish President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 3 November 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "President of Guatemala at Yad Vashem Monday". Yad Vashem. 8 December 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Sri Lankan President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 8 January 2014 . Retrieved 21 January 2014 . ^ "Romanian President at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 19 January 2014 . Retrieved 21 January 2014 . ^ "El Presidente de la Repºblica del Perº visit" Yad Vashem el 17 de febero de 2014". Yad Vashem. 2 May 2014 . Retrieved 2 May 2014 . ^ "President of India Visits Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 13 October 2015 . Retrieved 7 October 2019 . ^ AFP (22 July 2015). "KOLINDA IN ISRAEL 'I express my deepest regret to all the victims of the Holocaust in Croatia. Ustasha regime manipulated the Croats' ". Jutarnji.hr . Retrieved 17 August 2016 . ^ "GRABAR-KITAROVIĆ U MEMORIJALNOM MUZEJU YAD VASHEM 'Holokaust se nikad neće i ne smije zaboraviti' - Jutarnji List". www.jutarnji.hr. 29 July 2019. ^ "Polish President Visits Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 17 January 2017 . Retrieved 20 May 2017 . ^ "German President at Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 4 May 2017 . Retrieved 25 May 2017 . ^ "Bulgarian President at Yad Vashem Wednesday". Yad Vashem. 19 March 2018 . Retrieved 23 March 2018 . ^ "Philippines' Duterte: 'never again' at Israel's Holocaust memorial". Ynetnews. 9 March 2018. ^ "Duterte at Yad Vashem: 'Despots and insane leaders' should be deposed". ^ "Poroshenko after visit to Yad Vashem memorial: Ukraine remembers victims of Holocaust | KyivPost - Ukraine's Global Voice". KyivPost. 21 January 2019 . Retrieved 9 July 2020 . ^ "Ð'оÐ>>Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸Ñ Ð—ÐµÐ>>енський відвідав Ð'емоÑіаÐ>>ьний комÐÐ>>екс "Яд Ð'аÑем" ". ОÑіційне інтеÑнет-ÐÑедставництво ПÑезидента УкÑаїни (in Ukrainian) . Retrieved 9 July 2020 . ^ "Yad Vashem Photo Collections". photos.yadvashem.org. ^ "Yad Vashem Photo Collections". photos.yadvashem.org. ^ "The Prime Minister Education Minister of Gambia visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 11 October 1966 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Margaret Thatcher, visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 25 May 1986 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ https://photos.yadvashem.org/photo-details.html?language=en&item_id=70957&ind=0 Yad Vashem collection ^ "The Prime Minister of Greece visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 19 May 1992 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "The Prime Minister of Kazakhstan visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 19 May 1992 . Retrieved 20 January 2014 . ^ "The Prime Minister of Lithuania visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 4 October 1993 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "Palestinians upset Chretien avoids East Jerusalem". CBC News. 11 November 2000 . Retrieved 10 February 2017 . ^ "Sanader: Individualisation of Yad Vashem Victims More Powerful than just Plain Figures". Croatian Radiotelevision. 28 June 2005. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016 . Retrieved 30 October 2014 . ^ "Turkish Prime Minister to Visit Yad Vashem Today". Yad Vashem. 1 May 2005 . Retrieved 2 September 2016 . ^ "Besucher aus deutschsprachigen L¤ndern" (in German). Yad Vashem. 30 January 2006 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 . ^ "Georgian Prime Minister at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 23 June 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Italian Prime Minister at Yad Vashem Monday". Yad Vashem. 30 June 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Greek Prime Minister at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 7 October 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Dutch Prime Minister at Yad Vashem Sunday". Yad Vashem. 5 December 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Canadian Prime Minister at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 20 January 2014 . Retrieved 20 January 2014 . ^ "Prime Minister of the Czech Republic at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 24 November 2014 . Retrieved 27 November 2014 . ^ "Prime Minister of the Serbia at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 1 December 2014 . Retrieved 30 November 2014 . ^ "Greek PM Visits Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem". Yad Vashem. 25 November 2015 . Retrieved 25 November 2015 . ^ "Albanian Prime Minister to visit Yad Vashem". Israeli MFA. 21 December 2015 . Retrieved 11 January 2016 . ^ "Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Visits Israel". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. ^ "HRT: Plenković se sastao s Netanyahuom". Vijesti (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 25 January 2017 . Retrieved 24 January 2017 . ^ "Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial is mirror to the world: PM Narendra Modi". India times. ^ "Australian Prime Minister Visits Yad Vashem". Yad vashem. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 May 2021 . Retrieved 23 May 2020 . {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) ^ "Crown Prince of Denmark at Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 29 October 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Prince William visits Yad Vashem, honors great-grandmother who rescued Jews". Times of Israel. 26 June 2018 . Retrieved 29 June 2018 . ^ Jerusalem, Israel, The Secretary-General of the United Nations Kurt Waldheim Archived 14 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine ^ "UN Secretary General at Yad Vashem Today". Yad vashem. ^ "The Dalai Lama visiting Yad Vashem". Arts & Culture. Jerusalem, IL. 20 March 1994 . Retrieved 8 March 2017 . ^ "Visit of Pope John Paul II at Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 23 March 2000 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Visit of Pope Benedict XVI 11/5/2009". 11 May 2009 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury Moved During Visit to Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. 27 June 2013 . Retrieved 29 December 2013 . ^ "Marlene Dietrich visiting Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem . Retrieved 14 February 2014 . ^ "Jutarnji list - KOLINDA U IZRAELU 'Izražavam najdublje kajanje zbog svih žrtava holokausta u Hrvatskoj. UstaÅki režim izmanipulirao je Hrvate' ". www.jutarnji.hr. 22 July 2015. ^ "Chinese Vice President to Visit Yad Vashem Tomorrow". Yad Vashem . Retrieved 23 October 2018 . External links Media related to Yad Vashem at Wikimedia Commons
Official website (in English)
Yuri Bezmenov - Wikipedia
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:24
Soviet journalist and whistleblower
Yuri Bezmenov
Bezmenov, c. '‰1986
BornYuri Alexandrovich Bezmenov
December 11, 1939DiedJanuary 5, 1993[1] (aged 53)NationalitySoviet and RussianOther namesTomas SchumanCitizenshipCanadianEducationOccupationKGB press and propaganda agent, RIA Novosti journalist, later defector/informant, anti-communist authorYears active1963''1986EmployerKnown forAccusations of Soviet infiltration of, and active measures (subversion) against American societyNotable work
Various lecture tapes and Love Letter to America[2]MovementAnticommunism Opponent(s) Anarchists, Communists, socialistsChildren3Yuri Alexandrovich Bezmenov (Russian: Ю́Ñий АÐ>>екса́ндÑович Безме́нов ; 1939 '' January 5, 1993; alias: Tomas David Schuman[1]) was a Soviet journalist for RIA Novosti and a former PGU KGB informant who defected to Canada.
After being assigned to a station in India, Bezmenov eventually grew to love the people and the culture of India. At the same time, he began to resent the KGB-sanctioned repression of intellectuals who dissented from Moscow's policies[3] and he decided to defect to the West.[3] Bezmenov is best remembered for his anti-communist lectures and books published in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s.
Early life and student years (1939''1963) [ edit ] Bezmenov was born in 1939 in Mytishchi, near Moscow, to Russian parents. His father was a high ranking Soviet Army officer, later put in charge of inspecting Soviet troops in foreign countries, such as Mongolia and Cuba.[3] Bezmenov's father died in the 1970s. When Bezmenov was seventeen, he entered the Institute of Oriental Languages, a part of the Moscow State University which was under the direct control of the KGB and the Communist Party Central Committee. In addition to languages, he studied history, literature, and music, and became an expert on Indian culture. During his second year, Bezmenov sought to look like a person from India; his teachers encouraged this because graduates of the school were employed as diplomats, foreign journalists, or spies.[3]
As a Soviet student, he was required to take compulsory military training in which he was taught how to play "strategic war games" using the maps of foreign countries, as well as how to interrogate prisoners of war.[3]
Life in India, propaganda work, and disillusionment (1963''1970) [ edit ] After graduating in 1963, Bezmenov spent two years in India working as a translator and public relations officer with the Soviet economic aid group Soviet Refineries Constructions, which built refinery complexes.
In 1965, Bezmenov was recalled to Moscow and began to work for RIA Novosti as an apprentice for their classified department of "Political Publications" (GRPP). He discovered that about three quarters of Novosti's staffers were actually KGB officers, with the remainder being "co-optees" or KGB freelance writers and informers like himself.[4] However, Bezmenov did not do real freelance writing. Instead, Bezmenov edited and planted propaganda materials in foreign media and accompanied delegations of Novosti's guests from foreign countries on tours of the Soviet Union or to international conferences held in the Soviet Union.
After several months, Bezmenov claimed he was forced to act as an informer[3] while maintaining his position as a Novosti journalist. He used his journalistic duties to help gather information and to spread disinformation to foreign countries for the purposes of Soviet propaganda and subversion.[3]
Rapid promotion followed, and Bezmenov was once again assigned to Bila[citation needed ] in 1969, this time as a Soviet press-officer and a public relations agent for the KGB. He continued Novosti's propaganda efforts in New Delhi, working out of the Soviet embassy. Bezmenov was directed to slowly establish the Soviet sphere of influence in India. In the same year, a secret directive of the Central Committee opened a new secret department in all embassies of the Soviet Union around the world, titled the "Research and Counter-Propaganda Group". Bezmenov became a deputy chief of that department, which gathered intelligence from sources like Indian informers and agents, on influential or politically significant citizens of India.[citation needed ]
Bezmenov stated that he was instructed not to waste time with idealistic leftists, as these would become disillusioned, bitter, and adversarial when they realized the true nature of Soviet communism.[2]
During that period, increasingly seeing the Soviet system as insidious and ruthless, Bezmenov began careful planning to defect to the West.[2][5][6]
Defection to the West and life in Canada (1970''1983) [ edit ] According to a statement provided to the Delhi Police by the so-called Russian Information Centre, on February 8, 1970, Bezmenov was set to see a screening of the American film The Incident with two of his colleagues. However, it was reported by them at the time that he had not bought his ticket, and told them he would join them in a moment and try to purchase one from a scalper outside the theater.[7] Bezmenov did not return to the theater.[8] Instead, Bezmenov put on hippie clothes, complete with a beard and wig, before joining a tour group. By these means, he escaped to Athens, Greece. His defection was reported in the United States, with Soviet sources stating he was "not important" and did "clerical work", and American intelligence openly stating they believed him to be an agent of the KGB. At the time, his whereabouts were depicted in American media as unknown.[9] After contacting the American embassy and undergoing extensive interviews with United States intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was able to help Bezmenov seek asylum in Canada, granted by the administration of Pierre Trudeau.[3][10] The CIA and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) advised him to adopt a new name and identity for reasons of safety.[6] In order to save face with the embarrassment of a defection within the KGB ranks, the Delhi residency officially reported he had been abducted, and his son, his closest surviving relative, was given financial compensation.[11]
After studying political science at the University of Toronto for two years, and working on an Ontario farm for three years, in 1973, Bezmenov was hired by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in Montreal, broadcasting to the Soviet Union as part of the CBC's International Service.[6] This is when he met his wife, Tess. In 1976, Bezmenov left the CBC and began free-lance journalism. He became a consultant for Almanac Panorama of the World Information Network.[5] Bezmenov claimed that the KGB successfully used the Soviet Ambassador to Canada to persuade Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to apply pressure to have him removed from that position.[3] He claimed that he received veiled death threats from the KGB.[3]
Pro-American literature and lectures (Los Angeles, 1981''1986) [ edit ] "As I mentioned before, exposure to true information does not matter anymore. A person who is demoralized is unable to assess true information. The facts tell him nothing, even if I shower him with information, with authentic proof, with documents and pictures. ...he will refuse to believe it... That's the tragedy of the situation of demoralization."
''Yuri Bezmenov [1983]
He moved to Los Angeles in the 1980s.[6] In 1983, at a lecture in Los Angeles, Bezmenov expressed the opinion that he "wouldn't be surprised" if the Soviet Union had shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in order to kill Larry McDonald, an anti-communist Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives. Around the same time, Bezmenov had a child in the West, a daughter named Tanya. He later had a son named Johnathan.[12]In 1984, he gave an interview to G. Edward Griffin, titled 'Soviet Subversion of the Free World Press'. In the interview, Bezmenov explained the methods used by the KGB for the gradual subversion of the political system of the United States.[3]
The main emphasis of the KGB is not in the area of intelligence at all. Only about 15% of time, money, and manpower is spent on espionage and such. The other 85% is a slow process which we call either ideological subversion or active measures ... or psychological warfare.[3][13]
Under the pen-name, Tomas D. Schuman, Bezmenov authored the book Love Letter to America.[2] The author's biography of the book likens Bezmenov to Winston Smith, from George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Other books by Bezmenov are: No Novosti Is Good News,[4] World Thought Police,[5] Black Is Beautiful, Communism Is Not.[14]
In 1984, the Washington Post reported Bezmenov publicly denounced admission of a Soviet cruise ship to Los Angeles during the 1984 Summer Olympics, stating that they were placed there under the guise of entertainment, but maintained electronic surveillance equipment aboard to monitor radio and telephone communications.[10] In another interview, Bezmenov would describe a series of methods he posited that the KGB had used during the Games, including espionage by Soviet foreign journalists, as well as the use of other personnel to "provide better control against possible athletic defections."[15]
Later years and death (1986''1993) [ edit ] In 1989, he and his wife divorced. That same year he moved to Windsor, Ontario, while she stayed in Montreal. Two years later, he began teaching international relations at the University of Windsor. In late December 1992, Bezmenov visited Tess and their children in Montreal for Christmas. Two weeks later, Bezmenov's death was reported on January 6, 1993. According to the Windsor Star, he died of a "massive heart attack", on Tuesday, January 5, 1993.[6]
Legacy [ edit ] Since his death, Bezmenov's "Soviet subversion model"[a] has been studied and interpreted by faculty and staff at the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) to analyze historical events, including the decade-long Russian campaign that preceded the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.[16] His work has also been cited by senior director of UPenn's Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement, and former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Dr. Michael Carpenter.[17][18] His lectures have also been used by Yale senior lecturer Asha Rangappa, to illustrate the concept of active measures in Russia's historical disinformation campaigns in the United States.[19]
On August 19, 2020, Bezmenov's 1984 interview discussing active measures with a journalist G. Edward Griffin was used in the teaser for the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War, in addition to its use in the main introduction on August 26. This in part has contributed to a renewed interest in both Bezmenov's work and lectures.[20][21][22]
Publications [ edit ] Love Letter To America. Los Angeles: W.I.N. Almanac Panorama (1984). ISBN 0935090134.Black is Beautiful, Communism is Not. Los Angeles: N.A.T.A. Almanac (1985). ISBN 978-0935090185.World Thought Police. Los Angeles: N.A.T.A. Almanac (1986).See also [ edit ] List of KGB defectorsList of Soviet and Eastern Bloc defectorsNotes [ edit ] ^ Demoralization (15-20 years) Destabilization (2-5 years) Crisis (2-6 months) Normalization ("indefinite")[2] References [ edit ] ^ a b "Windsor Public Library Obituaries". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 . Retrieved July 13, 2016 . ^ a b c d e Schuman, Tomas (1984). Love Letter to America. Los Angeles: NATA. ISBN 978-0-935090-13-0. OCLC 19468210 . Retrieved November 30, 2010 . [infringing link? ] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bezmenov, Yuri (1984). "Soviet Subversion of the Free-World Press: A Conversation with Yuri Bezmenov" (Interview). Interviewed by G. Edward Griffin. Westlake Village, CA. Archived from the original on August 24, 2020 . Retrieved July 8, 2020 '' via YouTube. Lay summary. ^ a b Bezmenov, Yuri (1985). No "Novosti" is Good News. Los Angeles: Almanac. ISBN 978-0-935090-17-8. OCLC 45013143. ^ a b c Bezmenov, Yuri (1986). World Thought Police. Los Angeles: NATA. ISBN 978-0-935090-14-7. OCLC 23919332. Archived from the original on November 1, 2010 . Retrieved November 30, 2010 . ^ a b c d e "Soviet defector held passion for homeland". The Windsor Star. Windsor, Ont. January 6, 1993. p. 5. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020 . Retrieved July 6, 2020 '' via Newspapers.com. ^ Slee, John (March 5, 1970). "Mysterious Case of the Affable Envoy Who Disappeared". The Age. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. p. 4. Archived from the original on July 13, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 '' via Newspapers.com. ^ "Soviet Embassy official missing". The Indian Express. New Delhi. February 10, 1970. Archived from the original on August 24, 2020 . Retrieved July 29, 2020 '' via Google News Archive. ^ Chicago Daily News Service (March 8, 1970). "What Happened to Bezmenov?". Express and News. San Antonio, Tx. p. 15. Archived from the original on July 13, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 '' via Newspapers.com. ^ a b Mathews, Jay (April 14, 1984). "Group Sets Safety Net to Snatch Defectors at Olympic Games" (PDF) . Washington Post. Washington, D.C. p. A1. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 24, 2017 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 '' via Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ^ Andrew, Christopher M. (2000). The Sword and the Shield : the Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books. OCLC 727648881. Archived from the original on August 24, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 . Most other cases of alleged CIA special actions against KGB officers were in reality cases of actual or attempted defection...Such was the case, for example, in the disappearance of Bezmenov. Anxious to save face, the Delhi residency had reported that he had been abducted, and his son (the closest surviving relative) was given financial compensation ^ Bezmenov, Yuri (1983). Tomas Schuman (Yuri Bezmenov) L.A. 1983 pt. IV 1/2. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on December 20, 2021 . Retrieved July 8, 2020 '' via YouTube. ^ Bezmenov, Yuri (1983). Psychological Warfare Subversion & Control of Western Society. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on December 20, 2021 . Retrieved July 8, 2020 '' via YouTube. ^ Bezmenov, Yuri (1985). Black is Beautiful, Communism is Not. Almanac-Press. ISBN 978-0-935090-18-5. OCLC 62325386. ^ Archibald, George (January 18, 1984). "Ex-spy urges curbing Soviets at Olympics" (PDF) . Washington Times. Washington, D.C. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 '' via Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ^ "G. Case Study: The Russo-Georgian War of 2008". Publications Combined: Russia's Regular And Special Forces In The Regional And Global War On Terror. Hurlburt Field, Fl.: JSOU Press. p. 165. Archived from the original on August 24, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 . When the 2008 conflict and its preceding events are analyzed through the lens of Bezmenov's Soviet subversion model and organized by the elements of national power, it becomes apparent that the conflict itself was simply the culmination point of a protracted PW [psychological warfare] campaign against Western expansion...The demoralization phase of Bezmenov's model extends back to 1992, when war broke out in Georgia during the aftermath of Soviet collapse. ^ Carpenter, Michael (May 21, 2019). Undermining Democracy: Kremlin Tools of Malign Political Influence (PDF) (Report). Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement, University of Pennsylvania. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 13, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 '' via US Congress. ^ "Michael Carpenter". Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement, University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on July 13, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 . ^ Asha Rangappa (Summer 2019). "DEMOCRACY AND DISINFORMATION (GLBL SXXX) - Syllabus" (PDF) . Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 2, 2020 . Retrieved July 13, 2020 . ^ "Stay Vigilant". pawntakespawn.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020 . Retrieved August 19, 2020 . ^ Hollister, Sean (August 19, 2020). "Call of Duty Black Ops: Cold War is official, will be 'inspired by actual events' ". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020 . Retrieved August 19, 2020 . ^ "Call of Duty: Black Ops '' Cold War officially revealed in Warzone event". PCGamesN . Retrieved August 26, 2020 . Further reading [ edit ] Schuman, Tomas (1984). "Soviet Ideological Subversion of America in Four Stages : Elizabeth Clare Prophet interviews Tomas Schuman, Novosti Press, Soviet defector". Summit University (Audio). Interviewed by Elizabeth Clare Prophet. Malibu, California. OCLC 25714340. External links [ edit ] A collection of video interviews of and lectures by BezmenovFreedom of Information CIA file with article summarizing Bezmenov's ideas
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion - Wikipedia
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 20:18
1903 antisemitic fabricated text first published in Russia
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Cover of first book edition, The Great Within the Minuscule and Antichrist
AuthorUnknown; plagiarised from various authorsOriginal titleПÑоÐ"Ñама завоевания миÑа евÑеями (Programa zavoevaniya mira evreyami ;English: The Jewish Programme to Conquer the World)CountryRussian EmpireLanguageRussian[a]SubjectAntisemitic conspiracy theoryGenrePropagandaPublisherZnamya Publication date
August''September 1903Published in English
1919The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (ПÑотокоÐ>>ы сионских мудÑецов ) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is a fabricated antisemitic text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination. The hoax was plagiarized from several earlier sources, some not antisemitic in nature. It was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. It played a key part in popularizing belief in an international Jewish conspiracy.
Distillations of the work were assigned by some German teachers, as if factual, to be read by German schoolchildren after the Nazis came to power in 1933,[2] despite having been exposed as fraudulent by the British newspaper The Times in 1921 and the German Frankfurter Zeitung in 1924. It remains widely available in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and continues to be presented by neofascist, fundamentalist and antisemitic groups as a genuine document. It has been described as "probably the most influential work of antisemitism ever written".
Creation The Protocols is a fabricated document purporting to be factual. Textual evidence shows that it could not have been produced prior to 1901. It is known that the title of Sergei Nilus' widely distributed edition contains the dates "1902''1903", and it is likely that the document was actually written at this time in Russia, despite Nilus' attempt to cover this up by inserting French-sounding words into his edition. Cesare G. De Michelis argues that it was manufactured in the months after a Russian Zionist congress in September 1902, and that it was originally a parody of Jewish idealism meant for internal circulation among antisemites until it was decided to clean it up and publish it as if it were real. Self-contradictions in various testimonies show that the individuals involved'--including the text's initial publisher, Pavel Krushevan'--deliberately obscured the origins of the text and lied about it in the decades afterwards.
If the placement of the forgery in 1902''1903 Russia is correct, then it was written at the beginning of the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, in which thousands of Jews were killed or fled the country. Many of the people whom De Michelis suspects of involvement in the forgery were directly responsible for inciting the pogroms.[6]
Political conspiracy background According to Norman Cohn, the modern myth of a world-wide conspiracy by Jews has its earliest precursor in a work written by a Jesuit priest, Augustin Barruel, who in his M(C)moires pour servir l'histoire du Jacobinisme (1798) argued that the medieval and multinational Order of the Knights Templar had not been completely extinguished in 1312 but rather lived on down the ages as a secret fraternity intent on destroying the papacy and all monarchical forms of government. In Barruel's view, the modern members of this occult movement had wrested control of the Order of Freemasons he deemed responsible for undermining popular morality and the Catholic religion. Barruel's ideas of a universal conspiracy were influenced by news of the contents of a tract, Proofs of a Conspiracy (1797), being written by a Scottish mathematician John Robison in London. According to Barruel, the French Enlightenment thinkers, commanding a membership of half a million followers in France, in turn pledged their blind allegiance to the Bavarian Illuminati under Adam Weishaupt. The Jews rarely figure in Barruel's 5 volume polemic, though several years later, a letter written by a putative Florentine army officer going under the name of J.B. Simonini, and addressed to Barruel, after complimenting him for having identified the infernal sects manoeuvering to pave the way for the Antichrist, added that the 'Judaic sect' should be included in the roster. The letter, Cohn concluded, 'seems to be the earliest in the series of anti-Semitic forgeries that was to culminate in the Protocols.'.[7] Simonini himself, according to L(C)on Poliakov, was probably a pseudonym masquerading the work of the French political police controlled by Joseph Fouch(C), perhaps in an attempt to thwart Napoleon's plans to convoke a Grand Sanhedrin and grant enfranchisement to the Jews.[8] Cohn's reconstruction of the background is now contested.[citation needed ]
Towards the end of the 18th century, following the Partitions of Poland, the Russian Empire inherited the world's largest Jewish population. The Jews lived in shtetls in the West of the Empire, in the Pale of Settlement and until the 1840s, local Jewish affairs were organised through the qahal, the semi-autonomous Jewish government, including for purposes of taxation and conscription into the Imperial Russian Army. Following the ascent of liberalism in Europe, the Russian ruling class became more hardline in its reactionary policies, upholding the banner of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality, whereby non-Orthodox and non-Russian subjects, including Jews, were not always embraced. Jews who attempted to assimilate were regarded with suspicion as potential "infiltrators" supposedly trying to "take over society", while Jews who remained attached to traditional Jewish culture were resented as undesirable aliens.
The Book of the Kahal (1869) by Jacob Brafman, in the Russian language original
Resentment towards Jews, for the aforementioned reasons, existed in Russian society, but the idea of a Protocols-esque international Jewish conspiracy for world domination was minted in the 1860s. Jacob Brafman, a Russian Jew from Minsk, had a falling out with agents of the local qahal and consequently turned against Judaism. He subsequently converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and authored polemics against the Talmud and the qahal. Brafman claimed in his books The Local and Universal Jewish Brotherhoods (1868) and The Book of the Kahal (1869), published in Vilna, that the qahal continued to exist in secret and that it had as its principal aim undermining Christian entrepreneurs, taking over their property and ultimately seizing power. He also claimed that it was an international conspiratorial network, under the central control of the Alliance Isra(C)lite Universelle, which was based in Paris and then under the leadership of Adolphe Cr(C)mieux, a prominent freemason. The Vilna Talmudist, Jacob Barit, attempted to refute Brafman's claim.
The impact of Brafman's work took on an international aspect when it was translated into English, French, German and other languages. The image of the "qahal" as a secret international Jewish shadow government working as a state within a state was picked up by anti-Jewish publications in Russia and was taken seriously by some Russian officials such as P. A. Cherevin and Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev who in the 1880s urged governors-general of provinces to seek out the supposed qahal. This was around the time of the Narodnaya Volya assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia and the subsequent pogroms. In France, it was translated by Monsignor Ernest Jouin in 1925, who supported the Protocols. In 1928, Siegfried Passarge, a geographer who later gave his support to the Nazis, translated it into German.
Aside from Brafman, there were other early writings which posited a similar concept to the Protocols. This includes The Conquest of the World by the Jews (1878),[10] published in Basel and authored by Osman Bey (born Frederick Millingen). Millingen was a British subject and son of English physician Julius Michael Millingen, but served as an officer in the Ottoman Army where he was born. He converted to Islam, but later became a Russian Orthodox Christian. Bey's work was followed up by Hippolytus Lutostansky's The Talmud and the Jews (1879) which claimed that Jews wanted to divide Russia among themselves.[11]
Sources employed Source material for the forgery consisted jointly of Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), an 1864 political satire by Maurice Joly; and a chapter from Biarritz, an 1868 novel by the antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche, which had been translated into Russian in 1872.[2]:'Š97'Š
Literary forgery The Protocols is one of the best-known and most-discussed examples of literary forgery, with analysis and proof of its fraudulent origin dating as far back as 1921.[13] The forgery is an early example of "conspiracy theory" literature.[14] Written mainly in the first person plural,[b] the text includes generalizations, truisms, and platitudes on how to take over the world: take control of the media and the financial institutions, change the traditional social order, etc. It does not contain specifics.
Maurice Joly Numerous parts in the Protocols, in one calculation, some 160 passages,[17] were plagiarized from Joly's political satire Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu. This book was a thinly veiled attack on the political ambitions of Napoleon III, who, represented by the non-Jewish character Machiavelli,[18] plots to rule the world. Joly, a republican who later served in the Paris Commune, was sentenced to 15 months as a direct result of his book's publication.[19] Umberto Eco considered that Dialogue in Hell was itself plagiarised in part from a novel by Eug¨ne Sue, Les Myst¨res du Peuple (1849''56).[20]
Identifiable phrases from Joly constitute 4% of the first half of the first edition, and 12% of the second half; later editions, including most translations, have longer quotes from Joly.
The Protocols 1''19 closely follow the order of Maurice Joly's Dialogues 1''17. For example:
Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and MontesquieuThe Protocols of the Elders of ZionHow are loans made? By the issue of bonds entailing on the Government the obligation to pay interest proportionate to the capital it has been paid. Thus, if a loan is at 5%, the State, after 20 years, has paid out a sum equal to the borrowed capital. When 40 years have expired it has paid double, after 60 years triple: yet it remains debtor for the entire capital sum.
'--'‰Montesquieu, Dialogues, p. 209
A loan is an issue of Government paper which entails an obligation to pay interest amounting to a percentage of the total sum of the borrowed money. If a loan is at 5%, then in 20 years the Government would have unnecessarily paid out a sum equal to that of the loan in order to cover the percentage. In 40 years it will have paid twice; and in 60 thrice that amount, but the loan will still remain as an unpaid debt.
'--'‰Protocols, p. 77
Like the god Vishnu, my press will have a hundred arms, and these arms will give their hands to all the different shades of opinion throughout the country.
'--'‰Machiavelli, Dialogues, p. 141
These newspapers, like the Indian god Vishnu, will be possessed of hundreds of hands, each of which will be feeling the pulse of varying public opinion.
'--'‰Protocols, p. 43
Now I understand the figure of the god Vishnu; you have a hundred arms like the Indian idol, and each of your fingers touches a spring.
'--'‰Montesquieu, Dialogues, p. 207
Our Government will resemble the Hindu god Vishnu. Each of our hundred hands will hold one spring of the social machinery of State.
'--'‰Protocols, p. 65
Philip Graves brought this plagiarism to light in a series of articles in The Times in 1921, being the first to expose the Protocols as a forgery to the public.[22]
Hermann Goedsche Daniel Keren wrote in his essay "Commentary on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion", "Goedsche was a postal clerk and a spy for the Prussian Secret Police. He had been forced to leave the postal work due to his part in forging evidence in the prosecution against the Democratic leader Benedict Waldeck in 1849."[23] Following his dismissal, Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist, and wrote literary fiction under the pen name Sir John Retcliffe.[24] His 1868 novel Biarritz (To Sedan) contains a chapter called "The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel." In it, Goedsche (who was unaware that only two of the original twelve Biblical "tribes" remained) depicts a clandestine nocturnal meeting of members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal that is planning a diabolical "Jewish conspiracy." At midnight, the Devil appears to contribute his opinions and insight. The chapter closely resembles a scene in Alexandre Dumas' Giuseppe Balsamo (1848), in which Joseph Balsamo a.k.a. Alessandro Cagliostro and company plot the Affair of the Diamond Necklace.[25]
In 1872, a Russian translation of "The Jewish Cemetery in Prague" appeared in Saint Petersburg as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. Fran§ois Bournand, in his Les Juifs et nos Contemporains (1896), reproduced the soliloquy at the end of the chapter, in which the character Levit expresses as factual the wish that Jews be "kings of the world in 100 years" '--crediting a "Chief Rabbi John Readcliff." Perpetuation of the myth of the authenticity of Goedsche's story, in particular the "Rabbi's speech", facilitated later accounts of the equally mythical authenticity of the Protocols.[24] Like the Protocols, many asserted that the fictional "rabbi's speech" had a ring of authenticity, regardless of its origin: "This speech was published in our time, eighteen years ago," read an 1898 report in La Croix, "and all the events occurring before our eyes were anticipated in it with truly frightening accuracy."[26]
Fictional events in Joly's Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu, which appeared four years before Biarritz, may well have been the inspiration for Goedsche's fictional midnight meeting, and details of the outcome of the supposed plot. Goedsche's chapter may have been an outright plagiarism of Joly, Dumas p¨re, or both.[27][c]
Structure and content The Protocols purports to document the minutes of a late-19th-century meeting attended by world Jewish leaders, the "Elders of Zion", who are conspiring to take over the world. The forgery places in the mouths of the Jewish leaders a variety of plans, most of which derive from older antisemitic canards. For example, the Protocols includes plans to subvert the morals of the non-Jewish world, plans for Jewish bankers to control the world's economies, plans for Jewish control of the press, and '' ultimately '' plans for the destruction of civilization. The document consists of 24 "protocols", which have been analyzed by Steven Jacobs and Mark Weitzman, who documented several recurrent themes that appear repeatedly in the 24 protocols,[d] as shown in the following table:
ProtocolTitleThemes1The Basic Doctrine: "Right Lies in Might"Freedom and Liberty; Authority and power; Gold=money2Economic War and Disorganization Lead to International GovernmentInternational Political economic conspiracy; Press/Media as tools3Methods of ConquestJewish people, arrogant and corrupt; Chosenness/Election; Public Service4The Destruction of Religion by MaterialismBusiness as Cold and Heartless; Gentiles as slaves5Despotism and Modern ProgressJewish Ethics; Jewish People's Relationship to Larger Society6The Acquisition of Land, The Encouragement of SpeculationOwnership of land7A Prophecy of Worldwide WarInternal unrest and discord (vs. Court system) leading to war vs Shalom/Peace8The transitional GovernmentCriminal element9The All-Embracing PropagandaLaw; education; Freemasonry10Abolition of the Constitution; Rise of the AutocracyPolitics; Majority rule; Liberalism; Family11The Constitution of Autocracy and Universal RuleGentiles; Jewish political involvement; Freemasonry12The Kingdom of the Press and ControlLiberty; Press censorship; Publishing13Turning Public Thought from Essentials to Non-essentialsGentiles; Business; Chosenness/Election; Press and censorship; Liberalism14The Destruction of Religion as a Prelude to the Rise of the Jewish GodJudaism; God; Gentiles; Liberty; Pornography15Utilization of Masonry: Heartless Suppression of EnemiesGentiles; Freemasonry; Sages of Israel; Political power and authority; King of Israel16The Nullification of EducationEducation17The Fate of Lawyers and the ClergyLawyers; Clergy; Christianity and non-Jewish Authorship18The Organization of DisorderEvil; Speech;19Mutual Understanding Between Ruler and PeopleGossip; Martyrdom20The Financial Program and ConstructionTaxes and Taxation; Loans; Bonds; Usury; Moneylending21Domestic Loans and Government CreditStock Markets and Stock Exchanges22The Beneficence of Jewish RuleGold=Money; Chosenness/Election23The Inculcation of ObedienceObedience to Authority; Slavery; Chosenness/Election24The Jewish RulerKingship; Document as FictionConspiracy references According to Daniel Pipes,
The book's vagueness'--almost no names, dates, or issues are specified'--has been one key to this wide-ranging success. The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction'--that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny'--made it possible for The Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left, Christian and Muslim, American and Japanese.
Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme", "Jews are everywhere", "Jews are behind every institution", "Jews obey a central authority, the shadowy 'Elders'", and "Jews are close to success."
As fiction in the genre of literature, the tract was analyzed by Umberto Eco in his novel Foucault's Pendulum (1988):
The great importance of The Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience, a process that continues to this day. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another."[32]
Eco also dealt with the Protocols in 1994 in chapter 6, "Fictional Protocols", of his Six Walks in the Fictional Woods and in his 2010 novel The Cemetery of Prague.
History Publication history The Protocols appeared in print in the Russian Empire as early as 1903, published as a series of articles in Znamya, a Black Hundreds newspaper owned by Pavel Krushevan. It appeared again in 1905 as the final chapter (Chapter XII) of the second edition of Velikoe v malom i antikhrist ("The Great in the Small & Antichrist"), a book by Sergei Nilus. In 1906, it appeared in pamphlet form edited by Georgy Butmi de Katzman.
These first three (and subsequently more) Russian language imprints were published and circulated in the Russian Empire during the 1903''06 period as a tool for scapegoating Jews, blamed by the monarchists for the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of 1905. Common to all three texts is the idea that Jews aim for world domination. Since The Protocols are presented as merely a document, the front matter and back matter are needed to explain its alleged origin. The diverse imprints, however, are mutually inconsistent. The general claim is that the document was stolen from a secret Jewish organization. Since the alleged original stolen manuscript does not exist, one is forced to restore a purported original edition. This has been done by the Italian scholar, Cesare G. De Michelis in 1998, in a work which was translated into English and published in 2004, where he treats his subject as Apocrypha.
As the Russian Revolution unfolded, causing White movement-affiliated Russians to flee to the West, this text was carried along and assumed a new purpose. Until then, The Protocols had remained obscure; it now became an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution. It became a tool, a political weapon, used against the Bolsheviks who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jewish, allegedly executing the "plan" embodied in The Protocols. The purpose was to discredit the October Revolution, prevent the West from recognizing the Soviet Union, and bring about the downfall of Vladimir Lenin's regime.
First Russian language editions The frontispiece of a 1912 edition using occult symbols
The chapter "In the Jewish Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz, with its strong antisemitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization, was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in 1872.[2]:'Š97'Š However, in 1921, Princess Catherine Radziwill gave a private lecture in New York in which she claimed that the Protocols were a forgery compiled in 1904''05 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski and Manasevich-Manuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, Chief of the Russian secret service in Paris.[35]
In 1944, German writer Konrad Heiden identified Golovinski as an author of the Protocols.[36] Radziwill's account was supported by Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine, who published his findings in November 1999 in the French newsweekly L'Express.[37] Lepekhine considers the Protocols a part of a scheme to persuade Tsar Nicholas II that the modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot to control the world.[38] Stephen Eric Bronner writes that groups opposed to progress, parliamentarianism, urbanization, and capitalism, and an active Jewish role in these modern institutions, were particularly drawn to the antisemitism of the document. Ukrainian scholar Vadim Skuratovsky offers extensive literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the original text of the Protocols and traces the influences of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's prose (in particular, The Grand Inquisitor and The Possessed) on Golovinski's writings, including the Protocols.[38]
Golovinski's role in the writing of the Protocols is disputed by Michael Hagemeister, Richard Levy and Cesare De Michelis, who each write that the account which involves him is historically unverifiable and to a large extent provably wrong.[40][42]
In his book The Non-Existent Manuscript, Italian scholar Cesare G. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. The Protocols were first mentioned in the Russian press in April 1902, by the Saint Petersburg newspaper Novoye Vremya (Ð'овое Ð'Ñемя '' The New Times). The article was written by famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" ("Письма к бÐ>>ижним") and was titled "Plots against Humanity". The author described his meeting with a lady (Yuliana Glinka, as it is known now) who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols; but after reading some excerpts, Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them.[43]
Krushevan and Nilus editions The Protocols were published at the earliest, in serialized form, from August 28 to September 7 (O.S.) 1903, in Znamya, a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper, under Pavel Krushevan. Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier.[44]
In 1905, Sergei Nilus published the full text of the Protocols in Chapter XII, the final chapter (pp. 305''417), of the second edition (or third, according to some sources) of his book, Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, which translates as "The Great within the Small: The Coming of the Anti-Christ and the Rule of Satan on Earth". He claimed it was the work of the First Zionist Congress, held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland. When it was pointed out that the First Zionist Congress had been open to the public and was attended by many non-Jews, Nilus changed his story, saying the Protocols were the work of the 1902''03 meetings of the Elders, but contradicting his own prior statement that he had received his copy in 1901:
In 1901, I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine (the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov) in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish Freemasonic conspiracy, which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end. The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France'--the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy.[45]
Stolypin's fraud investigation, 1905 A subsequent secret investigation ordered by Pyotr Stolypin, the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers, came to the conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897''98.[46] When Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation, he requested, "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means."[47] Despite the order, or because of the "good cause", numerous reprints proliferated.[44]
The Protocols in the West In February 1920, Eyre & Spottiswoode published the first English translation of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Britain. According to a letter written by art historian Robert Hobart Cust, the pamphlet had been translated, prepared, and paid for by George Shanks[48] and their mutual friend, Major Edward Griffiths George Burdon, who was serving as Secretary of the United Russia Societies Association at that time.[49] In an edition of Lord Alfred Douglas' Plain English journal dated January 1921,[50] it is claimed that Shanks, a former officer in the Royal Navy Air Service and the Russian Government Committee in Kingsway, London,[51] had found post-war employment in the Chief Whip's Office at 12 Downing Street, before being offered a position as Personal Secretary to Sir Philip Sassoon, at that time serving as Private Secretary to British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in Britain's Coalition Government.
A 1934 edition by the Patriotic Publishing Company of Chicago
In the United States, The Protocols are to be understood in the context of the First Red Scare (1917''20). The text was purportedly brought to the United States by a Russian Army officer in 1917; it was translated into English by Natalie de Bogory (personal assistant of Harris A. Houghton, an officer of the Department of War) in June 1918,[52] and Russian expatriate Boris Brasol soon circulated it in American government circles, specifically diplomatic and military, in typescript form,[53] a copy of which is archived by the Hoover Institute. It also appeared in 1919 in the Public Ledger as a pair of serialized newspaper articles. But all references to "Jews" were replaced with references to Bolsheviki as an expos(C) by the journalist and subsequently highly respected Columbia University School of Journalism dean Carl W. Ackerman.[55]
In 1923, there appeared an anonymously edited pamphlet by the Britons Publishing Society, a successor to The Britons, an entity created and headed by Henry Hamilton Beamish. This imprint was allegedly a translation by Victor E. Marsden, who had died in October 1920.
English language imprints On October 27 and 28, 1919, the Philadelphia Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red Bible," deleting all references to the purported Jewish authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevik manifesto.[56] The author of the articles was the paper's correspondent at the time, Carl W. Ackerman, who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. On May 8, 1920, an article[57] in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy". In the leader (editorial) titled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Wickham Steed wrote about The Protocols:
What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?[58]
Steed retracted his endorsement of The Protocols after they were exposed as a forgery.[59]
United States Title page of 1920 edition from Boston
For nearly two years starting in 1920, the American industrialist Henry Ford published in a newspaper he owned '-- The Dearborn Independent '-- a series of antisemitic articles that quoted liberally from the Protocols.[60] The actual author of the articles is generally believed to have been the newspaper's editor William Cameron.[60] During 1922, the circulation of the Dearborn Independent grew to almost 270,000 paid copies.[61] Ford later published a compilation of the articles in book form as "The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem".[60] In 1921, Ford cited evidence of a Jewish threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time."[62] Robert A. Rosenbaum wrote that "In 1927, bowing to legal and economic pressure, Ford issued a retraction and apology'--while disclaiming personal responsibility'--for the anti-Semitic articles and closed the Dearborn Independent in 1927.[63] He was also an admirer of Nazi Germany.[64]
In 1934, an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" (pp 136''41). The production of this uncredited compilation was a 300-page book, an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's 1905 book on the coming of the anti-Christ. It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. This 1934 text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet. The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Chaim Weizmann's October 6, 1920, remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion:
It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe.[65]
The Times exposes a forgery, 1921 In 1920''1921, the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Jacques Cr(C)tineau-Joly by Lucien Wolf (an English Jewish journalist), and published in London in August 1921. But a dramatic expos(C) occurred in the series of articles in The Times by its Constantinople reporter, Philip Graves, who discovered the plagiarism from the work of Maurice Joly.
According to writer Peter Grose, Allen Dulles, who was in Constantinople developing relationships in post-Ottoman political structures, discovered "the source" of the documentation and ultimately provided him to The Times. Grose writes that The Times extended a loan to the source, a Russian (C)migr(C) who refused to be identified, with the understanding the loan would not be repaid.[66] Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history at Sheffield University, identified the (C)migr(C) as Mikhail Raslovlev, a self-identified antisemite, who gave the information to Graves so as not to "give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been."[67]
In the first article of Graves' series, titled "A Literary Forgery", the editors of The Times wrote, "our Constantinople Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made." In the same year, an entire book documenting the hoax was published in the United States by Herman Bernstein. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites. Dulles, a successful lawyer and career diplomat, attempted to persuade the US State Department to publicly denounce the forgery, but without success.[69]
Switzerland The Berne Trial, 1934''35 The selling of the Protocols (edited by German antisemite Theodor Fritsch) by the National Front during a political meeting in the Casino of Berne on June 13, 1933,[e] led to the Berne Trial in the Amtsgericht (district court) of Berne, the capital of Switzerland, on October 29, 1934. The plaintiffs (the Swiss Jewish Association and the Jewish Community of Berne) were represented by Hans Matti and Georges Brunschvig, helped by Emil Raas. Working on behalf of the defense was German antisemitic propagandist Ulrich Fleischhauer. On May 19, 1935, two defendants (Theodore Fischer and Silvio Schnell) were convicted of violating a Bernese statute prohibiting the distribution of "immoral, obscene or brutalizing" texts[70] while three other defendants were acquitted. The court declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature. Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not previously heard of the Protocols, said in conclusion,
I hope the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense.[44]
Vladimir Burtsev, a Russian (C)migr(C), anti-Bolshevik and anti-Fascist who exposed numerous Okhrana agents provocateurs in the early 1900s, served as a witness at the Berne Trial. In 1938 in Paris he published a book, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery, based on his testimony.
On November 1, 1937, the defendants appealed the verdict to the Obergericht (Cantonal Supreme Court) of Berne. A panel of three judges acquitted them, holding that the Protocols, while false, did not violate the statute at issue because they were "political publications" and not "immoral (obscene) publications (Schundliteratur)" in the strict sense of the law.[70] The presiding judge's opinion stated, though, that the forgery of the Protocols was not questionable and expressed regret that the law did not provide adequate protection for Jews from this sort of literature. The court refused to impose the fees of defense of the acquitted defendants to the plaintiffs, and the acquitted Theodor Fischer had to pay 100 Fr. to the total state costs of the trial (Fr. 28,000) that were eventually paid by the Canton of Berne. This decision gave grounds for later allegations that the appeal court "confirmed authenticity of the Protocols" which is contrary to the facts. A view favorable to the pro-Nazi defendants is reported in an appendix to Leslie Fry's Waters Flowing Eastward.[72] A more scholarly work on the trial is in a 139-page monograph by Urs L¼thi.
Evidence presented at the trial, which strongly influenced later accounts up to the present, was that the Protocols were originally written in French by agents of the Tzarist secret police (the Okhrana).[42] However, this version has been questioned by several modern scholars.[42] Michael Hagemeister discovered that the primary witness Alexandre du Chayla had previously written in support of the blood libel, had received four thousand Swiss francs for his testimony, and was secretly doubted even by the plaintiffs. Charles Ruud and Sergei Stepanov concluded that there is no substantial evidence of Okhrana involvement and strong circumstantial evidence against it.
The Basel Trial A similar trial in Switzerland took place at Basel. The Swiss Frontists Alfred Zander and Eduard R¼egsegger distributed the Protocols (edited by the German Gottfried zur Beek) in Switzerland. Jules Dreyfus-Brodsky and Marcus Cohen sued them for insult to Jewish honor. At the same time, chief rabbi Marcus Ehrenpreis of Stockholm (who also witnessed at the Berne Trial) sued Alfred Zander who contended that Ehrenpreis himself had said that the Protocols were authentic (referring to the foreword of the edition of the Protocols by the German antisemite Theodor Fritsch). On June 5, 1936, these proceedings ended with a settlement.[f]
Germany According to historian Norman Cohn, the assassins of German Jewish politician Walter Rathenau (1867''1922) were convinced that Rathenau was a literal "Elder of Zion".
It seems likely Adolf Hitler first became aware of the Protocols after hearing about it from ethnic German white (C)migr(C)s, such as Alfred Rosenberg and Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter.[77] Rosenberg and Scheubner-Richter were also members of the early Aufbau Vereinigung counterrevolutionary group, which according to historian Michael Kellogg, influenced the Nazis in promulgating a Protocols-like myth.[78]
Hitler refers to the Protocols in Mein Kampf:
... [The Protocols] are based on a forgery, the Frankfurter Zeitung moans [ ] every week ... [which is] the best proof that they are authentic ... the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims.[79]
The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933''1945, Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews":
Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands, the US, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation.[80]
Hitler did not mention the Protocols in his speeches after his defense of it in Mein Kampf.[42][81] "Distillations of the text appeared in German classrooms, indoctrinated the Hitler Youth, and invaded the USSR along with German soldiers."[2] Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed: "The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published."
Richard S. Levy criticizes the claim that the Protocols had a large effect on Hitler's thinking, writing that it is based mostly on suspect testimony and lacks hard evidence.[42] Randall Bytwerk agrees, writing that most leading Nazis did not believe it was genuine despite having an "inner truth" suitable for propaganda.[81]
Publication of the Protocols was stopped in Germany in 1939 for unknown reasons. An edition that was ready for printing was blocked by censorship laws.[84]
German-language publications Having fled Ukraine in 1918''19, Piotr Shabelsky-Bork brought the Protocols to Ludwig Muller Von Hausen who then published them in German. Under the pseudonym Gottfried Zur Beek he produced the first and "by far the most important" German translation. It appeared in January 1920 as a part of a larger antisemitic tract[87] dated 1919. After The Times discussed the book respectfully in May 1920 it became a bestseller. "The Hohenzollern family helped defray the publication costs, and Kaiser Wilhelm II had portions of the book read out aloud to dinner guests". Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 edition[88] "gave a forgery a huge boost".
Italy Fascist politician Giovanni Preziosi published the first Italian edition of the Protocols in 1921.[89][page needed ] The book however had little impact until the mid-1930s. A new 1937 edition had a much higher impact, and three further editions in the following months sold 60,000 copies total.[89][page needed ] The fifth edition had an introduction by Julius Evola, which argued around the issue of forgery, stating: "The problem of the authenticity of this document is secondary and has to be replaced by the much more serious and essential problem of its truthfulness".[89][page needed ]
Post World War II Middle East Neither governments nor political leaders in most parts of the world have referred to the Protocols since World War II. The exception to this is the Middle East, where a large number of Arab and Muslim regimes and leaders have endorsed them as authentic, including endorsements from Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat of Egypt, President Abdul Salam Arif of Iraq,[90] King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, and Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya.[91][92] A translation made by an Arab Christian appeared in Cairo in 1927 or 1928, this time as a book. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo, but only in 1951.[91]
The 1988 charter of Hamas, a Palestinian Islamist group, stated that the Protocols embodies the plan of the Zionists.[93] The reference was removed in the new covenant issued in 2017.[94] Recent endorsements in the 21st century have been made by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri, the education ministry of Saudi Arabia,[92] and a member of the Greek Parliament, Ilias Kasidiaris.[95] The Palestinian Solidarity Committee of South Africa reportedly distributed copies of the Protocols at the World Conference against Racism 2001.[96] The book was sold during the conference in the exhibition tent set up for the distribution of the antiracist literature.[97][98]
However, figures within the region have publicly asserted that The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a forgery such as former Grand Mufti of Egypt Ali Gomaa, who made an official court complaint concerning a publisher who falsely put his name on an introduction to its Arabic translation.[99]
Contemporary conspiracy theories The Protocols continue to be widely available around the world, particularly on the Internet.
The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories,[citation needed ] and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature. Notions derived from the Protocols include claims that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover for the Illuminati,[36] Freemasons, the Priory of Sion or, in the opinion of David Icke, "extra-dimensional entities".[100] In his book And the truth shall set you free (1995), Icke asserted that the Protocols are genuine and accurate.[101]
Adaptations Print Masami Uno's book If You Understand Judea You Can Comprehend the World: 1990 Scenario for the 'Final Economic War' became popular in Japan around 1987 and was based upon the Protocols.[102]
Television In 2001''2002, Arab Radio and Television produced a 30-part television miniseries entitled Horseman Without a Horse, starring prominent Egyptian actor Mohamed Sobhi, which contains dramatizations of the Protocols. The United States and Israel criticized Egypt for airing the program.[103] Ash-Shatat (Arabic: اÙشتات The Diaspora) is a 29-part Syrian television series produced in 2003 by a private Syrian film company and was based in part on the Protocols. Syrian national television declined to air the program. Ash-Shatat was shown on Lebanon's Al-Manar, before being dropped. The series was shown in Iran in 2004, and in Jordan during October 2005 on Al-Mamnou, a Jordanian satellite network.[citation needed ]
See also Pertinent concepts Black propagandaBlood libelCultural Marxism conspiracy theoryDisinformationHate speechJewish BolshevismShadow government (conspiracy)World governmentIndividuals Martin Heidegger and NazismAlta VenditaHamas CovenantMemoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle EastThe Prague CemeteryProtocols of Zion (film)A Racial Program for the Twentieth CenturyTanaka MemorialWarrant for GenocideNotes ^ With plagiarism from German and French texts ^ The text contains 44 instances of the word "I" (9.6%), and 412 instances of the word "we" (90.4%).[15] ^ This complex relationship was originally exposed by Graves 1921. The expos(C) has since been elaborated in many sources. ^ Jacobs analyses the Marsden English translation. Some other less common imprints have more or fewer than 24 protocols. ^ The main speaker was the former chief of the Swiss General Staff Emil Sonderegger. ^ Zander had to withdraw his contention and the stock of the incriminated Protocols were destroyed by order of the court. Zander had to pay the fees of this Basel Trial. References Citations ^ a b c d Segel, Binjamin (1995). A Lie and a Libel: The History of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Translated by Levy, Richard S. University of Nebraska Press. p. 30. ISBN 0803242433. ^ Hadassa Ben-Itto, The Lie that Wouldn't Die: The Protocols of The Elders of Zion, p. 280 (London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2005). ISBN 0-85303-602-0 ^ Cohn 1970 p.31. ^ Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, Pelican Books (1967) 1970 pp.30-32 ^ Donskis, Leonidas (2003). Forms of Hatred: The Troubled Imagination in Modern Philosophy and Literature. Rodopi. ISBN 978-9042010666. ^ "Ritual murder encouraged..." The New York Times. August 27, 1911. ^ A Hoax of Hate, Jewish Virtual Library . ^ Boym, Svetlana (1999), "Conspiracy theories and literary ethics: Umberto Eco, Danilo Kis and 'The Protocols of Zion' ", Comparative Literature, 51 (Spring): 97''122, doi:10.2307/1771244, JSTOR 1771244 . ^ The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, Marsden, VE transl, Shoah education {{citation}}: CS1 maint: others (link) [permanent dead link ] . ^ Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, 1970 p.82. ^ Ye'r, Bat; Kochan, Miriam; Littman, David (2001), Islam and Dhimmitude, US: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, p. 142, ISBN 978-0-8386-3942-9 . ^ Bronner, Stephen Eric (2018-08-30). A Rumor about the Jews: Conspiracy, Anti-Semitism, and the Protocols of Zion. Springer. pp. 68''70. ISBN 978-3-319-95396-0. ^ Eco, Umberto (1994), "Fictional Protocols", Six Walks in the Fictional Woods, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 135, ISBN 978-0-674-81050-1 ^ Bein, Alex (1990), The Jewish question: biography of a world problem, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, p. 339, ISBN 978-0-8386-3252-9 ^ Keren, David (February 10, 1993), Commentary on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (PDF) , IGC, p. 4, archived from the original (PDF) on July 29, 2014 . Republished as "Introduction", The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, Marsden, Victor E transl {{citation}}: CS1 maint: others (link) . ^ a b Cohn, Norman (1966), Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elder of Zion, New York: Harper & Row, pp. 32''36 . ^ Eco, Umberto (1998), Serendipities: Language and Lunacy, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 14, ISBN 978-0-231-11134-8 ^ Olender, Maurice (2009), Race and Erudition, Harvard University Press, p. 11 . ^ Mendes-Flohr, Paul R; Reinharz, Jehuda (1995), The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History, p. 363 see footnote, ISBN 978-0-19-507453-6 ^ Eco, Umberto (1990), Foucault's Pendulum, London: Picador, p. 490 . ^ "Princess Radziwill Quizzed at Lecture; Stranger Questions Her Title After She Had Told of Forgery of "Jewish Protocols." Creates Stir at Astor Leaves Without Giving His Name '' Mrs. Huribut Corroborates the Princess. Stranger Quizzes Princess. Corroborates Mme. Radziwill. Never Reached Alexander III. The Corroboration. Says Orgewsky Was Proud of Work". The New York Times. March 4, 1921 . Retrieved 2008-08-05 . ^ a b Freund, Charles Paul (February 2000), "Forging Protocols", Reason Magazine, archived from the original on 2013-01-04 , retrieved 2008-09-28 . ^ Conan, ‰ric (November 16, 1999), "Les secrets d'une manipulation antis(C)mite" [The secrets of an antisemite manipulation], L'Express (in French) . ^ a b Skuratovsky, Vadim (2001), The Question of the Authorship of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion", Kiev: Judaica Institute, ISBN 978-966-7273-12-5 . ^ De Michelis, Cesare. The Non-Existent Manuscript. pp. passim. ^ a b c d e Richard S. Levy (2014). "Setting the Record Straight Regarding The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Fool's Errand?". In William C. Donahue; Martha B. Helfer (eds.). Nexus '' Essays in German Jewish Studies. Vol. 2. Camden House. pp. 43''61. ^ Karasova, T; Chernyakhovsky, D, Afterword (in Russian) in Cohn, Norman, Warrant for Genocide (in Russian) (translated ed.) . ^ a b c Kadzhaya, Valery. "The Fraud of a Century, or a book born in hell". Archived from the original on December 17, 2005. . ^ Kominsky, Morris (1970), The Hoaxers, p. 209, ISBN 978-0-8283-1288-2 . ^ Fyodorov, Boris, P. Stolypin's attempt to resolve the Jewish question (in Russian), RU, archived from the original on 2012-02-10 , retrieved 2006-11-23 . ^ Burtsev, Vladimir (1938), "4", The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery (in Russian), Paris: Jewniverse, p. 106 . ^ Holmes, Colin Anti-Semitism in British Society, 1876-1939 Edward Arnold, First Edition (1979) ^ "Major Edward Griffiths George Burdon, United Russia Societies Association". December 2021. ^ "The Blue Faced Ape of Horus", Plain English, No.29, Vol. II, January 22, 1921, p.66. ^ "The Protocols Matrix: George Shanks and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion" (PDF) '' via www.monocledmutineer.co.uk. ^ Baldwin, N. Henry Ford and the Jews. The mass production of hate. PublicAffair (2001), p. 82. ISBN 1891620525. ^ Wallace, M. The American axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the rise of the Third Reich. St. Martin's Press (2003), p. 60. ISBN 0312290225. ^ Toczek, Nick (2015). Haters, Baiters and Would-Be Dictators: Anti-Semitism and the UK Far Right. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317525875. ^ Jenkins, Philip (1997), Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925''1950, UNC Press, p. 114, ISBN 978-0-8078-2316-3 ^ Steed, Henry Wickham (May 8, 1920), "A Disturbing Pamphlet: A Call for Enquiry", The Times . ^ Friedl¤nder, Saul (1997), Nazi Germany and the Jews, New York: HarperCollins, p. 95 . ^ Liebich, Andre (2012). "The antisemitism of Henry Wickham Steed". Patterns of Prejudice. 46 (2): 180''208. doi:10.1080/0031322X.2012.672226. S2CID 144543860. ^ a b c Singerman, Robert. "The American Career of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion". American Jewish History. 71 (1): 48''78. ^ Nevins, Allan; Hill, Frank Ernest (1957). Ford, Expansion and Challenge 1915''1933. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 316. ^ Wallace, Max (2003), The American Axis, St. Martin's Press . ^ Rosenbaum, Robert A (2010). Waking to Danger: Americans and Nazi Germany, 1933-1941. Greenwood Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0313385025. ^ Dobbs, Michael (November 30, 1998), "Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration", The Washington Post, p. A01 , retrieved March 20, 2006 . ^ Marsden, Victor E, "Introduction", The protocols of the learned Elders of Zion (English ed.) . ^ Grose, Peter (1994), Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles, Houghton Mifflin . ^ Poliakov, Leon (1997), "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", in Roth, Cecil (ed.), Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM 1.0 ed.), Keter, ISBN 978-965-07-0665-4 . ^ Richard Breitman et al. (2005). OSS Knowledge of the Holocaust. In: U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. pp. 11''44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.doi:10.1017/CBO9780511618178.006 [Accessed 20 April 2016]. p. 25 ^ a b Hafner, Urs (December 23, 2005). "Die Quelle allen 'bels? Wie ein Berner Gericht 1935 gegen antisemitische Verschw¶rungsphantasien vorging" (in German). Neue Z¼rcher Zeitung. Archived from the original on February 1, 2011 . Retrieved 2008-10-11 . ^ Fry, Leslie. "Appendix II: The Berne Trials". Waters Flowing Eastward . Retrieved 2009-08-11 . [dead link ] ^ Gellately, Robert (2012). Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe, ISBN 1448138787, p. 99 ^ Schwonek, Matthew R. (2006). "Review of The Russian Roots of Nazism: White ‰migr(C)s and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945; Victims of Stalin and Hitler: The Exodus of Poles and Balts to Britain". The Russian Review. 65 (2): 335''337. ISSN 0036-0341. JSTOR 3664431. ^ Hitler, Adolf, "XI: Nation and Race", Mein Kampf, vol. I, pp. 307''08 . ^ Nora Levin, The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933''1945. Quoting from IGC.org ^ a b Randall L. Bytwerk (2015). "Believing in "Inner Truth": The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Nazi Propaganda, 1933''1945". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 29 (2): 212''229. doi:10.1093/hgs/dcv024 . S2CID 145338770. ^ Michael Hagemeister, lecture at Cambridge University, 11 November 2014. video ^ Geheimnisse der Weisen von Zion (in German), Auf Vorposten, 1919 . ^ Rosenberg, Alfred (1923), Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion und die j¼dische Weltpolitik, Munich: Deutscher Volksverlag . ^ a b c Valentina Pisanty (2006), La difesa della razza: Antologia 1938''1943, Bompiani ^ Katz, S. and Gilman, S. Anti-Semitism in Times of Crisis. NYU Press (1993), pp. 344''45. ISBN 0814730566 ^ a b Lewis, Bernard (1986), Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice, WW Norton & Co., p. 199, ISBN 978-0-393-02314-5 ^ a b Islamic Antisemitism in Historical Perspective (PDF) , Anti-Defamation League, pp. 8''9, archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-07-05 ^ "Hamas Covenant". Yale. 1988 . Retrieved May 27, 2010 . Today it is Palestine, tomorrow it will be one country or another. The Zionist plan is limitless. After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion', and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying. ^ The Islamic Resistance Movement (1 May 2017). "A Document of General Principles and Policies". ^ "Protocols of the Elders of Zion read aloud in Greek Parliament". Haaretz. 2012-10-26. ^ Steven L. Jacobs; Mark Weitzman (2003). Dismantling the Big Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-88125-786-1. ^ Schoenberg, Harris O. "Demonization in Durban: The World Conference Against Racism." The American Jewish Year Book 102 (2002): 85-111. Accessed October 27, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23604538. ^ Bayefsky, Anne. "THE UN WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM: A RACIST ANTI-RACISM CONFERENCE." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law) 96 (2002): 65-74. Accessed October 27, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25659754. ^ al-Ahram, 1 January 2007 ^ Miren, Frankie (20 January 2015). "The Psychology and Economy of Conspiracy Theories". Vice . Retrieved 9 December 2019 . ^ Offley, Will (29 February 2000). "David Icke And The Politics Of Madness Where The New Age Meets The Third Reich". Political Research Associates . Retrieved 9 December 2019 . ^ "Jews, Japan, Boycott and Bigotry". Chicago Tribune. 1987-04-28. ^ "Egypt criticised for 'anti-Semitic' film", BBC News Online, November 1, 2002. Works cited Ben-Itto, Hadassa (2005). The Lie That Wouldn't Die: One Hundred Years of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. London; Portland, OR: Vallentine Mitchell. ISBN 978-0-85303-602-9. Bernstein, Herman (1921): The History of a Lie at Project Gutenberg Bernstein, Herman (1921). The history of a lie, 'The protocols of the wise men of Zion' (page images) (study). Archive . Retrieved 2009-02-01 . Bronner, Stephen Eric (2003) [2000]. A Rumor About the Jews: Reflections on Antisemitism and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516956-0. Carroll, Robert Todd (2006). "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion". The Skeptic's Dictionary . Retrieved February 25, 2021 . Chanes, Jerome A (2004). Antisemitism: a reference handbook. ABC-Clio. Cohn, Norman (1967). Warrant for Genocide, The myth of the Jewish world conspiracy and the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion' . Eyre & Spottiswoode. ISBN 978-1-897959-25-1. David (June 30, 2000). "What's the story with the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion'?". The Straight Dope . Retrieved February 25, 2021 . De Michelis, Cesare G. (2004). The Non-Existent Manuscript: A Study of the Protocols of the Sages of Zion. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1727-0. Graves, Philip (August 16''18, 1921). "The Truth about the Protocols: A Literary Forgery". The Times. London. Archived from the original on August 9, 2003. Graves, Philip (September 4, 1921b). " 'Jewish World Plot': An Exposure. The Source of 'The Protocols of Zion'. Truth at Last" (PDF) . The New York Times. Front p, Sec 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2006. Graves, Philip (1921c). The truth about 'The Protocols': a literary forgery. The Times (articles collection). London: London : The Times. Archived from the original (pamphlet) on May 10, 2013. Hagemeister, Michael (2006). Brinks, Jan Herman; Rock, Stella; Timms, Edward (eds.). Nationalist Myths and Modern Media. Contested Identities in the Age of Globalization. London/New York. pp. 243''55. Hagemeister, Michael (2008). "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Between History and Fiction". New German Critique. 35 (103): 83''95. doi:10.1215/0094033X-2007-020. JSTOR 27669221. Hagemeister, Michael (2011). "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in court: The Bern trials, 1933''1937". In Webman, Esther (ed.). The Global Impact of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' . London, New York: Routledge. pp. 241''53. Jacobs, Steven Leonard; Weitzman, Mark (2003). Dismantling the Big Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ISBN 978-0-88125-785-4. .Kellogg, Michael (2005). The Russian Roots of Nazism White ‰migr(C)s and the Making of National Socialism, 1917''1945. Cambridge University Press. Klier, John Doyle (2005). Imperial Russia's Jewish Question, 1855-1881. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521023818. L¼thi, Urs (1992). Der Mythos von der Weltverschw¶rung: die Hetze der Schweizer Frontisten gegen Juden und Freimaurer, am Beispiel des Berner Prozesses um die "Protokolle der Weisen von Zion" (in German). Basel/Frankfurt am Main: Helbing & Lichtenhahn. ISBN 978-3-7190-1197-0. OCLC 30002662. Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan (2011). "The enemy of humanity: The Protocols paradigm in nineteenth-century Russian Mentality". In Webman, Esther (ed.). The Global Impact of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. A century-old myth. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-59892-7. Pipes, Daniel (1997). Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From. The Free Press, Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-83131-2. Ruud, Charles; Stepanov, Sergei (1999). "10. Protocols, Masons and Liberals". The Tsar's Secret Police. McGill-Queen's University Press. Singerman, Robert (1980). "The American Career of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion". American Jewish History. 71. Further reading Books and journal articles Ben-Itto, Hadassa: The Lie That Wouldn't Die: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ISBN 9780853035954 (pub. Vallentine Mitchell & Co Ltd)A Hoax of Hate. The Anti-Defamation League. 2002. Archived from the original on 2005-12-28. Eisner, Will (2005). The Plot: The Secret Story of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ISBN 978-0-393-06045-4. Fox, Frank (1997). "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Shadowy world of Elie de Cyon". East European Jewish Affairs. 27 (1): 3''22. doi:10.1080/13501679708577838. Goldberg, Isaac (1936). The so-called "Protocols of the Elders of Zion": a Definitive Exposure of One of the Most Malicious Lies in History. Girard, KS: E. Haldeman-Julius. KiÅ, Danilo (1989). "The Book of Kings and Fools". The Encyclopedia of the Dead. Faber & Faber. Landes, Richard; Katz, Steven, eds. (2012). Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-Year Retrospective on 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' . New York: New York University Press. Shibuya, Eric (2007). "The Struggle with Violent Right-Wing Extremist Groups in the United States". In Forest, James (ed.). Countering terrorism and insurgency in the 21st century. Greenwood. Sykes, Christopher. "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" History Today (Feb 1967), Vol. 17 Issue 2, p81-88 onlineTimmerman, Kenneth R (2003). Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America. Crown Forum. ISBN 978-1-4000-4901-1. Wolf, Lucien (1921). The Myth of the Jewish Menace in World Affairs or, The Truth About the Forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Macmillan. External links Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Key Dates '' The Holocaust Encyclopedia (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum)The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion translated by Victor E. Marsden at archive.orgThe Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Original Russian Edition) at archive.orgPublic Statement (PDF) , The American Jewish Committee , 4pp. A disclaimer published as a result of a conference held in New York City on November 30, 1920.Protocols of the Elders of Zion; a fabricated "historic" document (PDF) (report), United States Holocaust Museum: Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 88th Congress, 2d Session, August 6, 1964, archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008 .The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Jewish Virtual Library .Antisemitic Propaganda: "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, September 2004 .Dickerson, D (ed.), Protocols (Index of several resources), Institute for Global Communications, archived from the original on 2006-04-24 .Dickerson, D (ed.), The protocols of the learned Elders of Zion (PDF) , Marsden, transl., IGC, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-29 .Eco, Umberto (August 17, 2002), "The poisonous Protocols", The Guardian , retrieved August 17, 2016 Rothstein, Edward (April 21, 2006), "The Antisemitic Hoax That Refuses to Die", The New York Times (exhibition review) .Weiss, Anthony (March 4, 2009), "Elders of Zion to Retire", The Jewish Daily Forward (Purim spoof article) .History of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, BCY, CA: Freemasonry ."Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", Encyclopaedia Britannica .Matussek, Carmen (2013), Carmen Matussek: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in the Arab world, World Jewish Congress website
How Wix aims keep nearly 1,000 Ukrainian employees safe amid Russian invasion - The Washington Post
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 14:29
When Nir Zohar, president and chief operating officer of website builder Wix, puts his children to bed at night in Tel Aviv, he is left with an intense feeling of frustration.
He thinks about the hundreds of colleagues still in Ukraine and recalls the images of families huddled inside subway stations and bomb shelters as the Russian invasion of the country continues. But Zohar says there's not much time to feel, only to act, as Wix works to help evacuate the nearly 1,000 workers who were based in the country before the conflict.
Story continues below advertisement
''You get caught up in the moment,'' says Zohar, a former lieutenant commander for the Israeli navy, who has been at the company since 2007. ''You don't stop to think about how you feel about it. You have to do [what you have to do.]"
From Tel Aviv, where the company is based, Zohar has spent the past few weeks working with a team of 20 Wix employees, arranging flights and buses to evacuate employees and their families from Ukraine to Poland and Turkey. At the same time, the company is keeping tabs through regular communication via text, messaging apps like WhatsApp and Telegram, and phone calls with about 500 workers who remain in Ukraine.
Wix is one of many tech companies that have staff in Ukraine, a technology hub that outsources IT talent and other tech services for many of the world's businesses. Tech giants including Microsoft, Snap and Amazon-owned Ring have employees there devoted to functions across their businesses. Ukraine is also a place active with start-ups.
Wix's move to redeploy staff to other countries amid the war illustrates the complexities facing many of these companies '-- from how to keep employees safe to what mode of communication to use, to the best way to pay workers. Wix also has to make sure relocated workers are set up to use local currencies, have a place to stay and are supplied with essentials.
''It's crazy and unsettling,'' Zohar says. ''The people from Kyiv are [in] a scary situation,'' he said about the capital of Ukraine, where Wix has an office. ''They don't see much most of the time, but they hear a lot of explosions and sirens.''
Wix said it has been making emergency preparations since early February when talk of the conflict became more charged. During the second week of February, the company offered about 45 ''mission critical'' employees, who work on current products and are vital to keeping the business running, and their families relocation services to Krak"w, Poland, where Wix has a small office. The company booked their flights and set them up in apartments. A few days later, the company offered to help the remaining employees and their families relocate to Turkey.
Story continues below advertisement
Since then, Wix contracted bus companies to help evacuate people from Kyiv and Dnipro to western Ukraine, where the threat was less extreme, Zohar said. But the situation quickly grew complicated after Ukraine's state border guard service prohibited men ages 18 to 60 from leaving the country. Previously, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky had encouraged citizens to volunteer to fight in defense of the country.
Zohar said thus began the ''heartbreaking'' separation of families, as men stayed behind and the wives and children sought safety elsewhere. Wix then said about 30 of its Lithuanian employees volunteered to drive 600 miles to the border of Poland to collect people, some of whom ditched their cars and crossed on foot. The greeting teams picked up the workers, who were then set up for the night to rest before the trip to Krak"w. They received items such as food, blankets, diapers, SIM cards for their phones and cash cards. The effort is ongoing, Zohar said. Of the 500 employees who remain in Ukraine, 195 are in areas considered to be dangerous, according to data from Wix.
''The main focus is still trying to get people out,'' Zohar said.
So far, Wix has not had problems with pay or communication, Zohar said, and it has paid some salaries in advance in anticipation of banking issues. The company also has set up an internal news website dedicated to updates and resources including mental health services, information about crossing the border, traffic updates, and emergency contact information for each country.
Meanwhile, Microsoft, Ring, video-gaming company Ubisoft, Snap, and editing and writing service Grammarly all said they're trying to protect their workers in Ukraine. And Tampa-based software outsourcing company JetBridge said it has been struggling with the logistics of getting its 24 software developers out of Kyiv. It has also started paying its employees in Belarus in bitcoin amid the rising fear of sanctions.
''This is a bit of a sidestep or a step back to get paid in crypto, especially with the volatility,'' CEO John Sung Kim told The Washington Post. But ''I don't see how else we're going to get money into that country.''
Ukraine is also the birthplace of Looksery, the company that Snap acquired to help build its augmented reality features. Snap said 300 of its team members have called Ukraine home, but the company would not clarify how many are currently there, citing safety concerns. It has been providing emergency assistance and helping team members leave danger zones. It also pledged more than $15 million in humanitarian aid to support organizations providing direct relief to Ukraine.
Snap halted ads running in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine and stopped sales to all Russian entities. The company said it plans to continue providing aid to its workers in Ukraine as the conflict unfolds.
''Many of our friends and teammates remain in Ukraine,'' it said in a statement. ''Some have joined the fight to defend their country.''
Story continues below advertisement
Ubisoft said it has provided Ukrainian team members additional funds to help cover the costs of travel and relocation. It also paid salaries in advance to account for any potential disruption to local banking systems. The company also is providing housing for employees in neighboring countries. To ensure continued communication, the company set up hotlines to respond to workers' questions and needs and implemented an ''emergency communication system'' in case the infrastructures become unstable.
Microsoft, which has employees in Ukraine and Russia, said it is monitoring the situation and focused on supporting its workers in the region.
For Wix, the crisis operation has benefited from the military background of its workers '-- all Israeli citizens older than 18 are required to serve. Zohar also estimated that 100 employees have volunteered to assist. That includes Ukrainian workers who relocated to neighboring countries and are now checking on their colleagues who stayed behind. Employees want to help those who are struggling, as was the case when a hurricane hit Miami several years ago and last year when a winter storm in Texas left residents without power.
Zohar said he is moved by the employees who have already jumped in to help and those ready to provide aid in whatever way they can.
''In this time of distress, that's the light,'' Zohar said. ''The human spirit that is so much alive.''
Nitasha Tiku and Rachel Lerman contributed to this report.
Everyone is lying, so where to find the truth?
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 01:22
I'm spending a very quick couple of days in Austin, Texas, and had a chance to have lunch today with Adam Curry, whom I watched as a teenager when he was a VJ on MTV.Today, Adam is an important podcaster, co-hosting the No Agenda show with John C. Dvorak, and in fact a true pioneer in podcasting in general. He was one of the very first to identify and develop the idea.Through the various obsessions on the past couple of years Adam has distinguished himself as a voice of reason. So I was very glad to have a chance to sit down casually with him, which is even better than having him on the Tom Woods Show (which I have indeed done more than once).Toward the end of our conversation, Adam insisted that today is a great time to be a podcaster.Oddly enough, I'd never really thought about it like that. But he's right.The official news outlets are a joke. I had known that for some time, of course, but the extent to which they are truly nothing but propaganda factories has never been clearer. Even the headlines themselves are driven by an agenda.As a podcaster I can defy the media's narratives and get away with it. Every single day if I want to. (And indeed I release a new Tom Woods Show episode every weekday.) I can reach a potentially limitless audience, and reassure them that they haven't lost their minds. I can reach and inform that segment of the population whose instincts tell them not to jump on board the establishment's latest bout of hysteria.Because of independent sources like the Tom Woods Show, a lot of people didn't have to wait two years to learn the truth about COVID, and what we laughingly call the "mitigation methods," that my listeners and I have known from the beginning.The same goes for war propaganda, too. YouTube, as I mentioned yesterday, wants to make sure only approved sources are allowed to reach the public. How many times can mankind live through war propaganda, find out it's false, and swear not to be fooled next time?After World War I the intellectual classes were actually embarrassed at how they had behaved during that conflict. (If only our intellectuals today were capable of embarrassment.) After the war ended they wanted to promote international understanding. Thus was born the student exchange program, for example. And increased emphasis on the teaching of more languages. And efforts to teach history in less simplistic, chauvinistic ways.That spirit is long gone now. It's back to looking at current events as if the people involved are comic-book characters, and with one side uniquely innocent and righteous.This would not satisfy a second grader, but it's what we're fed by the official sources.I've never been more proud not to be an official source.Adam is right: this is a great time to be a podcaster.At the same time:It can't be all COVID, or all Russia, all the time.I would hate that. I trust my listeners would, too.So I talk about all kinds of interesting topics.Most recently, I had the author of the new book Hitler's National Socialism on to discuss Hitler's views on economics, politics, and society.Socialists furiously deny that Hitler was one of them. They have to do that, because they certainly don't want to be associated with him.So Dr. Rainer Zitelmann, the top expert on the subject, joined me to discuss it.Enjoy: Tom Woods
Leaked Chats Show Russian Ransomware Gang Discussing Putin's Invasion of Ukraine
Tue, 15 Mar 2022 04:20
Internal chat logs leaked from the notorious Russian ransomware gang Conti reveal unfiltered conversations between ultranationalist hackers in which they repeat Russian President Vladimir Putin's conspiratorial lies about Ukraine, discuss the impact of early Western sanctions against their country, and make antisemitic comments about Ukraine's Jewish president.
The logs were leaked late last month, reportedly by a Ukrainian security researcher, after Conti publicly announced its support for Putin's invasion of Ukraine and threatened to retaliate against any cyber warfare targeted at the Russian-speaking world. The logs span two years and multiple chat services and were released alongside training documentation, hacking tools, and source code.
The Intercept reviewed the most recent month of logs, focusing on those originating from RocketChat, a group-chat system similar to Discord or Slack, that Conti hosted on the anonymity network Tor. The messages are full of typos, slang, and a heavy use of mat '-- vulgar Russian profanity. We translated these messages using Google Translate and DeepL, and then a native Russian speaker manually corrected them. As with any translations, there are sometimes multiple possible interpretations, so we are making the original Russian available here. All time stamps from chat messages are in Coordinated Universal Time.
Logs of only some chat rooms appear to have been leaked. Most of the recent messages are from the #general channel, a room where the hackers candidly discussed non-ransomware topics like drug use, pornography, cryptocurrency, an obsession with investigative journalist Brian Krebs, and occasionally technical topics. While the #general channel had 160 users '-- Conti is a very large criminal enterprise '-- only a handful of these users actually posted messages during the monthlong period.
The conversations quickly turned political on February 21 when Putin announced that Russia recognized the separatist territories Donetsk and Luhansk in eastern Ukraine as independent nations, and on February 24 when Russian troops invaded Ukraine. The Russian hackers openly repeated Putin's falsehoods as fact, such as that Ukraine is run by a ''neo-Nazi junta'' and that its government is seeking nuclear weapons. Members of the chat continually shared news updates that exaggerated Russia's success so far in the war.
The chat logs also include a heavy dose of misogyny, including discussions of child sexual abuse content and jokes about rape, as well as antisemitism aimed at Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy.
Also on February 21, Conti announced internally to its employees that the leader of the criminal enterprise had gone into hiding. While it's unclear exactly what happened, the announcement said that ''close attention to the company from the outside has led to the fact that the boss apparently decided to lay low.'' It added that Conti did not have enough money to pay everyone's salaries and asked that they take two to three months of vacation. While Conti's active operations had ceased, the server hosting RocketChat was still up, so the conversations after that were purely about Russia's war in Ukraine. CyberScoop this week quoted sources saying Conti recovered from the leaks and is operational.
The Conti Ransomware GangConti is the most successful ransomware gang in operation today. As Check Point Research has reported, the gang appears to operate much like a large corporation, with twice-monthly payroll, five-day workweeks, staggered shifts to ensure around-the-clock operation, and even physical offices. According to a 2022 report on cryptocurrency crime from the company Chainalysis, Conti extorted at least $180 million from its hacking victims last year.
Many of the victims have been in the health care sector, including, Ireland's public care system. In May 2021, in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, Conti encrypted data on 85,000 Irish health care computers and demanded a $20 million ransom payment in exchange for the decryptor, according to a report in CPO Magazine. Ireland's Health Service Executive refused to pay the ransom, but it's still costing Ireland 100 million euros to recover from the attack. The FBI also warned that Conti ransomware attacks targeted at least 16 health care networks in the United States.
Conti employees appear to be active during work hours in the Moscow time zone and all internal communication is in Russian, though some people involved don't live in Russia. One frequent poster in the chat rooms, who goes by the username ''Patrick,'' appears to be a Russian citizen living in Australia. An older member of Conti is a 55-year-old Latvian woman, according to reporting by Krebs. Based on these chat logs, Conti appears to be an independent criminal enterprise without formal ties to the Russian government.
But it appears that Russian intelligence reached out to members of Conti on at least one occasion. After the ContiLeaks were published, Christo Grozev, executive director of the investigative journalism group Bellingcat, tweeted that his organization had been warned that ''a global cyber crime group acting on an FSB [Russia's security agency] order has hacked one of your contributors,'' and they were looking for information about Alexey Navalny, the imprisoned Russian opposition leader. In 2020, FSB agents were implicated in a poisoning attack on Navalny.
Last year, we got an anonymous tip that "a global cyber crime group acting on an FSB order has hacked one of your contributors. The only thing they were interested on, was anything related to your @navalny investigation". We took enormous measures to upgrade our e-security (1/n)
'-- Christo Grozev (@christogrozev) February 28, 2022Chat logs in ContiLeaks, from a chat service called Jabber, seem to indicate that Conti was this cybercrime group, acting on an order from the FSB. A user called ''Mango'' told a user called ''Professor'' that he had encrypted chat messages from a Bellingcat journalist but didn't know how to decrypt them. Mango pasted a snippet from a separate chat that he had with a user called ''Johnnyboy77,'' who told him about targeting a Bellingcat journalist and mentioned ''NAVALNI FSB.''
2021-04-09 18:13:13 mango: So, are we really interested in such data?2021-04-09 18:13:24 mango: I mean, are we patriots or what?)))2021-04-09 18:13:31 professor: Of course we are patriots2021-04-09 18:13:49 mango: I understand. if they decipher it there '' I will beacon2021-04-09 18:14:23 mango: and I also wrote there the other day to you about the auction, but as I understand it, you are still busy and did not delve into)2021-04-09 18:31:25 mango:[21:21:02] <johnyboy77> in short, there is a person's mail from bellingcat[21:21:06] <johnyboy77> who specifically works in the RU and UA direction[21:21:06] <johnyboy77> say so[21:21:08] <johnyboy77> and all his passwords are[21:21:17] <johnyboy77> and she's still valid[21:30:56] <mango> well, pull the correspondence, at least screen them[21:31:05] <mango> need specifics bro what to talk about[21:31:07] <johnyboy77> now download files[21:31:12] <johnyboy77> NAVALNI FSB[21:31:13] <johnyboy77> even this[21:31:18] <johnyboy77> right now2021-04-09 18:31:26 mango: :)2021-04-09 18:35:42 professor: why not just dump the whole thing
The day after Russian troops began their invasion of Ukraine, Conti posted a statement on its website, a site normally used used for publishing data from companies that refuse to pay ransom. Conti announced its ''full support of Russian government,'' and warned that if anyone attacked Russia, cyber or otherwise, they would use ''all possible resources to strike back at the critical infrastructures of an enemy.''
Original statement from Conti
Screenshot by Check Point Research
Hours later, they tempered their statement, but many had already noticed their unequivocal support for Russia in its war against Ukraine.
Conti's modified statement
Screenshot by Check Point Research
Repeating Putin's Conspiratorial LiesWhen Russian soldiers invaded Ukraine on February 24, people in Conti's #general channel began discussing the war. One member of the chat, Patrick, was by far the most swayed by Putin's lies about Ukraine. Patrick insisted that war was inevitable because Ukraine was attempting to obtain nuclear weapons. This is false, but this conspiracy theory made up a large part of a speech Putin gave on February 21 just prior to the invasion.
2022-02-24 09:53:54 patrick: war was inevitable, ukraine made an application for nuclear weapons2022-02-24 09:54:37 patrick: in their possession2022-02-24 09:55:00 weldon: monkeys don't explain things, they climb trees2022-02-24 09:55:02 elijah: @patrick well done and done. Still, no one will ever use it. Yes, just to scare2022-02-24 09:56:38 elijah: Look, missiles from North Korea periodically arrive in the territorial waters of the Russian Federation. But no one cares. And they have nuclear weapons, by the way. But somehow no one was alarmed2022-02-24 09:56:47 patrick: old man, you're wrong, there is no doubt about north korea now2022-02-24 09:58:42 patrick: no one is happy about the war, brothers, but it is high time to put this neo-Nazi gang of Canaris's foster kids on trial
In his speech, Putin also falsely claimed that Ukraine's democratic government is a neo-Nazi dictatorship. Throughout the first days of fighting, Patrick repeatedly insisted that Ukraine is run by a ''neo-Nazi junta.'' It's not. Ukraine does a have a legitimate Nazi problem (so does the United States and Russia), but Ukranian neo-Nazis are a small minority and don't hold any positions in government.
Zelenskyy is Jewish. His grandfather, Semyon Ivanovich Zelenskyy, fought the Nazis during World War II. All three of Zelenskyy's grandfather's brothers were shot and killed by Nazi soldiers occupying Ukraine.
2022-02-24 10:01:33 patrick: Putin will answer all questions today, I hope that by the evening Kyiv will be ours2022-02-24 10:02:47 biggie: what's the point2022-02-24 10:03:02 elijah: `by the evening kiev will be ours` '' and??? What is the profit in this, well, besides boosting the guy's ego and an additional reason for the quilted jackets [patriots/nationalists] to fap on the king?2022-02-24 10:03:07 biggie: only people will die and that's it2022-02-24 10:05:11 patrick: the neo-Nazi junta will be liquidated and prosecuted, civilians will not suffer
In another message, Patrick says he's not fighting in the separatist regions of eastern Ukraine because he's in Australia, donating money to ''the victims of the genocide of the neo-Nazi junta.'' Putin accused Ukraine of committing genocide against Russian-speaking civilians in Donbas'--this also isn't true.
2022-02-24 11:02:25 kermit: and why are you here and not a volunteer in the DNR or LNR?2022-02-24 11:03:34 patrick: I'm in australia helping the the victims of the genocide of the neo-Nazi junta with money2022-02-24 11:03:45 kermit: you're hiding far away2022-02-24 11:04:24 kermit: in any such movement you have to back it up with deeds. right now you're just another spectator and instigator2022-02-24 11:04:33 kermit: money is bullshit in a matter like this2022-02-24 11:04:58 patrick: Zelia [Zelensky] is the one hiding, it's his last day, our people are already in the suburbs of Kiev
Zelenskyy and AntisemitismAlthough Putin has justified his invasion by framing it as a war on Nazi ideology, numerous discussions in the chats point toward antisemitic sentiment within Conti. Such bigotry has been a prominent part of an ascendant far-right movement throughout the U.S. and Europe, including in Russia and Ukraine. On February 21, a user named ''Weldon'' pointed out that Zelenskyy is Jewish. Several others joined in with antisemitic jokes.
2022-02-21 13:03:18 weldon: Zelensky is a jew2022-02-21 13:03:24 kermit: oh fuck2022-02-21 13:03:26 kermit: Jews2022-02-21 13:03:28 kermit: great2022-02-21 13:03:31 kermit: my favorite2022-02-21 13:03:39 weldon: that's right, not Jewish, but a Jew2022-02-21 13:04:26 kermit: fuck, I wish I was a jew2022-02-21 13:04:55 kermit: just be born Jewish and you're considered a member of a secret society and you mess up the Russians' life2022-02-21 13:05:46 weldon: come on. A Tatar was born '' a Jew cried :joy:2022-02-21 13:06:58 kermit: a Crimean Tatar?2022-02-21 13:08:07 gelmut: black Crimean Tatar born in Odessa, who received Russian citizenship :-D2022-02-21 13:09:11 weldon: obama?2022-02-21 13:19:39 gelmut: A Jewish boy approaches his parents and says '' I want to be Russian. To which the parents reply: '' If you want to be Russian, you go to the corner and stand there all day without food. Half a day later, his parents ask: ''How do you live as a Russian? And the boy answers: '' I've only been Russian for two hours, but I already hate you Jews!
After Russia's invasion was in full swing, the topic of Jews appeared again. This time, Patrick suggested that Jews ruined the Russian empire, and a user named ''Biggie'' said that it's necessary to ''de-Jewishize'' Israel by force. ''Pindo'' is a slightly pejorative term for an American, and ''Pindostan'' is slang for the United States.
2022-02-25 09:10:45 patrick: everyone, up to and including the pindostan [America], must answer for the destruction of my homeland '' the USSR, so be it2022-02-25 09:11:53 patrick: Vinnytsia is surrounded2022-02-25 09:14:19 biggie: that's how sovok [Soviet Union, or Soviet nationalists] responded to the breakup of the Russian empire2022-02-25 09:14:41 biggie: All's fair2022-02-25 09:15:52 angelo: wait Soviet factories were built by Americans and Europeans with the hands of our comrades. The empire was ruined by Jews with English money2022-02-25 09:15:59 angelo: I'm getting confused who got what for what and why.2022-02-25 09:16:38 angelo: we need Jesus, only he will judge and tell the truth, who God is for!2022-02-25 09:16:55 angelo: @jesus !2022-02-25 09:17:18 biggie: yeah, that means we have to conduct a military operation in Israel for de-Jewishization
Earlier in the month, the user named ''Thomas'' joked with the user ''Angelo'' that he'd be sentenced to eight years in prison for ''anti-patriotism'' but quickly said he was kidding. Angelo said, ''I know you're kidding. We are brothers!'' Thomas made a casual Nazi joke about being Aryan brothers, adding that ''the skinhead theme is my favorite.''
2022-02-16 08:43:42 angelo: we are brothers!2022-02-16 08:43:48 thomas: Slavs?2022-02-16 08:43:51 thomas: or Aryans?2022-02-16 08:44:01 thomas: Ooh, the skinhead theme is my favorite.2022-02-16 08:44:05 thomas: whoever has cleaner blood
Russian Liberal Democratic Party Leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky attends a meeting of Russian President Vladimir Putin with lawmakers of the new convocation of the State Duma in Moscow, Russia on Dec. 10, 2021. Photo: Ramil Sitdikov/Sputnik via AP
Photo: Ramil Sitdikov/Sputnik via AP
''It's Gonna Be Sad Without'' ZhirinovskyIn early February, the 75-year-old ultranationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky, a demagogic politician and leader of Russia's Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, was reportedly hospitalized for Covid-19 and in critical condition.
Zhirinovsky is a far-right authoritarian populist known for decades of controversial views. According to a 1994 article in the New York Times, Zhirinovsky called for ''the preservation of the white race'' in a 1992 television appearance to the U.S., which he warned was being turned over by the white population to black and Hispanic people. In 2016, Zhirinovsky strongly supported the election of Donald Trump for U.S. president over Hillary Clinton, telling Bloomberg, ''Trump and I could impose order on the whole planet. '... Everyone would shut up. There wouldn't be any extremists, no Islamic State, and white Europeans could feel at ease as we'd send all the immigrants home.''
The Conti hackers seem more than just Putin-supporting Russian patriots '-- they identify with Zhirinovsky's far-right, authoritarian, racist politics. In the chat room, they discussed Zhirinovsky's condition, as well as conspiracy theories about why he's really in the hospital and if he's even really sick.
2022-02-16 13:59:48 kermit: everything is okay in the kremlin2022-02-16 14:00:00 thomas: how's Zhirik [Zhirinovsky] doing?2022-02-16 14:00:03 thomas: is he alive?2022-02-16 14:00:07 thomas: It's gonna be sad without him.2022-02-16 14:00:09 kermit: I don't know, he's sick2022-02-16 14:00:15 kermit: he's not in the kremlin2022-02-16 14:00:32 thomas: there was a video that said he is not being treated for covid, his lovers poisoned him2022-02-16 14:00:35 thomas: and on the news2022-02-16 14:00:42 kermit: lol2022-02-16 14:00:43 thomas: not mistresses but male lovers2022-02-16 14:00:46 weldon: :joy:2022-02-16 14:00:52 kermit: yeah that's a known fact2022-02-16 14:01:31 weldon: *Petrosyans *fuck with Stepanenkas :rofl:2022-02-16 14:01:36 kermit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aDxfJ-eCxw2022-02-16 14:07:11 gelmut: By the way, everything is bullshit about Zhirik. Their party man said that everything is fine with him, it's just hype and journalist faggots. In fact he is just lying in the hospital just in case and working there, feeling fine. They bring him documents to sign right there.2022-02-16 14:09:18 kermit: Trust the party members from the LDPR2022-02-16 14:09:22 kermit: That's just the way it is.2022-02-16 14:10:01 kermit: They'll tell you that Volfovich [Zhirinovsky] is dying out there and people don't know what to do
Feeling the SanctionsOn February 24, at the very beginning of the West's sanctions against Russia, members of Conti were clearly already feeling squeezed, including by their inability to buy digital gear from Apple. After urging from Ukraine, Apple had quickly cut off sales of products like iPhones and MacBooks to Russia. The value of Russian's ruble had plummeted to 85 rubles for each U.S. dollar (by March 7, each dollar cost 150 rubles).
2022-02-24 07:04:43 angelo: I take it now the latest model iPhone and Macbook are the ones you have now and that's it2022-02-24 07:05:22 weldon: so it is2022-02-24 07:10:26 biggie: as long as the dollar is 852022-02-24 07:11:09 weldon: screw GDP on the dollar2022-02-24 07:11:25 biggie: What about the iPhone?2022-02-24 07:12:07 weldon: Shove your iPhones up your ass2022-02-24 07:12:58 biggie: what about macbooks
They joked about Russia joining NATO so they could switch from the free-falling ruble to the euro. Angelo said he couldn't even buy a brand of juice because it's American.
2022-02-24 07:17:23 biggie: we should join NATO, then the euro would replace the ruble and nothing would drop2022-02-24 07:17:34 angelo: I even couldn't buy Dobry Juice now '' it's American2022-02-24 07:18:31 angelo: you should take Viagra, nothing will drop.2022-02-24 07:19:20 weldon: @biggie you shouldn't miss the shitter when you piss2022-02-24 07:19:44 biggie: :smiley:2022-02-24 07:43:20 biggie: ''In half an hour, a quarter of Russia's stock market is like a cow lapped it up'... MOEX index -28,8%''.2022-02-24 07:43:41 biggie: we're broke.2022-02-24 07:45:42 biggie: on the other hand we could soon be stocked up2022-02-24 07:46:12 angelo: but2022-02-24 07:46:15 angelo: but2022-02-24 07:46:19 angelo: I haven't fucking figured it out yet2022-02-24 07:46:48 weldon: close up before they close you down
The Conti members even discussed a rumor that PornHub, the major American pornography site, would block Russian users. This was false; PornHub didn't actually block Russians from using its service.
2022-02-24 22:02:38 thomas: Some American senators suggest blocking PornHub in Russia in addition to social networks!2022-02-24 22:02:44 thomas: That's it, we're done)2022-02-24 22:02:49 thomas: They will take away our last joys!
Obsession With Brian KrebsIn late January, during a conversation about drug use, the user ''Kermit'' said, ''We should send our correspondence to Krebs.'' Angelo replied, ''The worst that can happen.'' They're referring to Krebs, the investigative journalist who covers cybercrime groups like Conti. This is especially interesting because since ContiLeaks was published, Krebs has, in fact, been analyzing the group's correspondence.
2022-01-28 20:01:08 kermit: we should send our correspondence to krebs2022-01-28 20:01:10 angelo: the worst that can happen2022-01-28 20:02:03 angelo: I come back once in the evening,Stoned on hash.Life becomes beautifulAnd it's madly good.2022-01-28 20:02:17 angelo: going'..... smoking'...2022-01-28 20:02:26 angelo: he's freaking out, he's gonna say the Chelyabinsk delinquents2022-01-28 20:02:48 stanton: Cannabis is supposed to be good for your head.2022-01-28 20:03:04 angelo: everything is relative2022-01-28 20:03:24 angelo: if you're prone to schizophrenia you might end up in a mental hospital2022-01-28 20:04:30 kermit: or join the KPRF [Communist Party of the Russian Federation]
It's clear that members of Conti read Krebs's work. They frequently mention him when they're talking about anything particularly inappropriate. For example, on February 2, in a conversation about porn, masturbation and articles about performing oral sex on yourself, Kermit posted, ''that's the kind of correspondence krebs won't leak :/''.
2022-02-02 20:56:41 elliott: :rofl:2022-02-02 20:57:01 kermit: that's the kind of correspondence krebs won't leak :/2022-02-02 20:57:08 angelo: he was reading something about giving himself a blowjob
On February 16, Conti members discussed how to remain anonymous using different Jabber clients, chat programs that can be used to connect decentralized chat servers. They discuss Jabber clients called Pidgin, Psi+, and MCabber, how cool and hackery using them looks, and how well their encryption plugins work. They also discuss how their different anonymous Jabber accounts could get linked if they lose internet access and disconnect from multiple accounts at once. Thomas described his technique for mitigating this threat as ''Krebs level.''
2022-02-16 08:34:19 thomas: i have each Jabber account on a different client or in a different sandbox2022-02-16 08:34:22 thomas: and turn them on manually2022-02-16 08:34:27 thomas: so there could be no timing attacks2022-02-16 08:34:34 thomas: no autostarts2022-02-16 08:35:00 thomas: in short, the security is krebs level
Misogyny, Homophobia, Child Sexual AbuseThe messages in this RocketChat channel #general include the sort of misogyny, casual sexism, and crude anatomical references that have historically been endemic among certain groupings of young computer hackers. In one message, Angelo explained that the #general channel was for ''pussy and boobs'' and the #announcements channel and private messages were for work.
2022-02-08 14:56:47 angelo: you see, in general, pussy and boobs and announcements, in PM work
In one conversation on February 3, Angelo joked with others about raping a girl in her sleep. The replies included ''iconic move'' and ''no, don't touch them, they're for meat when the pigeons and bums run out.''
Members of Conti also frequently used homophobic slurs in the chats. Human rights groups have denounced Russian prohibitions, under Putin, of so-called gay propaganda '-- acts considered to promote homosexuality '-- saying it contributes to an increasingly homophobic environment where acts of brutality against gay people are common.
On February 25, Patrick posted about how the Safe Internet League, an internet censorship organization in Russia, was going to declare Yuri Dud a foreign agent after a video he published about Ukraine. Dud is a well-known Russian journalist and YouTuber who identifies as Ukrainian. Patrick ended with ''Kill the faggots!''
On February 28, Angelo and Kermit discussed child sexual abuse videos (what Kermit openly referred to as ''child pornography'') and the ages of girls they liked to watch.
''The Boss'' Is MissingOn February 21, the user ''Frances,'' who had only posted twice before that month strictly about work, posted a long and surprising update in the #general channel.
The ''boss'' of the Conti ransomware gang apparently disappeared and couldn't be reached, probably because of ''too much attention to the company from outside'' and because of internal leaks. Conti didn't have enough money in emergency reserves to even pay everyone's salaries. Frances asked everyone to send him up-to-date contact information, take two to three months of vacation from work, and erase their tracks and clean up their accounts used for hacking in the meantime.
It's unclear why Conti didn't have enough money to pay salaries. John Shier, a senior security adviser at the security firm Sophos, told CyberScoop that Conti reportedly has a bitcoin wallet with $2 billion in it. And despite the request for employees to take vacation, there have been nearly two dozen news posts with hacked documents from ransomware victims on Conti's extortion website since February 21.
2022-02-21 13:30:25 frances: @allFriends!
I sincerely apologize for having to ignore your questions the last few days. About the boss, Silver, salaries, and everything else. I was forced to because I simply had nothing to say to you. I was dragging my feet, screwing around with the salary as best I could, hoping that the boss would show up and give us clarity on our next steps. But there is no boss, and the situation around us is not getting any softer, and pulling the cat by the balls further does not make sense.
We have a difficult situation, too much attention to the company from outside resulted in the fact that the boss has apparently decided to lay low. There have been many leaks, post-New Year's receptions, and many other circumstances that incline us all to take some time off and wait for the situation to calm down.
The reserve money that was set aside for emergencies and urgent team needs was not even enough to cover the last paycheck. There is no boss, no clarity or certainty about what we will do in the future, no money either. We hope that the boss will appear and the company will continue to work, but in the meantime, on behalf of the company I apologize to all of you and ask for patience. All balances on wages will be paid, the only question is when.
Now I will ask all of you to write to me in person: (ideally on Jabber:))'' Up-to-date backup contact for communication (preferably register a fresh, uncontaminated public Jabber account'' Briefly your job responsibilities, projects, PL [programming language] (for coders). Who did what, literally in a nutshell
In the near future, we, with those team leaders, who stayed in line '' will think how to restart all the work processes, where to find money for salary payments and with renewed vigor to run all our working projects. As soon as there is any news about payments, reorganization and getting back to work '' I will contact everyone. In the meantime, I have to ask all of you to take 2-3 months off. We will try to get back to work as soon as possible. From you all, please be concerned about your personal safety! Clean up the working systems, change your accounts on the forums, VPNs, if necessary, phones and PCs. Your security is first and foremost your responsibility! To yourself, to your loved ones and to your team too!
Please do not ask about the boss in a private message '' I will not say anything new to anyone, because I simply do not know. Once again, I apologize to my friends, I'm not excited about all these events, we will try to fix the situation. Those who do not want to move on with us '' we naturally understand. Those who will wait '' 2-3 months off, engaged in personal life and enjoy the freedom :)
All working rockets and internal Jabbers will soon be off, further communication '' only on the private Jabbers. Peace be with you all!
Alec Baldwin says in legal filing that Halyna Hutchins told him to cock the gun before it fired
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 12:18
(C) Evan Agostini/Invision/AP Alec Baldwin's says in a legal filing Friday that Halyna Hutchins, the cinematographer on the set of "Rust," told him to cock the gun that ultimately fired a live round of ammunition, resulting in her death.
CNN has obtained the arbitration demand filed by Baldwin's lawyer which describes in detail Baldwin's version of the moments that led up to the fatal shooting last October in New Mexico. In it, Baldwin claims that he asked Hutchins if he should cock the gun and that she told him to do it.
"Baldwin asked Hutchins whether she wanted to see him cock the gun, as the script required. She responded yes. Baldwin tipped the gun down somewhat so that the lens of the camera would be able to focus on his hand's action on the top of the gun. While performing this action, Baldwin asked Hutchins, 'Am I holding it too far down?' and 'Do you see that?' Hutchins responded that she could see Baldwin's action from her angle. Baldwin then pulled back the hammer, but not far enough to actually cock the gun. When Baldwin let go of the hammer, the gun went off," the filing says.
Attorneys for Hutchins' family told CNN in a statement:
"Alec Baldwin once again is trying to avoid liability and accountability for his reckless actions before and on Oct 21st that resulted in the death of Halyna Hutchins, as demonstrated by today's arbitration demand for indemnification from the Rust production company. Baldwin's disclosure of personal texts with Matt Hutchins is irrelevant to his demand for arbitration and fails to demonstrate anything other than Hutchins' dignity in his engagement with Baldwin. It is shameful that Baldwin claims Hutchins' actions in filing a wrongful death lawsuit derailed the completion of "Rust." The only action that ended the film's production was Baldwin's killing of Halyna Hutchins."
The court documents also claim that when Baldwin arrived on the New Mexico set, he underwent a training session with the film's armorer Hannah Gutierrez Reed and that he understood from that session that he did not need to check the gun for live ammunition.
"Reed did not instruct Baldwin to check the gun himself. In fact, she told Baldwin that it was her job to check the gun'--not his," the documents read. "Similarly, Baldwin believed, based on prior gun safety training he received on movie sets, that actors should not unilaterally check guns for live ammunition. If actors want to check a gun for their own peace of mind, they should only check the gun with the armorer closely supervising the process. In other words, actors may jointly inspect a gun with the armorer, but never on their own."
CNN has reached out to representatives for Guiterrez Reed.
The legal filing Friday also includes numerous text messages between Baldwin and Matthew Hutchins following the shooting, up until Baldwin's ABC interview. Two weeks following his sit-down, Baldwin's final text to Hutchins was to wish his son a happy birthday."
Since October 21, Baldwin had offered comfort and support to Matthew Hutchins and his son, as well as constructive input towards a settlement of the case," Baldwin's arbitration filing states. "He has worked extensively to find ways to help Hutchins and his son. It is that same spirit that renders Baldwin reluctant to contradict some of Matthew Hutchins's public statements. Unfortunately, given the nature of Hutchins's accusations against Baldwin, he has no choice."
CNN a representative for Rust Movie Productions LLC.
Pfizer CEO Announces Need for Fourth Booster Against COVID
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 12:17
During his Sunday appearance on CBS News' "Face the Nation," Pfizer CEO Dr. Albert Bourla told host Margaret Brennan that a fourth shot against the Wuhan coronavirus is "necessary." This is despite Bourla selling the effectiveness of the third shot against the virus.
"Right now, the way that we have seen, it is necessary, a fourth booster right now. The protection that you are getting from the third, it is good enough, actually quite good for hospitalizations and deaths. It's not that good against infections, but doesn't last very long," Dr. Bourla said when asked by Brennan about the necessity of a fourth shot, which would be a second booster. " But we are just submitting those data to the FDA and then we will see what the experts also will say outside Pfizer," he continued to note.
As Brennan pointed out, though, last time Pfizer shared data with the FDA, there was some confusion, as she also asked if such confusion could be avoided in the future.
"I think so. I think so. And I think right now we need to be very well-coordinated, CDC, FDA and the industry so that we are all providing to the American people and to the world a cohesive picture rather than confusion," he offered.
A fourth dose or second booster against #COVID19 is likely to be needed since the protection offered by the current vaccine formulation doesn't last as long as a new version will says @AlbertBourla $PFE https://t.co/vyNcOtYh4m
'-- Margaret Brennan (@margbrennan) March 13, 2022Dr. Bourla had also shared such news on Friday with CNBC's "Squawk Box," explaining that they are submitting data to the FDA. "We are making a vaccine that covers omicron and all the other variants," the CEO also shared.
On Sunday, Dr. Bourla also addressed concerns about other variants during the segment. "I think we have done way better than while things could have been done, but clearly we are not where we would all like to be, which is COVID is behind us. I think that right now we have very significant tools in our hands so that we can go gradually, I think, back to our normal lives," he had said. "But we need to understand that the COVID will not go away in the years to come. We will have to live- to learn how to live with it, and we can, as we are living with many- so many other viruses."
Brennan addressed the "learning to live with it" to mean "sort of preparing for what's next." When she asked Dr. Bourla if we will have to get another COVID booster every year, as is the case with the flu shot, Bourla responded with "I think so," adding that "I think this is what we are trying not to make," with he and Brennan continuously referencing Omicron for it being "able to evade in a skillful way, the immune protection that we're giving."
In addition to confusion with the FDA over booster shots before, the FDA has also delayed review of data when it comes to vaccinating children under 5-years old, as Madeline reported last month. Dr. Bourla spoke to that as well, seeking to correct the record in that Pfizer wanted to wait for three doses to come out. Brennan also seemed to advocate for the vaccine being made available for children under 5 before it was ready. "Do you think that having made that vaccine available, it would have saved lives and helped kids stay out of the hospital," she had asked in her remarks.
Brennan continued to push him, and pointed out that the process "was whiplash for parents" and "was very frustrating." She also went on to ask "you don't think that should have happened differently?" Dr. Bourla responded by answering "I think we could have managed it differently, but eventually we are in the right place as to what the situation is."
Data from the CDC points out that, as of March, 49.9 percent of the eligible population have not received the first booster shot yet.
In his State of the Union address earlier this month, President Joe Biden mentioned that "tonight I can say we are moving forward safely, back to more normal routines," also noting that "COVID-19 need no longer control our lives."
His address came shortly after the CDC updated their guidelines so that 70 percent of the population lives in counties with a "low" or "medium" risk for contracting the virus and thus don't need to wear masks.
Hawaii, as Landon reported last week, announced that indoor masking will no longer be required starting March 26, making them the last state to ease its restrictions. As Katie reported on Thursday, though, the CDC extended the mask mandates for airlines for April 18, 2022. It was set to expire on March 18.
ALL VIDEOS
VIDEO - (1206) Psaki warns India. Boris goes to Saudi Arabia. Poland wants NATO in Ukraine. Update - YouTube
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 15:06
VIDEO - Russia stokes fears of first foreign currency default in more than a century
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:58
Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said Wednesday it is up to the U.S. to decide whether crucial interest payments on two dollar-denominated eurobonds go through, ratcheting up fears of Moscow's first foreign currency debt default in over a century.
"The possibility or impossibility of fulfilling our obligations in foreign currency does not depend on us, we have the money, we paid the payment, now the ball is on the side, first of all, of the American authorities," Siluanov said in an interview with RT Arabic, according to Russian news agency RIA.
"The Russian Federation has the necessary money in foreign currency accounts, it is possible to pay in ruble settlements."
Siluanov claimed Russia had the necessary funds to fulfill its obligations and pay $117 million in interest on two sovereign eurobonds due on Wednesday. However, he said the U.S. should first clarify whether the settlements are possible from Russian foreign currency accounts.
CNBC has contacted the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control, which administers sanctions, for comment. It was not immediately available to respond.
The U.S. and international allies have imposed an unprecedented barrage of punitive economic sanctions against Russia in response to the Kremlin's invasion of Ukraine. The penalties have sought to cut off Moscow from the global financial system.
A view of the Moscow Kremlin and St Basil's Cathedral.
Mikhail Japaridze | TASS | Getty Images
One key measure of the sanctions was to effectively freeze the Central Bank of Russia's roughly $630 billion foreign reserve stockpile.
Economists had been unsure as to how Russia's Ministry of Finance would approach the payment in light of sanctions on the Central Bank of Russia that rendered much of its foreign exchange reserves inaccessible, prompting a sweep of credit downgrades from the major global ratings agencies.
It is thought Russia could attempt to deliver payment in rubles if a settlement in dollars is rejected.
Credit ratings agency Fitch has warned, however, that payment to bondholders in a currency other than dollars would constitute a default.
One bondholder who requested anonymity told Reuters there had not yet been confirmation of Russia's payment, and it remained unclear whether it would come.
Corporate world shuns RussiaThe prospect of non-payment would kickstart a 30-day grace period before Russia falls into technical default, but the Kremlin will likely contend that Western sanctions prevented it from completing the payment.
If confirmed following the grace period, the non-payment would mark Russia's first sovereign default since 1998, when it defaulted on domestic debt, and the first sovereign default on foreign currency debt since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1918.
Russian assets are increasingly viewed as toxic by some market participants as the Kremlin continues its onslaught of Ukraine.
Hundreds of the world's largest companies have decided their presence in Russia is no longer feasible since the Kremlin attacked on Feb. 24.
Russia's Siluanov indicated on Monday that Russia would use its reserves of Chinese yuan to make some of its payments, with euros and dollars now inaccessible due to sanctions, and also suggested that creditors from "hostile" countries may be paid in rubles.
'--CNBC's Elliot Smith contributed to this article.
VIDEO - Ukraine war news: U.S. companies on Yale list suspend Russia business
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:52
Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, Yale School of Management
Scott Mlyn | CNBC
The Yale professor who put together a list of major Western companies still operating in Russia applauded multiple major American brands' decisions to pause business in that country over its government's war on Ukraine.
"I am feeling pretty good about this!" Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, professor at the Yale School of Management, told CNBC in an email Tuesday after hearing the news that McDonald's, Starbucks and Coca-Cola were halting operations in Russia.
PepsiCo soon followed suit with its own announcement that it is suspending Russian sales of Pepsi-Cola, 7UP and Mirinda brand sodas, while continuing to sell some essential products.
Earlier Tuesday, The Washington Post had named the first three companies, in order of their subsequent announcements, in a headline for a story about the spreadsheet maintained by Sonnenfeld and his research team at the Yale Chief Executive Leadership Institute.
The newspaper called the spreadsheet a "naughty-or-nice list of sorts." It currently lists 290 companies that have said they will exit Russia, or suspend or curtail business there. It also lists companies that have continued operations in Russia.
Sonnenfeld said in an interview that in recent days he was in touch with executives at some of the four companies who announced their moves Tuesday in the face of outrage over Russia's attack on Ukraine.
"I admire all of these companies enormously," Sonnenfeld said, referring to their decisions.
"Our list made a big difference in that the CEOs wanted to do the right thing," he said. "They kept telling me they were looking for the affirmation of others," and that their boards of directors were keeping an eye on actions by other big companies, Sonnenfeld said.
"They were afraid of the 'tall poppy syndrome,' as the Australians call it, and they didn't want to suffer reprisals," Sonnenfeld said.Spokespeople for Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had no immediate comment on Sonnenfeld's remarks.
McDonald's and Starbucks replied by pointing to statements by their respective CEOs on their decisions Tuesday.
McDonald's CEO Chris Kempczinski said that while the restaurant chain has operated for more than three decades in Russia, and become an "essential part of the 850 communities in which we operate. ... At the same time, our values mean we cannot ignore the needless human suffering unfolding in Ukraine."
Starbucks CEO Kevin Johnson condemned Russia's "horrific" attack on Ukraine. "Through this dynamic situation, we will continue to make decisions that are true to our mission and values and communicate with transparency," he said.
Sonnenfeld, in his interview, said that as one company after another in recent days said they were leaving Russia or suspending business, "it had a snowball effect."
"These are some of the strongest representing foundational American values," he said of the four companies, which announced their suspensions of business Tuesday.
"These brands have heritages going back to perestroika in 1990 as the Soviet Union was opening to the West, and they were greeted with enthusiasm by all sides," he said.
"This is why these companies, given that heritage, were confused on what to do," in light of the Ukraine invasion, Sonnenfeld said.
"They were lost in a time warp, because they were looking for a win-win solution in a world where [there is] no longer any middle ground," he said.
Sonnenfeld said that in his discussions with three of the companies, the executives were trying to navigate a legal and operational resolution to the problem of having business in Russia while the nation faces worldwide condemnation and harsh economic sanctions from major Western governments.
"None of them were troubled by financial considerations," he said. "They were trying to find the right thing in a very complex geopolitical and cultural situation with loyalty and compassion for large local workforces."
Another U.S. food brand on Sonnenfeld's list, Papa John's, said Wednesday that it, too, would suspend business in Russia.
Sonnenfeld said he compiled his spreadsheet as a moral argument for punishing Russia.
"The whole point of the legal sanctions [by governments] coupled with voluntary employer economic embargoes is to stall out the Russian economy," he said.
The professor cited the success of widespread corporate boycotts of South Africa, in concert with global government action, in the 1980s and 1990s for helping push that country to dissolve its apartheid system, in which the white minority population had institutionalized legal, economic and legal power over the Black majority.
Sonnenfeld predicted that the actions by Western companies "absolutely will have an effect" on Russia.
He argued that Russian President Vladimir Putin's power over the country is "anchored on two things": a willingness to use violence as coercion, and "the illusion that he has totalitarian control over all sectors."
But the loss of major Western business in the country has shattered that illusion, the professor said.
"The ruble has already fallen almost 80%. Inflation has soared to almost 30%. So that's 10 days of economic history unparalleled in the world," Sonnenfeld said.
He noted that the flight of big companies from Russia business, including by oil giants like Exxon, Shell and BP, means "several hundreds of billions of dollars written off" in physical property and other assets in Russia, "separate from hundreds of billions of lost revenue."
"It's a big deal," he said.
"This was extraordinary moral courage. It exceeds even what happened in South Africa," Sonnefeld said.
He noted, however, there are about three dozen Western companies on his list that are "stubbornly staying" in Russia. For now, at least.
VIDEO - Nickel falls 8% to hit limit down in chaotic trade on London metal exchange
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:43
Traders, brokers and clerks on the trading floor of the open outcry pit at the London Metal Exchange Ltd. in London, U.K., on Monday, Feb. 28, 2022.
Chris J. Ratcliffe | Bloomberg | Getty Images
LONDON '-- The benchmark three-month nickel contract fell 8% on Thursday morning to hit its new trading limit, as heavy selling continued in metal markets.
The price hit $41,945 a metric ton as it opened for trade, according to Refinitiv data. Nickel prices more than doubled in a matter of hours on March 8, climbing above $100,000 a metric ton as one of the world's top producers, China's Tsingshan Holding Group, bought large amounts to reduce its short bets on the metal.
Trading had to be halted as the move exacerbated a price rally at a time when metals were already spiraling upward on Russia's intensifying conflict in Ukraine.
On Wednesday, the LME attempted to resume nickel trading after the rare shut down. But a technical glitch prompted the 145-year-old exchange to temporarily halt the market once again, before trading reopened at 2 p.m. London time.
The LME installed a trading limit of 5% on Wednesday which was widened to 8% for Thursday. The "systems error" on Wednesday allowed a small number of trades to go through below the newly imposed daily price limit.
Speaking before the open on Wednesday, Matthew Chamberlain, CEO of the LME, told CNBC's "Squawk Box Europe" that the exchange was "absolutely mindful of the impact that this has had on so many people and we need to make sure that it doesn't happen again."
Chamberlain said the LME had "deliberately prioritized stability" by setting a relatively narrow range of daily trading limits, but these could soon be widened if the exchange observed a "more orderly market."
Commodity prices have jumped on supply fears related to Russia's onslaught of Ukraine, with the ongoing war and an array of Western sanctions raising disruption fears.
VIDEO - (13) The Columbia Bugle 🇺🇸 on Twitter: "#Thread Tucker Carlson Debates @RepMariaSalazar Over Her Support For A No-Fly Zone In Ukraine, Her Push For Sending Weapons To Ukraine, And Her Amnesty Bill https://t.co/nANxNtX6xj" / Twitter
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:40
The Columbia Bugle 🇺🇸 : #Thread Tucker Carlson Debates @RepMariaSalazar Over Her Support For A No-Fly Zone In Ukraine, Her Push For Sending'... https://t.co/8JJoSKVe7t
Thu Mar 17 00:43:41 +0000 2022
VIDEO - (11) Townhall.com on Twitter: "Biden discusses "a new civil rights cause of action." "I bet everybody knows somebody...that in an intimate relationship, what happened was the guy takes a revealing picture of his naked friend, or whatever, in a com
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 14:32
Townhall.com : Biden discusses "a new civil rights cause of action.""I bet everybody knows somebody...that in an intimate relati'... https://t.co/MsgcjKqVpY
Wed Mar 16 18:32:56 +0000 2022
VIDEO - (7) Jack Posobiec 🇺🇸 on Twitter: "I can't imagine why Putin chose this moment to invade https://t.co/u3fOG2Ph4d" / Twitter
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 13:31
Jack Posobiec 🇺🇸 : I can't imagine why Putin chose this moment to invade https://t.co/u3fOG2Ph4d
Wed Mar 16 02:38:33 +0000 2022
VIDEO - WATCH: Deranged LUNATICS At ABC's "The View" Call For Tucker Carlson's ARREST! This Is INSANE. - Bullshit Man
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 13:28
Comments Leave a ReplyIt's quite telling they call themselves 'The View', and not 'The Facts'
someone should suggest the view are russian stooges. what i wrote is propaganda. the biden administration is paying me money to spread misinformation about journalists and russia. i have seen video evidence of trump fighting with the russian troops invading ukraine also if you want to go fight for ukraine you MAY be used as a meat shield so nato can charge putin for war crimes. putin is using his older stuff. he seems to be waiting for something. maybe for china to invade taiwan, and if china invades taiwan, do you thin that biden will impose sanctions on chinese goods? what isn't made in china? america no longer exports anything. it did for a while. alternative energy sources are not viable now because they are not refined. plan is rise up gas, reintroduce covaids, reintroduce, jab 4 start ww3 the have a cashless society they create a technocracy. you will be chipped locked in your room and stuck in meta gain social credit scores all the while being raped. because we will all be techno slaves.
i cant wait for Kyle Rittenhouse to sue woopie Goldberg for every thing she has lying cow
This woman if you can call her one has clearly gone insane. Or maybe not as it's a way of deflecting from domestic issues and branding Republicans traitors.
I've said it before'...The View has done/is doing unbelievable damage to women across this country by spouting off DemocRAT lies and propaganda to a demographic who may not watch the actual news, but take everything these lunatics say as the gospel'...
No, Whoopi, you're the ones turning in communists not us. Russia and China have the leftists/Democrats in their pockets. Even they said it themselves.
Having lefties around is always comical and like the annoying kids at school they make good punching bags
all involved at the view are sitting in positions of treason
This is the definition of "thought crime"
Anyone else notice how Whoopie's soul and body have both gotten uglier over the years?
Whoopi Goldberg ðŸ'(C)
Bi'th in the pink shirt, I have never seen you ever, who are you ?
Someone tell that walking waste of carbon that it's not the right who have family on the board of foreign governments energy companies, or sell our uranium to our foes. Pretty much anything they accuse the right of doing, you can assume the left is actually doing.
Do y'all wear the same clothes everyday
Whoopi has no traction since her racist outbursts. If anyone deserves prison, it's the people who are backing riots, economic treason, and opposition to free speech.
Satan's groupies
Who watches that garbage? And I see Caron AKA "Jabba The Hutt" Is back on the prowl again.
McCarthyism is alive and well in this crew of Witches. Whoopi missed that in History class. They have also missed the First Amendment. They also missed the Facts.
The thing about freedom of speech is it allows stupidity a free and open platform too.
VIDEO - Award Winning Journalist Lara Logan Talks With Ed Henry And Karyn Turk - Real America's Voice News
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 13:24
Real America's Voice is a media solutions firm that enables Content Providers, Agencies and Advertisers to leverage our 130 years of combined media expertise to deliver the country's first audience-driven news platform!
Our Creative Services, Video Production, Content Delivery, Media Buying and Broadcast Studio teams have been delivering impactful messaging to multi-screen, multi-cultural and multi-platform audiences for over 15 years.
More About Us
VIDEO - Lara Logan on Americas Voice AM Ukraine
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 12:30
So it took me a while to remember who she is.
I was never a fan of hers when she did the odd thing on 60 Minutes which I used to watch religiously.
She got molested during the Egyptian Arab Spring when she went into the crowd, they grabbed her and carried her high above the crowd for who knows how long before they let her go all the while manhandling her. She did an episode on what happened about a year later.
Despite me not resonating with her (she looks different to me), she at least got some truth out there, but she clearly doesn't know enough about the truth and you can tell because she uses the term "deep state" which only someone who's barely awake would say.
At least she knows that they are puppets and that they are lying about the fake virus.
I did learn some things about the nazis and hitler, so I thank her for that.
So it's a good video because it made it to the fake news. Thank gawd that didn't cut her off.
Actions speak louder than words!!!
If you REALLY want this to stop, you will join our meditation and prayer circle - https://ourfreesociety.com/worldwide-meditation-and-prayer-circle/
For Serious People Worldwide who want to join or build an offline community based on FREEDOM. Join the New OFS Community social media platform to create a group or join other people's groups. NO CENSORSHIP!!! https://ourfreesociety.com/community
I give credit to each video and the channel I got it from or sometimes the original uploader. That's assuming I get it from one of the 4 major video platforms, as sometimes I get the videos from Telegram or FB so there is no link.
For both Truthers and Normies... the ONLY way we are going to fight this thing is IF you finally recognize that you have power within.
Please PLEASE start releasing your childhood trauma. We all have some.
This is why it's so easy for the evils to control us, because they have harmed us psychologically for hundreds of years through all sorts of trauma - war, poverty, death, sickness through their poisons, physical and sexual abuse, all sorts of EMFs, RFs, MFs, etc., AND brainwashing and mind control.
Then our parents pass that trauma down onto us and unless you clear most of it, you will pass it to your children and so on.
https://ourfreesociety.com/alternative-therapy-courses/
Then we need to learn how to tap into our inner power and reach our higher self.
Looking outside yourself for saving is exactly what they want you to do, to think you have NO POWER.
Also, so long as our vibration is constantly low, they can bring us further down, so we all need to learn how to raise it as much as possible.
I know it's not something we can do all of the time. We need to protect ourselves from these evils.
I'll upload more tools as I find them.
Here's the playlist for that and other methods to help you - https://ourfreesociety.com/Odysee-Freedom-Playlist
And if you don't already know, please start learning about the Laws of Nature - https://ourfreesociety.com/Odysee-Natural-Law-Playlist
As of April 7, 2021, you can find all of my videos on these 2 censorship free platforms.
https://odysee.com/$/invite/@OurFreeSociety:2
https://www.bitchute.com/channel/PwuzxHtoe7Eo/
And I just started here with Rumble. I'll see how it goes - https://rumble.com/c/c-1006917
If you haven't registered yet, please use this link to do so - https://rumble.com/register/OurFreeSociety2021/
Please like, share, and subscribe if you so choose, and you can also join my list at https://ourfreesociety.com and also follow me on Twitter - @freesociety2017
I'd also like to hear your thoughts on the video with a comment.
If you are serious about helping save yourself AND humanity, join our Think Tank by contacting me on my site. We need to strategize on what to do, not just blindly do what everyone else is doing.
We MUST work together to not only save us from this war, but also change our world for the best. We can't do it without you.
Never give up HOPE, because we can resolve this problem if we just stick together, strategize, and follow Natural Law practices.
And if you can help support my work which I've been doing full time for free since the war started, that would be much appreciated. You can even just click on links and buy things you need so I get a commission. It costs you nothing other than what you needed anyway.
This will help keep you up-to-date with what is going on so you can learn the truth and pass the information along to others.
Please visit here - https://ourfreesociety.com/support/ - Thank you
Lastly, here are my views on other video platforms I've tried out including the ones I'm currently on - https://ourfreesociety.com/video-platforms/
VIDEO - Disney Employees Among 108 Arrested in Florida Human Trafficking Sting
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 11:55
The Polk County Sheriff's office in Florida announced Wednesday the arrest of over 100 people in "Operation March Sadness 2," a six-day human trafficking sting operation that also saw three people who work in various capacities for Disney resorts and parks arrested.
The sheriff's office said 108 people in total were arrested, including one woman charged with human trafficking, four people charged as child sexual predators for allegedly communicating sexual content to undercover officers posing as minors, and dozens of others charged for either seeking or offering prostitution.
The U.S. State Department estimates that nearly 25 million people are a victim of human trafficking at any given time across the globe in various forms ranging from forced labor to sex trafficking.
Authorities said the operation was designed to find and free victims of human trafficking, and identify and arrest people who may be involved. One of the people who was identified as a Disney employee, a 27-year-old lifeguard at a resort, was arrested for allegedly sending sexual images and messages to an officer who was posing as a 14-year-old girl online.
"The arrests of a human trafficker and four child predators alone makes this whole operation worthwhile," Sheriff Grady Judd said in a statement. "The on-line prostitution industry enables traffickers and victimizes those who are being trafficked. Our goal is to identify victims, offer them help, and find and arrest those who are profiting from the exploitation of human beings. Johns fuel the trafficking and victimization. Where there is prostitution, there is exploitation, disease, dysfunction, and broken families."
The oldest suspect arrested was a 67-year-old man, while the youngest was a 17-year-old, both accused of soliciting a prostitute, the sheriff's office said.
Over 100 people have been arrested following a human trafficking sting operation in Florida, police said. Above, police arrest a protester during a march on Al Nakba Day to demonstrate for the rights of Palestinians on May 15, 2021, in Berlin, Germany. Adam Berry/Getty ImagesA 32-year-old Orlando woman was the lone human trafficking suspect arrested and was accused of threatening another woman with violence if she didn't prostitute herself. She allegedly intended to take the victim's money and was arrested when she came to check on her.
The sheriff's office said they identified several advertisements posted online by people offering prostitution services, as well as the people who had responded to the ads. Many were arrested at proposed meeting locations.
One of the alleged Disney employees was arrested for the alleged communication with the officer posing as a minor, while three others were arrested for soliciting a prostitute.
A Disney spokesperson told Newsweek that one of the men identified and accused of soliciting a prostitute does not work for the company, while the other three have been placed on unpaid leave.
A 42-year-old man charged with solicitation allegedly told police that he is a married father of eight children and that he left one of his kids' soccer games to meet with a prostitute.
Update 03/16/22, 2:43 p.m. ET: This story has been updated with additional information.
VIDEO - Jane Fonda Climate PAC on Twitter: "Today, I'm launching the Jane Fonda Climate PAC to defeat the political allies of the fossil fuel industry, elect climate champions, and save the planet. We only have 4 election cycles to cut fossil fuel emiss
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 11:46
Jane Fonda Climate PAC : Today, I'm launching the Jane Fonda Climate PAC to defeat the political allies of the fossil fuel industry, elect c'... https://t.co/BxNd4T6Thh
Wed Mar 16 12:30:38 +0000 2022
Margie C : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/zy038N6bvz
Thu Mar 17 11:45:41 +0000 2022
Karlooch : @janeclimatepac Hanoi Jane. Go piss off
Thu Mar 17 11:44:11 +0000 2022
Margie C : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/hTpbz6WEmY
Thu Mar 17 11:43:02 +0000 2022
Greg Sweet : @janeclimatepac I love it when they put dates on things. So we are doomed in 16 years? https://t.co/e5nC2IXyT2
Thu Mar 17 11:42:23 +0000 2022
Margie C : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/a75bsvg36O
Thu Mar 17 11:42:14 +0000 2022
Margie C : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/lwcDKFb1w7
Thu Mar 17 11:41:54 +0000 2022
Anya Somerset : @janeclimatepac Why does every #Hollywood star automatically give a pass to #China? Why???Answer: They are bought AND paid for.
Thu Mar 17 11:41:17 +0000 2022
Robert Bernard : @janeclimatepac Know why these Resource piggies never talk about China's Coal usage? Because that's who buys their lousy art.
Thu Mar 17 11:40:40 +0000 2022
GreenDVR 🖕🖕*Show More Replies*🖕🖕 : @janeclimatepac Jane, you're a fossil Fool. We remember your Hanoi visit!!!
Thu Mar 17 11:39:15 +0000 2022
Pooliticat : @janeclimatepac Stupid bitch
Thu Mar 17 11:38:42 +0000 2022
Theodoric of York : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/rq2o6J2oI6
Thu Mar 17 11:34:37 +0000 2022
The Healthy Movement : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/wceJdzZGiv
Thu Mar 17 11:33:01 +0000 2022
Boston chud : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/ssPt6DgyeX
Thu Mar 17 11:32:59 +0000 2022
Daddy Long Legs : @janeclimatepac Anyone else think this assault on carbon is a way to keep the poor perpetually poor? How will devel'... https://t.co/dU3SSEseS9
Thu Mar 17 11:31:57 +0000 2022
tleslie76 : @janeclimatepac Just stop it...please. Sensible Americans have had enough of this nonsense.
Thu Mar 17 11:30:17 +0000 2022
Isshin Kempo : @janeclimatepac ðŸ¤ðŸ‚ðŸ¤ðŸ‚ðŸ¤ðŸ‚ðŸ¤ðŸ‚
Thu Mar 17 11:27:02 +0000 2022
Ohthat Ron : @janeclimatepac Why didn't you mention posing with North Vietnamese artillery pieces...?
Thu Mar 17 11:16:49 +0000 2022
Ohthat Ron : @janeclimatepac Can you say 'Streisand Effect' ?
Thu Mar 17 11:14:56 +0000 2022
Eriec : @janeclimatepac Do not believe her by creating a pac she does not have to disclose who donated and what the money h'... https://t.co/kGFfYzZviJ
Thu Mar 17 11:13:43 +0000 2022
Barry Rome : @janeclimatepac Climate cultist.
Thu Mar 17 11:05:06 +0000 2022
Buck Fiden : @janeclimatepac Now do China and India.
Thu Mar 17 11:04:53 +0000 2022
superthursday : @janeclimatepac Jane Fonda'....still ignorant.
Thu Mar 17 11:04:50 +0000 2022
Terry Buchman : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/o3N80hBabV
Thu Mar 17 11:03:55 +0000 2022
Tony Perkis : @janeclimatepac https://t.co/LOoL7QtEM9
Thu Mar 17 10:59:00 +0000 2022
Mr. Faversham : @janeclimatepac Why are you lying?
Thu Mar 17 10:58:24 +0000 2022
Barney 🇺🇲ðŸ...… : @janeclimatepac We need to reduce gas prices w robust fossil fuel production in the US. Let's do it!
Thu Mar 17 10:53:44 +0000 2022
Vespasian : @janeclimatepac You are still alive?That's disappointing.
Thu Mar 17 10:50:15 +0000 2022
VIDEO - Joe Biden '[bets] everybody knows somebody' who's been a 'naked friend' in a blackmail photo (or who's done the photography, maybe?) [video] '' twitchy.com
Thu, 17 Mar 2022 11:02
Ukraine and the world's eyes are on Joe Biden right now. Will our president answer Volodymyr Zelenskyy's call to step up and be the leader of the world, ''the leader of peace''? That would certainly be nice.
But before Biden can turn his attention to Eastern Europe, he has to focus on the issues we face here at home in America:
Biden discusses "a new civil rights cause of action."
"I bet everybody knows somebody'...that in an intimate relationship, what happened was the guy takes a revealing picture of his naked friend, or whatever, in a compromising position and then blackmails'..." pic.twitter.com/grsZSN0lKW
'-- Townhall.com (@townhallcom) March 16, 2022
We have to assume he's talking about revenge porn. Which is indeed a bad thing. And laws that protect victims and would-be victims of revenge pornographers seem like a good thing.
But as far as everybody knowing somebody who got photographed in a compromising position by a friend and wound up getting blackmailed (or everybody knowing somebody who took a photo of a naked friend for blackmail purposes) is concerned '... we're gonna have to stop him right there. Maybe we've been hanging out with the wrong people, but, um '... hmmm.
Like Hunter Biden?
🤠🌍 https://t.co/Z9hGA2n3fV
'-- 㽸ikeroccovioli (@mikeroccovioli) March 16, 2022
Oof. OK, yeah, that might be where this is coming from '...
i cant tell ya how many times this has happened to me!
'-- Hammond politics (@hammondpolitics) March 16, 2022
We're uncomfortable. Is anyone else uncomfortable?
I've never done this 🤷''‚¸
'-- qwikhit (@elintaware) March 16, 2022
That's totally fine. Neither have we.
Let's hope it's not as widespread as Joe Biden apparently thinks it is.
big reveal coming?!? lol
'-- La Flama Blanca (@soxallday15) March 16, 2022
We sincerely hope not.
Recommended Twitchy Video
VIDEO - (1206) Moe factz transcript database MVP - YouTube
Wed, 16 Mar 2022 21:57
VIDEO - (1204) Miserere mei, Deus - Allegri - Tenebrae conducted by Nigel Short - YouTube
Tue, 15 Mar 2022 10:56
VIDEO - (1203) Ancient Sites are CIRCUIT BOARDS & ENERGY GENERATING Grids'... Hidden Origins with Michael Tellinger - YouTube
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 18:15
VIDEO - (1203) A False Flag Is Coming - YouTube
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 14:55
VIDEO - Pregnant woman, baby die after Russia bombed maternity ward | AP News
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 13:32
MARIUPOL, Ukraine (AP) '-- A pregnant woman and her baby have died after Russia bombed the maternity hospital where she was meant to give birth, The Associated Press has learned. Images of the woman being rushed to an ambulance on a stretcher had circled the world, epitomizing the horror of an attack on humanity's most innocent.
In video and photos shot Wednesday by AP journalists after the attack on the hospital, the woman was seen stroking her bloodied lower abdomen as rescuers rushed her through the rubble in the besieged city of Mariupol, her blanched face mirroring her shock at what had just happened. It was among the most brutal moments so far in Russia's now 19-day-old war on Ukraine.
The woman was rushed to another hospital, yet closer to the frontline, where doctors labored to keep her alive. Realizing she was losing her baby, medics said, she cried out to them, ''Kill me now!''
Surgeon Timur Marin found the woman's pelvis crushed and hip detached. Medics delivered the baby via cesarean section, but it showed ''no signs of life,'' the surgeon said.
Then, they focused on the mother.
''More than 30 minutes of resuscitation of the mother didn't produce results,'' Marin said Saturday.
''Both died.''
In the chaos after Wednesday's airstrike, medics didn't have time to get the woman's name before her husband and father came to take away her body. At least someone came to retrieve her, they said '-- so she didn't end up in the mass graves being dug for many of Mariupol's growing number of dead.
Accused of war crimes, Russian officials claimed the maternity hospital had been taken over by Ukrainian extremists to use as a base, and that no patients or medics were left inside. Russia's ambassador to the U.N. and the Russian Embassy in London called the images ''fake news.''
Associated Press journalists, who have been reporting from inside blockaded Mariupol since early in the war, documented the attack and saw the victims and damage firsthand. They shot video and photos of several bloodstained, pregnant mothers fleeing the blown-out maternity ward, medics shouting, children crying.
The AP team then tracked down the victims on Friday and Saturday in the hospital where they had been transferred, on the outskirts of Mariupol.
In a city that's been without food supplies, water, power or heat for more than a week, electricity from emergency generators is reserved for operating rooms.
As survivors described their ordeal, explosions outside shook the walls. The shelling and shooting in the area is sporadic but relentless. Emotions are running high, even as doctors and nurses concentrate on their work.
Blogger Mariana Vishegirskaya gave birth to a girl the day after the airstrike, and wrapped her arm around newborn Veronika as she recounted Wednesday's bombing. After photos and video showed her navigating down debris-strewn stairs and clutching a blanket around her pregnant frame, Russian officials claimed she was an actor in a staged attack.
''It happened on March 9 in Hospital No. 3 in Mariupol. We were laying in wards when glasses, frames, windows and walls flew apart,'' Vishegirskaya, still wearing the same polka dot pajamas as when she fled, told The AP.
''We don't know how it happened. We were in our wards and some had time to cover themselves, some didn't.''
Her ordeal was one among many in Mariupol, which has become a symbol of resistance to Russian President Vladimir Putin's drive to crush democratic Ukraine and redraw the world map in his favor. The failure to subordinate Mariupol has pushed Russian forces to broaden their offensive elsewhere in Ukraine.
Meanwhile, the Azov Sea port city of 430,000, key to creating a land bridge from Russia to Russian-annexed Crimea, is slowly starving.
In the makeshift new maternity ward, each approaching childbirth brings new tension.
''All birthing mothers have lived through so much,'' said nurse Olga Vereshagina.
One of the distraught mothers lost some of her toes in the bombing. Medics performed a C-section on her Friday, carefully pulling out her daughter and rubbing the newborn vigorously to stimulate signs of life.
After a few breathless seconds, the baby cries.
Cheers of joy resonate through the room. Newborn Alana cries, her mother cries, and medical workers wipe the tears from their eyes.
___
Follow the AP's coverage of the Ukraine crisis at https://apnews.com/hub/russia-ukraine
VIDEO - Devastating Blow for All Russian SuperYachts! | SY News - YouTube
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 13:10
VIDEO - White House Press Briefing TikTokers Ukraine by taylorlorenz
Mon, 14 Mar 2022 12:16
SoundCloudYour current browser isn't compatible with SoundCloud. Please download one of our supported browsers.Need help?
Chrome|
Firefox |
Safari|
Internet ExplorerSorry! Something went wrong
Is your network connection unstable or browser outdated?
I need helpPopular searches

Art

Image
Load image
Image
Load image
Image
Load image

Audio Clips

Devastating Blow for All Russian SuperYachts - Super Yacht News.mp3
Facebook Tweaks Rules To Allow Hate Speech Against 'Russian Invaders' Amid War On Ukraine WION 1.mp3
Navarro and Whoopi on arrsting Tucker and Tulsi.mp3
White House Gen-Z TikTok message.mp3
Yale professor behind corporate ‘naughty-or-nice list’ lauds U.S. brands’ decision to pause Russia business.mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - moscow tv war protest (10sec).mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Mona Abdi - starbucks mug deposit (17sec).mp3
Jane Fonda Climate PAC - Money in politics - let me handle it.mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Mona Abdi - climate change allergies (17sec).mp3
Biden - a new civil rights cause of action - The Hunter Bill.mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - gas theft on rise (23sec).mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Rebecca Jarvis (2) oil below $100 barrel (48sec).mp3
Psaki warns India not to take Russian Oil.mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - bill to end daylight saving (1min37sec).mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Will Reeve - shrinkflation (1min34sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Margaret Brennan (1) putins request from china (1min18sec).mp3
LME CEO says we can't have this happen again - THEY FIXED THE BAD TRADES.mp3
Russia stokes fears of first foreign currency default in more than a century as it attempts payment.mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Rebecca Jarvis (1) before fed interest hike (59sec).mp3
Daylight savings two.mp3
Deep fake of zelensky surrendering.mp3
Electric car supercut.mp3
Gas prices and war poll TC.mp3
Gold medal to Ukrqainians NPR.mp3
ISO importan sofia.mp3
ISO Next.mp3
Meta verse smella vision 3 wtf.mp3
Meta verse smella vision ONE.mp3
Meta verse smella vision TWO.mp3
More weapons sob story NPR.mp3
More weapons sob story2 NPR.mp3
Putin war criminal on TV NPR.mp3
Rental market propaganda.mp3
sargon vs Bruni naher One.mp3
sargon vs Bruni naher TWO.mp3
Sundays Meet the press Ukraine summary.mp3
Thune wants wwiii NOR.mp3
Ukraine carpet bomb npr.mp3
UKRAINE RUSSO DEAL AFOOT.mp3
Zelensky speech to America 1.mp3
127-million FBI suit NPR.mp3
Bad NPR reporting on asylum USA seekeer Ukraine.mp3
Daylight savings One.mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Eva Pilgrim - phizer 4th shot b.a.2 (1min).mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Janai Norman - Naomi Osaka heckled (43sec).mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Lama Hasan - china covid surge b.2 (57sec).mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Trevor Ault - (2) W.H. covid funding (35sec).mp3
Psaki shilling for new covid funding.mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - kamalas husband positive covid (7sec).mp3
ABC GMA - anchor Trevor Ault - (1) covid wastewater b.a.2 (1min8sec).mp3
Biden misgenders the first husband.mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - obama positive covid (19sec).mp3
ABC ATM - anchor Andrew Dymburt - armed drones (7sec).mp3
ABC GMA (1) anchor Rachel Scott - before zelensky address (38sec).mp3
ABC GMA (2) anchor Cecilia Vega - list of weapons given to ukraine (1min13sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Margaret Brennan (2) before zelensky address (52sec).mp3
CBS Evening - anchor Norah ODonnell - Vitali Klitschko chemical weapons (1min25sec).mp3
CNN with Brianne Keeler - Abby Phillips New World Order.m4a
KEEV -Tucker Carlson Debates Rep Maria Salazar Over Her Support For A No-Fly Zone In Ukraine.mp3
Lara Logan RAV - Not buying the Ukraine disinfo -Nazi history.mp3
Nuland 2014 Klitsch and Yats exerpt.mp3
Pelosi on Putin and weapons - incomprehensible.mp3
ABC GMA3 (2) anchor Amy Robach - Dr Sutton bieber stroke (56sec).mp3
ABC GMA3 (1) anchor Kaylee Hartung - hailey bieber stroke (1min13sec).mp3
  • 0:00
    Suddenly life was better. Adam curry, John C divorce Thursday,
  • 0:04
    March 17 2022. This is your award winning game on nation
  • 0:08
    media assassination episode 1434. This is no agenda, seeing
  • 0:14
    red and green and broadcasting live from the heart of the Texas
  • 0:17
    Hill Country, February to number six in the morning, everybody.
  • 0:19
    I'm Adam curry and from California we're wondering what
  • 0:23
    he's laughing about. And we're also wondering what happened to
  • 0:26
    the maternity hospital. I'm John C. Tavares.
  • 0:32
    That's it, it's long COVID It's done and my career is over. I
  • 0:36
    can't talk anymore as sound like one of those sir. One of those
  • 0:41
    sexy barflies A No, I don't I sound like I can't I can't
  • 0:45
    modulate. It's It's the weirdest thing.
  • 0:49
    Ah, huh. Anyway, what's the status of the maternity hospital
  • 0:54
    John? Well, you know, it's funny, you know, I've been, I'm
  • 0:57
    not in any way to ridicule things. But
  • 1:02
    you know, me.
  • 1:04
    But I keep bringing this kind of a running gag because they keep
  • 1:07
    talking about it. So then, after the last show, which was I think
  • 1:11
    this seventh or eighth time I've discussed this fraternity house
  • 1:15
    was bombed. Yes. Yes. I go to the back to the TV to me, they
  • 1:22
    started doing research for the next show and go to the Meet the
  • 1:25
    Press. Mm hmm.
  • 1:27
    And there it is, again, the maternity. This is actually a
  • 1:31
    pretty good rundown. This is the Sunday's meet depress Ukraine
  • 1:34
    summary. As Russia's hopes of a lightning quick victory have
  • 1:38
    evaporated. It's shifted instead of shooting at people who can't
  • 1:42
    shoot back. Oh, consider these lasting images of Russia's war
  • 1:45
    of choice here. A mother her two children, a family friend laying
  • 1:49
    dead in the street struck down as they simply ran for safety.
  • 1:54
    And then there's this babies and pregnant women being evacuated
  • 1:57
    from a maternity hospital after it was targeted by Russia.
  • 2:02
    Once it continued its onslaught closing in on Kiev and now
  • 2:05
    hitting western cities including an attack overnight at a
  • 2:07
    military training center near Lviv. That was just 15 miles
  • 2:11
    from the border with Poland, a NATO ally, Ukrainian forces are
  • 2:15
    hitting back attacking that convoy outside of the Capitol.
  • 2:18
    But in the besieged city of Morocco, where mass graves are
  • 2:21
    being dug. There's no food, no gray whale right now. And there
  • 2:25
    are increasing concerns
  • 2:27
    biological weapons as a way to try to target so if you notice
  • 2:31
    how the biological weapons have now become biological and
  • 2:34
    chemical weapons?
  • 2:36
    Oh, no, I haven't noticed. Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. We went from
  • 2:39
    biological Well, we know chemical is the best because we
  • 2:42
    have experienced with that are increasing concerns that Russia
  • 2:44
    may use chemical or biological weapons as a way to try to
  • 2:47
    target insurgents hiding in basements? I don't think so.
  • 2:51
    Even as it accuses Ukraine of planning such an attack. But as
  • 2:55
    the load Amir's the Lensky said, if you want to know Russia's
  • 2:58
    plans, look at what Russia accuses others of. So Vladimir
  • 3:02
    Putin really looking for an iframe? If so, what kind of deal
  • 3:05
    can you make to end a war with a country that won't even admit
  • 3:09
    there is a war?
  • 3:12
    All right. All right. I'll take your I'll take your nonsense
  • 3:16
    from chip Todd, Chuck, whatever his name is. And I will add for
  • 3:20
    you the response from our extremely competent government.
  • 3:24
    What they're doing about this, you know, this, these are
  • 3:26
    atrocities. Thank goodness, we have Nancy Pelosi leading
  • 3:29
    everything and she can explain it to us. But they know that we
  • 3:33
    can't go there. The
  • 3:36
    Putin is trying to
  • 3:38
    fake the trap so that the recut go in. And that's the beginning
  • 3:43
    could be the beginning of World War Three. A Putin totally
  • 3:46
    irresponsible using weapons that are not allowed under the Geneva
  • 3:50
    connect convention connection threatens current use of
  • 3:54
    chemical weapons,
  • 3:56
    nuclear and the rest. So they know that we can't but it's the
  • 4:00
    ask now. He was this morning, more or less if we can't have an
  • 4:06
    if we can't have a no fly zone. Let us I just love that. This is
  • 4:11
    you know, this is who speaks on our behalf right now and
  • 4:14
    explaining it to the American people what we're doing of our
  • 4:17
    own and we need the airplanes to come in this morning. He was
  • 4:21
    less on the on the Ask for the
  • 4:26
    policy. The more on let us do it. Help us get the planes but
  • 4:31
    also there is a school of thought that thinks the anti